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Sample records for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

  1. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

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    Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Oo, Thein H

    2009-12-01

    : Bronchus-associated Lymphoid Tissue (BALT) lymphomas are a rare type of extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. They comprise 1% of lymphomas and more than two-thirds of all primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the lung. BALT lymphomas arise from the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. This report describes five cases of BALT lymphoma and discusses the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of BALT lymphomas. In our cohort of patients, patients were managed with surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and chemoimmunotherapy. The outcomes are excellent and projected 5-year survival is 100%. BALT lymphomas are associated with chronic inflammation, and they are often asymptomatic. They have an indolent course and the survival outcome is excellent with different treatment modalities such as surgery, watchful waiting, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy.

  2. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) structure and function.

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    Randall, Troy D

    2010-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a constitutive mucosal lymphoid tissue adjacent to major airways in some mammalian species, including rats and rabbits, but not humans or mice. A related tissue, inducible BALT (iBALT), is an ectopic lymphoid tissue that is formed upon inflammation or infection in both mice and humans and can be found throughout the lung. Both BALT and iBALT acquire antigens from the airways and initiate local immune responses and maintain memory cells in the lungs. Here, we discuss the development and function of BALT and iBALT in the context of pulmonary immunity to infectious agents, tumors, and allergens as well as autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases of the lung. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction and Analysis of Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.

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    Fleige, Henrike; Förster, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) forms spontaneously in the lung after pulmonary infection and has been identified as a highly organized lymphoid structure supporting the efficient priming of T cells in the lung. To explore the mechanisms and instructive signals controlling BALT neogenesis we used both, a single dose of vaccinia virus MVA and repeated inhalations of heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Intranasal administration of both pathogens induces highly organized BALT but distinct pathways and molecules are used to promote the development of BALT. Here, we describe the induction and phenotype of the distinct types of BALT as well as the immunofluorescence microscopy-based analysis of the induced lymphoid tissue in the lung.

  4. Structure and function of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT).

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    Sminia, T; van der Brugge-Gamelkoorn, G J; Jeurissen, S H

    1989-01-01

    This article deals with the ontogeny, morphology, and function of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The surface epithelium of the respiratory tract, including the lymphoepithelium of BALT, is described, with emphasis on infiltrated nonepithelial cells (lymphocytes, macrophages). Special attention is given to antigen handling by the lymphoepithelium and the interaction with BALT and lung macrophages. The structure and function of the diverse types of BALT nonlymphoid cells are discussed. The local immune responses (cellular and humoral reactions), the relationships between local and systemic immune reactions, and the role of BALT in the common mucosal immune system are reviewed. The BALT is compared with Peyer's patches in terms of antigen processing, local immune responses, cell populations, and migration of lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells.

  5. Cholinergic innervation of BALT (bronchus associated lymphoid tissue) in rat.

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    Cavallotti, C; Tonnarini, G F; Tranquilli Leali, F M

    2004-01-01

    The presence and distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholineacetyl transferase activities (Chat) were examined in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of juvenile, adult and old rats. Histoenzymatic and immunochemical methods were used in association with quantitative analysis of images and statistical analysis of the data. Our results showed that both AChE and Chat activities were primarily confined to the BALT lymphoid cells. Only a low level of activity was observed in the sub-pleural parenchyma of the lung and in the wall of the bronchus. Moreover, both AChE and Chat activities in the BALT are specifically located in the lymphoid cells. Histoenzymatic staining and corresponding values of quantitative analysis of images confirmed morphological and immunochemical results. Finally, the intensity of histoenzymatic staining for AChE and of immunochemical staining for Chat in BALT of rats strongly decreases with age. On the basis of our results we hypothesize that both AChE and Chat activities may play an important role in BALT and both these enzymes undergo specific age-related changes.

  6. Bronchus-associated Lymphoid Tissue in Pulmonary Hypertension Produces Pathologic Autoantibodies

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    Colvin, Kelley L.; Cripe, Patrick J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. Objectives: We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. Methods: We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Measurements and Main Results: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3+ T cells over a core of CD45RA+ B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1+ high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule–positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Conclusions: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue–directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24093638

  7. DEFECTIVE BRONCHUS-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID-TISSUE IN LONG-TERM SURVIVING RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; PROP, J; GROEN, M; PETERSEN, AH; UYAMA, T; MEEDENDORP, B; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1995-01-01

    In a previous study we found that a local immune response did not develop in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of infected rat allografts. We hypothesized that the BALT in rat lung allografts was damaged after allotransplantation. Therefore, we investigated three prerequisites for a

  8. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Esophagus Coexistent with Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Lung

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    Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Kim, Ki Whang

    2005-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma very rarely involves the esophagus, occurring in less than 1% of patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma. A few cases of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the esophagus have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, there has been no report of MALT lymphoma of the esophagus coexistent with bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (BALT) of the lung. This report details the radiological and clinical findings of this first concurrent case. PMID:16127783

  9. Early Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Diagnosed with Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Molecular Testing

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    Pen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, a low grade B-cell lymphoma, arises in the lung it is referred to as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma. We describe a patient with a history of Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis with dyspnea and imaging consistent with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP. However, while histology and immunohistochemistry lacked definitive features of a lymphoma, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early BALT lymphoma.

  10. Malignant lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) coexistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Inadome, Y; Ikezawa, T; Oyasu, R; Noguchi, M

    2001-10-01

    A case in which malignant lymphoma occurred in association with a tuberculosis focus in a 70-year-old man is reported. Surrounding the epithelioid cell granulomas with caseous necrosis was a dense and diffuse monotonous infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the granulomas and pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed. The infiltrating atypical lymphoid cells occasionally invaded the respiratory epithelium producing lymphoepithelial lesions. Immunohistochemically, the lymphoid cells were positive for CD20, and clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We diagnosed the lesion as a pulmonary malignant lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) occurring in the background of tuberculosis. This is the first reported case of pulmonary BALT lymphoma coexistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  11. Low incidence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in chronically inflamed human lungs.

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    Delventhal, S; Brandis, A; Ostertag, H; Pabst, R

    1992-01-01

    The relevance of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in man is still under discussion. Animal experiments indicate that the development of BALT is dependent on microbial stimulation. Therefore, the incidence of BALT was investigated retrospectively in specimens removed during surgical procedures on patients with chronic pulmonary inflammation. All these patients had severe chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, but BALT was found in only 8%. In patients with BALT and a malignant tumor, occlusion of a bronchus with poststenotic pneumonia was always present and BALT was observed exclusively in areas peripheral to the occlusion. In man other compartments of the lung must be responsible for the immune function of BALT found in animals.

  12. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in adult human lung.

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    Kawamata, N.; Xu, B.; Nishijima, H.; Aoyama, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Tei, C.; Michie, S. A.; Matsuyama, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine w...

  13. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human fetal and infant lung.

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    Gould, S J; Isaacson, P G

    1993-02-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) has been defined as the organized lymphoid tissue of the lung. Although well described in a variety of animal species, documentation of its presence and development in human lung is limited. Because the tissue to volume ratio in adult lungs is so low, a systematic search for BALT would involve so many sections as to be impractical. In this study, therefore, we have studied post-mortem specimens of fetal (n = 102) and infant (n = 17) lungs, which have a much higher tissue to volume ratio. Fetal death was due to various causes but all but two infants died from sudden infant death syndrome. In the fetal lungs, the presence of BALT was almost invariably associated with chorioamnionitis or intrauterine pneumonia, being present in 24 of 51 of these cases (47 per cent). The earliest ill-defined lymphoid aggregate was seen at 16 weeks' gestation, while lymphoepithelium, a hallmark of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, could be identified at 20 weeks. In 51 fetuses without infection, BALT was found in only five cases (10 per cent). BALT was identified in 13/17 (77 per cent) of infant lungs and well-developed lymphoepithelium was evident in four cases. This study shows that BALT may be present in the human fetal and infant lung, but that its appearance is probably dependent on antigenic stimulation.

  14. Subpopulations of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of the mouse.

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    Breel, M; Van der Ende, M; Sminia, T; Kraal, G

    1988-01-01

    Lymphoid and non-lymphoid subpopulations were investigated in the lung of the mouse with immunocyto-, immunohisto- and enzyme-histochemical methods. Special attention was paid to the cell populations in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), which is positioned between a bronchus and an artery. In BALT, discrete T- and B-cell areas can be found. The majority of the T cells belong to the L3T4+ (T-helper) subpopulation. In the T-cell area interdigitating cells can be recognized by anti-class II antibodies as well as by specific monoclonal antibodies, NLDC-145 and MIDC-8. Macrophage subpopulations can be discriminated by location, enzyme reactivity and various macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody markers. On the outer rim of BALT macrophages are recognized by the MOMA-1 and ERTR9 antibody. Macrophages dispersed in BALT can only be discriminated with the MOMA-2 antibody. The macrophage markers F4/80 and Mac-1 show no reactivity in BALT. In lung, tissue macrophages around bronchi and blood vessels are predominantly recognized by the MOMA-1 and MOMA-2 antibody, and a minor population by the ERTR9 antibody. Alveolar macrophages show heterogeneity with the MOMA-1, MOMA-2 and NLDC-145 antibody. The relationship between alveolar macrophages and antigen-presenting cells is discussed here. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3259206

  15. Dopamine nerve fibres and related receptors in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT).

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    Cavallotti, C; Artico, M; Franchitto, S; Tranquilli Leali, F M

    2005-01-01

    Age-related changes of the dopamine nerve fibres of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were investigated in male Wistar rats of 3 months (young), and 24 months (old/aged). Dopamine histofluorescence techniques have been used, associated with image analysis for the detection of dopamine nerve fibres. In young rats, white, fluorescent nerve fibres supply BALT. This tissue is innervated by a delicate network of nerve fibres rich in varicosities. In old rats these fluorescent nerve fibres are strongly reduced. Moreover, dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stained using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The BALT of young rats possesses a higher number of D1a and D1b receptors, while, in the old rats, these receptors are strongly reduced. The possible significance of reduced dopamine neurotransmission in BALT of aged rats is discussed.

  16. Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human lung: its distribution in smokers and non-smokers.

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    Richmond, I; Pritchard, G E; Ashcroft, T; Avery, A; Corris, P A; Walters, E H

    1993-11-01

    Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a normal component of the lung's immune system in many animals and may be analogous to gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This study aimed at assessing the nature and extent of BALT in human lung and determining whether its expression is induced within the human airway in response to smoking. Paraffin embedded, formalin fixed full thickness bronchial wall sections were examined from 31 whole lung specimens derived from both smokers and non-smokers. Samples were taken from throughout the bronchial tree to include main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi, as well as first to third generation carinae. Standard 4 microns step sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and immunocytochemical methods to show foci of BALT. Examination of 256 airway sites detected 46 foci of BALT. These differed from those described in other mammals in being distributed throughout the bronchial tree, in being found in relation to bronchial glandular epithelium as well as luminal bronchial epithelium, and in lacking any accompanying M cells. Analysis by smoking status showed that the expression of BALT was significantly more common in smokers than non-smokers (82% (14/17) v 14% (2/14) respectively). The findings support the view that BALT in humans is an integral feature in a comparatively small proportion of lungs from non-smokers while being significantly more prominent in lungs from smokers. The tissue shows several important differences from that described in other mammals.

  17. Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in patients with pulmonary complications of rheumatoid arthritis

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    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Hartson, Louise; Navarro, Carmen; Gaxiola, Miguel; Selman, Moises; Randall, Troy D.

    2006-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was originally described as a mucosal lymphoid organ in the lungs of some species. However, while the lungs of naive mice and humans typically lack BALT, pulmonary infection in mice leads to the development of inducible BALT (iBALT), which is located in peribronchial, perivascular, and interstitial areas throughout the lung. Here we investigated whether iBALT forms in patients with a variety of interstitial lung diseases. We show that while iBALT can...

  18. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and survival in a vaccine mouse model of tularemia.

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    Chiavolini, Damiana; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Berg, Gretchen; Christian, Kate; Oliveira-Nascimento, Laura; Weir, Susan; Alroy, Joseph; Randall, Troy D; Wetzler, Lee M

    2010-06-16

    Francisella tularensis causes severe pulmonary disease, and nasal vaccination could be the ideal measure to effectively prevent it. Nevertheless, the efficacy of this type of vaccine is influenced by the lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant. Mice were immunized via the nasal route with lipopolysaccharide isolated from F. tularensis and neisserial recombinant PorB as an adjuvant candidate. Then, mice were challenged via the same route with the F. tularensis attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS). Mouse survival and analysis of a number of immune parameters were conducted following intranasal challenge. Vaccination induced a systemic antibody response and 70% of mice were protected from challenge as showed by their improved survival and weight regain. Lungs from mice recovering from infection presented prominent lymphoid aggregates in peribronchial and perivascular areas, consistent with the location of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). BALT areas contained proliferating B and T cells, germinal centers, T cell infiltrates, dendritic cells (DCs). We also observed local production of antibody generating cells and homeostatic chemokines in BALT areas. These data indicate that PorB might be an optimal adjuvant candidate for improving the protective effect of F. tularensis antigens. The presence of BALT induced after intranasal challenge in vaccinated mice might play a role in regulation of local immunity and long-term protection, but more work is needed to elucidate mechanisms that lead to its formation.

  19. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT and survival in a vaccine mouse model of tularemia.

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    Damiana Chiavolini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes severe pulmonary disease, and nasal vaccination could be the ideal measure to effectively prevent it. Nevertheless, the efficacy of this type of vaccine is influenced by the lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant.Mice were immunized via the nasal route with lipopolysaccharide isolated from F. tularensis and neisserial recombinant PorB as an adjuvant candidate. Then, mice were challenged via the same route with the F. tularensis attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS. Mouse survival and analysis of a number of immune parameters were conducted following intranasal challenge. Vaccination induced a systemic antibody response and 70% of mice were protected from challenge as showed by their improved survival and weight regain. Lungs from mice recovering from infection presented prominent lymphoid aggregates in peribronchial and perivascular areas, consistent with the location of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT. BALT areas contained proliferating B and T cells, germinal centers, T cell infiltrates, dendritic cells (DCs. We also observed local production of antibody generating cells and homeostatic chemokines in BALT areas.These data indicate that PorB might be an optimal adjuvant candidate for improving the protective effect of F. tularensis antigens. The presence of BALT induced after intranasal challenge in vaccinated mice might play a role in regulation of local immunity and long-term protection, but more work is needed to elucidate mechanisms that lead to its formation.

  20. B-cell lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT): CT features in 10 patients.

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    Lee, D K; Im, J G; Lee, K S; Lee, J S; Seo, J B; Goo, J M; Kim, T S; Lee, J W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe the CT findings of pathologically confirmed bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma in 10 patients. The CT examinations of 10 patients with pathologically proven BALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively by two radiologists. Evaluated findings included number and distribution of lesions. We also assessed other CT findings such as presence of airspace consolidation, nodules, ground-glass attenuation, bubble-like radiolucencies, air bronchogram, bronchial dilatation, and lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary lesions were revealed as airspace consolidation in six patients (60%) and nodule(s) in six (60%). Multiplicity of disease was seen in seven patients (70%) and bilateral lung lesions in six (60%). Areas of ground-glass attenuation were seen in seven patients (70%). Bubble-like radiolucencies were present in five patients (50%) and air bronchogram in nine (90%). Findings of bronchial dilatation and lymphadenopathy were seen in three patients (30%). BALT lymphomas usually appear as airspace consolidation or nodules with air bronchogram or adjacent ground-glass attenuation at CT. These findings are similar to previous descriptions of pseudolymphomas. Multiple bilateral lesions are common in BALT lymphoma. Bubble-like radiolucencies have not been described previously and can be an additional finding of BALT lymphoma.

  1. Regulatory T cells interfere with the development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue.

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    Kocks, Jessica R; Davalos-Misslitz, Ana Clara Marques; Hintzen, Gabriele; Ohl, Lars; Förster, Reinhold

    2007-04-16

    Presence and extent of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is subject to considerable variations between species and is only occasionally observed in lungs of mice. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for the chemokine receptor CCR7 regularly develop highly organized BALT. These structures were not present at birth but were detectable from day 5 onwards. Analyzing CCR7(-/-)/wild-type bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrate that the development of BALT is caused by alterations of the hematopoietic system in CCR7-deficient mice. These observations together with the finding that CCR7-deficient mice possess dramatically reduced numbers of regulatory T cells (T reg cells) in the lung-draining bronchial lymph node suggest that BALT formation might be caused by disabled in situ function of T reg cells. Indeed, although adoptive transfer of wild-type T reg cells to CCR7-deficient recipients resulted in a profound reduction of BALT formation, neither naive wild-type T cells nor T reg cells from CCR7(-/-) donors impair BALT generation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CCR7-deficient T reg cells, although strongly impaired in homing to peripheral lymph nodes, are fully effective in vitro. Thus our data reveal a CCR7-dependent homing of T reg cells to peripheral lymph nodes in conjunction with a role for these cells in controlling BALT formation.

  2. Distribution of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters and related receptors in human bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue.

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    Cavallotti, Carlo; Bruzzone, Paolo; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    The functions of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) are under the control of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers). The relationships between the adrenergic nerve fibers and beta-adrenergic receptors were studied in the human BALT with the aim to demonstrate a probable neuromodulation. Morphological observations (staining with hematoxylin-eosin and scanning electron microscopy images) were carried out on samples of human BALT harvested during autopsies. Moreover, histochemical staining for norepinephrine (adrenaline = adrenergic nerve fibers) as well as for other catecholamines was performed. Finally, beta-adrenergic receptors were stained by means of a beta-blocking, radiolabeled drug (pindolol 125I). All our data were submitted to morphometric analysis (quantitative analysis of images and statistical analysis of data). Our results provide direct evidence of the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerve fibers and related beta-adrenergic receptors in BALT. beta-Adrenergic receptors are present above all in the most richly innervated part of the BALT, and are, therefore, in close relationship with their related adrenergic nerve fibers. Studies on the distribution of adrenergic neurotransmitters and related beta-adrenergic receptors in the human BALT are the first step for the demonstration of a probable neuromodulation of BALT.

  3. Developmental study of immunocompetent cells in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) from Wistar rats.

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    Márquez, M G; Sosa, G A; Roux, M E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to study in growing Wistar rats the development of immunocompetent cells in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). We found at day 4 postpartum, a high number of TCRgamma/delta+ T cells and very few CD8alpha+, CD8beta+, CD5+, TCRalpha/beta+ T cells in BALT. The latter cells and CD4+ T cells increase with age. Even though T cells expressing TCRgamma/delta outnumber those expressing TCRalpha/beta early in development, until 45 days of age, alpha/beta+ predominate over gamma/delta+ T cells only in adult rats (60 days of age). Moreover, a predominance of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells over T-helper cells was found in 60 days old rats. Surprisingly, more CD8alpha+ than CD8beta+ T cells in BALT are observed. The number of IgA+ B and CD4+ T cells found in the BALT increases with age. The early appearance - 4 days of age - of all T-cell phenotypes in BALT especially of gamma/delta+ T cells may imply a benefit to respond to inhaled antigen soon after birth.

  4. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation.

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    Baluk, Peter; Adams, Alicia; Phillips, Keeley; Feng, Jennifer; Hong, Young-Kwon; Brown, Mary B; McDonald, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    Lymphatics proliferate, become enlarged, or regress in multiple inflammatory lung diseases in humans. Lymphatic growth and remodeling is known to occur in the mouse trachea in sustained inflammation, but whether intrapulmonary lymphatics exhibit similar plasticity is unknown. We examined the time course, distribution, and dependence on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2/VEGFR-3 signaling of lung lymphatics in sustained inflammation. Lymphatics in mouse lungs were examined under baseline conditions and 3 to 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, using prospero heomeobox 1-enhanced green fluorescence protein and VEGFR-3 as markers. Sprouting lymphangiogenesis was evident at 7 days. Lymphatic growth was restricted to regions of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), where VEGF-C-producing cells were scattered in T-cell zones. Expansion of lung lymphatics after infection was reduced 68% by blocking VEGFR-2, 83% by blocking VEGFR-3, and 99% by blocking both receptors. Inhibition of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 did not prevent the formation of BALT. Treatment of established infection with oxytetracycline caused BALT, but not the lymphatics, to regress. We conclude that robust lymphangiogenesis occurs in mouse lungs after M. pulmonis infection through a mechanism involving signaling of both VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Expansion of the lymphatic network is restricted to regions of BALT, but lymphatics do not regress when BALT regresses after antibiotic treatment. The lung lymphatic network can thus expand in sustained inflammation, but the expansion is not as reversible as the accompanying inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) an integral structure of the lung in normal mammals, including humans?

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    Pabst, R; Gehrke, I

    1990-08-01

    In the respiratory tract, lymphoid aggregates with a specialized epithelium have been called bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and compared to the organized lymphoid tissue of the gut (GALT), e.g., Peyer's patches. BALT might play a central role in antigen uptake, initiating immune responses and disseminating primed lymphoid cells in the respiratory tract. In the present study, lungs of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, pigs, cats, and humans have been studied with respect to the presence and number of BALT and the dependence of BALT on age and microbial stimulation. BALT is not a constitutive structure in all these species. Its frequency varies widely, from 100% in rabbits and rats, 50% in guinea pigs, 33% in pigs, to its absence in cats and all normal human lungs. BALT seems to be a lymphoid structure which is not present in all the species studied but can develop in the lung after stimulation. This is in contrast to lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, which can always be found. These species differences are of major importance in interpreting the clinical relevance of experiments in animal models on the lung immune system, e.g., antigen uptake, immunostimulation, or lung transplantation.

  6. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and larynx-associated lymphoid tissue (LALT) are found at different frequencies in children, adolescents and adults.

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    Hiller, A S; Tschernig, T; Kleemann, W J; Pabst, R

    1998-02-01

    The lung in 98 and the larynx in 51 consecutive autopsies (age: 17th gestational week to 99 years) were studied for the presence of organized lymphoid tissue in the epiglottis and in the wall of larger bronchi. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was seen in about 40% of patients younger than 20 years of age but in older patients only in exceptional cases. In the wall of the epiglottis, however, larynx-associated lymphoid tissue (LALT) was found at a frequency of approximately 80% in patients younger than 20 years and in 56% of the patients older than 20 years. The clinical relevance of LALT as a physiological entry site for antigens or for vaccination protocols using aerosols needs to be studied in further experiments.

  7. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT in adult human lung

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    Takeuchi Toru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs in human BALT. Methods We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Results Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed α4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed α4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1. Conclusion Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.

  8. Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in adult human lung.

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    Kawamata, Nakaaki; Xu, Baohui; Nishijima, Hiroo; Aoyama, Kohji; Kusumoto, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Toru; Tei, Chuwa; Michie, Sara A; Matsuyama, Takami

    2009-10-22

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs) in human BALT. We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed alpha4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed alpha4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1. Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.

  9. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is not present in the normal adult lung but in different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernig, T; Pabst, R

    2000-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was first described in the lungs of rabbits and differs greatly between species. It is part of the integrated mucosal immune system. This review clarifies its morphological definition and focuses on the situation in humans. The frequency of BALT at different ages, after chronic stimulation and in different diseases is described. In healthy humans, BALT can only be found in the lungs of children and adolescents. The role of BALT in lung transplantation and in the development of low-grade malignant lymphomas in the airways is also discussed. Furthermore, questions concerning the inducibility of BALT as an entry site for vaccines, and the regulation of its activity for future therapeutic interventions in pulmonary immune reactions are addressed. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Bilateral Bronchiectasis as a Presentation Form of Pulmonary Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue

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    Glenda Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue of the lung (BALT is a rare illness that can remain without symptoms. Radiological findings of pulmonary lymphoma are heterogeneous. In literature, bronchiectasis is only described in one patient who also had besides adenomegalies. We reported on a 48-year-old female patient. She showed symptoms consistent with dyspnea with productive cough; there were crepitant sounds in the auscultation. Pulmonary functional test has shown a severe restrictive pattern with a low FVC and DLCO. CT scan showed bronchiectasis in the medium lobule without adenomegalies. Echocardiogram was normal, and the laboratory findings only showed leukocytosis. There were no findings in the bronchoscopy, but the lung biopsy showed a B-cell pulmonary lymphoma (positive to CD20 and CD79a in immunostaining. A wide variety of radiological manifestations has been previously described; however, we have presented this rare case, with bronchiectasis, as unique radiological finding.

  11. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I J; Kim, S H; Koo, S H; Kim, H B; Hwang, D H; Lee, K S; Lee, Y; Jang, K T; Kim, D H

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities

  12. Lymphocyte subpopulations in high endothelial venules and lymphatic capillaries of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Y; Ito, Y; Magari, S

    1989-02-01

    The subpopulations of lymphocytes and non-lymphoid cells in high endothelial venules (HEV) and in lymphatic capillaries surrounding lymphoid follicles in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were examined by electron microscopy after preembedding the tissue and staining with an immunoperoxidase technique. The results were compared with those obtained in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) reported previously. Monoclonal mouse-anti-rat T cell, IgG, IgM, IgA, and Ia antisera were used. Plasma cells that were reactive to anti-IgG, anti-IgM, and anti-IgA were detected as cells in which the 3',3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydroxychloride reaction product was localized in rough endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear spaces but not on plasma membranes. These plasma cells did not occur in either lymphatic capillaries or HEV in BALT as they did in GALT. Cells with surface Ig (sIg cells), T-cell antigen (T cells), and Ia antigen (Ia cells) were present in BALT. T cells were located predominantly in the follicular area opposite the bronchial epithelium; IgM- and IgG-reactive cells were found in the follicular area adjacent to the bronchial epithelium; and IgA-positive cells were found in the lateral part of the area where the T cells were localized (T-cell area). Ia cells were abundant throughout BALT and in moderate numbers in the epithelium. A striking observation was the presence of "nurse-cell"-like structures in the periphery of BALT. The percentages of T, sIgG, sIgM, and sIgA cells in the HEV were 54.7%, 2.4%, 28.9%, and 27.3%, respectively, and in the lymphatic capillaries, 41.2%, 3.8%, 38.2%, and 21.2%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Application of light sheet microscopy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzinza, David Twapokera; Fleige, Henrike; Laarmann, Kristin; Willenzon, Stefanie; Ristenpart, Jasmin; Spanier, Julia; Sutter, Gerd; Kalinke, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Förster, Reinhold

    2018-02-12

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) develops at unpredictable locations around lung bronchi following pulmonary inflammation. The formation and composition of BALT have primarily been investigated by immunohistology that, due to the size of the invested organ, is usually restricted to a limited number of histological sections. To assess the entire BALT of the lung, other approaches are urgently needed. Here, we introduce a novel light sheet microscopy-based approach for assessing lymphoid tissue in the lung. Using antibody staining of whole lung lobes and optical clearing by organic solvents, we present a method that allows in-depth visualization of the entire bronchial tree, the lymphatic vasculature and the immune cell composition of the induced BALT. Furthermore, three-dimensional analysis of the entire lung allows the qualitative and quantitative enumeration of the induced BALT. Using this approach, we show that a single intranasal application of the replication-deficient poxvirus MVA induces BALT that constitutes up to 8% of the entire lung volume in mice deficient in CCR7, in contrast to wild type mice (WT). Furthermore, BALT induced by heat-inactivated E. coli is dominated by a pronounced T cell infiltration in Cxcr5-deficient mice, in contrast to WT mice.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 12 February 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.150.

  14. Autoreactive T and B cells induce the development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Rebecca A; Williams, Jesse W; Perera, Jason; Berry, Elizabeth; Wu, Qiang; Cummings, Oscar W; Sperling, Anne I; Huang, Haochu

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies in humans have found that the incidence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) correlates with the severity of lung injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of BALT during systemic autoimmunity remain unknown. We have determined whether systemic autoimmunity in a murine model of autoimmune arthritis can promote the development of BALT by generating a novel murine model derived from K/BxN mice. Transgenic mice with the KRN T-cell receptor specific for the autoantigen, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), were crossed with GPI-specific immunoglobulin heavy and light chain knock-in mice, producing mice with a majority of T and B cells specific for the same autoantigen. We found that 67% of these mice demonstrated lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs, localized to either the perivascular or peribronchial regions. Fifty percent of the mice with lymphocytic infiltration manifested lymphoid-like lesions resembling BALT, with distinct T and B cell follicles. The lungs from mice with lymphoid infiltrates had increased numbers of cytokine-producing T cells, including IL-17A(+) T cells and increased major histocompatibility complex Class II expression on B cells. Interestingly, challenge with bleomycin failed to elicit a significant fibrotic response, compared with wild-type control mice. Our data suggest that systemic autoreactivity promotes ectopic lymphoid tissue development in the lung through the cooperation of autoreactive T and B cells. However, these BALT-like lesions may not be sufficient to promote fibrotic lung disease at steady state or after inflammatory challenge.

  15. The presence of specialized epithelial cells on the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, M; Suzuki, E; Gejyo, F; Ushiki, T

    2000-03-01

    The aggregation of lymphoid cells in the bronchial mucosa has been named the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and investigated in comparison with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). To elucidate precisely the structure and function of the BALT, the present study examined the age-related change in the mouse BALT by light microscopy. We also observed the characteristics of the overlying epithelium, especially the lectin-binding properties of the epithelial cells, by the combined use of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By LM, lymphoid aggregates were not recognizable in the bronchial mucosa of young (8-10 week-old) mice, while they were commonly found at the second to fourth branching portions of the bronchial tree in older (32-40 week-old) mice. The epithelium overlying the lymphoid aggregates of the mature mice often contained a large number of mononuclear cells. Lectin cytochemistry revealed that UEA1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1) positive cells were not only restricted to the overlying epithelium of the BALT in the older mice but also found in a cell group in the mucous epithelium at the branching portions in the young mice. Comparison between the LM and SEM images of the UEA1-stained whole mount specimens clarified the surface morphology of the lectin-stained epithelial cells, showing them to be non-ciliated cells with a large number of short microvillous projections on the apical surface. TEM studies further demonstrated that the UEA1 reaction products appeared on the plasma membrane of the non-ciliated cells which often enfolded lymphocytes in the old mice. Latex microbeads, which were administrated intratracheally, were selectively taken up by the UEA1-positive cells of the BALT. These results indicate that the mouse BALT has specialized epithelial cells similar to the UEA1 positive M cells in the GALT and probably functions as a part of the mucosal immune system. This study

  16. Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, K V; Solomides, C; Cordova, F; Rogers, T J; Ciccolella, D; Criner, G J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) has been associated with lung allograft rejection in rat transplant models. In human transplant recipients, BALT has not been linked to clinically significant rejection. We hypothesize that the immunohistochemical composition of BALT varies with the presence of acute lung allograft rejection. Methods. We retrospectively examined 40 human lung allograft recipients transplanted from 3/1/1999 to 6/1/2008. Patients were grouped by frequency and severity of acute rejection based on International Society of Heart Lung Transplant (ISHLT) criteria. Transbronchial biopsies were reviewed for BALT by a blinded pathologist. BALT if present was immunohistochemically stained to determine T-and B-cell subpopulations. Results. BALT presence was associated with an increased frequency of acute rejection episodes in the first year after transplantation. Patients with a lower CD4/CD8 ratio had an increased rejection rate; however, BALT size or densities of T-cell and B-cell subpopulations did not correlate with rejection rate. Conclusion. The presence of BALT is associated with an increased frequency of rejection one year after transplant. The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. The immunohistochemical composition of BALT may predict patients prone to frequent episodes of acute cellular rejection.

  17. Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Shenoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT has been associated with lung allograft rejection in rat transplant models. In human transplant recipients, BALT has not been linked to clinically significant rejection. We hypothesize that the immunohistochemical composition of BALT varies with the presence of acute lung allograft rejection. Methods. We retrospectively examined 40 human lung allograft recipients transplanted from 3/1/1999 to 6/1/2008. Patients were grouped by frequency and severity of acute rejection based on International Society of Heart Lung Transplant (ISHLT criteria. Transbronchial biopsies were reviewed for BALT by a blinded pathologist. BALT if present was immunohistochemically stained to determine T-and B-cell subpopulations. Results. BALT presence was associated with an increased frequency of acute rejection episodes in the first year after transplantation. Patients with a lower CD4/CD8 ratio had an increased rejection rate; however, BALT size or densities of T-cell and B-cell subpopulations did not correlate with rejection rate. Conclusion. The presence of BALT is associated with an increased frequency of rejection one year after transplant. The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. The immunohistochemical composition of BALT may predict patients prone to frequent episodes of acute cellular rejection.

  18. Effects of microbial stimulation on the number, size and activity of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) structures in the pig.

    OpenAIRE

    Delventhal, S.; Hensel, A.; Petzoldt, K.; Pabst, R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was investigated in the pig, which is a species in which BALT is not found constantly. Different routes of contact with a specifically lung-pathogen bacterium Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae were tested. Pigs, selected by bacteriological screening methods and the number of granulocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were infected by aerosol. They were compared to previously enterally immunized pigs using active ...

  19. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranckx Katleen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV or a highly virulent (HV M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT. The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. Results The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. Conclusions In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  20. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Katleen; Maes, Dominiek; Marchioro, Silvana B; Villarreal, Iris; Chiers, Koen; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-03-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV) or a highly virulent (HV) M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI) were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  1. Primary Endobronchial Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: CT Findings in 7 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Song, Jae Woo; Chae, Eun Jin; Choi, Chang Min; Jang, SeJin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate CT and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT findings of primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Materials and Methods From June 2006 through April 2012, seven patients (six female, one male; age range, 21-61 years; mean age, 49 years) were examined who were pathologically diagnosed with the primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of BALT. We evaluated the locations and characteristics of the lesions on CT and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans. The lesions were classified into the following three patterns: 1) solitary intraluminal nodule; 2) several tiny nodular protrusions; and 3) diffuse wall thickening. Results A solitary intraluminal nodule was observed in four patients (57.1%), several tiny nodular protrusion in two patients (28.6%), and diffuse wall thickening in one patient (14.3%). The lesions were categorized into 3 major locations: confined to the trachea (n = 3), confined to the lobar bronchus (n = 2), and diffuse involvement of the trachea and both main bronchi (n = 2). All lesions demonstrated homogeneous iso-attenuation as compared with muscle on pre- and post-enhancement scans. Secondary findings in the lungs (n = 3; 42.9%) included postobstructive lobar atelectasis (n = 1), air trapping (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). On 18F-FDG-PET/CT (n = 5), 4 lesions showed homogeneous uptake with maximum standardized uptake values (mSUV), ranging 2.3-5.7 (mean mSUV: 3.3). One lesion showed little FDG uptake. Conclusion Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the BALT manifests as three distinct patterns on CT, with the solitary intraluminal nodule presenting as the main pattern. Most lesions demonstrate homogeneous but weak FDG uptake on 18F-FDG-PET/CT. PMID:23483549

  2. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue: CT findings 7 patients

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    Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Song, Jae Woo; Chae, Eun Jin; Choi, Chang Min; Jang, Se Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To investigate CT and 1{sup 8F}-fluorodeoxyglucose (1{sup 8F}-FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT findings of primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). From June 2006 through April 2012, seven patients (six female, one male; age range, 21-61 years; mean age, 49 years) were examined who were pathologically diagnosed with the primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of BALT. We evaluated the locations and characteristics of the lesions on CT and 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT scans. The lesions were classified into the following three patterns: 1) solitary intraluminal nodule; 2) several tiny nodular protrusions; and 3) diffuse wall thickening. A solitary intraluminal nodule was observed in four patients (57.1%), several tiny nodular protrusion in two patients (28.6%), and diffuse wall thickening in one patient (14.3%). The lesions were categorized into 3 major locations: confined to the trachea (n 3), confined to the lobar bronchus (n = 2), and diffuse involvement of the trachea and both main bronchi (n = 2). All lesions demonstrated homogeneous iso-attenuation as compared with muscle on pre- and post-enhancement scans. Secondary findings in the lungs (n = 3; 42.9%) included postobstructive lobar atelectasis (n = 1), air trapping (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). On 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT (n = 5), 4 lesions showed homogeneous uptake with maximum standardized uptake values (mSUV), ranging 2.3-5.7 (mean mSUV: 3.3). One lesion showed little FDG uptake. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the BALT manifests as three distinct patterns on CT, with the solitary intraluminal nodule presenting as the main pattern. Most lesions demonstrate homogeneous but weak FDG uptake on 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT.

  3. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lungs of children who had died from sudden infant death syndrome and other causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernig, T; Kleemann, W J; Pabst, R

    1995-06-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is well characterised in rabbits and rats. In humans, however, it does not seem to be present in the healthy adult lung, although it can develop after certain microbial stimulation. In the present study a consecutive series of lungs from 88 children who had died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and 34 control cases of comparable age were examined for the presence of BALT. BALT was present in 36.4% of the patients who had died of SIDS and in 44.1% of the control cases. The probability of finding BALT increased with age, with similar kinetics in both groups. Future studies need to define when and at what rate BALT disappears as children get older. In young children BALT may act as an entry site for antigens to initiate an immune response, as is well documented for the gut-associated lymphoid system.

  4. Induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue serves as a general priming site for T cells and is maintained by dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Stephan; Dujardin, Hélène C.; Bakocevic, Nadja; Fleige, Henrike; Danzer, Heike; Willenzon, Stefanie; Suezer, Yasemin; Hämmerling, Günter; Garbi, Natalio; Sutter, Gerd; Worbs, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination via the respiratory tract can elicit protective immunity in animal infection models, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. We show that a single intranasal application of the replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara, which is widely used as a recombinant vaccination vector, results in prominent induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Although initial peribronchiolar infiltrations, characterized by the presence of dendritic cells (DCs) and few lymphocytes, can be found 4 d after virus application, organized lymphoid structures with segregated B and T cell zones are first observed at day 8. After intratracheal application, in vitro–differentiated, antigen-loaded DCs rapidly migrate into preformed BALT and efficiently activate antigen-specific T cells, as revealed by two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, the lung-specific depletion of DCs in mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of the CD11c promoter interferes with BALT maintenance. Collectively, these data identify BALT as tertiary lymphoid structures supporting the efficient priming of T cell responses directed against unrelated airborne antigens while crucially requiring DCs for its sustained presence. PMID:19917776

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, API2-MALT1 fusion-negative bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma in a young male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masashi; Inaba, Tohru; Uchida, Ryo; Fuchida, Shinichi; Ochiai, Naoya; Okano, Akira; Ashihara, Eishi; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Shimazaki, Chihiro

    2004-10-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with multiple bilateral nodular shadows in the lungs by chest radiograph. He had been asymptomatic and showed no significant abnormal findings in laboratory examinations. He underwent a diagnostic partial lobectomy, and was diagnosed as having primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; i.e. bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma/BALToma. Neither t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation nor API2-MALT1 chimeric transcript was found at diagnosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was also not detected in lymphoma cells. He had been a nonsmoker, and had also never shown any associated autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory lung diseases or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, he had suffered from moderate atopic dermatitis on his arms from childhood. It appears necessary to clarify whether atopy might play a role in the pathogenesis of API2-MALT1(-) BALT lymphoma for HIV(-) young patients who do not exhibit any other antecedent chronic antigenic stimulations.

  6. Effect of RN-301 immunomodulator on bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in protein depleted rats at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, M G; Sosa, G A; Slobodianik, N H; Florin-Christensen, A; Roux, M E

    1997-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated in Wistar rats that severe protein deprivation at weaning, even after refeeding with a 20% casein diet for 21 days, provokes alterations in IgA+ B cell and T cell populations from gut and GALT (gut associated lymphoid tissue) that are reverted by immunomodulator IM-104. In the present report, we investigate the influence of RN-301 (quite similar to IM-104) given by the oral or subcutaneous route during the protein deprivation period, in the seeding of BALT with IgA+ B and CD5+ T cells. The immunomodulator RN-301 contains LPS from E. coli and membrane and ribosomal fractions of P. acne. Tissue sections of the lower respiratory tract were studied by immunohistochemistry. The immunomodulator RN-301 administered by the oral route favours the significant increase in the seeding of the BALT lamina propria with IgA+ B and CD5+ T cells (p BALT lamina propria. The ribosomal fractions from P. acne associated with LPS from E. coli contained in the immunomodulator RN-301 administered by the oral route may rescue the small resting lymphocytes in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This event favours their proliferation and migration to the BALT.

  7. Effects of microbial stimulation on the number, size and activity of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) structures in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, S; Hensel, A; Petzoldt, K; Pabst, R

    1992-06-01

    The development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was investigated in the pig, which is a species in which BALT is not found constantly. Different routes of contact with a specifically lung-pathogen bacterium Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae were tested. Pigs, selected by bacteriological screening methods and the number of granulocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were infected by aerosol. They were compared to previously enterally immunized pigs using active and inactivated bacteria. The development of BALT after the infection was compared to that in pigs with a single enteral, or no, contact with the bacterium. BALT was less frequent in these groups than in the infected pigs. Previously immunized pigs developed the highest number and the largest BALT with the most prominent morphological signs of activation. Immunization with living or inactivated bacteria did not cause histological differences. BALT was preferentially located around bronchioli and small bronchi. Additional BALT predominantly occurred in the walls of larger bronchi. Definite compartments of T and B lymphocytes were not found in immunohistological studies of BALT. It was concluded that the development of BALT can be induced by different modes of microbial stimulation.

  8. Lymphocyte Homing to Bronchus-associated Lymphoid Tissue (BALT) Is Mediated by L-selectin/PNAd, α4β1 Integrin/VCAM-1, and LFA-1 Adhesion Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baohui; Wagner, Norbert; Pham, Linh Nguyen; Magno, Vincent; Shan, Zhongyan; Butcher, Eugene C.; Michie, Sara A.

    2003-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) participates in airway immune responses. However, little is known about the lymphocyte–endothelial adhesion cascades that recruit lymphocytes from blood into BALT. We show that high endothelial venules (HEVs) in BALT express substantial levels of VCAM-1, in marked contrast to HEVs in other secondary lymphoid tissues. BALT HEVs also express the L-selectin ligand PNAd. Anti–L-selectin, anti-PNAd, and anti–LFA-1 mAbs almost completely block the homing of B and T lymphocytes into BALT, whereas anti–α4 integrin and anti–VCAM-1 mAbs inhibit homing by nearly 40%. α4β7 integrin and MAdCAM-1 are not involved. Importantly, we found that mAbs against α4 integrin and VCAM-1 significantly block the migration of total T cells (80% memory phenotype) but not naive T and B cells to BALT. These results suggest that an adhesion cascade, which includes L-selectin/PNAd, α4β1 integrin/VCAM-1, and LFA-1, targets specific lymphocyte subsets to BALT. This high level of involvement of α4β1 integrin/VCAM-1 is unique among secondary lymphoid tissues, and may help unify lymphocyte migration pathways and immune responses in BALT and other bronchopulmonary tissues. PMID:12756264

  9. Lymphocyte homing to bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is mediated by L-selectin/PNAd, alpha4beta1 integrin/VCAM-1, and LFA-1 adhesion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baohui; Wagner, Norbert; Pham, Linh Nguyen; Magno, Vincent; Shan, Zhongyan; Butcher, Eugene C; Michie, Sara A

    2003-05-19

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) participates in airway immune responses. However, little is known about the lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion cascades that recruit lymphocytes from blood into BALT. We show that high endothelial venules (HEVs) in BALT express substantial levels of VCAM-1, in marked contrast to HEVs in other secondary lymphoid tissues. BALT HEVs also express the L-selectin ligand PNAd. Anti-L-selectin, anti-PNAd, and anti-LFA-1 mAbs almost completely block the homing of B and T lymphocytes into BALT, whereas anti-alpha4 integrin and anti-VCAM-1 mAbs inhibit homing by nearly 40%. alpha4beta7 integrin and MAdCAM-1 are not involved. Importantly, we found that mAbs against alpha4 integrin and VCAM-1 significantly block the migration of total T cells (80% memory phenotype) but not naive T and B cells to BALT. These results suggest that an adhesion cascade, which includes L-selectin/PNAd, alpha4beta1 integrin/VCAM-1, and LFA-1, targets specific lymphocyte subsets to BALT. This high level of involvement of alpha4beta1 integrin/VCAM-1 is unique among secondary lymphoid tissues, and may help unify lymphocyte migration pathways and immune responses in BALT and other bronchopulmonary tissues.

  10. Anti-TNP-forming cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and paratracheal lymph node (PTLN) of the rat after intratracheal priming and boosting with TNP-KLH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Brugge-Gamelkoorn, G J; Claassen, E; Sminia, T

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of the paratracheal lymph node (PTLN) and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the generation of antigen-specific antibody-forming cells after intratracheal administration of trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet haemocyanin (TNP-KLH). Priming as well as boosting resulted in the occurrence of specific antibody-forming cells in the PTLN, in BALT and in the lung. No anti-TNP-forming cells were observed in Peyer's patch, mesenteric lymph node and popliteal lymph node. From the data on the kinetics of anti-TNP-forming cells, it is concluded that intratracheal administration of antigen leads to a locally confined plasmacellular reaction. This suggests that the migrating and/or homing capacities of memory cells generated in the lung environment (PTLN, BALT) differ from those generated in the gut. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3514441

  11. Bronchus- and nasal-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; McDermott, Mark R

    2005-08-01

    The bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) constitute organized lymphoid aggregates that are capable of T- and B-cell responses to inhaled antigens. BALT, located mostly at bifurcations of the bronchus in animals and humans, is present in the fetus and develops rapidly following birth, especially in the presence of antigens. Humoral immune responses elicited by BALT are primarily immunoglobulin A secretion both locally and by BALT-derived B cells that have trafficked to distant mucosal sites. Similarly located T-cell responses have been noted. On the basis of these findings, the BALT can be thought of as functionally analogous to mucosal lymphoid aggregates in the intestine and is deemed a member of the common mucosal immunologic system. NALT has been described principally in the rodent nasal passage as two separate lymphoid aggregates. It develops after birth, likely in response to antigen, and B- and T-cell responses parallel those that occur in BALT. It is not known whether NALT cells traffic to distant mucosal sites, although mucosal responses have been detected after nasal immunization. NALT appears from many studies to be a functionally distinct lymphoid aggregate when compared with BALT and Peyer's patches. It may exist, however, in humans as a diffuse collection of isolated lymphoid follicles.

  12. Tertiary lymphoid tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25083321

  13. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  14. Lymphoid neoplasia following connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P M; Witrak, G A; Conn, D L

    1979-02-01

    A retrospective review was undertaken to ascertain whether there are distinctive histopathologic features of the lymphoid neoplasms that occur in patients with previous connective tissue disease. Of 29 patients studied, 12 had malignant lymphoma with diffuse large-cell cytomorphology. Only 1 of these 12 had an immunoblastic cell type. The remaining 17 patients had neoplasia of a widely diverse nature. Six had lymphocytic lymphoma (one nodular poorly differentiated, three diffuse poorly differentiated, and three diffuse well differentiated), two had Hodgkin's disease, three had plasma cell myeloma, and six had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Data fail to confirm a relationship between lymphoid proliferations with immunoblastic morphology and connective tissue diseases.

  15. Primary Pulmonary Lymphoid Lesions: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Arlene; Raparia, Kirtee; Lewis, Vanessa A; Franks, Teri J; Dhand, Sabeen; Galvin, Jeffrey R; White, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. ©RSNA, 2016.

  16. Early Appearance of TNF-α and Other Cytokines in Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissues (BALT from Growing Wistar Rats. What is the Role of TNF-α?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreanina Delettieres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. Early appearance (4 days post partum of γδT cells in BALT has been shown, as well as its role in up-regulating TNF-α production. In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1 the profile of the cytokines, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10 and (2 in TCR γδ+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-α as well as with INF-γ. All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells by flow cytometry and western blot. (1 The principal cytokine found at 4 days of age in BALT cells was TNF-α that increases along BALT development. The same behavior was found for cells containing IL-10 and INF-γ. (2 TCR γδ+ cells colocalize mainly with TNF-α as it has been shown by immunohistochemistry in BALT and by flow cytometry when we studied BAL.

  17. Early appearance of TNF-alpha and other cytokines in bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (BALT) from growing Wistar rats. what is the role of TNF-alpha?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delettieres, Dreanina; Frecha, Cecilia A; Roux, Maria E

    2004-01-01

    Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. Early appearance (4 days post partum) of gammadeltaT cells in BALT has been shown, as well as its role in up-regulating TNF-alpha production. In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1) the profile of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, INF-alpha and IL-10 and (2) in TCR gammadelta+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-alpha as well as with INF-gamma. All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells) by flow cytometry and western blot. (1) The principal cytokine found at 4 days of age in BALT cells was TNF-alpha that increases along BALT development. The same behavior was found for cells containing IL-10 and INF-gamma. (2) TCR gammadelta+ cells colocalize mainly with TNF-alpha as it has been shown by immunohistochemistry in BALT and by flow cytometry when we studied BAL. The early appearance of TNF-alpha concomitant with TCR gammadelta+ cell suggests an important role for this cytokine along BALT development. Moreover, mutual regulation between them exists taking part in the immune surveillance and repair of damaged epithelia.

  18. Early Appearance of TNF-α and Other Cytokines in Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissues (BALT) from Growing Wistar Rats. What is the Role of TNF-α?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delettieres, Dreanina; Frecha, Cecilia A.

    2004-01-01

    Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. Early appearance (4 days post partum) of γδT cells in BALT has been shown, as well as its role in up-regulating TNF-α production. In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1) the profile of the cytokines, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10 and (2) in TCR γδ+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-α as well as with INF-γ. All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells) by flow cytometry and western blot. (1) The principal cytokine found at 4 days of age in BALT cells was TNF-α that increases along BALT development. The same behavior was found for cells containing IL-10 and INF-γ. (2) TCR γδ+ cells colocalize mainly with TNF-α as it has been shown by immunohistochemistry in BALT and by flow cytometry when we studied BAL. The early appearance of TNF-α concomitant with TCR γδ+ cell suggests an important role for this cytokine along BALT development. Moreover, mutual regulation between them exists taking part in the immune surveillance and repair of damaged epithelia. PMID:15559371

  19. Suitability of stratagene reference RNA for analysis of lymphoid tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Zhou, Guimei; Iqbal, Javeed

    2004-01-01

    acceptable gene coverage to serve as a comprehensive standard for gene expression profiling of lymphoid tissues. Our lymphoid standard was prepared from thymus, spleen, tonsil, and cell lines representing immature B cells, plasma cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, thus covering the entire spectrum...... of lymphoid cells and most stromal elements present in specialized lymphoid tissues. The two standards were co-hybridized on oligonucleotide microarrays containing 17,260 genes, and both had fluorescence intensities above background for approximately 85% of the genes. Despite the limited representation......We evaluated a lymphoid RNA standard prepared in our laboratory for spotted microarrays against the Universal Human Reference standard from Stratagene. Our goal was to determine if the Stratagene standard, which contains only two lymphoid cell lines out of a pool of 10 human cancer cell lines, had...

  20. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  1. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  2. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response. PMID:24213222

  3. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection.

  4. Mapping of NKp46+ cells in healthy human lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTomasello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Killer (NK cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor t (RORt transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORt+ILCs with a lineage-CD94-CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases.

  5. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  6. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  7. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising from the kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Naoya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Horinaga, Minoru; Hongo, Hiroshi; Ito, Yujiro; Watanabe, Takuro; Masuda, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Primary renal lymphoma is rare, and most are intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas of B-cell lineage, such as diffuse large B-cell or Burkitt lymphoma. We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising from the kidney. Only a few cases of primary renal MALT lymphoma have been published. PMID:24554980

  9. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  10. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1 + group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1 + ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1 + ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1 - cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1 + ILC3s. NRP1 + ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in tissue homeostasis and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Aline; Breda, Cristiane Naffah Souza; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2017-08-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells. They are a part of the innate immune system, but develop from the lymphoid lineage. They lack pattern-recognition receptors and rearranged receptors, and therefore cannot directly mediate antigen specific responses. The progenitors specifically associated with the ILCs lineage have been uncovered, enabling the distinction between ILCs and natural killer cells. Based on the requirement of specific transcription factors and their patterns of cytokine production, ILCs are categorized into three subsets (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). First observed in mucosal surfaces, these cell populations interact with hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells throughout the body during homeostasis and diseases, promoting immunity, commensal microbiota tolerance, tissue repair and inflammation. Over the last 8 years, ILCs came into the spotlight as an essential cell type able to integrate diverse host immune responses. Recently, it became known that ILC subsets play a key role in immune responses at barrier surfaces, interacting with the microbiota, nutrients and metabolites. Since the liver receives the venous blood directly from the intestinal vein, the intestine and liver are essential to maintain tolerance and can rapidly respond to infections or tissue damage. Therefore, in this review, we discuss recent findings regarding ILC functions in homeostasis and disease, with a focus on the intestine and liver.

  12. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  13. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  14. Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Deleage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary obstacle to an HIV-1 cure is long-lived viral reservoirs, which must be eliminated or greatly reduced. Cure strategies have largely focused on monitoring changes in T cell reservoirs in peripheral blood (PB, even though the lymphoid tissues (LT are primary sites for viral persistence. To track and discriminate viral reservoirs within tissue compartments we developed a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach to detect vRNA, including vRNA+ cells and viral particles (“RNAscope”, vDNA+ cells (“DNAscope” and combined vRNA and vDNA with immunohistochemistry to detect and phenotype active and latently infected cells in the same tissue section. RNAscope is highly sensitive with greater speed of analysis compared to traditional in situ hybridization. Highly sensitive and specific DNAscope detected SIV/HIV vDNA+ cells, including duplexed detection of vDNA and vRNA or immunophenotypic markers in the same section. Analysis of LT samples from macaques prior to and during combination antiretroviral therapy demonstrated that B cell follicles are an important anatomical compartment for both latent and active viral persistence during treatment. These new tools should allow new insights into viral reservoir biology and evaluation of cure strategies.

  15. Benign hyperplasia of duct-associated lymphoid tissue: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal lymphoid tissue is ubiquitously present in the oral mucosa and serves as a barrier for entrapment of antigens. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is generally dispersed and sometimes associated with the ducts of the minor salivary glands. Proliferation of the duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT is rarely reported, though probably of common occurrence. We report a case of benign hyperplasia of DALT in the buccal mucosa of a 58-year-old male. The histogenesis and pathological implications of this tissue are discussed and the need for recognition of this entity is stressed.

  16. The expanding family of innate lymphoid cells: regulators and effectors of immunity and tissue remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Di Santo, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified what can be considered a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that includes not only natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells but also cells that produce interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-13, IL-17 and/or IL-22. These ILC subsets are developmentally related,

  17. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT......The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional...... investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue...

  18. Tissue-specific effector functions of innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, Niklas K; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) is the collective term for a group of related innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the more recently discovered non-NK ILCs, which all lack rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. Similar to NK cells, the newly discovered ILCs depend on the transcription factor Id2 and the common γ-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor for development. However, in contrast to NK cells, non-NK ILCs also require interleukin-7. In addition to the cytotoxic functions of NK cells, assuring protection against tumour development and viruses, new data indicate that ILCs contribute to a wide range of homeostatic and pathophysiological conditions in various organs via specialized cytokine production capabilities. Here we summarize current knowledge on ILCs with a particular emphasis on their tissue-specific effector functions, in the gut, liver, lungs and uterus. When possible, we try to highlight the role that these cells play in humans. PMID:23489335

  19. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells: architects of CD4 immune responses in mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-Y; Kim, K-S; McConnell, F; Lane, P

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the multiple functions of the mouse lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells in: (i) the development of organized lymphoid tissue, (ii) the generation and maintenance of CD4-dependent immunity in adult lymphoid tissues; and (iii) the regulation of central tolerance in thymus. By contrast with mouse LTi cells, which have been well described, the human equivalent is only just beginning to be characterized. Human LTi-like cells expressing interleukin (IL)-22 have been identified recently and found to differentiate into natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship of LTi cells to NK cells is discussed in the light of several studies reporting a close relationship in the mouse between LTi cells and transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor gammat-dependent IL-22 producing NK cells in the gut. We also outline our data suggesting that these cells are present in adult human lymphoid tissues.

  20. Ultrastructural localisation of sialoadhesin (siglec-1) on macrophages in rodent lymphoid tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Hoefsmit, E. C.; van de Ende, M.; Crocker, P. R.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies it has been demonstrated that sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted adhesion receptor for lymphocytes and myeloid cells. It is under normal circumstances expressed by subpopulations of macrophages in lymphoid and haemopoietic tissues. In this study different

  1. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  2. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

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    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  3. Localization of beta 1 integrins and their extracellular ligands in human lymphoid tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, T. K.; van der Ende, M.; Döpp, E. A.; Kraal, G.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we describe the immunocytochemical distribution of the beta 1 integrins (alpha 1 to alpha 6) and their extracellular matrix ligands in human peripheral lymphoid tissues. The results show that within these tissues individual beta 1 integrins are differentially expressed by

  4. Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin

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    Jie Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a newly classified family of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. While they could be found in both lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues, ILCs are preferentially enriched in barrier tissues such as the skin, intestine, and lung where they could play important roles in maintenance of tissue integrity and function and protection against assaults of foreign agents. On the other hand, dysregulated activation of ILCs could contribute to tissue inflammatory diseases. In spite of recent progress towards understanding roles of ILCs in the health and disease, mechanisms regulating specific establishment, activation, and function of ILCs in barrier tissues are still poorly understood. We herein review the up-to-date understanding of tissue-specific relevance of ILCs. Particularly we will focus on resident ILCs of the skin, the outmost barrier tissue critical in protection against various foreign hazardous agents and maintenance of thermal and water balance. In addition, we will discuss remaining outstanding questions yet to be addressed.

  5. Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Luming; Xu, Ming; Xiong, Na

    2017-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly classified family of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. While they could be found in both lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues, ILCs are preferentially enriched in barrier tissues such as the skin, intestine, and lung where they could play important roles in maintenance of tissue integrity and function and protection against assaults of foreign agents. On the other hand, dysregulated activation of ILCs could contribute to tissue inflammatory diseases. In spite of recent progress towards understanding roles of ILCs in the health and disease, mechanisms regulating specific establishment, activation, and function of ILCs in barrier tissues are still poorly understood. We herein review the up-to-date understanding of tissue-specific relevance of ILCs. Particularly we will focus on resident ILCs of the skin, the outmost barrier tissue critical in protection against various foreign hazardous agents and maintenance of thermal and water balance. In addition, we will discuss remaining outstanding questions yet to be addressed.

  6. Immunological tumor destruction in a murine melanoma model by targeted LTalpha independent of secondary lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, D.; Voigt, H.; Eggert, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    as demonstrated by in situ TRP-2/K(b) tetramer staining. Mechanistically, targeted LTalpha therapy seems to induce changes at the tumor site which allows a coordinated interaction of immune competent cells triggering the induction of tertiary lymphoid tissue. CONCLUSION: Thus, our data demonstrate that targeted......BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeting lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) to the tumor evokes its immunological destruction in a syngeneic B16 melanoma model. Since treatment was associated with the induction of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid tissue, we speculated that the induced immune...... LTalpha promotes an accelerated immune response by enabling the priming of T cells at the tumor site Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  7. Pulmonary infections in swine induce altered porcine surfactant protein D expression and localization to dendritic cells in bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Charlotte M; Holmskov, Uffe; Aalbaek, Bent; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M; Nielsen, Ole L

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that recognizes various microbial surface-specific carbohydrate and lipid patterns. In vitro data has suggested that this binding may lead to increased microbial association with macrophages and dendritic cells. The aim of the present in vivo study was to study the expression of porcine SP-D (pSP-D) in the lung during different pulmonary bacterial infections, and the effect of the routes of infection on this expression was elucidated. Furthermore, the aim was to study the in vivo spatial relationship among pSP-D, pathogens, phagocytic cells and dendritic cells. Lung tissue was collected from experimental and natural bronchopneumonias caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus, and from embolic and diffuse interstitial pneumonia, caused by Staph. aureus or Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Streptococcus suis serotype 2, respectively. By comparing normal and diseased lung tissue from the same lungs, increased diffuse pSP-D immunoreactivity was seen in the surfactant in both acute and chronic bronchopneumonias, while such increased expression of pSP-D was generally not present in the interstitial pneumonias. Co-localization of pSP-D, alveolar macrophages and bacteria was demonstrated, and pSP-D showed a patchy distribution on the membranes of alveolar macrophages. SP-D immunoreactivity was intracellular in dendritic cells. The dendritic cells were identified by their morphology, the absence of macrophage marker immunoreactivity and the presence of dendritic cell marker immunoreactivity. Increased expression of pSP-D in the surfactant coincided with presence of pSP-D-positive dendritic cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), indicating a possible transport of pSP-D through the specialized M cells overlying (BALT). In conclusion, we have shown that pSP-D expression in the lung surfactant is induced by bacterial infection by an aerogenous route rather

  8. Ectopic Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Protective or Provocateur?

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    Eoin Neil McNamee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Organized lymphoid tissues like the thymus first appeared in jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago and have evolved to equip the host with a network of specialized sites, strategically located to orchestrate strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses autonomously. The gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT maintain a mostly tolerant environment to dampen our responses to daily dietary and microbial products in the intestine. However, when this homeostasis is perturbed by chronic inflammation, the intestine is able to develop florid organized tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLT, which heralds the onset of regional immune dysregulation. While TLT are a pathologic hallmark of Crohn’s disease (CD, their role in the overall process remains largely enigmatic. A critical question remains; are intestinal TLT generated by the immune infiltrated intestine to modulate immune responses and rebuild tolerance to the microbiota or are they playing a more sinister role by generating dysregulated responses that perpetuate disease? Herein we discuss the main theories of intestinal tertiary lymphoid tissue neogenesis and focus on the most recent findings that open new perspectives to their role in inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Treatment of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Sjogren's Syndrome : A Retrospective Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollard, Rodney P. E.; Pijpe, Justin; Bootsma, Hendrika; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Kluin, Philip M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Vissink, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To retrospectively analyze the clinical course of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of the parotid gland and associated Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods. All consecutive patients with SS and MALT lymphoma (MALT-SS) diagnosed in the University Medical

  10. Oxysterol Sensing through the Receptor GPR183 Promotes the Lymphoid-Tissue-Inducing Function of Innate Lymphoid Cells and Colonic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emgård, Johanna; Kammoun, Hana; García-Cassani, Bethania; Chesné, Julie; Parigi, Sara M; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Evren, Elza; Das, Srustidhar; Czarnewski, Paulo; Sleiers, Natalie; Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Kvedaraite, Egle; Svensson, Mattias; Scandella, Elke; Hepworth, Matthew R; Huber, Samuel; Ludewig, Burkhard; Peduto, Lucie; Villablanca, Eduardo J; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pereira, João P; Flavell, Richard A; Willinger, Tim

    2018-01-16

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) sense environmental signals and are critical for tissue integrity in the intestine. Yet, which signals are sensed and what receptors control ILC3 function remain poorly understood. Here, we show that ILC3s with a lymphoid-tissue-inducer (LTi) phenotype expressed G-protein-coupled receptor 183 (GPR183) and migrated to its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-hydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). In mice lacking Gpr183 or 7α,25-OHC, ILC3s failed to localize to cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). Gpr183 deficiency in ILC3s caused a defect in CP and ILF formation in the colon, but not in the small intestine. Localized oxysterol production by fibroblastic stromal cells provided an essential signal for colonic lymphoid tissue development, and inflammation-induced increased oxysterol production caused colitis through GPR183-mediated cell recruitment. Our findings show that GPR183 promotes lymphoid organ development and indicate that oxysterol-GPR183-dependent positioning within tissues controls ILC3 activity and intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Snoring and sleep disorders in children with hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzięciołowska-Baran, E; Dąbrowski, P; Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Poziomkowska-Gęsicka, I; Baran, S

    2013-06-01

    Hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue within the throat in children leads to a number of respiratory problems and sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the above-mentioned changes depending on the location of overgrown lymphoid tissue, BMI, and coexisting allergies. The study was based on a survey conducted in a group of 103 children aged 3-14 with a hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue requiring surgery. The questionnaire included questions about symptoms of sleep disordered breathing. In addition, BMI was calculated and the coexistence of other diseases in the group of examined children was taken into account. Pathological changes predominated in children aged 4-6. The incidence of snoring was the most common, observed in 87%, followed by apnea in 45% of the examined group. Co-occurrence of allergies was observed in 36% and excess of body weight in 21% of the children. Overweight was an essential factor that facilitated apneic sleep episodes accompanying lymphoid hyperplasia. Snoring and nasal obstruction were observed more often in allergic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-grade B-cell bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Siddiqui, Anita Karim; Rai, Kanti R

    2002-01-01

    Low-grade B-cell bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma is a distinct subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Chronic antigen stimulation, triggered by autoimmune process or persistent infection may precede the development of BALT lymphoma. The lymphoma cells originate from the marginal zone and by invading the bronchial epithelial tissue, give rise to the lymphoepithelial lesion. BALT lymphoma shares the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic characteristics of other mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. A majority of the patients are asymptomatic and pulmonary lesions are incidentally discovered on a routine chest radiograph. However, the clinical and radiographic features of BALT lymphoma are nonspecific. The disease is often localized at the time of diagnosis and responds favorably to local treatment, but the optimal management is not clearly defined. Overall, BALT lymphoma has a favorable prognosis and is associated with long-term survival.

  13. Developmental changes of lymphoid tissue in Harderian gland of the laying hens

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    Pamela Bejdić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Harderian gland of 110 laying hens was histologically investigated from the time of hatching to the period of 10 months of age. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-schiff (PAS and methyl green-pyronin technique. The research shows that lymphoid tissue is colonised by three types of cells: heterophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. The number of these cells is directly dependent on bird’s age. During the lifetime of the hens there gradually comes a shift in dominance of these three cell types. Lymphoid nodules are detected only in 40-day-old chickens, while later in adult birds Harderian gland is the organ which contain the largest number of mature plasma cells. Some plasma cells contain the Russell bodies with different size and shape.

  14. Tertiary lymphoid tissue in the tumor microenvironment: from its occurrence to immunotherapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Bergomas, Francesca; Cortese, Nina; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Grizzi, Fabio; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2015-03-01

    Recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells in the microenvironment of solid tumors is highly heterogeneous and follows patterns, varying according to the organ of origin and stage of disease, with critical roles in the process of cancer onset and progression. While adaptive cells are endowed with anti-tumor activities, inflammatory components of the immune infiltrate orchestrate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that reveals ambivalent functions of the immune contexture in the tumor milieu. The balance between opposing pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral immune pathways, which occur concomitantly in the tumor microenvironment, and the regulatory networks of these phenomena have been the target of several immunotherapeutic strategies. While the scarcity of adaptive immune effectors in tumors correlates with dismal prognosis, the pathways of activation of tumor-specific lymphocytes are yet to be fully elucidated. Recently, the occurrence of tertiary lymphoid tissue was revealed to be critical in mediating the dynamics of T cell recruitment and local activation of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue assessment and targeting emerge as a promising approach for the design of novel prognostic immune signatures and immunotherapeutic strategies. The immunological behavior of tertiary lymphoid tissue, its occurrence in the tumor immune microenvironment and its clinical relevance are discussed here.

  15. The importance of FMDV localisation in lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juleff, N D; Maree, F F; Waters, R; Bengis, R G; Charleston, B

    2012-07-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a highly contagious pathogen that can cause lameness, low weight and decreased milk production, is a scourge of agricultural livestock around the world. Although the acute phase of infection is rarely fatal, infection may persist in animals that have apparently recovered, creating a viral reservoir that some fear could contribute to the spread of disease. We have used an array of molecular techniques to search for traces of virus in tissues from the mouths and throats of infected cattle. In a carefully controlled study, we have found evidence of intact, non-replicating virus particles trapped by follicular dendritic cells within the germinal centres of lymph nodes. Strikingly, virus was present for up to 38 days post infection, even though it was undetectable in surrounding tissues. The retention of intact virus within germinal centres is likely to have a role in stimulating the long lasting immune response that is characteristic of viral infections. Our data suggests that this capture may also be responsible for preserving intact viruses capable of infecting susceptible cells as they come into contact with germinal centres. African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) are typically infected with all three South African Territories types of FMDV by 2 years of age and these viruses can be transmitted to farmed livestock. Buffalo harbour persistent virus in greater amounts and for longer periods than cattle and thus provided us with further opportunities to define the sites of viral localisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Kang

    Full Text Available As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for

  17. CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Elloso, M. Merle; Fouser, Lynette A.; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Fetal CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid-tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that following infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4+ LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4+ LTi cell responses were IL-23-dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4+ LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and anti-microbial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4+ LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4+ LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine. PMID:21194981

  18. Coelom-associated lymphomyeloid tissue (milky spots): site of lymphoid and myelomonocytic cell generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, H L; Oliveira, D N; Pelajo-Machado, M; Borojevic, R; Lenzi, J A

    1996-01-01

    Pleural and peritoneal milky spots (MS) are small morphofunctional structures representing subsidiary foci of coelom-associated lymphomyeloid tissue (CALT). In this paper we studied the cellular composition of CALT in normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the healthy mouse, CALT is mainly composed of IgM (+) B cells and presents lower numbers of CD23 and CD45R (B220) B2 lymphocytes. When activated by the infection, it may show pronounced lymphocytosis, plasmocytogenesis (IgM > IgG > IgA > IgG2a > IgG1) and myelomonocytosis. The lymphocytes were mainly of the B1 type (double positive CD5/IgM), with smaller number of T cells (TCR alpha beta (+), TCR gamma delta (+), CD3 (+) and CD5 (+)) and conventional B2 cells (B220 (+), CD23 (+)). The myeloid compartment was composed of immature and mature cells of monocyte/macrophage, eosinophil, neutrophil and megakaryocytic lineages, especially in the omental milky spots. CALT is also a favorable microenvironment for LFA-1 (+) mast cells. Thus, CALT appears to be a mixed lymphoid organ, with secondary and/or primary lymphoid organ functions, being an important site of B1 cell generation, plasma cell maturation and extramedullar hematopoiesis. CALT operates as an interface between blood and lymphatic circulation and coelomic cavities, because locally or externally produced cells have easy and ready access to the pleural and peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, MS cells can escape into blood and lymphatic vessels, providing lymphocytes to other lymphoid organs and to the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  19. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

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    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  20. Low CXCL13 expression, splenic lymphoid tissue atrophy and germinal center disruption in severe canine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Joselli S Silva

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT-α, LT-β, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02 in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4 compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P = 0.01. These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12 in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P = 0.01 splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  1. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hadjidakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

  2. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  3. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Molofsky, Ari B

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy AT, including those associated with type 2 or "allergic" immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, AT "browning," and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines interleukin-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of group 2 innate lymphoid cell cells and type 2 immunity in AT metabolism and homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine suppression on experimental ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Ding, X; Cao, W; Qu, L; Zhou, G

    2014-04-29

    The secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (CCL21) is closely associated with lymphoid homing and anti-tumor immune responses. CCL21 also has a chemotactic effect on intestinal lymphocytes. This study mainly focused on CCL21 expression in experimental ulcerative colitis and on the effects of CCL21 suppression on this disease in mice. The mouse colitis model was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in 40 female BALB/c mice that were equally distributed into five groups: control, DSS, propylene glycol, triptolide (TL), and dexamethasone treatment groups. The disease activity index, general morphology score of the colon, and histological pathology score of colon tissues were evaluated. CCL21 expression was examined in colons of mice by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting analysis. CCL21 was upregulated in the mouse model of ulcerative colitis (control group vs DSS group/propylene glycol group, Pdexamethasone treatments improved colitis symptoms and decreased CCL21 expression (TL group/dexamethasone group vs DSS group/propylene glycol group, PSuppression of CCL21 expression decreased damage induced from ulcerative colitis, indicating that CCL21 targeted therapy might be an effective treatment for this disease.

  5. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the trachea: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ruffolo Magliari

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas are most commonly found in the stomach, lungs, orbital soft tissue, salivary glands and thyroid. Involvement of the trachea is extremely rare. CASE REPORT: This report describes a rare case of MALT lymphoma of the trachea in a 71-year-old woman who presented with a one-year history of coughing, dyspnea, hoarseness and weight loss. There was an infiltrative lesion in the mid-trachea. The anatomopathological diagnosis was only made from the fifth endoscopic biopsy attempt. Immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (R-COP induced complete remission of the symptoms and endoscopic lesion. CONCLUSIONS: MALT lymphoma of the trachea is extremely rare and indolent disease. It has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway lesions. It is crucial to obtain an anatomopathological diagnosis from a specialized pathologist. Immunochemotherapy with R-COP induced complete remission of the disease.

  6. Innate lymphoid cells: the role in respiratory infections and lung tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głobińska, Anna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2017-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases. Areas covered: In this review we highlighted the role of ILCs in the lungs, citing the most recent studies in this area. PubMed searches (2004- July 2017) were conducted using the term 'innate lymphoid cells respiratory viral infections' in combination with other relevant terms including various respiratory viruses. Expert commentary: Since studies of ILCs have opened new areas of investigation, understanding the role of ILCs in respiratory infections may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying viral-induced exacerbations of lung diseases, providing the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Potential therapeutic targets have already been identified. So far, the most promising strategy is cytokine-targeting, although further clinical trials are needed to verify its effectiveness.

  7. Synchronous Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McFarlane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma is a subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, comprising ∼17% of all gastrointestinal (GI tract lymphomas. It is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, for example Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Sjogren’s syndrome, respectively. Approximately 50% of GI MALTomas occur in the stomach, with small bowel and colonic lesions being less frequent. Synchronous upper and lower GI MALTomas occur rarely, with few cases reported. We present the case of a 73-year-old patient who presented with change in bowel habit and was found to have synchronous multifocal upper and lower GI MALTomas, which did not respond to H. pylori cure or to rituximab therapy, but did respond to a combination of surgery and chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine.

  8. Simultaneous Occurrence of Early Gastric Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Omentum

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    Tomohiro Murakami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous association of gastric carcinoma with omental mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a rare event that has not been reported previously. We focused on the hypothetic pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. A 55-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent distal gastrectomy in our hospital. Three independent early gastric cancers and a mass near the cecum were diagnosed preoperatively. Pathological review of the resected stomach showed three independent early signet ring cell gastric carcinomas, and the mass in the omentum near the cecum was shown to be omental MALT lymphoma. Due to the nature of the patient's disease, she was started on medical eradication of H. pylori. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and omental MALT lymphoma is a rare event. Special attention given to H. pylori-associated gastric cancer patients can avoid misdiagnosis and lead to adequate treatment.

  9. Small lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid tissues of nude mice. Life-span and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Röpke, C

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of small lymphocytes according to life-span in the peripheral lymphoid tissues of the mouse mutant "nude" has been studied by means of auto-radiography and scintillation counting to evaluate the localization of B lymphocytes with varying life-span. The vast majority...... was not seen in the lymph nodes. While the lymphocytes in the spleen were evenly distributed according to life-span, the paracortical lymphocytes in lymph nodes were found to have a generally shorter life-span than those of the cortex, in opposition to findings in normal mice. The cortical cells which were...... by far the most numerous in the lymph nodes seemed to be more sessile than para-cortical lymphocytes. The life-span of these latter cells are comparable to those of thoracic duct lymphocytes, and the scarcity of cells in the paracortex reflects the small number of recirculating lymphocytes in nude mice....

  10. A Rare Case of Primary Breast Mucosa- Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

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    Marić Daliborka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by lymphoma is uncommon and poses challenges in diagnosis. Breast involvement by malignant lymphoma, whether primary or secondary, is a rare event. Primary breast lymphomas account for 0.38% - 0.7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 1.7%-2.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and only 0.04% - 0.5% of all breast cancer cases. Most frequent primary breast lymphomas are diffuse large B cell lymphomas (53%. Breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas account for a small fraction of all the MALT lymphomas (1% - 2%. Herein we report a case of a patient with primary breast MALT lymphoma and its presentation on different imaging modalities. Two years after the presentation and treatment with eight cycles of chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well, without evidence of residual disease or recurrence.

  11. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the lacrimal gland--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproudis, Ioannis; Gorezis, Spiridon; Charonis, Georgios C; Tolis, Christos; Tsanou, Elena; Elena, Tsanou; Agnantis, Niki J

    2005-01-01

    MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa, an indolent B-cell lymphoma, rarely affects the lacrimal gland. The case of a 73-year-old man with ptosis and edema of the left upper eyelid, due to lacrimal gland swelling, is presented. Clinical evaluation and imaging examination led to excision biopsy. The mass histopathology, presenting organized lymphoid tissue, composed mainly of small B-cells, accompanied by immunophenotypic characteristics, was compatible with MALT lymphoma. Treatment with monoclonal antibody against CD-20 achieved a successful long-term disease control (4 years). The diagnostic approach is described and the pathological features and clinical signs of this rare entity are discussed, based on recent literature. The indolent clinical course of this lymphoma, either remaining localized or disseminating to other mucosal sites, is a distinct characteristic affecting prognosis.

  12. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  13. PRDM1 expression on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissues of Warthin tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhou, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Fan, L; Zhu, J; Xu, X; Huang, G; Li, X; Xun, W

    2015-05-01

    To determine the role of PRDM1, a key molecule for modulating the immune cells, in Warthin tumour (WT) pathogenesis. Forty paraffin-embedded parotid tissues of patients (mean age: 62.08 ± 11.90) with WT were retrieved from the pathology archives of Qindu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2012. The PRDM1 expression was investigated in a cohort of WT by immunohistochemistry. PRDM1 was expressed only on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissue of the tumour. Statistically, PRDM1 expression rates between WT glandular epithelial cells (40/40 cases) and the tumour-adjacent tissues (0/9 cases), and WT germinal centres (0/34 cases) and tonsil tissues (10/10 cases) were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The PRDM1 expression appeared to play an essential role in WT pathogenesis. A better understanding of it might give options for revealing possible novel management strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Transmission routes of HIV-1 gp120 from brain to lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, M F; Banks, W A; Bost, K L; Kastin, A J

    1999-03-20

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of antiviral agents into the CNS thereby facilitating the creation of a reservoir of HIV that could potentially reinfect peripheral tissues. We characterized the efflux from brain of radioactively labeled viral coat HIV-1 gp120 (I-gp120) after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. The half-time disappearance rate of I-gp120 from brain was 12.6 min, which was faster than could be explained by the reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid into blood but could not be explained by a saturable transporter. After i.c.v. injection, I-gp120 appeared in the serum and was sequestered by spleen and the cervical nodes, demonstrating a potential for virus within the CNS to reinfect peripheral tissues. However, the amount of I-gp120 appearing in serum was less than that expected based on the efflux rate, whereas uptake by the cervical nodes was much greater after i. c.v. than after i.v. injection of I-gp120. These findings were explained by drainage from the brain directly to the cervical lymph nodes through the brain's primitive lymphatic system. These lymphatics potentially provide a pathway through which CNS reservoirs of HIV-1 could directly reinfect lymphoid tissue without being exposed to circulating antiviral agents. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Vancomycin pre-treatment impairs tissue healing in experimental colitis: Importance of innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Cai, Chenwen; Zheng, Qing; Jin, Shuang; Song, Dongjuan; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhihua

    2017-01-29

    The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage. This study aimed to investigate whether antibiotics could interfere with ILCs-dependent tissue repair. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was established in mice pre-treated with reagent of different antibiotic spectrum. Both morphological and molecular markers of tissue repair after DSS cessation were detected. ILCs population and function status were also recorded. Further attention was paid to the response of dendritic cells after antibiotics treatment, which were claimed to regulate colonic ILC3s in an IL-23 dependent way. Using of vancomycin resulted in delayed tissue repairing after experimental colitis. Both colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 axis and ILC3 population were found decreased in this situation. Vancomycin treatment diminished the upstream IL-23 and producer dendritic cell population. The reduced dendritic cell number may due to inadequate chemokines and colony-stimulating factors supply. Presence of vancomycin-sensitive microbiota is required for the maturation of ILC3-activating dendritic cells hence maintain the sufficient IL-22/pSTAT3 level in the colon during tissue healing. Manipulation of colonic microbiota may help achieve colonic mucosal healing post inflammation and injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Expression of BAFF-R and TACI in reactive lymphoid tissues and B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiriko; Maeda, Kunihiko; Tajima, Katsushi; Kato, Takeo; Kobata, Tetsuji; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2009-01-01

    The receptor for B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF-R) and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) have been established as binding molecules to BAFF. The aim of this study was to determine the pathological diagnostic roles and clinical significance of these BAFF-binding receptors in B-cell neoplasms. Expression of BAFF-R and TACI was examined immunohistochemically in reactive lymphoid tissues and B-cell lymphomas including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) and plasma cell myeloma (PCM). In reactive tissues BAFF-R was expressed exclusively in the cells of the mantle zone and within the germinal centres (GCs), whereas TACI appeared positive in the scattered cells in extrafollicular areas. There were variable patterns of expression of BAFF-R and TACI amongst the different types of B-cell lymphomas (MCL and FL: BAFF-R+TACI-; PCM: BAFF-R-TACI+; DLBCL and MZBCL: variable expression). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies supported these results. The overall survival of the BAFF-R+ DLBCL group was significantly better than that of the BAFF-R- group. These results indicate that the assessment of expression of BAFF-binding receptors aids subclassification and prognostication of DLBCL.

  17. Pairing experimentation and computational modelling to understand the role of tissue inducer cells in the development of lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran eAlden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of genetic tools, imaging technologies and ex vivo culture systems has provided significant insights into the role of tissue inducer cells and associated signalling pathways in the formation and function of lymphoid organs. Despite advances in experimental technologies, the molecular and cellular process orchestrating the formation of a complex 3-dimensional tissue is difficult to dissect using current approaches. Therefore, a robust set of simulation tools have been developed to model the processes involved in lymphoid tissue development. Specifically the role of different tissue inducer cell populations in the dynamic formation of Peyer's Patches has been examined. Utilising approaches from critical systems engineering an unbiased model of lymphoid tissue inducer cell function has been developed, that permits the development of emerging behaviours that are statistically not different from that observed in vivo. These results provide the confidence to utilise statistical methods to explore how the simulator predicts cellular behaviour and outcomes under different physiological conditions. Such methods, known as sensitivity analysis techniques, can provide insight into when a component part of the system (such as a particular cell type, adhesion molecule, or chemokine begins to have an influence on observed behaviour, and quantifies the effect a component part has on the end result: the formation of lymphoid tissue. Through use of such a principled approach in the design, calibration, and analysis of a computer simulation, a robust in silico tool can be developed which can both further the understanding of a biological system being explored, and act as a tool for the generation of hypotheses which can be tested utilising experimental approaches.

  18. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  19. Immune suppression of human lymphoid tissues and cells in rotating suspension culture and onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Wendy; Chen, Silvia; Walz, Carl; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Margolis, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    The immune responses of human lymphoid tissue explants or cells isolated from this tissue were studied quantitatively under normal gravity and microgravity. Microgravity was either modeled by solid body suspension in a rotating, oxygenated culture vessel or was actually achieved on the International Space Station (ISS). Our experiments demonstrate that tissues or cells challenged by recall antigen or by polyclonal activator in modeled microgravity lose all their ability to produce antibodies and cytokines and to increase their metabolic activity. In contrast, if the cells were challenged before being exposed to modeled microgravity suspension culture, they maintained their responses. Similarly, in microgravity in the ISS, lymphoid cells did not respond to antigenic or polyclonal challenge, whereas cells challenged prior to the space flight maintained their antibody and cytokine responses in space. Thus, immune activation of cells of lymphoid tissue is severely blunted both in modeled and true microgravity. This suggests that suspension culture via solid body rotation is sufficient to induce the changes in cellular physiology seen in true microgravity. This phenomenon may reflect immune dysfunction observed in astronauts during space flights. If so, the ex vivo system described above can be used to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction. PMID:19609626

  20. T lymphocyte numbers in human gut associated lymphoid tissue are reduced without enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Chikara; Shinto, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Nagayoshi, Hidetoshi; Hiraide, Hoshio; Mochizuki, Hidetaka

    2005-01-01

    Clinically, in the absence of enteral nutrition, the morbidity of infectious complication is high. Although experiments using mice have shown alterations in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) to be an important mechanism underlying impaired host defense, there are no clinical studies on the effects of nutritional routes on GALT. A total of 27 colon cancer cases who underwent right colectomy or hemicolectomy were reviewed. Six patients did not receive enteral nutrition for 4 to 28 days before surgery because of bowel obstruction (parenteral nutrition [PNI group). Twenty-one patients were enterally fed before surgery (enteral nutrition [EN] group). The terminal ileum from resected specimens was examined microscopically. T-cell numbers in intraepithelial spaces (IE) and the lamina propria (LP) were determined immunohistochemically in blinded fashion. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. T-cell number in the LP was significantly lower in the PN group than in the EN group, with no difference in IE cell numbers. Lack of enteral delivery of nutrients reduces GALT cell number in patients with colon cancer, as is the case in mice.

  1. The neurotrophic receptor Ntrk2 directs lymphoid tissue neovascularization during Leishmania donovani infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Dalton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (Ntrk2, also known as TrkB and its ligands brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, neurotrophin-4 (NT-4/5, and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 are known primarily for their multiple effects on neuronal differentiation and survival. Here, we provide evidence that Ntrk2 plays a role in the pathologic remodeling of the spleen that accompanies chronic infection. We show that in Leishmania donovani-infected mice, Ntrk2 is aberrantly expressed on splenic endothelial cells and that new maturing blood vessels within the white pulp are intimately associated with F4/80(hiCD11b(loCD11c(+ macrophages that express Bdnf and NT-4/5 and have pro-angiogenic potential in vitro. Furthermore, administration of the small molecule Ntrk2 antagonist ANA-12 to infected mice significantly inhibited white pulp neovascularization but had no effect on red pulp vascular remodeling. We believe this to be the first evidence of the Ntrk2/neurotrophin pathway driving pathogen-induced vascular remodeling in lymphoid tissue. These studies highlight the therapeutic potential of modulating this pathway to inhibit pathological angiogenesis.

  2. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  3. Bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma presenting as chronic lung sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeritzauer, Anne Ingrid; Venkatraman, Laskshmi; Manus, Kieran Mc; Kettle, Paul; Sah, Shatrugan; Elborn, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred from her general practitioner to the respiratory clinic with a 2 year history of recurrent pulmonary infections, mucus hypersecretion and right lobe consolidation following a severe pneumonic illness in 2006. She had no significant risk factors for respiratory disease. Chest computed tomography showed an air bronchogram and right lower lobe consolidation. On initial routine investigation IgA and IgG were normal; however, a discrete IgM paraprotein band in the mid gamma region was seen on serum electrophoresis. She was referred for haematological investigations. Bone marrow biopsy was positive for monoclonal lymphoplasmocytoid B cells and the patient was diagnosed with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Due to recurrent infections and an unclear diagnosis of the lung process, a right lower lobectomy and wedge resection of the middle lobe was performed. This showed bronchial associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in the marginal zone. She has been well since surgery with no further respiratory infections.

  4. Characterization of NCR1+ cells residing in lymphoid tissues in the gut of lambs indicates that the majority are NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important for immune protection of the gut mucosa. Previous studies have shown that under pathologic conditions NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells are found co-localised in secondary lymphoid organs where their interaction coordinates immune responses. However, in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), there are few detailed reports on the distribution of NK cells. Sheep harbour several types of organised lymphoid tissues in the gut that have different functions. The ileal Peyer’s patch (IPP) functions as a primary lymphoid tissue for B cell generation, while the jejunal Peyer’s patches (JPPs) and colon patches (CPs) are considered secondary lymphoid tissues. In the present study, we analysed tissues from healthy lambs by flow cytometry and in situ multicolour immunofluorescence, using recently described NCR1 antibodies to identify ovine NK cells. Most NCR1+ cells isolated from all tissues were negative for the pan T cell marker CD3, and thus comply with the general definition of NK cells. The majority of NCR1+ cells in blood as well as secondary lymphoid organs expressed CD16, but in the GALT around half of the NCR1+ cells were negative for CD16. A semi-quantitative morphometric study on tissue sections was used to compare the density of NK cells in four compartments of the IPPs, JPP and CPs. NCR1+ cells were found in all gut segments. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between compartments of the primary lymphoid organ IPP and the secondary lymphoid organs of the JPPs and CP. NK cells co-localised and made close contact with T cells, dendritic cells and other NK cells, but did not show signs of proliferation. We conclude that NK cells are present in all investigated segments of the sheep gut, but that presence of other innate lymphoid cells expressing NCR1 cannot be excluded. PMID:24219350

  5. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  6. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

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    Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  7. Antibody response to polyomavirus primary infection: high seroprevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus and lymphoid tissue involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zanotta, Nunzia; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Maestri, Iva; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Villani, Sonia; Comar, Manola; Delbue, Serena

    2018-01-12

    Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) asymptomatically infect the human population establishing latency in the host, and their seroprevalence can reach 90% in healthy adults. Few studies have focused on the pediatric population, and there are no reports regarding the seroprevalence of all the newly isolated HPyVs among Italian children. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of serum antibodies against 12 PyVs in 182 immunocompetent children from Northeast Italy, by means of a multiplex antibody detection system. Additionally, secondary lymphoid tissues were collected to analyze the presence of HPyV DNA sequences using a specific real-time PCRs or PCRs. Almost 100% of subjects were seropositive for at least one PyV. Seropositivity ranged from 3% for antibodies against simian virus 40 (SV40) in children from 0 to 3 years, to 91% for antibodies against WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) and HPyV10 in children from 8 to 17 years. The mean number of PyV for which children were seropositive increased with the increasing of age: 4 standard deviations (SD) 1.8 in the 0-3-year group, 5 (SD 1.9) in the 4-7-year group, and 6 (SD 2.2) in the 8-17-year group. JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) DNA was detected in 1% of the adenoids, WUPyV in 12% of the tonsils, and 28% of the adenoids, and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was present in 6 and 2% of the tonsils and adenoids, respectively. Our study gives new insights on the serological evidence of exposure to PyVs during childhood, and on their possible respiratory route of transmission.

  8. Exogenous interleukin 7 affects gut-associated lymphoid tissue in mice receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Omata, Jiro; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Ikezawa, Fumie; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Hiraide, Hoshio

    2005-12-01

    In the absence of enteral nutrient delivery, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass and function are reduced. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exogenous interleukin (IL)-7 treatment reverses intravenous (IV)-total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced changes in GALT, immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels, and gut barrier function. Eighty-nine mice were randomized to chow, TPN, or TPN + IL-7 (1 microg/kg, administered IV twice a day) and treated for 5 days. The entire small intestine was harvested and lymphocytes were isolated from Peyer's patches (PPs), intraepithelial (IE) spaces, and the lamina propria (LP). Small intestinal and bronchoalveolar IgA levels were measured. Proximal and distal small intestinal levels of IgA-stimulating (IL-10) and IgA-inhibiting (IFNgamma) cytokines were determined with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. Moreover, 1 x 10 live Pseudomonas aeruginosa were delivered by gavage and survival was observed. TPN decreased total cell yields from PPs, IE spaces, and the LP compared with the chow group. IL-7 treatment restored cell numbers. PP CD4+, PP CD8+, IE gammadeltaTCR+, and LP CD4+ cell numbers were higher in the TPN + IL-7 group than in the TPN group. Secretory IgA levels were lower in the TPN and TPN + IL-7 than in the chow group. In the distal small intestine, IFNgamma levels were similar in the three groups, whereas IL-10 levels were reduced in the TPN and TPN + IL-7 groups relative to the chow group. Survival times were reduced in the TPN compared with the chow group, but IL-7 treatment significantly improved survival. Thus, exogenous IL-7 does not improve secretory IgA levels, nor are there any remarkable effects on levels of gut IgA-mediating cytokines. However, IL-7 treatment during TPN reverses TPN-induced GALT atrophy and improves survival in a gut-derived sepsis model.

  9. Role of murine intestinal interleukin-1 receptor 1-expressing lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells in Salmonella infection.

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    Vincent L Chen

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-1 signaling plays a critical role in intestinal immunology. Here, we report that the major population of intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes expressing IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1 is the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi-like cell, a type of innate lymphoid cell. These cells are significant producers of IL-22, and this IL-22 production depends on IL-1R1 signaling. LTi-like cells are required for defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Moreover, colonic LTi-like cell numbers depend on the presence of the intestinal microbiota. LTi-like cells require IL-1R1 for production of protective cytokines and confer protection in infectious colitis, and their cell numbers in the colon depend upon having a microbiome.

  10. Common variable immunodeficiency in horses is characterized by B cell depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Salles-Gomes, Cristina O M; Matychak, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in horse patients is characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia or depletion, hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, impaired humoral response to tetanus toxoid vaccination, and recurrent fevers and bacterial infections. This study describes the clinical and immunologic findings of 14 affected horses (average age 10.7 +/- 4.4 years) of both genders (six females, eight males) and different breeds (eight Thoroughbreds, four Quarter Horses, one Warmblood, one Pony). Serial immunological testing in peripheral blood revealed persistent, severe B cell lymphopenia (mean 1.3 +/- 2.3% positive cells) in all patients. Serum IgG (range horses. Serum IgA concentrations declined with time. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed absence of lymphoid follicles and B cells in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. CVID is a cause of recurrent pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in adult horses and has a grave prognosis for clinical management and survival.

  11. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues.

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    Yen-Rei A Yu

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC, and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions.

  12. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; O’Koren, Emily G.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Kan, Matthew J.; Kopin, David; Nelson, Erik R.; Que, Loretta; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC), and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions. PMID:26938654

  13. Combined analysis of primary lymphoid tissues' transcriptomic response to extra-intestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan; Bi, Ran; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), an extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), constitutes an animal health and a potential zoonotic risk. Most studies focus on the response of a single tissue to APEC infection. Understanding interactions among lymphoid tissues is of importance in controlling APEC infection. Therefore, we studied bone marrow, bursa, and thymus transcriptomes because of these tissues' crucial roles in development of pre-lymphocytes, B cells, and T cells, respectively. Using lesion scores of liver, pericardium, and air sacs, infected birds were classified as either resistant or susceptible. Little difference in gene expression was detected in resistant birds in bone marrow versus bursa or thymus, while there were large differences between tissues in susceptible birds. Phagosome, lysosome and cytokine interactions were strongly enhanced in thymus versus bone marrow in susceptible birds, and T cell receptor (TCR), cell cycle, and p53 signaling were significantly decreased. B cell receptor (BCR) was also significantly suppressed in bursa versus bone marrow in susceptible birds. This research provides novel insights into the complex developmental changes in gene expression occurring across the primary lymphoid organs and, therefore, serves as a foundation to understanding the cellular and molecular basis of host resistance to APEC infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of

  15. An unusual presentation of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikram Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma is a relatively rare disease; nevertheless, it is the third most common lymphoma type, accounting for 5–7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Case series and retrospective analysis published in the literature have suggested that extra gastrointestinal (GI MALT-type lymphoma can occur simultaneously with MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI tract. We report the case of a healthy, 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with progressive fatigue, non-productive cough, and worsening exertional shortness of breath for 3 months who was subsequently diagnosed with gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or MALToma with simultaneous metastasis to the lung (bronchi based on biopsy reports. Case presentation: A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency room complaining of progressive fatigue for 3 months which had progressed to the point of hindering his usual activities of daily living (ADL. He had recently visited his primary care provider for evaluation of a non-productive cough and exertional shortness of breath. A chest radiography obtained at the time showed bilateral infiltrates. He was then treated for atypical pneumonia but his symptoms unfortunately did not improve. Initial investigations in the emergency room revealed severe anemia and a positive stool guaiac test. Imaging showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and an irregular gastric mass. Gastric and transbronchial biopsies were suggestive of extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with simultaneous metastasis to the bronchi. He was treated symptomatically with transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC and intravenous iron followed by radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori infection was ruled out eliminating the possibility of treating him with eradication therapy. Conclusion: Although the stomach is the most common and most extensively studied site of involvement of MALT lymphomas, they can also emerge in many other

  16. Inflammation and ectopic lymphoid structures in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues dissected by genomics technology - Identification of the interleukin-7 signaling pathway in tissues with lymphoid neogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Trieneke C. G.; Baltus, Belinda; Vondenhoff, Mark; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Verweij, Cornelis L.; Mebius, Reina E.; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    In similar to 25% of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, infiltrates of T cells, B cells, and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are spatially organized into structures resembling lymph nodes with germinal centers. The remainder of the tissues lack FDCs and show either a diffuse

  17. Lack of prion accumulation in lymphoid tissues of PRNP ARQ/ARR sheep intracranially inoculated with the agent of scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Justin J; Kunkle, Robert A; Richt, Jürgen A; Nicholson, Eric M; Hamir, Amir N

    2014-01-01

    Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that can be transmitted horizontally. The prion protein gene (PRNP) profoundly influences the susceptibility of sheep to the scrapie agent and the tissue levels and distribution of PrPSc in affected sheep. The purpose of this study was to compare the survival time and PrPSc tissue distribution in sheep with highly resistant and highly susceptible PRNP genotypes after intracranial inoculation of the agent of scrapie. Five sheep each of genotype VRQ/VRQ, VRQ/ARR or ARQ/ARR were inoculated. Sheep were euthanized when clinical signs of scrapie became severe. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and western blot profiles were uniform across genotypes and consistent with manifestations of classical scrapie. Mean survival time differences were associated with the 171 polymorphic site with VRQ/VRQ sheep surviving 18 months, whereas VRQ/ARR and ARQ/ARR sheep survived 60 and 56 months, respectively. Labeling of PrPSc by immunohistochemistry revealed similar accumulations in central nervous system tissues regardless of host genotype. Immunoreactivity for PrPSc in lymphoid tissue was consistently abundant in VRQ/VRQ, present but confined to tonsil or retropharyngeal lymph node in 4/5 VRQ/ARR, and totally absent in ARQ/ARR sheep. The results of this study demonstrate the susceptibility of sheep with the ARQ/ARR genotype to scrapie by the intracranial inoculation route with PrPSc accumulation in CNS tissues, but prolonged incubation times and lack of PrPSc in lymphoid tissue.

  18. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T

    2012-08-30

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.

  19. CCR6/CCR10-mediated plasmacytoid dendritic cell recruitment to inflamed epithelia after instruction in lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisirak, Vanja; Vey, Nelly; Vanbervliet, Béatrice; Duhen, Thomas; Puisieux, Isabelle; Homey, Bernhard; Bowman, Edward P; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubois, Bertrand; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Lira, Sergio A; Puisieux, Alain; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie

    2011-11-10

    Absent in peripheral tissues during homeostasis, human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are described in inflamed skin or mucosa. Here, we report that, unlike blood pDCs, a subset of tonsil pDCs express functional CCR6 and CCR10, and their respective ligands CCL20 and CCL27are detected in inflamed epithelia contacting blood dendritic cell antigen 2(+) pDCs. Moreover, pDCs are recruited to imiquimod-treated skin tumors in WT but not CCR6-deficient mice, and competitive adoptive transfers reveal that CCR6-deficient pDCs are impaired in homing to inflamed skin tumors after intravenous transfer. On IL-3 culture, CCR6 and CCR10 expression is induced on human blood pDCs that become responsive to CCL20 and CCL27/CCL28, respectively. Interestingly, unlike myeloid DC, blood pDCs initially up-regulate CCR7 expression and CCL19 responsiveness on IL-3 ± CpG-B and then acquire functional CCR6 and CCR10. Finally, IL-3-differentiated CCR6(+) CCR10(+) pDCs secrete high levels of IFN-α in response to virus. Overall, we propose an unexpected pDCs migratory model that may best apply for mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. After CCR7-mediated extravasation into lymphoid tissues draining inflamed epithelia, blood pDCs may be instructed to up-regulate CCR6 and/or CCR10 allowing their homing into inflamed epithelia (in mucosae or skin). At this site, pDCs can then produce IFN-α contributing to pathogen clearance and/or local inflammation.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cross-Tissue Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Secondary Lymphoid Organ-Residing ILC3s Reveals a Quiescent State in the Absence of Inflammation

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    Yotam E. Bar-Ephraim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of human and mouse group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s reside in secondary lymphoid organs, yet the phenotype and function of these ILC3s is incompletely understood. Here, we employed an unbiased cross-tissue transcriptomic approach to compare human ILC3s from non-inflamed lymph nodes and spleen to their phenotypic counterparts in inflamed tonsils and from circulation. These analyses revealed that, in the absence of inflammation, lymphoid organ-residing ILC3s lack transcription of cytokines associated with classical ILC3 functions. This was independent of expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. However, and in contrast to ILC3s from peripheral blood, lymphoid organ-residing ILC3s express activating cytokine receptors and have acquired the ability to be recruited into immune responses by inflammatory cytokines. This comprehensive cross-tissue dataset will allow for identification of functional changes in human lymphoid organ ILC3s associated with human disease.

  2. Epithelial-stromal interaction via Notch signaling is essential for the full maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Yuuki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Nakato, Gaku; Iizuka, Keito; Miyagawa, Yurika; Nakamura, Yutaka; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Sugiyama, Machiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsic Notch signaling in intestinal epithelial cells restricts secretory cell differentiation. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly express the Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1). Here, we show that mice lacking Rbpj-a gene encoding a transcription factor implicated in Notch signaling-in intestinal epithelial cells have defective GALT maturation. This defect can be attributed to the expansion of goblet cells, which leads to the down-regulation of CCL20 in FAE. These data demonstrate that epithelial Notch signaling maintained by stromal cells contributes to the full maturation of GALT by restricting secretory cell differentiation in FAE. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within a solitary anti-mesenteric dilated segment of ileum: a case report

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    Storey Rowland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype. Clinical presentation is often insidious as a low-grade lesion and disease tends to remain localised for a long period of time. Ileal involvement is rare and presentation within an area of focal anti-mesenteric ileal wall dilation simulating a large diverticulum has not been reported. Case presentation A 59-year-old man of Caucasian origin presented to a general surgical outpatients clinic with an 18-month history of intermittent upper abdominal pain following meals. Following normal gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound, a focally dilated segment of ileum was seen on computed tomography and further clarified by barium investigation. Histology of this segment demonstrated MALT lymphoma of the small bowel. Conclusion A solitary focally dilated segment of ileal wall may be neoplastic in nature and surgical resection needs to be considered.

  4. Early biodistribution and persistence of a protective live attenuated SIV vaccine elicits localised innate responses in multiple lymphoid tissues.

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    Deborah Ferguson

    Full Text Available Vaccination of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques with the attenuated nef-truncated C8 variant of SIVmac251/32H (SIVmacC8 induces early, potent protection against pathogenic, heterologous challenge before the maturation of cognate immunity. To identify processes that contribute to early protection in this model the pathogenesis, anatomical distribution and viral vaccine kinetics were determined in relation to localised innate responses triggered by vaccination. The early biodistribution of SIVmacC8 was defined by rapid, widespread dissemination amongst multiple lymphoid tissues, detectable after 3 days. Cell-associated viral RNA dynamics identified mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and spleen, as well as the gut mucosae, as early major contributors of systemic virus burden. Rapid, localised infection was populated by discrete foci of persisting virus-infected cells. Localised productive infection triggered a broad innate response, with type-1 interferon sensitive IRF-7, STAT-1, TRIM5α and ApoBEC3G genes all upregulated during the acute phase but induction did not prevent viral persistence. Profound changes in vaccine-induced cell-surface markers of immune activation were detected on macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells (DC-SIGN, S-100, CD40, CD11c, CD123 and CD86. Notably, high DC-SIGN and S100 staining for follicular and interdigitating DCs respectively, in MLN and spleen were detected by 3 days, persisting 20 weeks post-vaccination. Although not formally evaluated, the early biodistribution of SIVmacC8 simultaneously targets multiple lymphoid tissues to induce strong innate immune responses coincident at the same sites critical for early protection from wild-type viruses. HIV vaccines which stimulate appropriate innate, as well as adaptive responses, akin to those generated by live attenuated SIV vaccines, may prove the most efficacious.

  5. CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT of the lung

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    Terada Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT of the lung is very rare. An 82-year-old Japanese woman was found to have an abnormal lung shadow on chest X-ray photography, and was admitted to our hospital. Imaging modalities including X-ray photography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small (2 × 1 × 1 cm opacity of the right upper lobe. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed. It showed severe proliferation of small lymphocytes. The small lymphocytes were centrocytes-like, and minor plasma cell differentiation was recognized. Lymphoepithelial lesions were scattered. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD5, CD20, CD43, CD45, CD79α, bcl-2, and κ-chain, but negative for CD2, CD3, CD10, CD21, CD23, CD35, CD45RO, CD56, IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, λ-chain, TdT, and cyclin D1. The Ki-67 labeling was 10%. CD3-positive and CD45RO-positive inflammatory T-cells were scattered in small amount. The pathological diagnosis was CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT of the lung. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (CHOP: cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorbicin, vincristine, and predonisone, and the lung tumor disappeared. The patient is now free of the lymphoma 10 years after the first manifestation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1541653085652296

  6. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  7. Human fetal lymphoid tissue-inducer cells are interleukin 17-producing precursors to RORC(+) CD127(+) natural killer-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupedo, Tom; Crellin, Natasha K.; Papazian, Natalie; Rombouts, Elwin J.; Weijer, Kees; Grogan, Jane L.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Spits, Hergen

    2009-01-01

    The human body contains over 500 individual lymph nodes, yet the biology of their formation is poorly understood. Here we identify human lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi cells) as lineage-negative RORC(+) CD127(+) cells with the functional ability to interact with mesenchymal cells through

  8. CSF1R Protein Expression in Reactive Lymphoid Tissues and Lymphoma: Its Relevance in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Moreno, Ana M; Roncador, Giovanna; Maestre, Lorena; Mata, Elena; Jiménez, Scherezade; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Reyes-García, Ana I; Rubio, Carmen; Tomás, José F; Estévez, Mónica; Pulford, Karen; Piris, Miguel A; García, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been associated with survival in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and other lymphoma types. The maturation and differentiation of tissue macrophages depends upon interactions between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) and its ligands. There remains, however, a lack of consistent information on CSF1R expression in TAMs. A new monoclonal antibody, FER216, was generated to investigate CSF1R protein distribution in formalin fixed tissue samples from 24 reactive lymphoid tissues and 187 different lymphoma types. We also analysed the distribution of CSF1R+, CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages by double immunostaining, and studied the relationship between CSF1R expression and survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R+ TAMs were less frequent in B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and cHL. HRS cells in cHL and, with the exception of three cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the neoplastic cells in NHLs, lacked detectable CSF1R protein. A CSF1R+ enriched microenvironment in cHL was associated with shorter survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R pathway activation was evident in the cHL and inactivation of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in cHL cases.

  9. The aged lymphoid tissue environment fails to support naïve T cell homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklund, Bryan R.; Purton, Jared F.; Ramsey, Chris; Favre, Stéphanie; Vogt, Tobias K.; Martin, Christopher E.; Spasova, Darina S.; Sarkisyan, Gor; LeRoy, Eric; Tan, Joyce T.; Wahlus, Heidi; Bondi-Boyd, Brea; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Surh, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of naïve T cells and a reciprocal increase in the proportion of memory T cells. While reduced thymic output is important, age-dependent changes in factors supporting naïve T cells homeostasis may also be involved. Indeed, we noted a dramatic decrease in the ability of aged mice to support survival and homeostatic proliferation of naïve T cells. The defect was not due to a reduction in IL-7 expression, but from a combination of changes in the secondary lymphoid environment that impaired naïve T cell entry and access to key survival factors. We observed an age-related shift in the expression of homing chemokines and structural deterioration of the stromal network in T cell zones. Treatment with IL-7/mAb complexes can restore naïve T cell homeostatic proliferation in aged mice. Our data suggests that homeostatic mechanisms that support the naïve T cell pool deteriorate with age. PMID:27480406

  10. IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells are restricted to mucosal tissues and are depleted in SIV-infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Liu, David X.; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging subset of lymphocytes involved in surveillance against virally infected cells. Here we show CD3−CD8high lymphocytes in macaque blood include major subsets of ILCs including NK cells expressing CD16, NKp46 and NKG2A, but also populations of ILCs in mucosal tissues having different properties. One ILC subset secreted IL-17 (ILC17), but these were restricted to mucosal tissues. Some mucosal ILC17 cells expressed classical NK-cell markers, but little NKG2A or NKG2D. Some ILC17 cells secreted IL-22 and TNF-α, but few produced IFN-γ or contained granzyme B. IL-17 production by ILCs was induced by IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23. Further, SIV infection resulted in a significant loss of ILC17 cells, especially in the jejunum, which persisted throughout SIV infection. These findings ILC17 cells may be involved in innate mucosal immune responses, and their loss may contribute to loss of intestinal mucosal integrity and disease progression in HIV/SIV infection. PMID:22669579

  11. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and olfactory epithelium as portals of entry for Burkholderia pseudomallei in murine melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzzanne J; Batzloff, Michael; Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Meedeniya, Adrian; Casart, Yveth; Logue, Carie-Anne; Hirst, Robert G; Peak, Ian R; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R

    2009-06-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is generally considered to be acquired via inhalation of dust or water droplets from the environment. In this study, we show that infection of the nasal mucosa is potentially an important portal of entry in melioidosis. After intranasal inoculation of mice, infection was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and by immunohistological analysis of coronal sections. The bacterial loads in organ and tissue specimens were also monitored. Bioluminescence imaging showed colonization and replication in the nasal cavity, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Analysis of coronal sections and immunofluorescence microscopy further demonstrated the presence of infection in the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory epithelium (including associated nerve bundles), as well as in the NALT. Of significance, the olfactory epithelium and the brain were rapidly infected before bacteria were detected in blood, and a capsule-deficient mutant infected the brain without significantly infecting blood. These data suggest that the olfactory nerve is the route of entry into the brain and that this route of entry may be paralleled in cases of human neurologic melioidosis. This study focuses attention on the upper respiratory tract as a portal of entry, specifically focusing on NALT as a route for the development of systemic infection via the bloodstream and on the olfactory epithelium as a direct route to the brain.

  12. Epithelial Control of Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Formation through p38α-Dependent Restraint of NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Franco, Celia; Guma, Monica; Choo, Min-Kyung; Sano, Yasuyo; Enzler, Thomas; Karin, Michael; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Park, Jin Mo

    2016-03-01

    The protein kinase p38α mediates cellular responses to environmental and endogenous cues that direct tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Studies of mice lacking p38α in several different cell types have demonstrated that p38α signaling is essential to maintaining the proliferation-differentiation balance in developing and steady-state tissues. The mechanisms underlying these roles involve cell-autonomous control of signaling and gene expression by p38α. In this study, we show that p38α regulates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) formation in a noncell-autonomous manner. From an investigation of mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of the p38α gene, we find that p38α serves to limit NF-κB signaling and thereby attenuate GALT-promoting chemokine expression in the intestinal epithelium. Loss of this regulation results in GALT hyperplasia and, in some animals, mucosa-associated B cell lymphoma. These anomalies occur independently of luminal microbial stimuli and are most likely driven by direct epithelial-lymphoid interactions. Our study illustrates a novel p38α-dependent mechanism preventing excessive generation of epithelial-derived signals that drive lymphoid tissue overgrowth and malignancy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Multispectral imaging reveals the tissue distribution of tetraspanins in human lymphoid organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winde, C.M. de; Zuidscherwoude, M.C.; Vasaturo, A.; Schaaf, A. van der; Figdor, C.G.; Spriel, A.B. van

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a novel microscopy technique that combines imaging with spectroscopy to obtain both quantitative expression data and tissue distribution of different cellular markers. Tetraspanins CD37 and CD53 are four-transmembrane proteins involved in cellular and humoral immune

  14. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  15. The value of EUS in predicting the response of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zahabi, Lara M N; Jamali, Faek R; El-Hajj, Ihab I; Naja, Mohammed; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; El-Saghir, Nagi S; Zaatari, Ghazi; Geara, Fady; Soweid, Assaad M

    2007-01-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, and regression of the tumor has been described after its eradication. To determine the value of EUS, in addition to other clinical/endoscopic features, in predicting the response of low-grade MALT lymphoma to H pylori eradication. A retrospective, single-center study. Twenty-two patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma were identified through a retrospective review of charts of patients seen at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Only 19 patients with histopathologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma and H pylori infection who had EUS staging were included in the study. Regression of the gastric MALT lymphoma as determined by follow-up endoscopy and mucosal biopsies. Patients with disease restricted to the gastric mucosa had a significantly higher rate of complete remission after H pylori eradication compared with patients who had disease infiltrating into the gastric submucosa (77.8% vs 12.5%, P value .007). There was no statistical difference in terms of the mean follow-up time to achieve such response (P value .212). Age, sex, location of the tumor within the stomach, and endoscopic appearance did not correlate with the probability of complete remission of the MALT lymphoma. The limitations include a retrospective design and a relatively small sample population. EUS determination of the invasion depth of gastric MALT lymphoma helps predict a complete response to H pylori eradication.

  16. Guards at the gate: physiological and pathological roles of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Jin, Chengyan; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-12-01

    The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity. Upon sensing the danger signals from damaged epithelium, ILCs activate, proliferate, and release numerous cytokines with specific local functions; they also participate in mucosal immune-surveillance, immune-regulation, and homeostasis. However, when their functions become uncontrolled, ILCs can enhance pathological states and induce diseases. In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathological functions of ILC subsets 1 to 3 in the lung, and how the pathogenic environment affects the function and plasticity of ILCs.

  17. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  18. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue......, and the impact of Tregs on immunological reconstitution was determined. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 2 years were included. The study population included 14 immunological nonresponders (INR; CD4 T-cell count ... (CD4 T-cell count 200-500 cells/μL), 30 responders (CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/μL), and 34 healthy controls. Tregs, Treg subpopulations, and intracellular staining for interleukin 10 in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were evaluated using...

  19. Pathology and Virus Distribution in the Lung and Lymphoid Tissues of Pigs Experimentally Inoculated with Three Distinct Type 1 PRRS Virus Isolates of Varying Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S B; Frossard, J P; Pallares, F J; Gough, J; Stadejek, T; Graham, S P; Steinbach, F; Drew, T W; Salguero, F J

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be the most economically important disease of swine worldwide. The appearance of highly pathogenic PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains in Europe and Asia has raised concerns about this disease and initiated increased efforts to understand the pathogenesis. In this study, we have compared the pathology and the virus distribution in tissues of pigs experimentally inoculated with three different genotype 1 PRRSV isolates. Sixty 5-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with a) the Lelystad virus (LV), b) a field strain from the UK causing respiratory clinical signs (UK) or c) a highly pathogenic strain from Belarus (BE). Sixteen animals were mock-infected and used as controls. The animals were euthanized at 3, 7 and 35 days post-infection (dpi), and lung and lymphoid tissues collected for histopathological examination and PRRSV detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Histopathological lesions consisted of interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cell infiltrates in the lungs, lymphoid depletion, apoptosis and follicular hyperplasia in the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsil and lymphoid depletion in the thymus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was detected mainly in monocytes-macrophages. BE-infected animals showed the highest pathological scores and the highest presence of virus at 3 and 7 dpi, followed by the UK field strain and then LV. Moderate lesions were observed at 35 dpi with lesser detection of PRRSV by IHC in each infected group. The highly pathogenic BE strain induced more severe pathology in both lungs and lymphoid organs of pigs compared with the classic field isolate and the prototype LV. The increased severity of pathology was in correlation with the presence of a higher number of PRRSV-infected cells in the tissues. © 2014 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO/Queen‘s Printer for Scotland and Animal and Plant Health Agency.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Maryam; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are an emerging family of effector cells that contribute to lymphoid organogenesis, metabolism, tissue remodelling and protection against infections. They maintain homeostatic immunity at barrier surfaces such as lung, skin and gut (Nature 464:1367?1371, 2010, Nat Rev Immunol 13: 145?149, 2013). Several human and mouse studies suggest a role for innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory skin conditions including atopic eczema and psoriasis. Here we review the innate lymphoid...

  1. [Culture supernatants of lymphocytes from different lymphoid tissues induce transdifferentiation of Caco2 cells into M-like cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Luo, Xia; Zheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Lian; Zhu, Yuanhong; Wu, Xiu

    2015-10-01

    To establish the microfold (M)-like cell model in vitro and identify M-like cells through detecting the capacity of transporting fluorescent beads and the levels of the associated genes, and to observe the effects of lymphocyte culture supernatants stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) from different lymphoid tissues on the differentiation of Caco2 cells into M-like cells. The isolated lymphocytes of Peyer's patch (PP), mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and spleen (Sp) were incubated with 3 μg/mL Con A for 3 days. The culture supernatants were collected and co-cultured with Caco2 cells. The fluorescent bead suspension was added into the upper compartment of the Transwell™ inserts, and then basolateral solutions were then sampled and analyzed. The number of transported fluorescent beads was measured by flow cytometry. The expressions of M-like cells-associated genes, such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), claudin4 (CLDN4), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9), and Spi-B were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Compared with blank control group, the number of fluorescent beads transported by induced Caco2 cells and the levels of CCL20, CLDN4, TNFRSF9 and Spi-B mRNAs significantly increased in induced Caco2 cells treated with the culture supernatants of lymphocytes from PP, MLN and Sp. After Con A stimulation, the number of fluorescent beads transported by induced Caco2 cells and the levels of CCL20, CLDN4, TNFRSF9 and Spi-B mRNAs were higher than those in the unstimulated group. The lymphocyte culture supernatants stimulated or unstimulated by Con A can induce the transdifferentiation of Caco2 cells into M-like cells.

  2. Deficiency in Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Translocation 1: A Novel Cause of IPEX-Like Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Jeverica, Anja K; Bègue, Bernadette; Markelj, Gasper; Parlato, Marianna; Avčin, Simona Lucija; Callebaut, Isabelle; Bras, Marc; Parisot, Mélanie; Jazbec, Janez; Homan, Matjaz; Ihan, Alojz; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Ruemmele, Frank M; Avčin, Tadej; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    Early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases can result from a wide spectrum of rare mendelian disorders. Early molecular diagnosis is crucial in defining treatment and in improving life expectancy. Herein we aimed at defining the mechanism of an immunodeficiency-polyendrocrinopathy and enteropathy-X-linked (IPEX)-like disease combined with a severe immunodeficiency in 2 siblings born from distantly related parents. Whole exome sequencing was performed on blood-extracted genomic DNA from the 2 affected children and their parents on the genomic platform of Institut IMAGINE. Candidate gene mutation was identified using the in-house software PolyWeb and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Protein expression was determined by western blot. Flow cytometry was used to assess consequences of the mutation on lymphocyte phenotype and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation at diagnosis and after treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified a homozygous missense mutation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 gene (MALT1), which precluded protein expression. In keeping with the known function of MALT1, NF-κB-dependent lymphocyte activation was severely impaired. Moreover, there was a drastic reduction in Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) regulatory T cells accounting for the IPEX-like phenotype. Following identification of the mutation, both children received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which permitted full clinical recovery. Immunological workup at 6 and 12 months after transplantation showed normal NF-κB activation and correction of regulatory T cells frequency. Along with FOXP3, interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL2RA), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 precursor (CTLA-4) mutations, MALT1 deficiency should now be considered as a possible cause of IPEX-like syndrome associated with immunodeficiency that can be cured by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  3. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. C-MYC overexpression predicts aggressive transformation and a poor outcome in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenting; Guo, Lei; Liu, Hongyan; Zheng, Bo; Ying, Jianming; Lv, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively common, indolent B-cell lymphoma. MALT lymphoma with large tumor cells (LTCs) is believed to have the potential to transform to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which may have a poor prognosis. C-MYC is a transcription factor. Its translocation and overexpression predicts an inferior prognosis and poor response to therapy in cases of DLBCL. In the current study, C-MYC expression was detected in MALT lymphomas, and its relationship to the occurrence of LTCs, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis was assessed. A total of 69 cases were enrolled in the study, including 42 cases of MALT lymphoma without LTCs, 20 cases of MALT lymphoma with LTCs and 7 cases of DLBCL with a MALT lymphoma component (DLBCL+MALT). Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed. In total, 15/42 (35.7%) cases were nuclear positive for C-MYC expression in the group without LTCs, whereas 15/20 (75.0%) and 4/7 (57.1%) cases were positive in the group with LTCs and in the group with DLBCL+MALT, respectively (P=0.004). Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the correlations of C-MYC expression and clinicopathological parameters with overall survival (OS). C-MYC expression, Ann Arbor stage, LDH level and IPI were considerably associated with OS according to the univariate analysis. However, only C-MYC expression ≥ 20% showed a statistical significance in the multivariate analysis (HR=20.604, 95% CI: 1.909-222.412, P=0.013). Therefore, C-MYC overexpression may play an important role in aggressive transformation and is an independent prognostic factor in MALT lymphoma.

  5. Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Hülya Arslan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

  6. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infects Follicular Helper CD4 T Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Pathogenic Infection of Pigtail Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Weatherall, Chris; Bailey, Michelle; Alcantara, Sheilajen; De Rose, Robert; Estaquier, Jerome; Wilson, Kim; Suzuki, Kazuo; Corbeil, Jacques; Cooper, David A.; Kent, Stephen J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of memory CD4+ T cells that are found exclusively within the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues and are important for adaptive antibody responses and B cell memory. Tfh cells do not express CCR5, the primary entry coreceptor for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and therefore, we hypothesized that these cells would avoid infection. We studied lymph nodes and spleens from pigtail macaques infected with pathogenic strain SIVmac239 or SIVmac251, to investigate the susceptibility of Tfh cells to SIV infection. Pigtail macaque PD-1high CD127low memory CD4+ T cells have a phenotype comparable to that of human Tfh cells, expressing high levels of CXCR5, interleukin-21 (IL-21), Bcl-6, and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). As judged by either proviral DNA or cell-associated viral RNA measurements, macaque Tfh cells were infected with SIV at levels comparable to those in other CD4+ memory T cells. Infection of macaque Tfh cells was evident within weeks of inoculation, yet we confirmed that Tfh cells do not express CCR5 or either of the well-known alternative SIV coreceptors, CXCR6 and GPR15. Mutations in the SIV envelope gp120 region occurred in chronically infected macaques but were uniform across each T cell subset investigated, indicating that the viruses used the same coreceptors to enter different cell subsets. Early infection of Tfh cells represents an unexpected focus of viral infection. Infection of Tfh cells does not interrupt antibody production but may be a factor that limits the quality of antibody responses and has implications for assessing the size of the viral reservoir. PMID:23325697

  7. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys.

  8. A replication analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine lymphoid tissue might indicate a putative carrier stage in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Calvo Teresa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMVD, one of the most contagious viruses of cloven-hoofed animals, may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants, named the "carrier state". However, it remains an open question whether this carrier state occurs in pigs. Here we present quantitative analyses of the duration of FMDV RNA and infectivity in lymphoid and epithelial tissues in experimentally infected pigs with FMDV C-S8c1. The data indicated that although FMDV RNA remained in blood until day 14 post-infection (pi, viremia was cleared by day 7 pi. However, all tissues tested were positive for FMDV until day 14-17 pi. Interestingly, the specific infectivity of FMDV in these tissues was in some cases even higher than the FMDV C-S8c1. We therefore propose that a "pseudopersistent state" may occur in pigs in which virus replicates in lymphoid tissues for a prolonged period of time, thereby representing a potential source of virus.

  9. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anacak, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.anacak@ege.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Miller, Robert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Constantinou, Nikos [Department of Hematology, Theagenion Cancer Center, Thessaloniki (Greece); Mamusa, Angela M. [Division of Hematology, Armando Businco Cancer Center, Cagliari (Italy); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Li Yexiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Calduch, Anna Lucas [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Institut Catala d' Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Kowalczyk, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Weber, Damien C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland); Kadish, Sidney P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School/Center, North Worcester, MA (United States); Bese, Nuran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kamer, Serra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  10. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Hamid A.; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6)...

  11. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles

  13. Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: A Key Tissue Inside the Mucosal Immune System of Hens Immunized with Escherichia coli F4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Peralta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin Y (IgY is the predominant antibody found in hen’s (Gallus domesticus egg yolk. This antibody, developed against several microorganisms in hen egg yolk, has been successfully used as an alternative to immunoglobulins from mammals for use in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli F4 is the main etiological agent associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, and it causes notable economic losses in swine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between humoral immune response and the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in laying hens intramuscularly immunized with E. coli F4. Adult laying Shaver hens were immunized with a bacterin based on an inactivated lysate E. coli F4 strain that was originally isolated from neonatal piglet diarrhea, following a recommended schedule. The percentage of B lymphocytes in blood and spleen homogenates was determined by flow cytometry. Villi histomorphometry and the size of germinal centers (GC activated in GALT and the spleen were measured in histological samples either stained with hematoxylin/eosin or through immunofluorescence. Antibody and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Secretory and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA were measured by ELISA tests. Laying hen with intramuscular immunization with E. coli F4 lysate, activated both mucosal and systemic protection. Mucosal protection was provided through B lymphocytes, and most of them were activated on Peyer’s patches and esophageal tonsils, in GALT. Furthermore, increased B lymphocyte number in the lamina propria of the gut, and increased intraepithelial plasmatic cell number, produced high levels of mucosal IgA. Activated B lymphocytes interacted with absorptive cells, immune cells, and microbiota in the gut, producing signals that were translated into a powerful physical defense by

  14. Increased prevalence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with early multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Modvig, Signe; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokines produced by cells of the immune system are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been shown to produce and secrete a wide range of the cytokines involved in MS pathogenesis; however...... of LTi cells in the CSF, suggesting a favoured recruitment of blood derived LTi cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests a role for ILCs, and in particular the LTi subset, in the early stages of MS. This finding represents an important contribution to the understanding of early inflammation in MS, and adds...

  15. Antagonist of secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (CCR ligand 21) prevents the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Miho; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Kohno, Masashi; Inoue, Atsushi; Ito, Mitsuko R; Fujita, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The use of receptor antagonists for chemokines is an alternative approach to blocking chemokine actions and has the potential to provide novel therapeutics. We determined the receptor antagonist properties of murine N-terminally truncated secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC)/6Ckine/CCR ligand 21 analogs and evaluated the preventive effects of SLC antagonists on chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in a murine model by blocking the homing of donor CCR7-expressing T cells into the recipient's lymphoid organs. SLC analogs truncated >4 aa residues from the N terminus showed a loss of chemotaxis and Ca2+ influx of CCR7-expressing cells and also inhibited SLC-stimulated chemotaxis and SLC-induced Ca2+ influx completely. To determine whether SLC antagonist inhibits the development of chronic GVHD, chronic GVHD was induced by injecting DBA/2 spleen cells into (C57BL/6 x DBA/2) F1 mice. Total numbers of spleen cells and host B cells, serum levels of IgE, and of total IgG and IgG1 of anti-DNA Abs in SLC antagonist-treated GVHD mice were significantly lower than those in control PBS-treated GVHD mice. This was due to a reduction in the levels of activated donor CD4+ T cells and a decrease in IL-4 production, resulting in a reduction in the numbers of activated host B cells. Therefore, our results suggest that SLC antagonist has beneficial effects for the prevention of chronic GVHD.

  16. Deciphering alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression in primary lymphoid tissues of birds infected with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan

    2017-03-07

    Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) can lead to a loss in millions of dollars in poultry annually because of mortality and produce contamination. Studies have verified that many immune-related genes undergo changes in alternative splicing (AS), along with nonsense mediated decay (NMD), to regulate the immune system under different conditions. Therefore, the splicing profiles of primary lymphoid tissues with systemic APEC infection need to be comprehensively examined. Gene expression in RNAseq data were obtained for three different immune tissues (bone marrow, thymus, and bursa) from three phenotype birds (non-challenged, resistant, and susceptible birds) at two time points. Alternative 5' splice sites and exon skipping/inclusion were identified as the major alternative splicing events in avian primary immune organs under systemic APEC infection. In this study, we detected hundreds of differentially-expressed-transcript-containing genes (DETs) between different phenotype birds at 5 days post-infection (dpi). DETs, PSAP and STT3A, with NMD have important functions under systemic APEC infection. DETs, CDC45, CDK1, RAG2, POLR1B, PSAP, and DNASE1L3, from the same transcription start sites (TSS) indicate that cell death, cell cycle, cellular function, and maintenance were predominant in host under systemic APEC. With the use of RNAseq technology and bioinformatics tools, this study provides a portrait of the AS event and NMD in primary lymphoid tissues, which play critical roles in host homeostasis under systemic APEC infection. According to this study, AS plays a pivotal regulatory role in the immune response in chicken under systemic APEC infection via either NMD or alternative TSSs. This study elucidates the regulatory role of AS for the immune complex under systemic APEC infection.

  17. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor-encoding gene V28 is closely related to genes for chemokine receptors and is expressed in lymphoid and neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raport, C J; Schweickart, V L; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Gray, P W

    1995-10-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy with degenerate primers was used to identify novel G-protein-coupled receptor-encoding genes from human genomic DNA. One of the isolated clones, termed V28, showed high sequence similarity to the genes encoding human chemokine receptors for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha)/RANTES, and to the rat orphan receptor-encoding gene RBS11. When RNA was analyzed by Northern blot, V28 was found to be most highly expressed in neural and lymphoid tissues. Myeloid cell lines, particularly THP.1 cells, showed especially high expression of V28. We have mapped V28 to human chromosome 3p21-3pter, near the MIP-1 alpha/RANTES receptor-encoding gene.

  18. Proteomic identification of keratin alterations with enhanced proliferation of oral carcinoma cells by loss of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yukihiro; Ohyama, Yoshito; Chiba, Tadashige; Yagishita, Hisao; Sakashita, Hideaki; Imai, Kazushi

    2013-09-01

    Progression of oral carcinomas associates with aberrant activation and inactivation of molecules that work in established or unknown pathways. Although mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) expressed in normal oral epithelium is inactivated in the aggressive subset of carcinomas with worse prognosis, phenotypic changes of carcinoma cells upon the loss of expression is unknown. We performed a proteomic analysis to identify MALT1‑regulated proteins in oral carcinoma cells. Four different keratins were included in the ten most abundantly changed proteins. K8/18 were upregulated in MALT1 stably‑expressing carcinoma cells and K5/14 in MALT1‑marginal control cells. K8/18 upregulation and K5/14 downregulation were MALT1 dose‑dependent and observed in a series of oral carcinoma cells. MALT1 suppressed cell proliferation (0.52-fold, Poral carcinomas into the advanced state.

  19. Co-occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with long-standing hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Seong Keun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Jung, Woo Jin; Kahng, Dong Hwahn; Kim, In Ju

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common affliction of the thyroid gland, accounting for 70% to 80% of all thyroid cancers, whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. The simultaneous occurrence of both malignancies is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with both PTC and MALT lymphoma in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. An 81-year-old female patient was first admitted with goiter and hoarseness, which was attributed to an ultrasonographic thyroid nodule. Subsequent fine-needle aspirate, interpreted as suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer, prompted total thyroidectomy. MALT lymphoma was an incidental postsurgical finding, coexisting with PTC in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although the development of MALT lymphoma is very rare, patients with longstanding Hashimoto thyroiditis should undergo careful surveillance for both malignancies.

  20. Induction of Th1-Biased T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Defines Functionally Distinct Germinal Center Tfh Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Vijayakumar; Mylvaganam, Geetha Hanna; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Hong, Jung Joo; Iyer, Smita S; Gumber, Sanjeev; Ibegbu, Chris C; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-09-01

    Chronic HIV infection is associated with accumulation of germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the lymphoid tissue. The GC Tfh cells can be heterogeneous based on the expression of chemokine receptors associated with T helper lineages, such as CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), and CCR6 (Th17). However, the heterogeneous nature of GC Tfh cells in the lymphoid tissue and its association with viral persistence and Ab production during chronic SIV/HIV infection are not known. To address this, we characterized the expression of CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6 on GC Tfh cells in lymph nodes following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. In SIV-naive rhesus macaques, only a small fraction of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6. However, during chronic SIV infection, the majority of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, whereas the proportion of CCR4(+) cells did not change, and CCR6(+) cells decreased. CXCR3(+), but not CXCR3(-), GC Tfh cells produced IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) and IL-21 (Tfh cytokine), whereas both subsets expressed CD40L following stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells within the hyperplastic follicles during chronic SIV infection. CXCR3(+) GC Tfh cells also expressed higher levels of ICOS, CCR5, and α4β7 and contained more copies of SIV DNA compared with CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells. However, CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells delivered help to B cells in vitro for production of IgG. These data demonstrate that chronic SIV infection promotes expansion of Th1-biased GC Tfh cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional GC Tfh cells and contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia and viral reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Determinants in HIV-1 Nef for enhancement of virus replication and depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertel Serkan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Nef critically contributes to AIDS in part by augmenting virus titers in infected individuals. Analyzing which of Nef's activities contribute to HIV pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of a cell culture model in which Nef exerts pronounced effects on HIV replication. The human lymphoid aggregate culture (HLAC from tonsil maintains the cell populations and cytokine milieu found in vivo, supports a productive infection without exogenous stimulation, and Nef contributes to efficient HIV-1 replication as well as CD4+ T cell depletion in this experimental ex vivo-model. Results To identify determinants in Nef that mediate these activities, we infected HLAC with a panel of isogenic HIV-1NL4-3 strains that encode for well-characterized mutants of HIV-1SF2 Nef. Determination of HIV-1 replication revealed that enhancement of the virus spread by Nef is governed by a complex set of protein interaction surfaces. In contrast, increased CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion depended on only two protein interaction surfaces in Nef that mediate either downregulation of cell surface CD4 or interaction with the NAKC signalosome. Consistently, in HLAC from 9 out of 14 donors, Nef enhanced CD4+ T cell depletion in the absence of a significant effect on virus replication. Moreover, our results suggest that this Nef-dependent enhancement in depletion occurred predominately in uninfected bystander CD4+ T cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Nef facilitates depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected lymphoid tissue ex vivo by increasing the pool of productively infected cells and by sensitizing bystander cells for killing. This ability might contribute to Nef's pathogenic potential in vivo.

  2. Mouse Models for Assessing the Protective Efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 against Helicobacter suis Infection Associated with the Development of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hidenori; Takahashi, Tetsufumi; Øverby, Anders; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Yoshida, Haruno; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nishiyama, Keita; Seto, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Takashi; Mukai, Takao; Nakamura, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter suis strain TKY infection has been strongly associated with the development of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a C57BL/6J mouse model. 1. C57BL/6J mice were intragastrically administered Lactobacillus strains once daily with 10(8)-10(9) colony-forming units (CFU), starting 2 days before intragastric infection with H. suis TKY (approximately 1 × 10(4) copies of 16S rRNA genes) or H. pylori Sydney strain 1 (SS1; 3 × 10(8) CFU) and continuing for 14 days after infection. 2. C57BL/6J mice were given powdered feed mixed with lyophilized L. gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) cells (5 × 10(8) CFU/g), starting 2 weeks before intragastric infection with H. suis TKY and continuing 12 months after infection. 1. Among the 5 Lactobacillus strains that we examined, only LG2055 exhibited significantly preventive efficacy against both H. suis TKY and H. pylori SS1 at day 15 after infection. 2. Dietary supplementation with LG2055 protected mice from the formation of round protrusive lesions in the gastric fundus 12 months after infection with H. suis TKY, whereas such lesions had developed in the gastric fundus of nonsupplemented mice 12 months after infection. In addition, the formation of lymphoid follicles in gastric mucus layers was suppressed by dietary LG2055 at 3 months after infection. LG2055 administration is effective for suppressing the progression of gastric MALT lymphoma by reducing H. suis colonization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisgaard Magne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert.

  4. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  5. [The modulating effect of the horn extract from the saiga of different age on the organothypic lymphoid tissue culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalisova, N I; Romanov, O E; Morozova, P Iu; Balykina, N A; Lesniak, V V; Sukhonos, Iu A; Zhekalov, A N

    2009-01-01

    The horn extracts from the saiga of different age were used to investigate its effect on organotypic tissue culture of explants from the rat spleen. From 4 to 10 amino acids were detected in the different extract fractions. The horn extracts from the young saiga, at the effective concentration 1 ng/ml, showed stimulating effect in spleen tissue cultures as compared to the control explants. No effect of extracts from the old saiga was observed in tissue culture. Possibly, a stimulation of the cellular proliferation is due to the great amino acid content in saiga horn; however this phenomenon is decreased by the aging.

  6. Lack of prion accumulation in lymphoid tissues of PRNP ARQ/ARR sheep intracranially inoculated with the agent of scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that can be transmitted horizontally. The prion protein gene (PRNP) profoundly influences the susceptibility of sheep to the scrapie agent and the tissue levels and distribution of PrPSc in affected sheep. The purpose of this study was to co...

  7. Acquisition of pneumococci specific effector and regulatory Cd4+ T cells localising within human upper respiratory-tract mucosal lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Pido-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The upper respiratory tract mucosa is the location for commensal Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae colonization and therefore represents a major site of contact between host and bacteria. The CD4(+ T cell response to pneumococcus is increasingly recognised as an important mediator of immunity that protects against invasive disease, with data suggesting a critical role for Th17 cells in mucosal clearance. By assessing CD4 T cell proliferative responses we demonstrate age-related sequestration of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+ T cells reactive to pneumococcal protein antigens within mucosal lymphoid tissue. CD25(hi T cell depletion and utilisation of pneumococcal specific MHCII tetramers revealed the presence of antigen specific Tregs that utilised CTLA-4 and PDL-1 surface molecules to suppress these responses. The balance between mucosal effector and regulatory CD4(+ T cell immunity is likely to be critical to pneumococcal commensalism and the prevention of unwanted pathology associated with carriage. However, if dysregulated, such responses may render the host more susceptible to invasive pneumococcal infection and adversely affect the successful implementation of both polysaccharide-conjugate and novel protein-based pneumococcal vaccines.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-15

    We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori -positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage.

  9. Stage 3 immature human natural killer cells found in secondary lymphoid tissue constitutively and selectively express the TH17 cytokine interleukin-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tiffany; Becknell, Brian; McClory, Susan; Briercheck, Edward; Freud, Aharon G.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Nuovo, Gerard; Yu, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Considerable functional heterogeneity within human natural killer (NK) cells has been revealed through the characterization of distinct NK-cell subsets. Accordingly, a small subset of CD56+NKp44+NK cells, termed NK-22 cells, was recently described within secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) as IL-22− when resting, with a minor fraction of this population becoming IL-22+ when activated. Here we discover that the vast majority of stage 3 immature NK (iNK) cells in SLT constitutively and selectively express IL-22, a TH17 cytokine important for mucosal immunity, whereas earlier and later stages of NK developmental intermediates do not express IL-22. These iNK cells have a surface phenotype of CD34−CD117+CD161+CD94−, largely lack expression of NKp44 and CD56, and do not produce IFN-γ or possess cytolytic activity. In summary, stage 3 iNK cells are highly enriched for IL-22 and IL-26 messenger RNA, and IL-22 protein production, but do not express IL-17A or IL-17F. PMID:19244159

  10. Marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with prominent plasma cell differentiation affecting the palatine tonsil: histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Bregni, Román; Nuyens, Michel; Vassallo, José; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Romañach, Mário José; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2012-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) of the oral cavity and oropharynx constitute 13% of all primary extranodal NHLs. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in the palatine tonsil is rare, corresponding to 6% of the NHLs of the Waldeyer ring. Some cases of MALT lymphoma can present prominent plasma cell differentiation, and less commonly, monoclonal gammopathy. The differential diagnosis of these cases from other NHLs with plasmacytic differentiation or plasma cell neoplasms is very difficult. In this article, we describe a rare case of MALT lymphoma in a 34-year-old man presenting as a swelling of the palatine tonsil. The tumor mass was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma with prominent plasma cell differentiation. Systemic evaluation was noncontributory. This is the first report of MALT lymphoma showing extensive plasmacytic differentiation of the palatine tonsil, and reinforces a possible relationship between extramedullary plasmacytoma and MALT lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with gastric and rectal lesions with metachronous and ectopic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Umezu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma suspected. The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, however, in response to the patient’s wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1-5 were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma de

  12. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  13. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L.; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress. PMID:23533999

  14. Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

  15. Analysis of multiply spliced transcripts in lymphoid tissue reservoirs of rhesus macaques infected with RT-SHIV during HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Deere

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4⁺ T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA, leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load.

  16. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  17. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. B-cell subpopulations from normal human secondary lymphoid tissues with specific gene expression profiles and phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Schmitz, Alexander; Perez Andres, Martin

    included homogenization, isolation of mononuclear cells, MFC and FACS sorting using multicolour fluorescence single tube panels.of antibodies against surface molecules as CD10/20/27/38/45, supplemented with tissue related antibodies. Isolated B-cell subpopulations were evaluated by morphological inspection......In order to improve insights into the B-cell biology and thereby B-cell myelomagenesis we have established a MSCNET standard for multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) and cell sorting (FACS) for subsequent genetic analysis. The material analysed was fresh tonsils, blood and bone marrow. The method...... and single gene expression analysis (qRT-PCR) for transcription factors as well as global gene expression profiling (GEP; GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array). For example for tonsils, based on the immunophenotypic presentation (including CD3/44/CXCR4 in the panel), B-cell subsets were identified and sorted...

  19. Validation of putative reference genes for normalization of Q-RT-PCR data from paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Tina Marie; de Stricker, Karin; Møller, Michael Boe

    2009-01-01

    , represented by non-neoplastic lymph nodes and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, by using 2 statistical software applications, geNorm and NormFinder. In addition, we wanted to validate the usefulness of paraffin-embedded samples for Q-RT-PCR studies by investigating gene expressions of relevant target genes...... in paired frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. Moreover, we studied the impact of amplicon sizes on the efficiency of Q-RT-PCR in paraffin-embedded tissues. Six putative reference genes were tested for stability of expression in 21 pairs of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph nodes...... and lymphomas. The genes were ranked according to their suitability as reference genes. According to both statistical approaches, beta-glucoronidase was the single most appropriate reference gene in both snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. TATA box-binding protein gene and Abelson murine leukemia viral...

  20. Cellular composition of granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of goats during the first year after experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M

    2015-01-15

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes lesions in naturally and experimentally infected ruminants which greatly differ in severity, cellular composition and number of mycobacteria. Morphologically distinct lesions are already found during the clinically inapparent phase of infection. The complex local host response and number of MAP were characterized at the initial sites of lesions, organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in experimentally infected goats. Tissues were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month post-inoculation (mpi) from goat kids that had orally received 10 times 10mg of bacterial wet mass of MAP (JII-1961). The cellular composition of lesions in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and next to the ileocecal valve was evaluated in 21 MAP-inoculated goats, where lesions were compared with unaltered tissue of six control goats. CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells, MHC class II+ and CD25+ cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in serial cryostat sections. At 3 mpi, extensive granulomatous infiltrates predominated, consisting of numerous epitheloid cells admixed with many CD4 and γδ T lymphocytes. Only single MAP were detected. This indicates a strong cellular immune reaction able to control MAP infection. γδ T lymphocytes were markedly increased in this type of lesion which may reflect their important role early in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. At 9 and 12 mpi, divergent lesions were observed which may reflect different outcomes of host-pathogen interactions. In five goats, minimal granulomatous lesions were surrounded by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and no MAP were detected by immunohistochemistry. This was interpreted as effective host response that was able to eliminate MAP locally. In three goats, decreased numbers of lymphocytes, but extensive granulomatous infiltrates with numerous epitheloid cells containing increased numbers of mycobacteria were seen. This shift of the

  1. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  2. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Ken, E-mail: keharada@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tobinai, Kensei [Department of Hematologic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  3. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Adam J., E-mail: adam_olszewski@brown.edu; Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  4. Lymphoid tissue damage in HIV-1 infection depletes naïve T cells and limits T cell reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can suppress HIV-1 replication and normalize the chronic immune activation associated with infection, but restoration of naïve CD4+ T cell populations is slow and usually incomplete for reasons that have yet to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that damage to the lymphoid tissue (LT fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC network contributes to naïve T cell loss in HIV-1 infection by restricting access to critical factors required for T cell survival. We show that collagen deposition and progressive loss of the FRC network in LTs prior to treatment restrict both access to and a major source of the survival factor interleukin-7 (IL-7. As a consequence, apoptosis within naïve T cell populations increases significantly, resulting in progressive depletion of both naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. We further show that the extent of loss of the FRC network and collagen deposition predict the extent of restoration of the naïve T cell population after 6 month of HAART, and that restoration of FRC networks correlates with the stage of disease at which the therapy is initiated. Because restoration of the FRC network and reconstitution of naïve T cell populations are only optimal when therapy is initiated in the early/acute stage of infection, our findings strongly suggest that HAART should be initiated as soon as possible. Moreover, our findings also point to the potential use of adjunctive anti-fibrotic therapies to avert or moderate the pathological consequences of LT fibrosis, thereby improving immune reconstitution.

  5. A single center experience: rituximab plus cladribine is an effective and safe first-line therapy for unresectable bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhixiang; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare form of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). To date, the standard systemic treatment for this disease is still under debate, and few data are accessible for newly diagnosed unresectable BALT lymphoma presented with advanced disease. The combination of rituximab (R) and cladribine (2-CdA) has shown some activity in indolent B-NHL, but its usage has not been tested in disseminated BALT lymphoma so far. An observational retrospective study was performed on homogeneous data of 8 patients with biopsy-proven stage IV BALT lymphoma to assess the efficacy and the safety of R-2-CdA therapy. All but one of the patients received six courses of R-2-CdA regimen consisted of rituximab 375 mg/m2 IV day 1 and cladribine 0.1 mg/kg IV days 1-4 every 21 days; one patient completed 4 cycles and received additional R maintenance. A high overall response rate (ORR) was observed (100%), with 2 patients (25%) achieved a complete remission (CR), the remaining (75%) a partial response. Improvement of pulmonary function was observed in all tested patients. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were leukocytopenia and neutropenia in 3 patients (37.5%), diarrhea in one (12.5%). Estimated two-year progression-free survival (PFS) and 2-yr overall survival (OS) were 80.0% (95% CI, 20.3-96.7%) and 100%, respectively. R-2-CdA therapy demonstrated high activity and tolerable toxicity in chemotherapy-naïve patients with unresectable BALT lymphoma of advanced stage. Although further large-scale study is needed for consolidation, R-2-CdA regimen could be a good first-line therapy option for patients with unresectable BALT lymphoma.

  6. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  7. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues.

  8. Functional differences between human NKp44- and NKp44+ RORC+ innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hoorweg (Kerim); C.P. Peters (Charlotte); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); N. Papazian (Natalie); G. Kazemier (Geert); J.M. Mjösberg (Jenny); H. Spits (Hergen); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHuman RORC+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines

  9. Functional differences between human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC+ innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P.; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M.; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human

  10. Increased Innate Lymphoid Cells in Periodontal Tissue of the Murine Model of Periodontitis: The Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Relevance for the Human Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are master regulators of immune and inflammatory responses, but their own regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of their subtypes (i.e., ILC1s–ILC3s remain largely unresolved. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, influences inflammatory responses, but its role in modulation of ILCs is not known. Periodontitis is a prevalent disorder with impairment of immune and inflammatory responses contributing importantly to its pathogenesis; however, neither the role of ILCs nor AMPK has been explored in this condition. We tested the hypotheses that (a periodontitis increases ILCs and expression of relevant cytokines thereby contributing to inflammation and (b knockdown of AMPK worsens indices of periodontitis in association with further increases in subtypes of ILCs and cytokine expression. The studies utilized wild-type (WT and AMPK knockout (KO mice, subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis or sham operation, in association with the use of micro-CT for assessment of bone loss, immunogold electron microscopy to show presence of ILCs in periodontal tissues, flow cytometry for quantitative assessment of subtypes of ILCs and RT-polymerase chain reaction analyses to measure mRNA expression of several relevant cytokines. The results for the first time show (a presence of each subtype of ILCs in periodontal tissues of sham control and periodontitis animals, (b that periodontitis is associated with increased frequencies of ILC1s–ILC3s with the effect more marked for ILC2s and differential phenotypic marker expression for ILC3s, (c that AMPK KO mice display exacerbation of indices of periodontitis in association with further increases in the frequency of subtypes of ILCs with persistence of ILC2s effect, and (d that periodontitis increased mRNA for interleukin (IL-33, but not IL-5 or IL-13, in WT mice but expression of these cytokines was markedly increased in AMPK KO mice with periodontitis. Subsequently, we

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-12-05

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Interactions between gut-associated lymphoid tissue and colonization levels of indigenous, segmented, filamentous bacteria in the small intestine of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J; Hermsen, CC; Bos, NA; Eling, WMC; Cebra, JJ; Heidt, PJ; Smits, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike most other indigenous bacteria, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are potent activators of the mucosal immune system. SFB are strongly anchored to the epithelial cells of the small intestine where they have a preference for mucosal lymphoid epithelium. Since SFB are only present in high

  13. Shaping Innate Lymphoid Cell Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a key cell type that are enriched at mucosal surfaces and within tissues. Our understanding of these cells is growing rapidly. Paradoxically, these cells play a role in maintaining tissue integrity but they also function as key drivers of allergy and inflammation. We present here the most recent understanding of how genomics has provided significant insight into how ILCs are generated and the enormous heterogeneity present within the canonical subsets. This has allowed the generation of a detailed blueprint for ILCs to become highly sensitive and adaptive sensors of environmental changes and therefore exquisitely equipped to protect immune surfaces.

  14. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: an overview with emphasis on the myeloid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, James W

    2010-03-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms utilizes morphology, immunophenotype, genetics and clinical features to define disease entities of clinical significance. It is a consensus classification in which a number of experts have agreed on the classification and diagnostic criteria. In general, the classification stratifies neoplasms according to their lineage (myeloid, lymphoid, histiocytic/dendritic) and distinguishes neoplasms of precursor cells from those comprised of functionally mature cells. Lymphoid neoplasms are derived from cells that frequently have features that recapitulate stages of normal B-, T-, and NK-cell differentiation and function, so to some extent they can be classified according to the corresponding normal counterpart, although additional features, such as genotype, clinical features and even location of the tumor figure into the final classification listing as well. Five major subgroups of myeloid neoplasms are recognized based mainly on their degree of maturation and biologic properties: myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) which are comprised primarily of mature cells with effective proliferation; myeloid (and lymphoid) neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB and FGFR1, defined largely by the finding of significant eosinophilia and specific genetic abnormalities; myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), comprised mainly of mature cells with both effective and ineffective proliferation of various lineages; myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), in which immature and mature cells are found with abnormal, dysplastic and ineffective maturation, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), comprised of precursor cells with impaired maturation. Genetic abnormalities play an important role as diagnostic criteria for further sub-classification of some myeloid neoplasms, particularly of AML. Although therapy-related MDS and AML (t-MDS/AML) often have genetic defects identical to

  15. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  16. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coincidence of different structures of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the respiratory tract of children: no indications for enhanced mucosal immunostimulation in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debertin, A S; Tschernig, T; Schürmann, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Pabst, R

    2006-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the principal inductive site for mucosal immune responses that are capable of T and B cell responses and antigen-specific responses. In previous independent studies different structures of MALT, e.g. bronchus-, larynx- and nose-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT, LALT, NALT) have been described separately in various frequencies in the human respiratory tract over life spans. Because upper respiratory tract infections are common in infants, dysregulations of mucosal immune responses might be seriously involved in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In the present study the coincidental occurrence of the three different MALT structures in the respiratory tract within the same patients were studied, and cases of SIDS and children who had died from different traumatic and natural causes of death (non-SIDS) were compared. First, the frequency of BALT and LALT in 46 children (35 SIDS, 11 non-SIDS) with or without NALT were examined. A tendency was found of a coincidence of respiratory MALT structures. In 50 additional cases of infant death (30 SIDS, 20 non-SIDS) from the multi-centric German Study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID) where death had occurred in the first year of life, the coincidence was evaluated. A coincidental occurrence of BALT, LALT and NALT or BALT and LALT (each about 30%) was found in both groups, whereby the coincidence in SIDS and the control patients did not differ. Interestingly, the children with coincidental MALT were strikingly older, supporting the hypothesis of respiratory MALT formation via environmental stimulation over time. PMID:16968398

  18. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of SWC3, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD8 antigens in paraformaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded porcine lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingstedt, Jens Erik; Tornehave, Ditte; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with inherent poor tissue morphology, and are not readily adapted to formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded tissue with well preserved morphology. Seven well characterised monoclonal antibodies against porcine leukocyte antigens were tested on neutral buffered paraformaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded...

  1. Characteristic of innate lymphoid cells (ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Adamiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. Family ILC cells form NK cells (natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer T cells (LTi, which, although they have different functions, are evolutionarily related. NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22 - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22 cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+ LTi cells. Fourth population of ILC cells are ILC17 - producing IL-17, while the fifth is formed by natural helper type 2 T cells (nTH2, nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2 and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2. Cells of the last population synthesize IL-5 and IL-13. It is assumed that an extraordinary functional diversity of ILC family, resembles T cells, probably because they are under the control of the corresponding transcription factors - as direct regulation factors, such as the family of lymphocytes T.

  2. Profiling the lymphoid-resident T cell pool reveals modulation by age and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Aurélie; Audemard-Verger, Alexandra; Guichard, Vincent; Mattiuz, Raphaël; Delpoux, Arnaud; Hamon, Pauline; Bonilla, Nelly; Rivière, Matthieu; Delon, Jérôme; Martin, Bruno; Auffray, Cédric; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Lucas, Bruno

    2018-01-04

    Despite being implicated in non-lymphoid tissues, non-recirculating T cells may also exist in secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, a detailed characterization of this lymphoid-resident T cell pool has not yet been done. Here we show that a substantial proportion of CD4 regulatory (Treg) and memory (Tmem) cells establish long-term residence in the SLOs of specific pathogen-free mice. Of these SLOs, only T cell residence within Peyer's patches is affected by microbiota. Resident CD4 Treg and CD4 Tmem cells from lymph nodes and non-lymphoid tissues share many phenotypic and functional characteristics. The percentage of resident T cells in SLOs increases considerably with age, with S1PR1 downregulation possibly contributing to this altered homeostasis. Our results thus show that T cell residence is not only a hallmark of non-lymphoid tissues, but can be extended to secondary lymphoid organs.

  3. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  4. Co-delivery of ccl19 gene enhances anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P immunogenicity in mice by increasing dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan-hong; Qi, Sheng-cai; Su, Ling-kai; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen

    2013-03-01

    To investigate how co-delivery of the gene encoding C-C chemokine ligand-19 (CCL-19) affected the systemic immune responses to an anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P in mice. Plasmid encoding CCL19-GFP fusion protein (pCCL19/GFP) was constructed by inserting murine ccl19 gene into GFP-expressing vector pAcGFP1-N1. Chemotactic effect of the fusion protein on murine dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed in vitro and in vivo using transwell and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. BALB/c mice were administered anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP (each 100 μg, im) or pCIA-P alone. Serum level of anti-PAc IgG was assessed with ELISA. Splenocytes from the mice were stimulated with PAc protein for 48 h, and IFN-γ and IL-4 production was measured with ELISA. The presence of pCCL19/GFP in spleen and draining lymph nodes was assessed using PCR. The expression of pCCL19/GFP protein in these tissues was analyzed under microscope and with flow cytometry. The expression level of CCL19-GFP fusion protein was considerably increased 48 h after transfection of COS-7 cells with pCCL19/GFP plasmids. The fusion protein showed potent chemotactic activity on DCs in vitro. The level of serum PAc-specific IgG was significantly increased from 4 to 14 weeks in the mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP. Compared to mice vaccinated with pCIA-P alone, the splenocytes from mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP produced significantly higher level of IFN-γ, but IL-4 production had no significant change. Following intromuscular co-delivery, pCCL19/GFP plasmid and fusion protein were detected in the spleen and draining lymph nodes. Administration of CCL19 gene in mice markedly increased the number of mature DCs in secondary lymphoid tissues. CCL19 serves as an effective adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine by inducing chemotactic migration of DCs to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  5. Cell proliferation in lymphoid tissue and the seminiferous epithelium under continuous low level irradiation. Final report, 1 June 1967 to 15 July 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J I

    1978-10-19

    The scientific scope and primary objectives of the research program concern investigations on (1) the kinetics of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the immunohematopoietic tissues and the reproductive tissues, and (2) the cellular response and cell population kinetics of these renewal tissues of the body under the stress of continuous low level irradiation. The directions and objectives of the research program have been continually broadened to include investigations on (1) the dynamics of the cellular and humoral immune responses, (2) interactions of host-defense mechanisms, (3) the cell proliferation kinetics in the ovary, and (4) cellular control mechanisms and human tumor cell kinetics.

  6. Pulmonary infections in swine induce altered porcine surfactant protein D expression and localization to dendritic cells in bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.M.; Holmskov, U.; Aalbæk, B.

    2005-01-01

    among pSP-D, pathogens, phagocytic cells and dendritic cells. Lung tissue was collected from experimental and natural bronchopneumonias caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus, and from embolic and diffuse interstitial pneumonia, caused by Staph. aureus or Arcanobacterium...

  7. Different Pathogenesis of CCR5-Using Primary HIV-1 Isolates from Non-Switch and Switch Virus Patients in Human Lymphoid Tissue Ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen. Silvia; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyol, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2005-01-01

    CCR5-utilizing HIV-1 variants (R5) typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, whereas emergence of CXCR4-using (X4 or R5X4) HIV-1 is often associated with disease progression. However, such a switch in co-receptor usage can only be detected in approximately onehalf of HIV-infected patients (switch virus patients), and progression to immunodeficiency may also occur in patients without detectable switch in co-receptor usage (non-switch virus patients). Here, we used a system of ex vivo-infected tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogenesis of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from the switch and non-switch patients. Inoculation of ex vivo tissue with these R5 isolates resulted in viral replication and CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cell depletion. The levels of such depletion by HIV-1 isolated from non-switch virus patients were significantly higher than those by R5 HIV-1 isolates from switch virus patients. T cell depletion seemed to be controlled by viral factors and did not significantly vary between tissues from different donors. In contrast, viral replication did not correlate with the switch status of the patients; in tissues fiom different donors it varied 30-fold and seemed to be controlled by a combination of viral and tissue factors. Nevertheless, replication-level hierarchy among sequential isolates remained constant in tissues from various donors. Viral load in vivo was higher in switch virus patients compared to non-switch virus patients. The high cytopathogenicity of CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells by R5 HIV-1 isolates from non-switch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4(+) T cells in the absence of CXCR4 using virus; elimination of target cells by these isolates may limit their own replication in vivo.

  8. Dietary Fructo-Oligosaccharides Attenuate Early Activation of CD4+ T Cells Which Produce both Th1 and Th2 Cytokines in the Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues of a Murine Food Allergy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Masato; Arakawa, Haruka; Ishii, Narumi; Ubukata, Chihiro; Michimori, Mana; Noda, Masanari; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira

    2017-11-17

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation. Single-cell suspensions were prepared from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues for cellular analysis. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Activation markers and intracellular cytokines in CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Activated CD4+ T cells were purified to examine cytokine production. Dietary intake of FOS provided moderate protection from the intestinal inflammation induced by the OVA-containing diet. FOS significantly reduced food allergy-induced Th2 cytokine responses in intestinal tissues but not in systemic tissues. FOS decreased OVA diet-induced IFN-γ+IL-4+ double-positive CD4+ T cells and early-activated CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we confirmed that these CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells are able to produce high levels of IFN-γ and moderate level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. Dietary intake of FOS during the development of food allergy attenuates the induction of intestinal Th2 cytokine responses by regulating early activation of naïve CD4+ T cells, which produce both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Our results suggest FOS might be a potential food agent for the prevention of food allergy by modulating oral sensitization to food antigens. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette

    2005-01-01

    transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...... of the IBDV strains used were detected in bursa tissues, whereas only the two virulent strains were detected in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus....

  10. Stereotypic rheumatoid factors that are frequently expressed in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas are rare in the labial salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Richard J; Slot, Linda M; Hoogeboom, Robbert; Wormhoudt, Thera A M; Adeoye, Akanbi O; Guikema, Jeroen E J; van Noesel, Carel J M

    2015-04-01

    Among autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is most strongly associated with the development of malignant B cell lymphoma, in particular mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. Previously, we have shown that in ∼40% of cases of salivary gland MALT lymphoma, high-affinity stereotypic rheumatoid factor (RF) B cell receptors, specific for IgG-Fc, are expressed. This study was undertaken to investigate whether in the inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS, a similar RF-biased Ig repertoire is present. Extensive analyses of the B cell Ig VH region repertoire were performed on microdissected tissue samples from the labial salivary glands of 4 patients with SS. All SS labial salivary glands harbored expanded B cell clones, of which 1 or 2 were highly expanded and detected in >50% of the microdissected samples. However, among the identified 464 distinct Ig clonotypes, only 3 stereotypic RF-expressing clones were detected. In 2 patients with SS, an RF-expressing clone was detected at low frequency in 1 of the microdissected samples, whereas 1 patient with SS harbored a highly expanded RF-expressing clone that was detected in all microdissected samples and also detected in the peripheral blood. Two years after analysis of this sample, the latter patient developed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma originating from the same RF clone. Inflamed labial salivary glands in patients with SS generally harbor 1 or 2 highly expanded B cell clones. The repertoire strongly biased toward stereotypic RFs in salivary gland MALT lymphomas is not a reflection of a similar repertoire in the inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS; rather, in the latter, the repertoire is based on a strong selection advantage of incidental stereotypic RF-expressing B cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease (IgG4-RD) in the Orbit: Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)-Type Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleś, Krzysztof; Składzień, Jacek; Szczepański, Wojciech; Okoń, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bojanowska, Emilia; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background MALT lymphomas were classified for differential diagnostics of IgG4-dependent disease due to their exceptional predilection to intraorbital localization. Therefore, the goal of our studies was large retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with MALT lymphomas within the orbital tissues, since no such studies have been conducted in Poland. Material/Methods The starting study population consisted of 167 patients with isolated infiltrative tumor diseases within the orbital region treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Medical College Jagiellonian University in Cracow. The immunohistochemical assays using anti-IgG, anti-IgG4 and anti-CD138 antibodies were used to estimate the IgG4+/CD138+ and IgG4+/IgG+ ratios. Results Of all the studied and analyzed patients, a final group of 19 patients with orbital MALT lymphomas was selected to undergo diagnostic examinations for IgG4-related disease. Detailed analysis and diagnostic screening for IgG4-related disease was performed and results meeting the criteria of IgG4-dependent disease were obtained in 10 out of 19 patients with the diagnosis of MALT tumor established on the basis of immunohistochemical assays. Conclusions MALT lymphomas are the most common of all lymphomas occurring within orbital tissues. In this study, results consistent with the criteria of IgG4-related disease were obtained in approximately 50% patients with immunohistochemical diagnosis of orbital MALT lymphoma. PMID:25858500

  12. Evaluation of a panel of antibodies for the immunohistochemical identification of immune cells in paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues of new- and old-world camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Lehmbecker, Annika; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Spitzbarth, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues. To bridge this gap, 14 commercially available primary antibodies were tested for their suitability to demonstrate immune cell populations on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections of dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, and alpacas in the present study. Out of these, 9 antibodies directed against CD3, CD20, CD79α, HLA-DR, Iba-1, myeloid/histiocyte antigen, CD204, CD208, and CD68 antigen exhibited distinct immunoreaction patterns to certain camelid immune cell subsets. The distribution of these antigens was comparatively evaluated in different anatomical compartments of thymus, spleen, mesenteric, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The presented results will provide a basis for further investigations in camelids, especially with respect to the role of the immune response in certain infectious diseases, which harbor a considerable risk to spill over to other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy B C; Netea, Mihai G; Kater, Arnon P; van der Velden, Walter J F M

    2016-12-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed 'trained immunity'. In this review the concept of 'trained immunity' is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cells: Emerging Insights in Development, Lineage Relationships, and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack a specific antigen receptor yet can produce an array of effector cytokines that in variety match that of T helper cell subsets. ILCs function in lymphoid organogenesis, tissue remodeling, antimicrobial immunity, and inflammation, particularly

  15. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  16. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  17. Norisoboldine ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis through regulating the balance between Th17 and regulatory T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Bei; Dou, Yannong; Wang, Ting; Yu, Juntao; Wu, Xin; Lu, Qian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Kong, Lingyi [Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Dai, Yue, E-mail: yuedaicpu@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xia, Yufeng, E-mail: yfxiacpu@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Norisoboldine (NOR), the main active ingredient of the dry root of Lindera aggregata, was previously proven to have substantial therapeutic effects on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice by oral administration. However, it exhibited a very poor bioavailability in normal rats. The pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamics disconnection attracts us to explore its anti-arthritic mechanism in more detail. In this study, NOR, administered orally, markedly attenuated the pathological changes in CIA rats, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the plasma concentration of NOR was moderately elevated in CIA rats compared with normal rats, but it was still far lower than the minimal effective concentration required for inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro. Interestingly, NOR was shown to regulate the balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the intestinal lymph nodes more strikingly than in other tissues. It could increase the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in both gut and joints, and markedly up-regulate the number of integrin α4β7 (a marker of gut source)-positive Foxp3{sup +} cells in the joints of CIA rats. These results suggest that the gut might be the primary action site of NOR, and NOR exerts anti-arthritis effect through regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells in intestinal lymph nodes and yielding a trafficking of lymphocytes (especially Treg cells) from the gut to joint. The findings of the present study also provide a plausible explanation for the anti-arthritic effects of poorly absorbed compounds like NOR. - Highlights: • Norisoboldine, administered orally, markedly attenuates the clinical signs of CIA. • Norisoboldine regulates the balance of Th17/Treg cells in the intestinal lymph node. • Norisoboldine induces the migration of Treg cells from the gut to joint.

  18. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases. PMID:22895090

  19. Prions and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1−/− lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1−/− mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1−/− lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)—the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  20. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity to nasal-associated lymphoid tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Arts, J.H.E.; Feron, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    The mucosal membranes form a weak mechanical barrier, but they are provided with an extensive specific and non-specific defence system. Antigenic stimulation of the mucosal immune system of the oronasal passages induces specific, local immune responses, and activates immune components of mucosae

  2. Innate lymphoid cells: the new kids on the block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Mackley, Emma C; Jones, Nick D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in our understanding of innate lymphoid cell function and to speculate on how these cells may become activated and influence the immune response to allogeneic tissues and cells following transplantation. Innate lymphoid cells encompass several novel cell types whose wide-ranging roles in the immune system are only now being uncovered. Through cytokine production, cross-talk with both haematopoietic and nonhaematopoietic populations and antigen presentation to T cells, these cells have been shown to be key regulators in maintaining tissue integrity, as well as initiating and then sustaining immune responses. It is now clear that innate lymphoid cells markedly contribute to immune responses and tissue repair in a number of disease contexts. Although experimental and clinical data on the behaviour of these cells following transplantation are scant, it is highly likely that innate lymphoid cells will perform similar functions in the alloimmune response following transplantation and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets for manipulation to prevent allograft rejection.

  3. Infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus primes for immunological memory in human nose-associated lymphoid tissue, offering cross-reactive immunity to H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahallawi, Waleed H; Kasbekar, Anand V; McCormick, Maxwell S; Hoschler, Katja; Temperton, Nigel; Leong, Samuel C; Beer, Helen; Ferrara, Francesca; McNamara, Paul S; Zhang, Qibo

    2013-05-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious mucosal infection in the respiratory tract. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus infection resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Little is known on whether immunological memory develops following pH1N1 infection and whether it provides protection against other virus subtypes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to analyze hemagglutinin (HA)-specific memory B cell responses after virus antigen stimulation in nose-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults. Individuals with serological evidence of previous exposure to pH1N1 showed significant cross-reactive HA-specific memory B cell responses to pH1N1, seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1), and avian H5N1 (aH5N1) viruses upon pH1N1 virus stimulation. pH1N1 virus antigen elicited stronger cross-reactive memory B cell responses than sH1N1 virus. Intriguingly, aH5N1 virus also activated cross-reactive memory responses to sH1N1 and pH1N1 HAs in those who had previous pH1N1 exposure, and that correlated well with the memory response stimulated by pH1N1 virus antigen. These memory B cell responses resulted in cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against sH1N1, 1918 H1N1, and aH5N1 viruses. The 2009 pH1N1 infection appeared to have primed human host with B cell memory in NALT that offers cross-protective mucosal immunity to not only H1N1 but also aH5N1 viruses. These findings may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against influenza. It will be important to induce and/or enhance such cross-protective mucosal memory B cells.

  4. First-line response-adapted treatment with the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT2008-01): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, Antonio; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Panizo, Carlos; Nicolás, Concepción; Bargay, Joan; Muntañola, Ana; Canales, Miguel; Bello, José Luis; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Tomás, José Francisco; Rodríguez, María José; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Grande, Carlos; Sánchez-Blanco, José Javier; Palomera, Luis; Arranz, Reyes; Conde, Eulogio; García, Mar; García, Juan Fernando; Caballero, Dolores; Montalbán, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    No standard first-line systemic treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is available. In a phase 2 study we aimed to assess the safety and activity of a response-adapted combination of bendamustine plus rituximab as upfront treatment for this type of lymphoma. In a multicentre, single-arm, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma at any site and stage and treated them with bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2) plus rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on day 1), every 4 weeks. Inclusion criteria were measurable or evaluable disease, age 18-85 years, and unequivocal active lymphoma; we also enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma arising in the stomach after failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication and primary cutaneous cases after failure of local therapies. Exclusion criteria included evidence of histological transformation, CNS involvement, and active hepatitis B or C virus or HIV infection. After three cycles, patients achieving complete response received one additional cycle (total four cycles) and those achieving partial response received three additional cycles (total six cycles). The primary endpoint was 2-year event-free survival. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01015248. 60 patients from 19 centres in Spain were enrolled between May 27, 2009, and May 23, 2011, and received treatment; 57 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Only 14 (25%) patients needed more than four cycles of treatment. After a median follow-up of 43 months (IQR 37-51), median event-free survival was not reached. Event-free survival at 2 years was 93% (95% CI 84-97) and at 4 years was 88% (95% CI 74-95). The most frequently observed grade 3-4 adverse events were haematological: lymphopenia in 20 (33%) patients, neutropenia in 12 (20%) patients, and leucopenia in three (5%) patients. Grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia or infections were reported in three (5%) and four

  5. The B-cell-activating factor signalling pathway is associated with Helicobacter pylori independence in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without t(11;18)(q21;q21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wu; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Lee, Hsiao-Wei; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chen, Li-Tzong; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2017-02-01

    We previously reported that activation of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) pathway upregulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induces BCL3 and BCL10 nuclear translocation in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-independent gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumours with evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). However, the significance of BAFF expression in HP independence of gastric low-grade MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) remains unexplored. Sixty-four patients who underwent successful HP eradication for localized HP-positive gastric MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) were studied. BAFF expression was significantly higher in the HP-independent group than in the HP-dependent group [22/26 (84.6%) versus 8/38 (21.1%); p t(11;18)(q21;q21). The biological significance of BAFF signalling in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-negative lymphoma cells was further studied in two types of lymphoma B cell: OCI-Ly3 [non-germinal centre B-cell origin DLBCL without t(11;18)(q21;q21) cell line] and MA-1 [t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1-positive DLBCL cell line]. In both cell lines, we found that BAFF activated the canonical NF-κB and AKT pathways, and induced the formation of BCL10-BCL3 complexes, which translocated to the nucleus. BCL10 and BCL3 nuclear translocation and NF-κB (p65) transactivation were inhibited by either LY294002 or by silencing BCL3 or BCL10 with small interfering RNA. BAFF also activated non-canonical NF-κB pathways (p52) through tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation, NF-κB-inducing kinase accumulation, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) α/β phosphorylation and NF-κB p100 processing in both cell lines. Our data indicate that the autocrine BAFF signal transduction pathway contributes to HP independence in gastric MALT lymphomas without the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of

  6. Tolerance and lymphoid organ structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Elizabeth Burrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Frontiers in Immunologic Tolerance explores barriers to tolerance from a variety of views of cells, molecules, and processes of the immune system. Our laboratory has spent over a decade focused on the migration of the cells of the immune system, and dissecting the signals that determine how and where effector and suppressive regulatory T cells traffic from one site to another in order to reject or protect allografts. These studies have led us to a greater appreciation of the anatomic structure of the immune system, and the realization that the path taken by lymphocytes during the course of the immune response to implanted organs determines the final outcome. In particular, the structures, microanatomic domains, and the cells and molecules that lymphocytes encounter during their transit through blood, tissues, lymphatics, and secondary lymphoid organs are powerful determinants for whether tolerance is achieved. Thus, the understanding of complex cellular and molecular processes of tolerance will not come from 96-well plate immunology, but from an integrated understanding of the temporal and spatial changes that occur during the response to the allograft. The study of the precise positioning and movement of cells in lymphoid organs has been difficult since it is hard to visualize cells within their 3-dimensional setting; instead techniques have tended to be dominated by 2-dimensional renderings, although advanced confocal and 2-photon systems are changing this view. It is difficult to precisely modify key molecules and events in lymphoid organs, so that existing knockouts, transgenics, inhibitors, and activators have global and pleiotropic effects, rather than precise anatomically restricted influences. Lastly, there are no well-defined postal codes or tracking systems for leukocytes, so that while we can usually track cells from point A to point B, it is exponentially more difficult or even impossible to track them to point C and

  7. Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small intestine and the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Buettner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programmed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT. In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF. Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO. While so far it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  8. Detection of Quiescent Infections with Multiple Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs), Including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within Lymphoid Lung Nodules or Lung and Spleen Tissue Samples from Five Asymptomatic Adult African Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jian-Chao; Heaggans, Sarah Y; Long, Simon Y; Latimer, Erin M; Nofs, Sally A; Bronson, Ellen; Casares, Miguel; Fouraker, Michael D; Pearson, Virginia R; Richman, Laura K; Hayward, Gary S

    2015-12-30

    of strains of EEHV1, whose natural host has been unclear. Here, we carried out genotype analyses by partial PCR sequencing of necropsy tissue from five asymptomatic African elephants and identified multiple simultaneous infections by several different EEHV types, including high concentrations in lymphoid lung nodules. Overall, the results provide strong evidence that EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7 represent natural ubiquitous infections in African elephants, whereas Asian elephants harbor EEHV1A, EEHV1B, EEHV4, and EEHV5. Although a single case of fatal cross-species infection by EEHV3 is known, the results do not support the previous concept that highly pathogenic EEHV1A crossed from African to Asian elephants in zoos. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Regulation of Cytokine Secretion in Human CD127(+) LTi-like Innate Lymphoid Cells by Toll-like Receptor 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crellin, Natasha K.; Trifari, Sara; Kaplan, Charles D.; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Di Santo, James P.; Spits, Hergen

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer cells are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Although these cells were originally reported to produce cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, we demonstrate here that human CD127(+)RORC(+) and CD56(+)CD127(+) LTi-like ILC also express

  10. A patient with endobronchial BALT lymphoma successfully treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Sayed M S; Heitbrink, Martin A; Jiwa, Mehdi; Boersma, Wim G

    2007-10-01

    Low-grade bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma is a rare tumour originating from the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue. It is a subgroup of B-cell extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with an indolent course. We report a case of this tumour with characteristic histologic feature. The patient had non-specific respiratory complaints. The tumour occluded the right bronchus intermedius. He received radiation therapy alone, resulting in complete remission of the tumour and disappearance of symptoms.

  11. Inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuefeng; Paul, William E

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are able to produce type 2 cytokines and to mediate type 2 immune protection and tissue homeostasis. ILC2 cells have often been considered to be a single set of cells that respond to IL-33 and/or IL-25. Recent evidence now indicates that ILC2 cells can be grouped into two distinct subsets: homeostatic or natural ILC2s (nILC2 cells); and inflammatory ILC2 cells (iILC2 cells). nILC2 cells reside in barrier tissues and primarily respond to IL-33. They play critical roles not only in immune protection but also in tissue repair and beige fat biogenesis. iILC2 cells are not present in peripheral tissues in the steady state but can be elicited at many sites by helminth infection or IL-25 treatment. IL-25-elicited ilLC2 cells act as transient ILC progenitors with multipotency. They can be mobilized by distinct types of infections to develop into nILC2-like or ILC3-like cells, functioning in corresponding immune responses. The demonstration of the existence of iILC2 cells adds to our understanding of the complexity of ILC2 biology and makes necessary an analysis of the relationship between nILC2 cells and iILC2 cells. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology 2015.

  12. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR + ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Normal and pathological V(D)J recombination: contribution to the understanding of human lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadi, Saïda; Le Noir, Sandrine; Asnafi, Vahid; Beldjord, Kheïra; Macintyre, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    The majority of haematological cancers involve the lymphoid system. They include acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL), which are arrested at variable stages of development and present with blood and bone marrow involvement and chronic leukemias, lymphomas and myelomas, which present with infiltration of a large variety of hematopoietic and non hematopoietic tissues by mature lymphoid cells which express a surface antigen receptor. The majority involve the B-cell lineage and the vast majority have undergone clonal rearrangement of their Ig and/or TCR rearrangements. Analysis of Ig/TCR genomic V(D)J repertoires by PCR based lymphoid clonality analysis within a diagnostic setting allows distinction of clonal from reactive lymphoproliferative disorders, clonal tracking for evidence of tumor dissemination and follow-up, identification of a lymphoid origin in undiagnosed tumors and evaluation of clonal evolution. Ig/TCR VDJ errors are also at the origin of recombinase mediated deregulated expression of a variety of proto-oncogenes in ALL, whereas in lymphoma it is increasingly clear that IgH containing translocations result from abnormalities other than VDJ errors (somatic hypermutation and/or isotype switching). In addition to this mechanistic contribution to lymphoid oncogenesis, it is possible that failure to successfully complete expression of an appropriate Ig or TCR may lead to maturation arrest in a lymphoid precursor, which may in itself contribute to altered tissue homeostasis, particularly if the arrest occurs at a stage of cellular expansion.

  16. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Functional Differences between Human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human homeostasis and disease is hampered by a poor characterization of RORC(+) innate cell subsets and a lack of knowledge on the distribution of these cells in adults. Here we show that functionally distinct subsets of human RORC(+) innate lymphoid cells are enriched for secretion of IL-17a or IL-22. Both subsets have an activated phenotype and can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. NKp44(+) IL-22 producing cells are present in tonsils while NKp44(-) IL-17a producing cells are present in fetal developing lymph nodes. Development of human intestinal NKp44(+) ILC is a programmed event that is independent of bacterial colonization and these cells colonize the fetal intestine during the first trimester. In the adult intestine, NKp44(+) ILC are the main ILC subset producing IL-22. NKp44(-) ILC remain present throughout adulthood in peripheral non-inflamed lymph nodes as resting, non-cytokine producing cells. However, upon stimulation lymph node ILC can swiftly initiate cytokine transcription suggesting that secondary human lymphoid organs may function as a reservoir for innate lymphoid cells capable of participating in inflammatory responses.

  19. Innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells: a new paradigm in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard; Colonna, Marco; Di Santo, James P; McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2015-05-22

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a growing family of immune cells that mirror the phenotypes and functions of T cells. However, in contrast to T cells, ILCs do not express acquired antigen receptors or undergo clonal selection and expansion when stimulated. Instead, ILCs react promptly to signals from infected or injured tissues and produce an array of secreted proteins termed cytokines that direct the developing immune response into one that is adapted to the original insult. The complex cross-talk between microenvironment, ILCs, and adaptive immunity remains to be fully deciphered. Only by understanding these complex regulatory networks can the power of ILCs be controlled or unleashed in order to regulate or enhance immune responses in disease prevention and therapy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Seehus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  1. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  2. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehus, Corey R; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4(+) T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  3. ‘Trained immunity’: consequences for lymphoid malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy B.C.; Netea, Mihai G.; Kater, Arnon P.; van der Velden, Walter J.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed ‘trained immunity’. In this review the concept of ‘trained immunity’ is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. PMID:27903713

  4. High-fat-diet-induced obesity upregulates the expression of lymphoid chemokines and promotes the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles after Helicobacter suis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Jun; Tian, Zi-Bin; Yao, Shan-Shan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Tao; Jing, Xue; Ding, Xue-Li; Yang, Ruo-Ming; Liu, Ya-Qian; Zhang, Shuai-Qing; Yang, Lin

    2017-11-30

    Helicobacter suis colonizes the stomachs of a variety of animals, including humans, and is more likely than other Helicobacter species to induce gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory state in which the induction of a chemokine network contributes to a variety of diseases. However, the effect of obesity on the development of gastric MALT in the presence of H. suis infection remains unclear. Here, we reveal that high-fat-diet-induced obesity upregulates the expression of lymphoid chemokines in the stomach and accelerates the H. suis infection-induced formation of gastric lymphoid follicles, potentially via a mechanism that involves the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These findings provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases, especially those induced by Helicobacter infection. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...... leucocytes of previous authors. The numbers of all cell types increased with age. Correlation was found between the number of small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells, but not between granular cells and either of the other two. A hypothesis is proposed, assigning these cells with a function in mucosal...

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  7. Isolation and characterization of mouse innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Timotheus Y F; Takei, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are rare populations of cytokine-producing lymphocytes and are divided into three groups, namely ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, based on the cytokines that they produce. They comprise less than 1% of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues and express no unique cell surface markers. Therefore, they can only be identified by combinations of multiple cell surface markers and further characterized by cytokine production in vitro. Thus, multicolor flow cytometry is the only reliable method to purify and characterize ILCs. Here we describe the methods for cell preparation, flow cytometric analysis, and purification of murine ILC2 and ILC3. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Ontogenic development of immunoglobulins (Igs)-positive lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs of native chickens of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Nabiul; Khan, Mohammed Zahirul Islam; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Shinoda, Koh

    2013-01-01

    The first appearance, distribution and frequency of immunoglobulins (Igs)-positive lymphocytes were investigated in the lymphoid organs of native chicken’s embryos from embryonic day (ED) 8 to ED 20. The tissues from the lymphoid organs were dehydrated in alcohol, cleared in xylene, embedded in different grades of paraffin and 6-micron thick sections were immunostained by the indirect immunoperoxidase method using antichicken immunoglobulins. IgM-positive lymphocytes were first identified in ...

  9. The proteoglycan repertoire of lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadnes, Bodil; Husebekk, Anne; Svineng, Gunbjørg; Rekdal, Øystein; Yanagishita, Masaki; Kolset, Svein O; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Proteoglycans have been studied to a limited extent in lymphoid cells. In this study we have investigated the expression of proteoglycans in B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, natural killer cells, as well as in nine different cell lines established from patients with lymphoid malignancies. Serglycin was the major proteoglycan expressed at mRNA level by the primary lymphocytes. None of the syndecans or glycpicans was detected at mRNA level in the primary lymphocytes, except for syndecan-4 in CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ T-cells. All lymphoid cell lines expressed serglycin mRNA, as well as one or several members of the syndecan and glypican families. Further, increased synthesis of proteoglycans was found in the cell lines compared to the primary lymphocytes, as well as the presence of heparan sulfate on the cell surface of five of the cells lines. Western blot analysis showed a close correlation between serglycin mRNA level and expression of serglycin core protein. Our results show that serglycin is a major proteoglycan in all the normal lymphoid cells and that these cells carry little, or none, proteoglycans on the cell surface. Serglycin was also a major proteoglycan in the malignant lymphoid cells, but these also expressed one or more types of cell surface proteoglycans. Thus, malignant transformation of lymphoid cells may be followed by increased synthesis of proteoglycans and expression of cell surface proteoglycans.

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in normal and disease: An introductory overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) represent a novel group of lymphocytes that, different from T and B-lymphocytes lack recombinant activating genes (RAG-1 or RAG-2) and thus do not express rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Members of this family, i.e. NK cells, have been known since long time, while the other ILCs have been discovered only in recent years, possibly because of their predominant localization in tissues, primarily in mucosal tissues, skin and mucosa-associated lymphoid organs. ILC have been grouped in three major subsets on the basis of their phenotypic and functional features as well as of their dependency on given transcription factors (TF). Briefly, ILC-1 are dependent on T-bet TF and produce interferon (IFN)-γ. Group 2 ILC (ILC2) express GATA-3 TF and produce IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 (Type 2) cytokines while group 3 ILC (ILC3) express RORγt TF and produce IL-17 and IL-22. ILC provide early defenses against pathogens and intervene in the repair of damaged tissues. ILC activation is mediated by cytokines (specifically acting on different ILC groups) and/or by activating receptors that are, at least in part, the same that had been previously identified in NK cells [1]. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Yin and Yang of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrega, Paolo; Campana, Stefania; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The recent appreciation of novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as important regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair, raise questions regarding the presence and role of these cells in cancer tissues. In addition to natural killer and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, the ILC family comprises non-cytolytic, cytokine-producing cells that are classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 based on phenotypic and functional characteristics. Differently from natural killer cells, which are the prototypical members of ILC1 and whose role in tumors is better established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression or resistance is still fuzzy and in several instances controversial, since current studies indicate both context-dependent beneficial or pathogenic effects. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of these novel ILC subsets in the context of tumor immunology, highlighting how ILC subsets might behave either as friends or foes. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Th1- and Th2-like subsets of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, Jochem; Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a family of effectors in innate immunity and regulators of tissue remodeling that have a cytokine and transcription factor expression pattern that parallels that of the T-helper (Th) cell family. Here, we discuss how ILCs can be categorized and summarize the

  14. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  15. Pathological and therapeutic roles of innate lymphoid cells in diverse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Kim, Geon; Min, Hyeyoung

    2017-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently defined type of innate-immunity cells that belong to the lymphoid lineage and have lymphoid morphology but do not express an antigen-specific B cell or T-cell receptor. ILCs regulate immune functions prior to the formation of adaptive immunity and exert effector functions through a cytokine release. ILCs have been classified into three groups according to the transcription factors that regulate their development and function and the effector cytokines they produce. Of note, ILCs resemble T helper (Th) cells, such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, and show a similar dependence on transcription factors and distinct cytokine production. Despite their short history in immunology, ILCs have received much attention, and numerous studies have revealed biological functions of ILCs including host defense against pathogens, inflammation, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Here, we describe recent findings about the roles of ILCs in the pathogenesis of various diseases and potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Emerging concepts and future challenges in innate lymphoid cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology. In particular, recent work has highlighted key new questions regarding how these cells communicate with their environment and other cell types during health and disease. This review summarizes new findings in this rapidly developing field that showcase the critical role ILCs play in directing immune responses through their ability to interact with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. In addition, we define remaining challenges and emerging questions facing the field. Finally, this review discusses the potential application of basic studies of ILC biology to the development of new treatments for human patients with inflammatory and infectious diseases in which ILCs play a role. PMID:27811053

  17. Emerging concepts and future challenges in innate lymphoid cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait Wojno, Elia D; Artis, David

    2016-10-17

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology. In particular, recent work has highlighted key new questions regarding how these cells communicate with their environment and other cell types during health and disease. This review summarizes new findings in this rapidly developing field that showcase the critical role ILCs play in directing immune responses through their ability to interact with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. In addition, we define remaining challenges and emerging questions facing the field. Finally, this review discusses the potential application of basic studies of ILC biology to the development of new treatments for human patients with inflammatory and infectious diseases in which ILCs play a role. © 2016 Tait Wojno and Artis.

  18. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Molecular deregulation of signaling in lymphoid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Valeria; Martuscelli, Lavinia; Rossi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    Genomic studies have led to a significant impact both on the pace and the nature of understanding the molecular and biological bases of a variety of lymphoid tumors. An increasingly emerging aspect from genomic studies is that malignant lymphoid cells manipulate signaling pathways that are central to the homeostasis of their normal counterpart, including B- and T-cell receptor signaling, NF-κB signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine signaling, MAP kinase signaling, and NOTCH signaling. This review aims at covering the signaling pathways that are affected by mutations in lymphoid tumors, and how genetic alteration of these pathways may contribute to disease pathogenesis and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pulmonary lymphoid neogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Montani, David; Hammad, Hamida; Waelput, Wim; Girerd, Barbara; Raymond, Nicolas; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Humbert, Marc; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-02-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) present circulating autoantibodies against vascular wall components. Pathogenic antibodies may be generated in tertiary (ectopic) lymphoid tissues (tLTs). To assess the frequency of tLTs in IPAH lungs, as compared with control subjects and flow-induced PAH in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, and to identify local mechanisms responsible for their formation, perpetuation, and function. tLT composition and structure were studied by multiple immunostainings. Cytokine/chemokine and growth factor expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and localized by immunofluorescence. The systemic mark of pulmonary lymphoid neogenesis was investigated by flow cytometry analyses of circulating lymphocytes. As opposed to lungs from control subjects and patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, IPAH lungs contained perivascular tLTs, comprising B- and T-cell areas with high endothelial venules and dendritic cells. Lymphocyte survival factors, such as IL-7 and platelet-derived growth factor-A, were expressed in tLTs as well as the lymphorganogenic cytokines/chemokines, lymphotoxin-α/-β, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, and CXCL13, which might explain the depletion of circulating CCR6(+) and CXCR5(+) lymphocytes. tLTs were connected with remodeled vessels via an ER-TR7(+) stromal network and supplied by lymphatic channels. The presence of germinal center centroblasts, follicular dendritic cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and IL-21(+)PD1(+) follicular helper T cells in tLTs together with CD138(+) plasma cell accumulation around remodeled vessels in areas of immunoglobulin deposition argued for local immunoglobulin class switching and ongoing production. We highlight the main features of lymphoid neogenesis specifically in the lungs of patients with IPAH, providing new evidence of immunological mechanisms in this severe condition.

  2. Innate Lymphoid Cells: A Promising New Regulator in Fibrotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jun; Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Song, Jianxun; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-09-02

    Fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and the persistent accumulation of extracellular matrix, for which the cycle of tissue injury and repair becomes a predominant feature. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play key roles in the progress of fibrosis. The recently identified subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly localize to epithelial surfaces, have been characterized as regulators of chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, representing a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, recent research has implicated ILCs as potential contributing factors to several kinds of fibrosis diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we will summarize and discuss the key roles of ILCs and their related factors in fibrotic diseases and their potential for translation to the clinic.

  3. TOX sets the stage for innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    Like T cells and B cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) develop from common lymphoid progenitors, but how commitment to the ILC lineage is regulated has remained unclear. The transcriptional regulator TOX is important in this process

  4. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Spandan V; Manickam, Cordelia; Ram, Daniel R; Reeves, R Keith

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s) in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  5. Human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, S; Nutman, T B

    2018-02-01

    Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in nonmucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations, the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged. Despite the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in murine helminth infections, little is actually known about the role of human ILCs during parasitic infections. The focus of this review will be to highlight the composition of ILCs in the skin, lymphatics and blood; where the host-parasite interaction is well-defined and to examine the role of ILCs during filarial infections. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spandan V. Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  7. The effect of selenium and vitamin E on the lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells in the lymphoid organ and mucosa-associated lymphatic tissues of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z I; Akter, S H; Islam, M N; Karim, M R; Islam, M R; Kon, Y

    2008-02-01

    The present research has been designed to understand the effect of selenium and vitamin E on the lymphocyte and changes in the frequency of Ig-containing plasma cells in the lymphatic organ and ileum (representative organ for mucosa-associated lymphatic tissues) of different postnatal stages of Kasilla broiler chickens. A routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain were used to study the histology of the lymphocytic changes, and indirect immunoperoxidase staining method was performed for the study of the distributional and dynamical changes of the Ig-containing plasma cells within the lymphatic tissues and in the ileum of control broilers and in the broilers supplemented with different concentration of selenium and vitamin E in the diet. Histologically, the population of lymphocytes decreased in the lobules of the thymus, medulla of bursal follicles, splenic masses, lymphatic nodules of the cecal tonsil, and villi of the ilium in 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg selenium supplemented broilers in comparison with the control. The population of these cells was found to increase in 150 mg and 300 mg vitamin E supplemented chickens in the present study. In the spleen IgG- and the IgM-containing plasma cells were more than IgA-containing plasma cells. In contrast, in the cecal tonsil and ileum IgA-containing plasma cells were more than IgG- and IgM-containing plasma cells. The frequency of these immunopositive cells were decreased in 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg selenium supplementated chickens, and increased their frequency in the chickens supplemented with 150 mg and 300 mg vitamin E. In the spleen the frequency of IgM-containing plasma cells and both in the cecal tonsil and ileum, the IgG-containing plasma cells were more decreased by selenium supplementation which restored in their population by vitamin E supplementation.

  8. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  9. Gene expression trees in lymphoid development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliep Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulatory processes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation are central to developmental biology. Particularly well studied in this respect is the lymphoid system due to its importance for basic biology and for clinical applications. Gene expression measured in lymphoid cells in several distinguishable developmental stages helps in the elucidation of underlying molecular processes, which change gradually over time and lock cells in either the B cell, T cell or Natural Killer cell lineages. Large-scale analysis of these gene expression trees requires computational support for tasks ranging from visualization, querying, and finding clusters of similar genes, to answering detailed questions about the functional roles of individual genes. Results We present the first statistical framework designed to analyze gene expression data as it is collected in the course of lymphoid development through clusters of co-expressed genes and additional heterogeneous data. We introduce dependence trees for continuous variates, which model the inherent dependencies during the differentiation process naturally as gene expression trees. Several trees are combined in a mixture model to allow inference of potentially overlapping clusters of co-expressed genes. Additionally, we predict microRNA targets. Conclusion Computational results for several data sets from the lymphoid system demonstrate the relevance of our framework. We recover well-known biological facts and identify promising novel regulatory elements of genes and their functional assignments. The implementation of our method (licensed under the GPL is available at http://algorithmics.molgen.mpg.de/Supplements/ExpLym/.

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  11. Innate lymphoid cells contribute to allergic airway disease exacerbation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Vorng, Han; Quemener, Sandrine; LeVu, Pauline; Fleury, Sebastien; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Fan, Ying; Duez, Catherine; de Nadai, Patricia; Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important risk factor for asthma exacerbation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated, respectively, in asthma and adipose tissue homeostasis and in obesity-associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We sought to determine the potential involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in allergic airway disease exacerbation caused by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Obesity was induced by means of HFD feeding, and allergic airway inflammation was subsequently induced by means of intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract. AHR, lung and visceral adipose tissue inflammation, humoral response, cytokines, and innate and adaptive lymphoid populations were analyzed in the presence or absence of ILCs. HFD feeding exacerbated allergic airway disease features, including humoral response, airway and tissue eosinophilia, AHR, and T H 2 and T H 17 pulmonary profiles. Notably, nonsensitized obese mice already exhibited increased lung ILC counts and tissue eosinophil infiltration compared with values in lean mice in the absence of AHR. The numbers of total and cytokine-expressing lung ILC2s and ILC3s further increased in HDM-challenged obese mice compared with those in HDM-challenged lean mice, and this was accompanied by high IL-33 and IL-1β levels and decreased ILC markers in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, depletion of ILCs with an anti-CD90 antibody, followed by T-cell reconstitution, led to a profound decrease in allergic airway inflammatory features in obese mice, including T H 2 and T H 17 infiltration. These results indicate that HFD-induced obesity might exacerbate allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving ILC2s and ILC3s. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innate Lymphoid Cells: a new paradigm in immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard; Colonna, Marco; Di Santo, James P.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a growing family of immune cells that mirror the phenotypes and functions of T cells. However, in contrast to T cells, ILCs do not express acquired antigen receptors or undergo clonal selection and expansion when stimulated. Instead, ILCs react promptly to signals from infected or injured tissues and produce an array of secreted proteins termed cytokines that direct the developing immune response into one that is adapted to the original insult. The complex crosstalk between microenvironment, ILCs and adaptive immunity remains to be fully deciphered. Only by understanding these complex regulatory networks can the power of ILCs be controlled or unleashed to regulate or enhance immune responses in disease prevention and therapy. PMID:25999512

  13. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  14. Comparison of lymphoid neoplasm classification. A blinded study between a community and an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J D; Harvey, L A; Fishkin, P A; Knost, J A; Ehsan, A; Smir, B N; Craig, F E

    2001-05-01

    The revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms has been reported as reproducible among expert pathologists and feasible in a community setting. We evaluated the reproducibility of lymphoid neoplasm diagnoses between a community and an academic center. We subtyped 188 lymphoid neoplasms using revised European-American classification criteria. Clinical findings, histologic or cytologic preparations, paraffin-section immunostains, and flow cytometry data were reviewed as appropriate. Diagnoses were compared only after completion of the study. Lymphoma subtype was concordant for 167 (88.8%) of 188 cases. Discordant cases included 15 B-cell, 2 T-cell, and 4 Hodgkin lymphomas. For B-cell neoplasms, discordance was most often due to classifying diffuse large cell lymphoma as another aggressive subtype of lymphoma (n = 6), marginal zone lymphoma as another subtype (n = 4), or follicle center lymphoma grade II as grade III (n = 3). For Hodgkin disease, discordance was most often due to classifying nodular sclerosis as mixed cellularity type (n = 3). Comparison of community and academic center diagnoses demonstrated high concordance for most revised European-American classification subtypes. Some sources of discordance have been addressed in the new World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.

  15. Characteristics of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their role in immunological disorders (an update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Reza; Sharifi, Mehri; Shirvan, Aylar Saba; Azizi, Gholamreza; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a novel family of hematopoietic effectors and regulators of innate immunity. Although these cells are morphologically similar to B cells and T cells, however they do not express antigen receptors. ILCs seems to have emerging roles in innate immune responses against infectious or non-infectious microorganisms, protection of the epithelial barrier, lymphoid organogenesis and inflammation, tissue remodeling and regulating homeostasis of tissue stromal cells. In addition, it has recently been reported that ILCs have a crucial role in several disorders such as allergy and autoimmunity. Based on their phenotype and functions, ILCs are classified into three major groups called ILCs1, ILCs2, and ILCs3. Here we reviewed the most recent data concerning diverse ILC phenotypes, subclasses, functions in immune responses as well as in immune mediated disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Myeloid and lymphoid contribution to non-haematopoietic lineages through irradiation-induced heterotypic cell fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren, J.M.; Liuba, K.; Breitbach, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes...... and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types...... is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion...

  17. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  18. NK Cells and Other Innate Lymphoid Cells in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Paola; Montaldo, Elisa; Croxatto, Daniele; Moretta, Francesca; Bertaina, Alice; Vitale, Chiara; Locatelli, Franco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3) are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILCs provide host defenses against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodeling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defenses that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILCs may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodeling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILCs. Of note, CD34(+) cells isolated from different sources of HSC may differentiate in vitro toward various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g., IL-1β) may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT.

  19. Role of innate lymphoid cells in obesity and metabolic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetang, Jirakrit; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2018-01-01

    The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) have been revealed as anti-obese immune regulators by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the polarization of M2 macrophages, whereas group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), including natural killer cells, may promote adipose tissue inflammation via production of interferon-γ, which in turn polarizes macrophages toward the M1 type. The majority of studies to date have demonstrated the pathological association between ILCs and obesity in the context of adipose tissue inflammation, whereas the roles of ILCs in other organs which participate in obesity development have not been fully characterized. Therefore, identifying the roles of all types of ILCs as central components mediating obesity-associated inflammation, is of primary concern, and may lead to the discovery of novel preventative and therapeutic interventions. PMID:29138853

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C P; Mjösberg, J M; Bernink, J H; Spits, H

    2016-04-01

    It is generally believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. The exact contribution of the adaptive and innate immune system has not been elucidated. However, recent advances in treatments targeting key inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor highlight the crucial role of the innate immune system in IBD. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have recently been identified to play an important role in immune mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we recapitulate the current knowledge on ILCs in IBD. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  6. Long-term Persistence of Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Gut After Intestinal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Joshua; Zuber, Julien; Shonts, Brittany; Yang, Suxiao; Fu, Jianing; Martinez, Mercedes; Farber, Donna L; Kato, Tomoaki; Sykes, Megan

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations in the human gut, and the turnover of these cells and their subsets after transplantation has not been described. Intestinal samples were taken from 4 isolated intestine and 3 multivisceral transplant recipients at the time of any operative resection, such as stoma closure or revision. ILCs were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. The target population was defined as being negative for lineage markers and double-positive for CD45/CD127. Cells were further stained to define ILC subsets and a donor-specific or recipient-specific HLA marker to analyze chimerism. Donor-derived ILCs were found to persist greater than 8 years after transplantation. Additionally, the percentage of cells thought to be lymphoid tissue inducer cells among donor ILCs was far higher than that among recipient ILCs. Our findings demonstrate that donor-derived ILCs persist long-term after transplantation and support the notion that human lymphoid tissue inducer cells may form in the fetus and persist throughout life, as hypothesized in rodents. Correlation between chimerism and rejection, graft failure, and patient survival requires further study.

  7. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  8. Circulating innate lymphoid cells are unchanged in response to DAC HYP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Geoffrey O; Saenz, Steven A; Huss, David J; Fontenot, Jason D

    2016-05-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in immunity, inflammation, and tissue remodeling and their dysregulation is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. We analyzed the impact of daclizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody, on circulating natural killer (NK) cells and ILCs in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients. An increase in CD56(bright) NK cells and CD56(hi)CD16(intermediate) transitional NK cells was observed. No significant change in total ILCs or major ILC subpopulations was observed. These results refine our understanding of the impact of daclizumab on innate lymphoid cell populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Infection Programs Sustained Lymphoid Stromal Cell Responses and Shapes Lymph Node Remodeling upon Secondary Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes (LNs are constructed of intricate networks of endothelial and mesenchymal stromal cells. How these lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs regulate lymphoid tissue remodeling and contribute to immune responses remains poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive functional and transcriptional analysis of LSC responses to skin viral infection and found that LSC subsets responded robustly, with different kinetics for distinct pathogens. Recruitment of cells to inflamed LNs induced LSC expansion, while B cells sustained stromal responses in an antigen-independent manner. Infection induced rapid transcriptional responses in LSCs. This transcriptional program was transient, returning to homeostasis within 1 month of infection, yet expanded fibroblastic reticular cell networks persisted for more than 3 months after infection, and this altered LN composition reduced the magnitude of LSC responses to subsequent heterologous infection. Our results reveal the complexity of LSC responses during infection and suggest that amplified networks of LN stromal cells support successive immune responses.

  10. Endometrial aspiration biopsy: a non-invasive method of obtaining functional lymphoid progenitor cells and mature natural killer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMenamin, Moya

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of endometrial aspiration biopsy (EAB) with the more traditional dilatation and curettage (D&C) for the procurement of lymphoid progenitor cells and uterine natural killer (NK) populations in endometrial tissue. This prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital examined endometrium obtained from 32 women admitted for laparoscopic gynaecological procedures. Each participant had endometrium sampled using both EAB and D&C. Both methods were assessed as a source of uterine NK and lymphoid progenitor cells. Similar proportions of mature CD45+CD56+ NK cells (range 25.4-36.2%) and CD45+CD34+ lymphoid progenitors (range 1.2-2.0%) were found in tissue obtained using both EAB and D&C. These cells were adequate for flow cytometric analysis, magnetic bead separation and culture. Colony formation by the CD34+ population demonstrated maturational potential. Tissues obtained via endometrial biopsy and D&C are equivalent, by analysis of uterine NK and lymphoid progenitor cells. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of endometrial sampling - endometrial aspiration biopsy and traditional dilatation and curettage - for the procurement of haematopoietic stem cells and uterine natural killer (NK) populations in endometrial tissue. Thirty-two women who had gynaecological procedures in a tertiary referral hospital participated in this study and had endometrial tissue collected via both methods. Similar populations of mature NK cells and haematopoietic stem cells were found in tissue obtained using both endometrial aspiration biopsy and dilatation and curettage. Tissue obtained via endometrial aspiration biopsy was adequate for the culture and growth of haematopoietic stem cells. We conclude that tissue obtained via endometrial biopsy and dilatation and curettage is equivalent, by analysis of uterine NK and haematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry. This has implications for further

  11. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease.

  12. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Bostick, John W.; Zhou, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin) at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease. PMID:29354125

  13. Innate lymphoid cells at the interface between obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait Yahia, Saliha; Bouté, Mélodie; Audousset, Camille; Chenivesse, Cécile; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and asthma prevalence has dramatically and concomitantly increased over the last 25 years, and many epidemiological studies have highlighted obesity as an important risk factor for asthma. Although many studies have been performed, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Innate mechanisms have been involved in both diseases, in particular through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are subdivided into three groups that are defined by their cytokine production and by their master transcription factor expression, in sharp correlation with their T helper counterparts. However, unlike T helper cells, ILCs do not express antigen-specific receptors, but respond to damage-induced signals. ILCs have been found in target tissues of both diseases, and data have implicated these cells in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In particular group 2 ILCs (ILC2) are activated in both the adipose and lung tissues under the effect of interleukin-33 and interleukin-25 expression. However, counter-intuitively to the well-known association between obesity and asthma, ILC2 are beneficial for obesity but deleterious for asthma. This review will examine the roles of ILCs in each disease and recent data highlighting ILCs as a putative link between obesity and asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. The linage-negative, CD127(+), CD161(+) lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ(+)RORγt(+)CD3(-) cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deciphering the Innate Lymphoid Cell Transcriptional Program

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    Cyril Seillet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are enriched at mucosal surfaces, where they provide immune surveillance. All ILC subsets develop from a common progenitor that gives rise to pre-committed progenitors for each of the ILC lineages. Currently, the temporal control of gene expression that guides the emergence of these progenitors is poorly understood. We used global transcriptional mapping to analyze gene expression in different ILC progenitors. We identified PD-1 to be specifically expressed in PLZF+ ILCp and revealed that the timing and order of expression of the transcription factors NFIL3, ID2, and TCF-1 was critical. Importantly, induction of ILC lineage commitment required only transient expression of NFIL3 prior to ID2 and TCF-1 expression. These findings highlight the importance of the temporal program that permits commitment of progenitors to the ILC lineage, and they expand our understanding of the core transcriptional program by identifying potential regulators of ILC development.

  16. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

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    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Covalent inhibition of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase.

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    Ahmed, Vanessa F; Bottini, Nunzio; Barrios, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Covalent inhibitors of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) were identified from a screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecules Repository (MLSMR). Both of the two lead compounds identified have phosphotyrosine-mimetic benzoic acid moieties as well as electrophilic acrylonitrile groups. Inhibition kinetics of both compounds are consistent with covalent modification of the enzyme, with nanomolar KI and reciprocal millisecond kinact values, representing the best efficiency ratios (kinact /KI ) among currently reported covalent LYP inhibitors. Covalent inhibitors can provide longer efficacy and better selectivity than more conventional noncovalent inhibitors, and these lead compounds are an important step toward the development of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-targeted covalent therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The hidden maternal-fetal interface: events involving the lymphoid organs in maternal-fetal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglauer, Elizabeth S.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic disparity between the mother and fetus has long enticed immunologists to search for mechanisms of maternal tolerance to fetal antigens. The study of antigen-specific tolerance in murine and human pregnancy has gained new momentum in recent years through the focus on antigen-presenting cells, uterine lymphatics and fetal antigen-specific maternal T cell responses. In mice, we now know that these responses occur within the secondary lymphoid structures as they can be conveniently tracked through the use of defined, often transgenic fetal antigens and maternal T cell receptors. Although the secondary lymphoid organs are sites of both immunization and tolerization to antigens, the immunological processes that occur in response to fetal antigens during the healthy pregnancy must invariably lead to tolerance. The molecular properties of these maternal-fetal tolerogenic interactions are still being unraveled, and are likely to be greatly influenced by tissue-specific microenvironments and the hormonal milieu of pregnancy. In this article, we discuss the events leading to antigen-specific maternal tolerance, including the trafficking of fetal antigens to secondary lymphoid organs, the properties of the antigen-presenting cells that display them to maternal T lymphocytes, and the nature of the ensuing tolerogenic response. Experimental data generated from human biological specimens as well as murine transgenic models are considered. PMID:19876825

  19. Common-Lymphoid-Progenitor-Independent Pathways of Innate and T Lymphocyte Development

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    Maryam Ghaedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All lymphocytes are thought to develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs. However, lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs are more efficient than CLPs in differentiating into T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s. Here, we have divided LMPPs into CD127− (LMPP−s and CD127+ (LMPP+s subsets and compared them with Ly6D− and Ly6D+ CLPs. Adult LMPP+s differentiated into T cells and ILCs more rapidly and efficiently than other progenitors in transplantation assays. The development of T cells and ILC2s is highly active in the neonatal period. Neonatal CLPs are rare and, unlike prominent neonatal LMPP+s, do not efficiently differentiate into T cells and ILC2s. ILC2s generated in the neonatal period are long lived and persist in adult tissues. These results suggest that some ILCs and T cells may develop from LMPP+s via CLP-independent pathways.

  20. [Overview of lymphoid neoplasms in the fourth edition of the WHO classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Shuji

    2012-06-01

    The fourth edition of the "WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid tissues" was published in 2008 as an updated version of the third edition published in 2001. In this review, the revised points in the lymphoid neoplasms in the fourth edition were summarized from the viewpoint of doctors and medical technologists in clinical laboratories in hospitals. The diseases are classified based on information about morphology, immunophenotype, genetic features, and clinical features. B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with 7 recurrent genetic abnormalities is individually classified as a provisional entity. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is divided into two entities, ALK positive and ALK-negative. The pathogenesis of the former is involved with ALK gene rearrangement with several partner genes. Two borderline categories between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma, and between DLBCL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma are newly recognized as a distinct disease entity based on the overlapping morphological and genetic features. In the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms, understanding the morphological features is fundamental. On the other hand, the importance of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry to clarify the immunophenotype, and chromosomal analysis and genetic examination to clarify the genetic features has been raised.

  1. Type-I interferons suppress microglial production of the lymphoid chemokine, CXCL13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Nilufer; Rainey-Barger, Emily K; Huber, Amanda K; Blakely, Pennelope K; Irani, David N

    2014-09-01

    Lymphoid chemokines are crucial for the development and maintenance of lymphoid organs, but their ectopic expression in non-lymphoid tissues is implicated in both local response to infection and chronic organ-specific autoimmunity. Production of one such chemokine, C-X-C motif ligand 13 (CXCL13), within the central nervous system (CNS) has been linked to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), although little is known about factors controlling its expression in different neural cell types and across a range of disease states. We provoked acute neuroinflammation in experimental animals without causing any associated demyelination using neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) to better understand the sources and regulators of this chemokine in the CNS. We found that mice genetically deficient in the transcription factor, interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-7 (IRF7), made significantly higher CXCL13 protein levels in the CNS compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Microglia proved to be the main producer of CXCL13 in the brain during infection of both WT and IRF7(-/-) mice, and primary microglia cultured in vitro generated CXCL13 following stimulation with either virus particles or synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Microglia cultured from IRF7(-/-) mice selectively overproduced CXCL13, and manipulation of extracellular type-I IFN levels demonstrated the existence of a negative feedback loop whereby type-I IFN receptor signaling specifically suppressed microglial CXCL13 release. Since IFN-β is used to treat patients with relapsing-remitting MS and yet acts through unknown mechanisms, we speculate that suppressed lymphoid chemokine production by microglia could contribute to its therapeutic effects. © 2014 The Authors. Glia Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lisinopril to Decrease Lymphoid Fibrosis in Antiretroviral-Treated, HIV-infected Individuals

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    Leslie Renee Cockerham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. Methods: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. All participants underwent rectal biopsies prior to starting the study drug and at 22 weeks, and there were regular blood draws. The primary end point was the change in HIV RNA and DNA levels in rectal tissue. Secondary outcomes included the change in 1 HIV levels in blood; 2 Gag-specific T-cell responses; 3 levels of T-cell activation; and 4 collagen deposition. Results: The addition of lisinopril did not have a significant effect on the levels of HIV RNA or DNA in gut tissue or blood, Gag-specific responses, or levels of T-cell activation. Lisinopril also did not have a significant impact on lymphoid fibrosis in the rectum, as assessed by quantitative histology or heavy water labeling. Conclusions: Treatment with lisinopril for 24 weeks in HIV-infected adults did not have an effect on lymphoid fibrosis, immune activation, or gut tissue viral reservoirs. Further study is needed to see if other anti-fibrotic agents may be useful in reversing lymphoid fibrosis and reducing HIV levels. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01535235

  3. NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Paola eVacca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC. At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3 are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILC provide host defences against viruses, bacteria and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodelling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defences that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILC may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodelling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILC. Of note, CD34+ cells isolated from different sources of HSC, may differentiate in vitro towards various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g. IL-1β may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT.

  4. Bioengineering of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells and Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ye, Yanqi; Bomba, Hunter N; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming. Alternatively, biomimetic materials and strategies have been applied to develop artificial immune cells and lymphoid organs, which have attracted considerable attentions. In this review, we survey the latest studies on engineering biomimetic materials for immunotherapy, focusing on the perspectives of bioengineering artificial antigen presenting cells and lymphoid organs. The opportunities and challenges of this field are also discussed.

  5. [B-cellular lymphoid follicles of gingival mucous membrane in cases of chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiborodin, I V; Voitovich, A B; Kozlova, E V; Kolmakova, I A; Pritchina, I A

    2009-01-01

    The structure of gingival mucous membrane leukocytal infiltration of 80 patients with chronic apical periodontitis of different age groups was studied by the light microscopy with the use of monoclonal antibodies to CD38. It was disclosed that in gingival tissues of practically all patients 2 types of leukocytal infiltration were present with low number of plasmatic cells and high number of neutrophils (true leukocytal infiltration) and structures with high number of plasmatic cells and low number of neutrophils - most likely lymphoid follicle resultant in mucous membranes of different organs in cases of chronic inflammation. In epithelial gingival paving in cases of chronic apical periodontitis CD38(+)-cells were absent.

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, C M; Omar, L; Swan, A V; Sawle, G; Frankel, J; Grunewald, R; Joannides, T; Jones, P; Laing, H; Richardson, P H

    1994-01-01

    Following a report of the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis a further randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken with the intention of entering 56 patients. In the event it was possible to recruit only 27 patients in a 2.5 year period. Three patients received active treatment openly and 24 were randomised to either active (14) or sham (10) treatment. Treatment was 1980 cGy to the lymphoid system and spleen or sham treatment after full simulation. The primary outcome measure was a comparison of the mean rates of change between treatment groups on the expanded Kurtzke disability scale (EDSS) over the two year follow up period. Patients were also assessed on other clinical outcome measures, psychometry, and serial MRI of the brain. Active treatment resulted in a profound and prolonged fall in T lymphocytes especially those with the CD4 marker and a reversal in CD4:CD8 ratio. No significant benefit was demonstrated on the rate of clinical disease progression (EDSS). A small but significant benefit was found on a score of bladder function. No significant benefit was demonstrated on other clinical or psychometric indices or on subjective visual analogue scales. There was a small but significant difference in the rate of accumulation of lesions on brain MRI favouring the treatment group. The treated group had a higher incidence of clinically relevant side effects, notably amenorrhoea and infections: three deaths (one in the TLI group, two in the sham treated group) occurred. A post hoc calculation indicates that the study had a possible 35% risk of a false negative result using the principal outcome measure. The study fails to confirm the previously reported clinical benefit of TLI although there may be a minor benefit on disease progression as indicated by MRI lesion counts. It is concluded that TLI cannot be recommended for the routine treatment of chronic progressive multiple

  7. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  8. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO): tracking the SLO spread of prions to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrP (Sc), an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP (C)), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases.

  9. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Innate lymphoid cells, possible interaction with microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Kazuyo; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have identified novel lymphocyte subsets named innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) lacking antigen-specific receptors. ILCs are present in a wide variety of epithelial compartments and occupy an intermediate position between acquired immune cells and myeloid cells. ILCs are now classified into three groups: group 1 ILC, group 2 ILC, and group 3 ILC based on their cytokine production patterns that correspond to the helper T cell subsets Th1, Th2, and Th17, respectively. ILCs play important roles in protection against various invading microbes including multicellular parasites, and in the maintenance of homeostasis and repair of epithelial layers. Excessive activation of ILCs, however, leads to various inflammatory disease conditions. ILCs have thus attracted interests of many researchers in the fields of infectious immunity, inflammatory diseases, and allergic diseases. Because epithelial cells sense alterations in environmental cues, it is important to understand the functional interaction between epithelial cells, ILCs, and environmental factors such as commensal microbiota. We discuss in this review developmental pathways of ILCs, their functions, and contribution of commensal microbiota to the differentiation and function of ILCs.

  11. Epigenomic Views of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Shih, Han-Yu; Mikami, Yohei; O'Shea, John J

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. Herein, we review what we have learned in terms of the molecular mechanisms underlying these shared functions, focusing on insights provided by next generation sequencing technologies. We review data on the role of lineage-defining- and signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs). ILC regulomes emerge developmentally whereas the much of the open chromatin regions of T cells are generated acutely, in an activation-dependent manner. And yet, these regions of open chromatin in T cells and ILCs have remarkable overlaps, suggesting that though accessibility is acquired by distinct modes, the end result is that convergent signaling pathways may be involved. Although much is left to be learned, substantial progress has been made in understanding how TFs and epigenomic status contribute to ILC biology in terms of differentiation, specification, and plasticity.

  12. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and asthma

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    Hiroki Kabata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are recently identified cell populations that produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Although ILC2s were initially reported to play a key role in the anti-helminth innate immunity, we now have greater interest in their role in asthma and other allergic diseases. In various asthma mouse models, ILC2s provoke eosinophilic inflammation accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness independent of acquired immunity. Moreover, recent mouse studies show that ILC2s also promote acquired immunity and Th2 polarization, and various cytokines and lipid mediators influence the functions of ILC2s. Although ILC2s have also been identified in humans, studies on the role of human ILC2s in asthma are very limited. Thus far, human studies have shown that there is a slight difference in responsiveness and production of cytokines between mouse and human ILC2s, and it has been suggested that ILC2s are involved in allergic-type asthma and the exacerbation of asthma. In this review, we focus on mouse and human ILC2s, and discuss their role in asthma.

  13. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System

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    David R. Withers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of “exogenous” signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and “endogenous” host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a “communications hub” in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell–cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  14. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of "exogenous" signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and "endogenous" host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a "communications hub" in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell-cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  15. Classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde para os tumores dos tecidos hematopoético e linfoide, 4ª edição, 2008: principais modificações introduzidas em relação à 3ª edição, 2001 World Health Organization classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, 4th edition, 2008: major changes from the 3rd edition, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A Classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS para os tumores do tecido hematopoético e linfoide (4ª edição, 2008¹ representa uma atualização da 3ª edição, 2001². Apresentamos a seguir um resumo dessas alterações nos grupos das doenças mieloproliferativas, mileodisplásicas, leucemias mieloides agudas, neoplasias de células precursoras B e T, e neoplasias de células B, T e NK maduras. O entendimento das alterações genético-moleculares e os resultados alcançados com propostas terapêuticas inovadoras nesses grupos de doenças demandam constante reavaliação de sua classificação, justificando as alterações importantes aqui discutidas1,3-5.The World Health Organization (WHO Classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (4th edition, 2008¹ presents an updated version of the 3rd edition published in 2001². A summary of these changes relates to the groups of chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodisplasia, acute myeloid leukemias, neoplasms of precursor B and T cells and neoplasms derived of mature B, T and NK cells. A better understanding of molecular genetic changes and results achieved with innovative therapeutic approaches in these groups of diseases requires constant reassessment of the classifications, supporting the major changes discussed here, including interesting comments from literature1, 3-5.

  16. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

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    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  18. Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs as Mediators of Inflammation, Release of Cytokines and Lytic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Mousaad Elemam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are an emerging group of immune cells that provide the first line of defense against various pathogens as well as contributing to tissue repair and inflammation. ILCs have been classically divided into three subgroups based on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles. ILC nomenclature is analogous to that of T helper cells. Group 1 ILCs composed of natural killer (NK cells as well as IFN-γ secreting ILC1s. ILC2s have the capability to produce TH2 cytokines while ILC3s and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTis are subsets of cells that are able to secrete IL-17 and/or IL-22. A recent subset of ILC known as ILC4 was discovered, and the cells of this subset were designated as NK17/NK1 due to their release of IL-17 and IFN-γ. In this review, we sought to explain the subclasses of ILCs and their roles as mediators of lytic enzymes and inflammation.

  19. Modeling Human Natural Killer Cell Development in the Era of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D; Freud, Aharon G; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the discovery of natural killer (NK) cells, their developmental pathways in mice and humans have not yet been completely deciphered. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cells can develop in multiple tissues throughout the body. Moreover, detailed and comprehensive models of NK cell development were proposed soon after the turn of the century. However, with the recent identification and characterization of other subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which show some overlapping functional and phenotypic features with NK cell developmental intermediates, the distinct stages through which human NK cells develop from early hematopoietic progenitor cells remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to reassess and refine older models of NK cell development in the context of new data and in the era of ILCs. Our group has focused on elucidating the developmental pathway of human NK cells in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs), including tonsils and lymph nodes. Here, we provide an update of recent progress that has been made with regard to human NK cell development in SLTs, and we discuss these new findings in the context of contemporary models of ILC development.

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) as Mediators of Inflammation, Release of Cytokines and Lytic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemam, Noha Mousaad; Hannawi, Suad; Maghazachi, Azzam A

    2017-12-10

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging group of immune cells that provide the first line of defense against various pathogens as well as contributing to tissue repair and inflammation. ILCs have been classically divided into three subgroups based on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles. ILC nomenclature is analogous to that of T helper cells. Group 1 ILCs composed of natural killer (NK) cells as well as IFN-γ secreting ILC1s. ILC2s have the capability to produce T H 2 cytokines while ILC3s and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTis) are subsets of cells that are able to secrete IL-17 and/or IL-22. A recent subset of ILC known as ILC4 was discovered, and the cells of this subset were designated as NK17/NK1 due to their release of IL-17 and IFN-γ. In this review, we sought to explain the subclasses of ILCs and their roles as mediators of lytic enzymes and inflammation.

  1. Modeling Human Natural Killer Cell Development in the Era of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D.; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the discovery of natural killer (NK) cells, their developmental pathways in mice and humans have not yet been completely deciphered. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cells can develop in multiple tissues throughout the body. Moreover, detailed and comprehensive models of NK cell development were proposed soon after the turn of the century. However, with the recent identification and characterization of other subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which show some overlapping functional and phenotypic features with NK cell developmental intermediates, the distinct stages through which human NK cells develop from early hematopoietic progenitor cells remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to reassess and refine older models of NK cell development in the context of new data and in the era of ILCs. Our group has focused on elucidating the developmental pathway of human NK cells in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs), including tonsils and lymph nodes. Here, we provide an update of recent progress that has been made with regard to human NK cell development in SLTs, and we discuss these new findings in the context of contemporary models of ILC development. PMID:28396671

  2. Lymphoid Polyposis in an Adult Male- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamina Islam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Benign lymphoid polyposis is a rare histologic entity and should not be confused with malignant disease of the colon and rectum. We present a case of lymphoid polyposis in the intestine in a 26 years old male patient who was admitted for the treatment of faecal fistula. He had history of appendectomy, followed by ileostomy four years back. Physical examination revealed multiple faecal fistulae in the right lower abdomen. Right-sided hemicolectomy was done. Gross examination showed multiple polyps through out the specimen; the junction between caecum and ascending colon was found partially stenosed. Microscopy revealed polypoid structures consisting of multiple lymphoid follicles with prominent germinal centers. A stenosed area represented probable fistulous tract within the fibrosis. The final diagnosis was lymphoid polyposis based on clinical, gross and microscopic features. Keywords: Lymphoid polyposis; Faecal fistula. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v4i2.8643 BSMMU J 2011; 4(2:119-121

  3. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate and exhibit disease-induced activation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julianne K; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are immune cells that reside in tissues that interface with the external environment and contribute to the first line defense against pathogens. However, they also have roles in promoting chronic inflammation. Here we demonstrate that group 3 ILCs, (ILC3s - CD45+Lin-IL-7Rα+RORγt+), are normal residents of the meninges and exhibit disease-induced accumulation and activation in EAE. In addition to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF, ILC3s constitutively express CD30L and OX40L, molecules required for memory T cell survival. We show that disease-induced trafficking of transferred wild type T cells to the meninges is impaired in ILC3-deficient Rorc-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a c-kit+ ILC3 subset that promotes ectopic lymphoid follicle development, a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, are reduced in the meninges of EAE-resistant c-kit mutant Kit(W/Wv) mice. We propose that ILC3s sustain neuroinflammation by supporting T cell survival and reactivation in the meninges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-7 Availability Is Maintained by a Hematopoietic Cytokine Sink Comprising Innate Lymphoid Cells and T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher E; Spasova, Darina S; Frimpong-Boateng, Kwesi; Kim, Hee-Ok; Lee, Minji; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-07-18

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) availability determines the size and proliferative state of the resting T cell pool. However, the mechanisms that regulate steady-state IL-7 amounts are unclear. Using experimental lymphopenic mouse models and IL-7-induced homeostatic proliferation to measure IL-7 availability in vivo, we found that radioresistant cells were the source of IL-7 for both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Hematopoietic lineage cells, although irrelevant as a source of IL-7, were primarily responsible for limiting IL-7 availability via their expression of IL-7R. Unexpectedly, innate lymphoid cells were found to have a potent influence on IL-7 amounts in the primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. These results demonstrate that IL-7 homeostasis is achieved through consumption by multiple subsets of innate and adaptive immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spoiling for a Fight: B Lymphocytes As Initiator and Effector Populations within Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Autoimmunity and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsughayyir, Jawaher; Pettigrew, Gavin J; Motallebzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) develop at ectopic sites within chronically inflamed tissues, such as in autoimmunity and rejecting organ allografts. TLOs differ structurally from canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), in that they lack a mantle zone and are not encapsulated, suggesting that they may provide unique immune function. A notable feature of TLOs is the frequent presence of structures typical of germinal centers (GCs). However, little is known about the role of such GCs, and in particular, it is not clear if the B cell response within is autonomous, or whether it synergizes with concurrent responses in SLOs. This review will discuss ectopic lymphoneogenesis and the role of the B cell in TLO formation and subsequent effector output in the context of autoimmunity and transplantation, with particular focus on the contribution of ectopic GCs to affinity maturation in humoral immune responses and to the potential breakdown of self-tolerance and development of humoral autoimmunity.

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  7. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  8. Ozone-Induced Nasal Type 2 Immunity in Mice Is Dependent on Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Li, Ning; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated ambient concentrations of ozone are associated with activation of eosinophils in the nasal airways of atopic and nonatopic children. Mice repeatedly exposed to ozone develop eosinophilic rhinitis and type 2 immune responses. In this study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis by using lymphoid-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, Rag2(-/-) mice that are devoid of T cells and B cells, and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice that are depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs. The animals were exposed to 0 or 0.8 ppm ozone for 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Mice were killed 24 hours after exposure, and nasal tissues were selected for histopathology and gene expression analysis. ILC-sufficient C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice exposed to ozone developed marked eosinophilic rhinitis and epithelial remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia). Chitinase-like proteins and alarmins (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) were also increased morphometrically in the nasal epithelium of ozone-exposed C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. Ozone exposure elicited increased expression of Il4, Il5, Il13, St2, eotaxin, MCP-2, Gob5, Arg1, Fizz1, and Ym2 mRNA in C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. In contrast, ozone-exposed ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice had no nasal lesions or overexpression of Th2- or ILC2-related transcripts. These results indicate that ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis, nasal epithelial remodeling, and type 2 immune activation are dependent on ILCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that ILCs play an important role in the nasal pathology induced by repeated ozone exposure.

  9. The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Christoph S N; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Moeller, Jesper B

    2017-01-01

    The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells......-localize with cholinergic neurons that express the neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU). In contrast to other haematopoietic cells, ILC2s selectively express the NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1). In vitro stimulation of ILC2s with NMU induced rapid cell activation, proliferation, and secretion of the type 2 cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13......, these data indicate that the NMU-NMUR1 neuronal signalling circuit provides a selective mechanism through which the enteric nervous system and innate immune system integrate to promote rapid type 2 cytokine responses that can induce anti-microbial, inflammatory and tissue-protective type 2 responses...

  10. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  11. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  12. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

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  7. Characterization and Quantification of Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets in Human Lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien C De Grove

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC are a new family of innate immune cells that have emerged as important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation. However, limited data are available concerning the relative abundance and characteristics of ILC in the human lung.The aim of this study was to characterize and enumerate the different ILC subsets in human lung by multi-color flow cytometry.Within the CD45+ Lin- CD127+ pulmonary ILC population, we identified group 1 (ILC1, group 2 (ILC2 and group 3 (ILC3 innate lymphoid cells using specific surface markers (i.e. IL12Rβ2, CRTH2 and CD117 respectively and key transcription factors (i.e. T-bet, GATA-3 and RORγT respectively. Based on the presence of NKp44, ILC3 were further subdivided in natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR+ and NCR- ILC3. In addition, we demonstrated the production of signature cytokines IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-17A, IL-22 and GM-CSF in the pulmonary ILC population. Interestingly, we observed a tendency to a higher frequency of NCR- ILC3 in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD compared with controls.We show that the three main ILC subsets are present in human lung. Importantly, the relative abundance of ILC subsets tended to change in COPD patients in comparison to control individuals.

  8. Immunohistochemical correlation between microvessel density and lymphoid infiltrate in radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzi, A; Aspriello, S D; Ferrante, L; Stramazzotti, D; Colella, G; Balercia, P; Lo Muzio, L; Piemontese, M; Goteri, G; Rubini, C

    2013-01-01

    Radicular cysts occur as a result of the immunological response to continuous antigenic stimulation from root canals. We correlated the immunophenotypical composition of the lymphoid infiltrate to the microvessel density expressed by the count of CD34 reactive endothelial cells in radicular cysts. Thirty-four cases of radicular cysts were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against B- and T-cell antigens (CD20, CD3, CD4, CD8) and against the endothelial cell marker CD34. Statistical analysis was performed. In the epithelium, we observed a low amount of lymphoid infiltrate in all 34 radicular cysts, and a strong significant negative correlation between T and B lymphocytes and between T-helper and T-cytotoxic/suppressor lymphocytes. In the cyst capsule, we observed a significant positive correlation between B and T lymphocytes, B and T-cytotoxic/suppressor lymphocytes, T and T-helper lymphocytes and between the number of CD34+ blood vessels and T and T-helper lymphocytes, respectively. We observed a statistically significant correlation between percentage of CD34+ vessels and inflammatory infiltrate grade. Both humoral and cellular immune reactions and neovascularization are likely to occur in the complex events of tissue destruction. The inflammatory infiltrate has an important role in neoangiogenesis and consequently in radicular cysts development and growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. IL-23 activates innate lymphoid cells to promote neonatal intestinal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; He, Zhengxiang; Slinger, Erik; Bongers, Gerold; Lapenda, Taciana L S; Pacer, Michelle E; Jiao, Jingjing; Beltrao, Monique F; Soto, Alan J; Harpaz, Noam; Gordon, Ronald E; Ochando, Jordi C; Oukka, Mohamed; Iuga, Alina Cornelia; Chensue, Stephen W; Blander, Julie Magarian; Furtado, Glaucia C; Lira, Sergio A

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) responsive group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated in immune homeostasis and pathogenesis in the adult, but little is known about their roles in the newborn. Here we show that IL-23 promotes conversion of embryonic intestinal Lin(-)IL-23R(+)Thy1(+) cells into IL-22-producing Thy1(+)Sca-1(hi) ILC3s in vitro. Gut-specific expression of IL-23 also activated and expanded Thy1(+)Sca-1(hi) ILC3s, which produced IL-22, IL-17, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and were distinct from canonical CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These ILC3s accumulated under the epithelium in intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1-positive cell aggregates together with neutrophils that disrupted the epithelium, leading to the formation of discrete intestinal erosions, bleeding, and neonatal death. Genetic and antibody depletion of ILC3s rescued the mice from neonatal death. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers and offspring prolonged survival of IL-23 transgenic mice, suggesting a role for the commensal flora on ILC3-induced pathogenesis. Our results reveal a novel role for the IL-23-ILC3s axis in the pathogenesis of neonatal intestinal inflammation.

  10. Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in the Republic of Korea: analysis of 5318 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Och; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Dae Ho; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Park, Chan Jeoung; Jang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Bong-Hee; Huh, Jooryung

    2010-10-01

    Compared with the West, the overall incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is lower, and the subtype distribution is distinct in Asia. To comprehensively investigate the subtype distribution with the age and sex factors, and temporal changes of subtype proportions, we re-assessed all patients with lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed at a large oncology service in the Republic of Korea from 1989 to 2008 using the World Health Organization classifications. Of the total 5,318 patients, 66.9% had mature B-cell neoplasms, 12.5% had mature T/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms, 16.4% had precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL), and 4.1% had Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30.5%), plasma cell myeloma (14.0%), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma; 12.4%), B-cell ALL/LBL (11.3%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (4.1%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (4.0%), T-cell ALL/LBL (3.9%), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (3.9%). Most subtypes showed male predominance, with an average M/F ratio of 1.3. Most mature lymphoid neoplasms were diseases of adults (mean age, 53.5 yr), whereas ALL/LBLs were of young individuals (mean age, 20.3 yr). When the relative proportion of subtypes were compared between two decades (1989-1998 vs. 1999-2008), especially MALT lymphoma has increased in proportion, whereas T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL have slightly decreased. In summary, the lymphoid neoplasms of Koreans shared some epidemiologic features similar to those of other countries, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. Although the increase in incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is relatively modest in Korea, recent increase of MALT lymphoma and decrease of T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL are interesting findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  12. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  14. THE EXTENT OF CLONAL STRUCTURE IN DIFFERENT LYMPHOID ORGANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMANS, MHA; WUBBENA, A; KROESE, FGM; HUNT, SV; COWAN, R; OPSTELTEN, D

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the clonal organization of lymphoid organs, we studied the distribution in situ of donor-derived cells in near-physiological chimeras. We introduced RT7b fetal liver cells into nonirradiated congenic RT7a neonatal rats. The chimerism 6-20 wk after injection ranged from 0.3 to

  15. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  16. Ontogenic development of immunoglobulins (Igs-positive lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs of native chickens of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nabiul Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first appearance, distribution and frequency of immunoglobulins (Igs-positive lymphocytes were investigated in the lymphoid organs of native chicken’s embryos from embryonic day (ED 8 to ED 20. The tissues from the lymphoid organs were dehydrated in alcohol, cleared in xylene, embedded in different grades of paraffin and 6-micron thick sections were immunostained by the indirect immunoperoxidase method using antichicken immunoglobulins. IgM-positive lymphocytes were first identified in the follicles of bursa of Fabricius at ED 10, in the white pulp of the spleen at ED 14 and in the lamina propria of the cecal tonsil at ED 20. Their frequencies of populations were statistically significant from ED 14 to ED 20. IgG-positive lymphocytes were first appeared in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen at ED 20. In the bursa IgG-positive lymphocytes were located in the medulla and cortical part of the follicles, whereas, in the spleen these immune cells were located around the white pulp. IgA-positive lymphocytes were not observed in any of the developing lymphoid organs of the present study. When the data for bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and cecal tonsil were statistically compared, it was observed that both IgM- and IgG-positive lymphocytes were significantly higher in bursa of Fabricius.

  17. Features of cell degeneration and death in hepatic failure and systemic lymphoid depletion characteristic of porcine circovirus-2-associated postweaning multisystemic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, S; Ellis, J; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Oglesbee, M; Alldinger, S; Allan, G

    2004-09-01

    Tissue section replicates from lymphoid tissues and livers of gnotobiotic swine were examined by immunohistochemistry for the colocalization of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) nucleocapsid and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated incorporation of biotinylated nucleotides (UTP) onto the 3'-exposed hydroxyl groups (nick end labeling) nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (TUNEL), a marker for apoptosis. Single- and dually stained replicates from uninfected controls, subclinically affected PCV-2-infected gnotobiotic pigs, PCV-2-infected piglets immunosuppressed with cyclosporine (Cys), and PCV-2-infected piglets with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were evaluated. Thymuses were used as positive controls for apoptosis absent PCV-2, tissue sections from dogs given hyperthermic stress were examined as positive controls for induced TUNEL. Tissues from heat-stressed dogs contained TUNEL-positive cell nuclei in both lymphoid tissues and liver, TUNEL was greatest shortly after the delivery of the hyperthermic insult. In uninfected control and subclinically affected PCV-2-infected gnotobiotic pigs, rare hepatocytes and lymphoid cells were TUNEL positive, the frequency of these was similar to that seen in uninfected controls. In PMWS-affected and Cys-treated PCV-2 piglets, the only consistent strongly positive TUNEL signal was contained within the cytoplasm of virus-positive phagocytic mononuclear cells. In phagocytes, some PCV-2 inclusions were TUNEL positive. Collectively, these data indicate that apoptosis is not the primary mechanism of lymphoid depletion and hepatocyte loss in PMWS. Apoptosis associated with systemic viral diseases may be attributable to pyrexia rather than direct or indirect effects of viruses on target cells.

  18. Innate lymphoid cells in the initiation, regulation and resolution of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    A previously unappreciated cell type of the innate immune system, termed innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), has been characterized in mice and humans, and found to profoundly influence the induction, regulation and resolution of inflammation. ILCs play an important role in these processes in murine models of infection, inflammatory disease and tissue repair. Further, disease association studies in defined patient populations have identified significant alterations in ILC responses, suggesting a potential role for these cell populations in human health and disease. In this review, we discuss the emerging family of ILCs, the role of ILCs in inflammation, and how current or novel therapeutic strategies could be employed to selectively modulate ILC responses and limit chronic inflammatory diseases in patients. PMID:26121198

  19. The Role of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Immune-Mediated Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meifang; Zhang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified group of innate immune cells lacking antigen-specific receptors that can mediate immune responses and regulate tissue homeostasis and inflammation. ILCs comprise group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs, and group 3 ILCs. These ILCs usually localize at mucosal surfaces and combat pathogens by the rapid release of certain cytokines. However, the uncontrolled activation of ILCs can also lead to damaging inflammation, especially in the gut, lung, and skin. Although the physiological and pathogenic roles of ILCs in liver diseases have been attracting increasing attention recently, there has been no systematic review regarding the roles of ILCs in immune-mediated liver diseases. Here, we review the relationships between the ILC subsets and their functions in immune-mediated liver diseases, and discuss their therapeutic potential based on current knowledge about the functional roles of these cells in liver diseases. PMID:28659927

  20. Macrophage and Innate Lymphoid Cell Interplay in the Genesis of Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hams, Emily; Bermingham, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic pathological feature of an array of chronic diseases, where development of fibrosis in tissue can lead to marked alterations in the architecture of the affected organs. As a result of this process of sustained attrition to organs, many diseases that involve fibrosis are often progressive conditions and have a poor long-term prognosis. Inflammation is often a prelude to fibrosis, with innate and adaptive immunity involved in both the initiation and regulation of the fibrotic process. In this review, we will focus on the emerging roles of the newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the generation of fibrotic disease with an examination of the potential interplay between ILC and macrophages and the adaptive immune system. PMID:26635811

  1. Adipose Type One Innate Lymphoid Cells Regulate Macrophage Homeostasis through Targeted Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulenouar, Selma; Michelet, Xavier; Duquette, Danielle; Alvarez, David; Hogan, Andrew E; Dold, Christina; O'Connor, Donal; Stutte, Suzanne; Tavakkoli, Ali; Winters, Desmond; Exley, Mark A; O'Shea, Donal; Brenner, Michael B; von Andrian, Ulrich; Lynch, Lydia

    2017-02-21

    Adipose tissue has a dynamic immune system that adapts to changes in diet and maintains homeostatic tissue remodeling. Adipose type 1 innate lymphoid cells (AT1-ILCs) promote pro-inflammatory macrophages in obesity, but little is known about their functions at steady state. Here we found that human and murine adipose tissue harbor heterogeneous populations of AT1-ILCs. Experiments using parabiotic mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed differential trafficking of AT1-ILCs, particularly in response to short- and long-term HFD and diet restriction. At steady state, AT1-ILCs displayed cytotoxic activity toward adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Depletion of AT1-ILCs and perforin deficiency resulted in alterations in the ratio of inflammatory to anti-inflammatory ATMs, and adoptive transfer of AT1-ILCs exacerbated metabolic disorder. Diet-induced obesity impaired AT1-ILC killing ability. Our findings reveal a role for AT1-ILCs in regulating ATM homeostasis through cytotoxicity and suggest that this function is relevant in both homeostasis and metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-07-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

  3. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in asthma and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) belong to an expanding family of innate lymphocytes that provide a potent source of immune effector cytokines at the initiation of immune responses. ILC2 arise, under the control of the transcription factors RORα and GATA3, from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, to secrete type-2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Using experimental models, ILC2 have been implicated in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, but also in metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, recent reports have indicated that ILC2 not only play roles at the initiation of type-2 immunity but can also contribute to chronic pathology, such as fibrosis, and can impact on the priming of the adaptive T-cell response. The identification of ILC2 in patients with allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis indicates that these cells may represent new therapeutic targets.

  4. Development, differentiation and diversity of innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Andreas; Colonna, Marco; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of an unprecedented complexity in innate lymphocyte lineages, now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILC). ILC are preferentially located at barrier surfaces and are important for protection against pathogens and for the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of ILC has been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recent evidence suggests that ILC can be grouped into two separate lineages, cytotoxic ILC represented by conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and cytokine-producing helper-like ILC (i.e., ILC1, ILC2, ILC3). We will focus here on current work in humans and mice that has identified core transcriptional circuitry required for the commitment of lymphoid progenitors to the ILC lineage. The striking similarities in transcriptional control of ILC and T cell lineages reveal important insights into the evolution of transcriptional programs required to protect multicellular organisms against infections and to fortify barrier surfaces. PMID:25238093

  5. Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

  6. Prognostic markers and DNA methylation profiling in lymphoid malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhoi, Sujata

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been achieved towards identifying novel biomarkers in lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), at the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic level for accurate risk-stratification and prediction of treatment response. In paper I, we validated the prognostic relevance of a recently proposed RNA-based marker in CLL, UGT2B17, and analyzed its expression levels in 253 early-stage patients. Besides confi...

  7. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

  8. Dysregulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J; Cols, Montserrat; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2017-10-05

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings. Among the most intriguing of these associations is elevation of interferon signature genes in CVID patients with inflammatory/autoimmune complications, as a similar gene expression profile is found in systemic lupus erythematosus and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Linked with this heightened interferon signature in CVID is an expansion of circulating IFN-γ-producing innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells are key regulators of both protective and pathogenic immune responses that have been extensively studied in recent years. Further exploration of innate lymphoid cell biology in CVID may uncover key mechanisms underlying the development of inflammatory complications in these patients and may inspire much needed novel therapeutic approaches.

  9. Logical modeling of lymphoid and myeloid cell specification and transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombet, Samuel; van Oevelen, Chris; Sardina Ortega, Jose Luis; Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Di Stefano, Bruno; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Graf, Thomas; Thieffry, Denis

    2017-06-06

    Blood cells are derived from a common set of hematopoietic stem cells, which differentiate into more specific progenitors of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, ultimately leading to differentiated cells. This developmental process is controlled by a complex regulatory network involving cytokines and their receptors, transcription factors, and chromatin remodelers. Using public data and data from our own molecular genetic experiments (quantitative PCR, Western blot, EMSA) or genome-wide assays (RNA-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing), we have assembled a comprehensive regulatory network encompassing the main transcription factors and signaling components involved in myeloid and lymphoid development. Focusing on B-cell and macrophage development, we defined a qualitative dynamical model recapitulating cytokine-induced differentiation of common progenitors, the effect of various reported gene knockdowns, and the reprogramming of pre-B cells into macrophages induced by the ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. The resulting network model can be used as a template for the integration of new hematopoietic differentiation and transdifferentiation data to foster our understanding of lymphoid/myeloid cell-fate decisions.

  10. [Benign lymphoid pseudotumors of the nasal cavity and HIV infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacouchia, N; N'Gattia, K V; Effi, B; Tanon-Anoh, M-J; Kouassi, M; Kouassi, B

    2006-01-01

    To return particular aspects of the benign lymphoid pseudotumor of the cavum. It is about a prospective survey on 7 years achieved in the ENT services of university hospital of Treichville (1994-1995) and of Bouaké (1996-2001). Five cases have been kept. There were 4 women and 1 man aged between 26 years and 47 years. The main reason of consultation was the hypoacousia and the nasal obstruction. A cavum tumor was founded will all the patients during cavoscopy. The tympanometry confirmed the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. The histological operative piece exam noted a lymphoid hyperplasia. HIV serology was positive in 4 cases and negative in 1 case. The treatment consisted in surgical removal of the tumor in 1 case and in 4 cases it was associated with the grommet insertion. Three of the 4 HIV-positive patients received antiviral treatment. The evolution was good with all the patients. The lymphoid pseudotumors of the cavum must make search for a VIH infection at the young.

  11. Studies on genetic and vaccination-induced resistance of chickens to lymphoid tumor transplants 2. Transmissible lymphoid tumor of Olson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J L; Gavora, J S; Grunder, A A; Robertson, A; Speckmann, G W

    1976-01-01

    Transmissible lymphoid tumor (TLT) was inoculated in wing webs of five-week-old chickens of 6 strains. About half of the chickens of each strain had been vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) one week before challenge in the wing web with TLT. Tumors which developed at the site of inoculation usually reached maximum size within 2 weeks and then regressed. In some chickens, however, tumors developed in visceral organs and caused death in the 2nd through 5th weeks postinoculation. Comparisons among strains of chickens in Expt. 1 revealed no differences in mortality. Vaccination with HVT reduced mortality and also the incidence of wing-web tumors (WWT) in all strains of chickens. A lymphoid leukosis virus and a Marek's disease (MD) virus of low virulence were detected in preparations of TLT, and it is suggested that the immunity induced by vaccination may have been directed against tumor antigens associated with MD virus.

  12. Lymphoid polyposis with pseudomembranous colitis in a 4-month child: A rare coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Y Swami; G F D'Costa; B D Baste; V V Narhire; N C Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoid polyposis is a lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract that usually presents as multiple small polyps in the colon during childhood. This should be differentiated from other neoplastic or familial polyposis of the intestine. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is commonly associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but can be a consequence of other disease processes. We report a case of benign lymphoid polyposis of the colon with pseudomembranous colitis in a 4-month ...

  13. IL-33-Mediated Expansion of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Protects from Progressive Glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jan-Hendrik; Becker, Martina; Kopp, Kerstin; Düster, Mathis; Brix, Silke R; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Kluth, Luis A; Gnirck, Ann-Christin; Attar, Madena; Krohn, Sonja; Fehse, Boris; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2017-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have an important role in the immune system's response to different forms of infectious and noninfectious pathologies. In particular, IL-5- and IL-13-producing type 2 ILCs (ILC2s) have been implicated in repair mechanisms that restore tissue integrity after injury. However, the presence of renal ILCs in humans has not been reported. In this study, we show that ILC populations are present in the healthy human kidney. A detailed characterization of kidney-residing ILC populations revealed that IL-33 receptor-positive ILC2s are a major ILC subtype in the kidney of humans and mice. Short-term IL-33 treatment in mice led to sustained expansion of IL-33 receptor-positive kidney ILC2s and ameliorated adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, the expansion of ILC2s modulated the inflammatory response in the diseased kidney in favor of an anti-inflammatory milieu with a reduction of pathogenic myeloid cell infiltration and a marked accumulation of eosinophils that was required for tissue protection. In summary, kidney-residing ILC2s can be effectively expanded in the mouse kidney by IL-33 treatment and are central regulators of renal repair mechanisms. The presence of ILC2s in the human kidney tissue identifies these cells as attractive therapeutic targets for CKD in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Lymphoid follicle cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overexpress the chemokine receptor CXCR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G; Aksoy, Mark O; Georgy, Mary; Hershman, Richard; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiuxia; Hurford, Matthew; Solomides, Charalambos; Chatila, Wissam; Kim, Victor

    2009-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying formation of lung lymphoid follicles (LF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 regulates immune responses in secondary lymphoid structures elsewhere in the body and is highly expressed by Th1 lymphocytes in the airway in COPD. Because chemokine receptors control inflammatory cell homing to inflamed tissue, we reasoned that CXCR3 may contribute to LF formation in COPD. We assessed the expression of CXCR3 and its ligands (IP-10/CXCL10, Mig/CXCL9, and ITAC/CXCL11) by LF cells in never-smokers, smokers without COPD, and subjects with COPD. CXCR3, IP-10, Mig, and ITAC expression were assessed in lung sections from 46 subjects (never-smokers, smokers without COPD [S], and subjects with COPD in GOLD stages 1-4) by immunohistochemistry. CXCR3-expressing T cells (CD8+ or CD4+) and B cells (CD20+) were topographically distributed at the follicle periphery and center, respectively. The percentage of immunohistochemically identified CXCR3+ cells increased progressively while proceeding from S through GOLD 3-4 (P < 0.01 for GOLD 3-4 vs. S). Moreover, the number of CXCR3+ follicular cells correlated inversely with FEV(1) (r = 0.60). The CXCR3 ligands IP-10 and Mig were expressed by several cell types in and around the follicle, including CD68+ dendritic cells/ macrophages, airway epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and T and B cells. These results suggest that LF form in the COPD lung by recruitment and/or retention of CXCR3-expressing T and B lymphocytes, which are attracted to the region through production of CXCR3 ligands IP-10 and Mig by lung structural and follicular cells.

  15. MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, A. G. Lisa; Sahoo, Debashis; Adorno, Maddalena; Wang, Yulei; Weissman, Irving L.; Park, Christopher Y.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1loCD34− lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1negCD34− lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b–overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC. PMID:21118986

  16. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  17. Interplay of innate lymphoid cells and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britanova, Liudmila; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a recently identified group of innate lymphocytes that are preferentially located at barrier surfaces. Barrier surfaces are in direct contact with complex microbial ecosystems, collectively referred to as the microbiota. It is now believed that the interplay of the microbiota with host components (i.e. epithelial cells and immune cells) promotes host fitness by regulating organ homeostasis, metabolism, and host defense against pathogens. In this review, we will give an overview of this multifaceted interplay between ILC and components of the microbiota. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Bidirectional activity of the NWC promoter is responsible for RAG-2 transcription in non-lymphoid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Laszkiewicz

    Full Text Available The recombination-activating genes (RAG-1 and RAG-2 encode a V(DJ recombinase responsible for rearrangements of antigen-receptor genes during T and B cell development, and RAG expression is known to correlate strictly with the process of rearrangement. In contrast to RAG-1, the expression of RAG-2 was not previously detected during any other stage of lymphopoiesis or in any other normal tissue. Here we report that the CpG island-associated promoter of the NWC gene (the third evolutionarily conserved gene in the RAG locus, which is located in the second intron of RAG-2, has bidirectional activity and is responsible for the detectable transcription of RAG-2 in some non-lymphoid tissues. We also identify evolutionarily conserved promoter fragments responsible for this bidirectional activity, and show that it is activated by transcription factor ZFP143. The possible implications of our findings are briefly discussed.

  19. Decrease in Lymphoid Specific Helicase and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Is Associated with Metastasis and Genome Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Chen, Ling; Lai, Weiwei; Yan, Bin; Jiang, Yiqun; Xiao, Desheng; Xi, Sichuan; Cao, Ya; Liu, Shuang; Cheng, Yan; Tao, Yongguang

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change in 5-hmC levels in cancer and associated metastasis is not well defined. We report that the level of 5-hmC was decreased in metastatic tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer relative to that in non-metastasis tumor tissues. Furthermore, our data show that TET2, but not TET3, interacted with LSH, whereas LSH increased TET2 expression through silencing miR-26b-5p and miR-29c-5p. Finally, LSH promoted genome stability by silencing satellite expression by affecting 5-hmC levels in pericentromeric satellite repeats, and LSH was resistant to cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Our data indicate that 5-hmC might serve as a metastasis marker for cancer and that the decreased expression of LSH is likely one of the mechanisms of genome instability underlying 5-hmC loss in cancer.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  1. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  2. The role of innate lymphoid cells in healthy and inflamed skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    system. During the last years, it has become clear that innate lymphoid cells play a role in homeostasis and inflammation of the skin in humans and mice. In this review, we will discuss the role of innate lymphoid cells in healthy and inflamed skin with special focus on their role in atopic dermatitis....

  3. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  4. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E H; Strober, S; Hoppe, R T; Calin, A; Engleman, E G; Kotzin, B L; Tanay, A S; Calin, H J; Terrell, C P; Kaplan, H S

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  5. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  6. Innate lymphoid cells: a paradigm for low SSI in cleft lip repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Erika; Qin, Xu; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Libby; Cai, Lei; Wang, Tailing; Yu, Jack; Akbari, Omid; Baban, Babak

    2016-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate reconstructions demonstrate significantly lower surgical site infection rates compared with clean-contaminated cases, prompting investigation into the pathophysiology causing this discrepancy. Recent studies have identified a new group of innate lymphocytes called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), located in barrier surfaces of the skin, airways, and intestine. Our objectives were to explore for the first time the presence of ILCs in the vermillion of neonates and young children undergoing cleft lip reconstruction and characterize their composition by measuring the three classes of ILCs. Lip tissue samples were collected from 13 subjects undergoing vermillion resection during cleft lip reconstructive surgery. Preparative, transmission electron microscopy, and analytical flow cytometry were performed. The functionality of ILCs was tested in terms of their capacity to produce type 1 (IFN-γ/TNF-α), type 2 (IL-5/IL-13), and type 3 (IL-17/IL-22) cytokines. Data were analyzed using Student t test or the analysis of variance to establish significance (P < 0.05) among groups for all other data. All three classes of ILCs were detected and visualized in the tissue samples. In all samples, the level of ILC2 subset was significantly higher than the other two ILC subsets (P < 0.01), followed by the ILC1 subset, which was present in significantly higher levels than the ILC3 subset (P < 0.05). Our data place ILCs for the first time in the interface of oral mucosal immunity, tissue microenvironment, and homeostasis during and after tissue development, possibly explaining lower infection rates in cleft lip or palate reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Transcription Factor AHR Prevents the Differentiation of a Stage 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Subset to Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Hughes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34−CD117+CD94− immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC types that include interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1-positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here, we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes the differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ interferon (IFN-γ-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET. Hence, we demonstrate the lineage plasticity of human ILCs by identifying AHR as a transcription factor that prevents IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells.

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, David D; Al-Quran, Samer Z; Cardona, Diana M; Li, Ying; Braylan, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be useful in differentiating lymphoma from reactive processes. PMID:22400070

  9. Regulatory Innate Lymphoid Cells Control Innate Intestinal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Chen, Yi; Qu, Yuan; Xiong, Zhen; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Tian, Yong; Yin, Zhinan; Xu, Zhiheng; Fan, Zusen

    2017-09-21

    An emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (termed ILCs) has an essential role in the initiation and regulation of inflammation. However, it is still unclear how ILCs are regulated in the duration of intestinal inflammation. Here, we identify a regulatory subpopulation of ILCs (called ILCregs) that exists in the gut and harbors a unique gene identity that is distinct from that of ILCs or regulatory T cells (Tregs). During inflammatory stimulation, ILCregs can be induced in the intestine and suppress the activation of ILC1s and ILC3s via secretion of IL-10, leading to protection against innate intestinal inflammation. Moreover, TGF-β1 is induced by ILCregs during the innate intestinal inflammation, and autocrine TGF-β1 sustains the maintenance and expansion of ILCregs. Therefore, ILCregs play an inhibitory role in the innate immune response, favoring the resolution of intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  11. [Autoimmune and inflammatory disorders associated with lymphoid hematological malignancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignano, E; Mekinian, A; Jachiet, V; Coppo, P; Fain, O

    2017-06-01

    In this literature review, we reported autoimmune and inflammatory disorders associated with lymphoid hematological malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The different types of systemic involvement are classified by affected organ. We listed in this review the joint diseases, skin, neurologic, hematologic, renal, and vasculitis. We tried to determine whether there is a correlation between each autoimmune manifestation and a specific type of lymphoma or a particular feature that may support a paraneoplastic origin, if there is an impact on the prognosis of the hematological malignancy, and finally, we identified the different therapeutic strategies used in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and aetiology of anaemia in lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, J; Singh, R K Bikramjit; Saxena, R; Gupta, R; Vivekanandan, S; Sreenivas, V; Raina, V; Sharma, A; Kumar, L

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively studied the prevalence, type and causes of anaemia in newly diagnosed patients with lymphoid malignancies. Between January 2007 and June 2008, a total of 316 newly diagnosed, consecutive patients (aged 15 years or above) of Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia. Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were the diagnoses in 81 (25.8%), 203 (64.7%) and 30 (9.6%) patients, respectively. Anaemia was present in 134 patients (42.4%). Anaemia of chronic disease was present in 33/46 (71.7%) and iron deficiency in 18/46 (39.1%) patients. Vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency was detected in 10/46 (21.7%) patients (B12 deficiency alone in 7, folate deficiency alone in 1 and combined B12 and folate deficiency in 2). Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia was detected in 5/46 (10.9%) although direct Coombs test was positive in 17/46 (37%) patients. Among patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, anaemia due to bone marrow involvement was present in 16/40 (40%). In most patients with bone marrow involvement, anaemia was due to other causes. In only 3 patients, anaemia was attributable to bone marrow involvement alone. Anaemia was multifactorial in 18/46 (39.1%) patients. Nutritional deficiency alone or in combination was present in 22/46 (47.8%) patients. Anaemia is common in lymphoid malignancies at initial presentation. Besides managing anaemia of chronic disease and bone marrow involvement, nutritional and autoimmune causes should be ruled out. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  13. Identification of innate lymphoid cells in single-cell RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffiotti, Madeleine; Carmona, Santiago J; Jandus, Camilla; Gfeller, David

    2017-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consist of natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic ILCs that are broadly classified into ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 subtypes. These cells recently emerged as important early effectors of innate immunity for their roles in tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Over the last few years, ILCs have been extensively studied in mouse and human at the functional and molecular level, including gene expression profiling. However, sorting ILCs with flow cytometry for gene expression analysis is a delicate and time-consuming process. Here we propose and validate a novel framework for studying ILCs at the transcriptomic level using single-cell RNA-Seq data. Our approach combines unsupervised clustering and a new cell type classifier trained on mouse ILC gene expression data. We show that this approach can accurately identify different ILCs, especially ILC2 cells, in human lymphocyte single-cell RNA-Seq data. Our new model relies only on genes conserved across vertebrates, thereby making it in principle applicable in any vertebrate species. Considering the rapid increase in throughput of single-cell RNA-Seq technology, our work provides a computational framework for studying ILC2 cells in single-cell transcriptomic data and may help exploring their conservation in distant vertebrate species.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: Will they take your breath away?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Umetsu, Dale. T.; Dekruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease that is characterized by airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and airway inflammation. Although asthma was long thought to be driven by allergen-reactive Th2 cells, it has recently become clear that the pathogenesis of asthma is more complicated and associated with multiple pathways and cell types. A very exciting recent development was the discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as key players in the pathogenesis of asthma. ILCs do not express antigen receptors but react promptly to “danger signals” from inflamed tissue and produce an array of cytokines that direct the ensuing immune response. The roles of ILCs may differ in distinct asthma phenotypes. ILC2s may be critical for initiation of adaptive immune responses in inhaled allergen-driven AHR, but may also function independently of adaptive immunity, mediating influenza-induced AHR. ILC2s also contribute to resolution of lung inflammation through their production of amphiregulin. Obesity-induced asthma, is associated with expansion of IL-17A-producing ILC3s in the lungs. Furthermore, ILCs may also contribute to steroid-resistant asthma. Although the precise roles of ILCs in different types of asthma are still under investigation, it is clear that inhibition of ILC function represents a potential target that could provide novel treatments for asthma. PMID:26891006

  15. Control of epithelial cell function by interleukin-22-producing RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanos, Stephanie L; Vonarbourg, Cedric; Mortha, Arthur; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the defence system of innate lymphocytes is more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and natural helper cells have now been identified. LTi cells are developmentally dependent on the orphan transcription factor RORγt and instruct lymph node development during embryogenesis. More recently, it has become evident, that in addition to their role for lymph organ development, LTi cells are also potent producers of cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 in adult mice. In addition to LTi cells, another RORγt-dependent innate lymphocyte subset co-expressing RORγt and NK cell receptors (NKRs) has been identified. These NKR+ RORγt+ cells are also potent producers of IL-22 but it is unclear whether they are part of the NK cell or LTi cell lineage. This review will highlight recent progress in understanding development and function of innate IL-22-producing lymphocyte subsets. PMID:21391996

  16. Glial-cell-derived neuroregulators control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and gut defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiza, Sales; García-Cassani, Bethania; Ribeiro, Hélder; Carvalho, Tânia; Almeida, Luís; Marques, Rute; Misic, Ana M; Bartow-McKenney, Casey; Larson, Denise M; Pavan, William J; Eberl, Gérard; Grice, Elizabeth A; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2016-07-21

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are major regulators of inflammation and infection at mucosal barriers. ILC3 development is thought to be programmed, but how ILC3 perceive, integrate and respond to local environmental signals remains unclear. Here we show that ILC3 in mice sense their environment and control gut defence as part of a glial–ILC3–epithelial cell unit orchestrated by neurotrophic factors. We found that enteric ILC3 express the neuroregulatory receptor RET. ILC3-autonomous Ret ablation led to decreased innate interleukin-22 (IL-22), impaired epithelial reactivity, dysbiosis and increased susceptibility to bowel inflammation and infection. Neurotrophic factors directly controlled innate Il22 downstream of the p38 MAPK/ERK-AKT cascade and STAT3 activation. Notably, ILC3 were adjacent to neurotrophic-factor-expressing glial cells that exhibited stellate-shaped projections into ILC3 aggregates. Glial cells sensed microenvironmental cues in a MYD88-dependent manner to control neurotrophic factors and innate IL-22. Accordingly, glial-intrinsic Myd88 deletion led to impaired production of ILC3-derived IL-22 and a pronounced propensity towards gut inflammation and infection. Our work sheds light on a novel multi-tissue defence unit, revealing that glial cells are central hubs of neuron and innate immune regulation by neurotrophic factor signals.

  17. Influence of the fibroblastic reticular network on cell-cell interactions in lymphoid organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Graw

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO, such as lymph nodes and the spleen, display a complex micro-architecture. In the T cell zone the micro-architecture is provided by a network of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC and their filaments. The FRC network is thought to enhance the interaction between immune cells and their cognate antigen. However, the effect of the FRC network on cell interaction cannot be quantified to date because of limitations in immunological methodology. We use computational models to study the influence of different densities of FRC networks on the probability that two cells meet. We developed a 3D cellular automaton model to simulate cell movements and interactions along the FRC network inside lymphatic tissue. We show that the FRC network density has only a small effect on the probability of a cell to come into contact with a static or motile target. However, damage caused by a disruption of the FRC network is greatest at FRC densities corresponding to densities observed in the spleen of naïve mice. Our analysis suggests that the FRC network as a guiding structure for moving T cells has only a minor effect on the probability to find a corresponding dendritic cell. We propose alternative hypotheses by which the FRC network might influence the functionality of immune responses in a more significant way.

  18. Influence of the Fibroblastic Reticular Network on Cell-Cell Interactions in Lymphoid Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Frederik; Regoes, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), such as lymph nodes and the spleen, display a complex micro-architecture. In the T cell zone the micro-architecture is provided by a network of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) and their filaments. The FRC network is thought to enhance the interaction between immune cells and their cognate antigen. However, the effect of the FRC network on cell interaction cannot be quantified to date because of limitations in immunological methodology. We use computational models to study the influence of different densities of FRC networks on the probability that two cells meet. We developed a 3D cellular automaton model to simulate cell movements and interactions along the FRC network inside lymphatic tissue. We show that the FRC network density has only a small effect on the probability of a cell to come into contact with a static or motile target. However, damage caused by a disruption of the FRC network is greatest at FRC densities corresponding to densities observed in the spleen of naïve mice. Our analysis suggests that the FRC network as a guiding structure for moving T cells has only a minor effect on the probability to find a corresponding dendritic cell. We propose alternative hypotheses by which the FRC network might influence the functionality of immune responses in a more significant way. PMID:22457613

  19. CD3−CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome: nodal and extranodal histopathological and immunophenotypic features of a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Roumier, Christophe; Aubert, Hélène; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Grardel, Nathalie; Poulain, Stéphanie; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Seneschal, Julien; Salles, Gilles; Ghomari, Kamel; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Morschhauser, Franck; Lambotte, Olivier; Ackerman, Félix; Trauet, Jacques; Geffroy, Sandrine; Dumezy, Florent; Capron, Monique; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Taieb, Alain; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Prin, Lionel; Labalette, Myriam; Launay, David; Preudhomme, Claude; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The CD3−CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by hypereosinophilia and clonal circulating CD3−CD4+ T cells. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been described during this disease course, and we observed in our cohort of 23 patients 2 cases of angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. We focus here on histopathological (n=12 patients) and immunophenotypic (n=15) characteristics of CD3−CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Atypical CD4+ T cells lymphoid infiltrates were found in 10 of 12 CD3−CD4+ L-HES patients, in lymph nodes (n=4 of 4 patients), in skin (n=9 of 9) and other extra-nodal tissues (gut, lacrymal gland, synovium). Lymph nodes displayed infiltrates limited to the interfollicular areas or even an effacement of nodal architecture, associated with proliferation of arborizing high endothelial venules and increased follicular dendritic cell meshwork. Analysis of 2 fresh skin samples confirmed the presence of CD3−CD4+ T cells. Clonal T cells were detected in at least one tissue in 8 patients, including lymph nodes (n=4 of 4): the same clonal T cells were detected in blood and in at least one biopsy, with a maximum delay of 23 years between samples. In the majority of cases, circulating CD3−CD4+ T cells were CD2hi (n=9 of 14), CD5hi (n=12 of 14), and CD7−(n=4 of 14) or CD7low (n=10 of 14). Angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma can also present with CD3−CD4+ T cells; despite other common histopathological and immunophenotypic features, CD10 expression and follicular helper T-cell markers were not detected in lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome patients, except in both patients who developed angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, and only at T-cell lymphoma diagnosis. Taken together, persistence of tissular clonal T cells and histopathological features define CD3−CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome as a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, which should not be

  20. CD3-CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome: nodal and extranodal histopathological and immunophenotypic features of a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Roumier, Christophe; Aubert, Hélène; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Grardel, Nathalie; Poulain, Stéphanie; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Seneschal, Julien; Salles, Gilles; Ghomari, Kamel; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Morschhauser, Franck; Lambotte, Olivier; Ackerman, Félix; Trauet, Jacques; Geffroy, Sandrine; Dumezy, Florent; Capron, Monique; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Taieb, Alain; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Prin, Lionel; Labalette, Myriam; Launay, David; Preudhomme, Claude; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    The CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by hypereosinophilia and clonal circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been described during this disease course, and we observed in our cohort of 23 patients 2 cases of angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. We focus here on histopathological (n=12 patients) and immunophenotypic (n=15) characteristics of CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Atypical CD4(+) T cells lymphoid infiltrates were found in 10 of 12 CD3(-)CD4(+) L-HES patients, in lymph nodes (n=4 of 4 patients), in skin (n=9 of 9) and other extra-nodal tissues (gut, lacrymal gland, synovium). Lymph nodes displayed infiltrates limited to the interfollicular areas or even an effacement of nodal architecture, associated with proliferation of arborizing high endothelial venules and increased follicular dendritic cell meshwork. Analysis of 2 fresh skin samples confirmed the presence of CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Clonal T cells were detected in at least one tissue in 8 patients, including lymph nodes (n=4 of 4): the same clonal T cells were detected in blood and in at least one biopsy, with a maximum delay of 23 years between samples. In the majority of cases, circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells were CD2(hi) (n=9 of 14), CD5(hi) (n=12 of 14), and CD7(-)(n=4 of 14) or CD7(low) (n=10 of 14). Angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma can also present with CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells; despite other common histopathological and immunophenotypic features, CD10 expression and follicular helper T-cell markers were not detected in lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome patients, except in both patients who developed angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, and only at T-cell lymphoma diagnosis. Taken together, persistence of tissular clonal T cells and histopathological features define CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome as a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative

  1. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of xenogeneic, allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafts on lymphocyte populations in peripheral lymphoid organs of the nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B; Stenvang, J P

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain information about the effect of xenografted, allografted and isografted thymic tissue on peripheral lymphoid organs of immune-deficient rats, athymic nude LEW rats of ninth backcross-intercross were grafted with fetal calf and neonatal BDIX and LEW thymus. Adrenalectomy was also...... performed in some animals in order to obtain a possible enhancement of the immunological reconstitution. Both groups of isogeneic-thymus-grafted animals had more T helper cells than the nude controls. Furthermore, they had more densely populated paracortical areas in the inguinal lymph nodes and higher...... lymphocyte counts in the thoracic duct lymph. Finally, the inguinal lymph nodes contained germinal centres. Xenogeneic and allogeneic thymus transplants did not induce constant changes in the parameters observed compared with the untreated nudes. No clear difference was observed between the adrenalectomized...

  3. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  4. Diagnostics and treatment of pulmonary BALT lymphoma: a report on four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váróczy, L; Gergely, L; Illés, A

    2003-06-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a lymphoid aggregate located in the submucosal area of bronchioles and plays a central role in airway mucosal immunity by inducing the accumulation of secretory IgA-producing cells. Long-lasting antigen stimuli promote the hyperplasia of BALT, which may develop into pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoma (baltoma). Most pulmonary lymphomas are low-grade B-cell lymphomas. We have recently treated four patients with BALT lymphoma and this is our first report on their diagnostics and treatment. Based on these cases we wanted to demonstrate the difficulties of differential diagnosis during bronchoscopic and computed tomography (CT) examinations as well as the pitfalls of thoracosurgical vs hemato-oncological treatments.

  5. The effects of prolonged oral administration of gold nanoparticles on the morphology of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Pakhomy, Svetlana S.; Zlobina, Olga V.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the usage of gold nanoparticles as photosensitizers and immunomodulators for plasmonic photothermal therapy has attracted a great attention of researches and end-users. In our work, the influence of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes on the morphological changes of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs was investigated. The 24 white outbred male rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into groups and administered orally for 30 days the suspension of gold nanospheres with diameters of 2, 15 and 50 nm at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. To prevent GNPs aggregation in a tissue and enhance biocompatibility, they were functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol. The withdrawal of the animals from the experiment and sampling of spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow tissues for morphological study were performed a day after the last administration. In the spleen the boundary between the red and white pulp was not clearly differ in all experimental groups, lymphoid follicles were significantly increased in size, containing bright germinative centers represented by large blast cells. The stimulation of lymphocyte and myelocytic series of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes was increased in all structural zones of lymph nodes. The more pronounced changes were found in the group with administration of 15 nm nanoparticles. Thus, the morphological changes of cellular components of hematopoietic organs have size-dependent character and indicate the activation of the migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells after prolonged oral administration of GNPs.

  6. Alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol drinkers have a decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, whereas results for myeloid neoplasms are inconsistent. However, most of these studies have used retrospective data. We examined prospectively whether alcohol consumption decreases the

  7. Context-Dependent Development of Lymphoid Stroma from Adult CD34+ Adventitial Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Wendland, Kerstin; Weishaupt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite the key role of primary and secondary lymphoid organ stroma in immunity, our understanding of the heterogeneity and ontogeny of these cells remains limited. Here, we identify a functionally distinct subset of BP3-PDPN+PDGFRβ+/α+CD34+ stromal adventitial cells in both lymph nodes (LNs......) and thymus that is located within the vascular niche surrounding PDPN-PDGFRβ+/α-Esam-1+ITGA7+ pericytes. CD34+ adventitial cells developed in late embryonic thymus and in postnatal LNs and in the thymus originated, along with pericytes, from a common anlage-seeding progenitor population. Using lymphoid organ...... re-aggregate grafts, we demonstrate that adult CD34+ adventitial cells are capable of differentiating into multiple lymphoid stroma-like subsets including pericyte-, FRC-, MRC-, and FDC-like cells, the development of which was lymphoid environment-dependent. These findings extend the current...

  8. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Observations during a 12-79-month followup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strober, S.; Farinas, M.C.; Field, E.H.; Solovera, J.J.; Kiberd, B.A.; Myers, B.D.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

  10. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-10-15

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases.

  11. Resolution of unique Sca-1highc-Kit- lymphoid-biased progenitors in adult bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin C; Northrup, Daniel L; Allman, David

    2008-12-01

    We have identified a distinctive lymphoid-restricted progenitor population in adult mouse bone marrow based on a unique c-Kit(-)Sca-1(high)Flt3(+) AA4(+) surface phenotype. These cells are highly lymphoid biased and rapidly generate B and T cells after adoptive transfer. However, whereas previously described lymphoid progenitors such as common lymphoid progenitors express TdT and relatively high levels of RAG2, and are enriched for cells with an active V(D)J recombinase, Flt3(+) AA4(+) cells within the c-Kit(-)Sca-1(high) bone marrow fraction are TdT(-), are RAG2(low), and do not display evidence for ongoing or past recombinase activity. Furthermore, unlike common lymphoid progenitors that readily generate B cells upon stimulation with IL-7, c-Kit(-)Sca-1(high)Flt3(+) precursors do not express abundant levels of the IL-7R, and require costimulation with Flt3 ligand and IL-7 to generate B cells in vitro. Moreover, these findings suggest that hematopoietic stem cells in adults generate an array of lymphoid-biased progenitor populations characterized by distinct gene expression and cytokine response profiles.

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  13. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  14. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  15. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  16. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Brown

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC, which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity.

  17. Functional Defects in Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Classical Monocytes in a Patient with Hyper-IgE Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuna; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-10-01

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a very rare primary immune deficiency characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent bacterial infections, chronic dermatitis, and connective tissue abnormalities. Autosomal dominant (AD) HIES involves a mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that leads to an impaired T H 17 response. STAT3 signaling is also involved in the function of RORγt + type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and RORγt + T H 17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), granulocytes, and monocytes in a patient with HIES. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a patient with HIES and three age-matched healthy controls were obtained for the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune cells. The frequencies of ILCs in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than in the controls. Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-17A produced by ILC3s in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than the controls. Compared with the controls, classical monocytes (CD14 + CD16 low ), which have a high antimicrobial capability, were also lower in the patient with HIES, while non-classical monocytes (CD14 low CD16 + ) as well as intermediate monocytes (CD14 + CD16 intermediate ) were higher. Taken together, these results indicate that the impaired immune defense against pathogenic microbes in the patient with HIES might be partially explained by functional defects in ILC3s and inflammatory monocytes.

  18. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Innate lymphoid cell-derived cytokines in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sirui; Yang, Di; Peng, Tingwei; Wu, Yuzhang; Tian, Zhiqiang; Ni, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The most recently recognized types of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), have been sub-divided according to respective distinct expression profiles of regulatory factors or/and cytokines. ILCs have also been shown to participate in a variety of beneficial immune responses, including participation in attack against pathogens and mediation of the pre-inflammatory and inflammatory responses through their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. As such, while the ILCs exert protective effects they may also become detrimental upon dysregulation. Indeed, recent studies of the ILCs have revealed a strong association with the advent and pathogenesis of several common autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Though the ILCs belong to lineage negative cells that are distinctive from the Th cells, the profiles of secreted cytokines from the ILCs overlap with those of the corresponding Th subsets. Nevertheless, considering that the ILCs belong to the innate immune system and the Th cells belong to the adaptive immune system, it is expected that the ILCs should function at the early stage of diseases and the Th cells should exert predominant effects at the late stage of diseases. Therefore, it is intriguing to consider targeting of ILCs for therapy by targeting the corresponding cytokines at the early stage of diseases, with the late stage cytokine targeting mainly influencing the Th cells' function. Here, we review the knowledge to date on the roles of ILCs in various autoimmune diseases and discuss their potential as new therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Tsai, Nicole [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen J. [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk.

  1. Epithelial-intrinsic IKKα expression regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell responses and antibacterial immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Paul R.; Moy, Ryan H.; Noti, Mario; Osborne, Lisa C.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Alenghat, Theresa; Liu, Bigang; McCorkell, Kelly A.; Troy, Amy E.; Rak, Gregory D.; Hu, Yinling; May, Michael J.; Ma, Hak-Ling; Fouser, Lynette A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity at mucosal surfaces; however, the tissue-specific factors that regulate ILC responses remain poorly characterized. Using mice with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)–specific deletions in either inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ, two critical regulators of NFκB activation, we demonstrate that IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression selectively regulates group 3 ILC (ILC3)–dependent antibacterial immunity in the intestine. Although IKKβΔIEC mice efficiently controlled Citrobacter rodentium infection, IKKαΔIEC mice exhibited severe intestinal inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination to peripheral organs, and increased host mortality. Consistent with weakened innate immunity to C. rodentium, IKKαΔIEC mice displayed impaired IL-22 production by RORγt+ ILC3s, and therapeutic delivery of rIL-22 or transfer of sort-purified IL-22–competent ILCs from control mice could protect IKKαΔIEC mice from C. rodentium–induced morbidity. Defective ILC3 responses in IKKαΔIEC mice were associated with overproduction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by IECs, which negatively regulated IL-22 production by ILC3s and impaired innate immunity to C. rodentium. IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression was similarly critical for regulation of intestinal inflammation after chemically induced intestinal damage and colitis. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for epithelial cell–intrinsic IKKα expression and TSLP in regulating ILC3 responses required to maintain intestinal barrier immunity. PMID:26371187

  2. Lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia incidence in Florida children: ethnic and racial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J D; Fleming, L E; MacKinnon, J; Voti, L; Wohler-Torres, B; Peace, S; Trapido, E

    2001-04-01

    Incidence reports for pediatric lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia in Hispanic subpopulations in the United States are rare. The authors hypothesized that Florida's Hispanic children would have higher risks of lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia compared with non-Hispanic white children. All cases of lymphoid leukemia, Hodgkin, non-Hodgkin, and Burkitt lymphoma (SEER International Classification of Diseases for Oncology codes) in children (leukemia were identified during the study period. For children with lymphoma, the SRR for Hispanics was 1.32 (95% CI, 1.20-1.44), and for blacks, the SRR was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.63-0.72. For lymphoid leukemia, the SRR for Hispanics was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.28-1.30), and for blacks, the SRR was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.54-0.56). Similar rates were found for the Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin subgroups. Incidences of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were significantly higher in Florida's Hispanic children, with 30% increased relative risks, compared with whites. Black children had significantly decreased incidences and risk. Results for lymphoid leukemia were similar. Incidence of lymphoma in Florida's Hispanic children (primarily Cuban and Central American origin) differed from similar reports from Texas and California, where Hispanics are primarily of Mexican origin. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  3. Cytological Evaluation of Bone Marrow in Normal Laying Hens and those With Lymphoid Leukosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Sadi and E.Y. Hussein

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytologically the bone marrow (and peripheral blood of adult laying hens affected with lymphoid leukosis. Diagnosis of the neoplasm was made on the basis of clinical history, signs and symptoms and pathology. Only histologically confirmed cases were included in the study. Examination of blood smears revealed +2 heterophil toxicity and the presence of large numbers of reactive (blast – transformed lymphocytes. Smears that were prepared from the bone marrow showed increased numbers of hemopoietic cells. The total erythrocyte count (TEC, hemoglobin percentage (Hb% , hemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC values were significantly higher (P<0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH were significantly lower (P< 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. Results of the leukogram indicated that the total leukocyte count (TLC and the percentage (% of lymphocytes were significantly higher (P < 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. From results of this study it was concluded that cytological evaluation of bone marrow may prove to be a simple , rapid , and useful tool in the diagnosis of lymphoid leukosis in laying hens. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 497-499

  4. Mercury species in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues after exposure to methyl mercury: correlation with autoimmune parameters during and after treatment in susceptible mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havarinasab, Said; Björn, Erik; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    IA). This study aimed at exploring the effect of MeHg with regard to HgIA, and especially the immunological events after stopping treatment, correlated with the presence of MeHg and Hg(2+) in the organs. Treatment of A.SW mice for 30 days with 4.2 mg MeHg/L drinking water (corresponding to approximately 420...... microg Hg/kg body weight/day) caused all the HgIA features observed after primary treatment with inorganic Hg, except systemic immune complex deposits. The total Hg concentration was 5-fold higher in the kidneys as compared with lymph nodes, but the fraction of Hg(2+) was similar (17-20%). After stopping...

  5. Evaluation of thymic lymphocyte loss of broiler using Digital Analysis of the Lymphoid Depletion System (ADDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract: The thymus is a lymphoid organ and usually evaluated for the degree of lymphocyte loss with subjective histological techniques. This study aimed to adapt and to apply of the digital analysis of the lymphoid depletion system (ADDL in the thymus in order to obtain a more accurate analysis. Glucocorticoid was used to induce immunosuppression in 55 broilers at 21 days of age; other 15 broilers were the control group. After euthanasia of the broilers, postmortem examination was made. Both thymic chains were collected and six lobes were selected for histological examination of the degree of lymphocyte depletion (scores 1 to 5 and for submission to all stages of processing by the ADDL system. The artificial constructed neural networks (ANN obtained 94.03% of correct classifications. In conclusion, it was possible to adopt objective criteria to evaluate thymic lymphoid depletion with the ADDL system.

  6. Orbital lymphoid tumors; Comparison of features of dynamic MRI with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ueno, Hisayuki (Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    We examined 13 cases of orbital lymphoid tumors (OLT) and 1 of orbital hemangioma (OH), using dynamic MRI, to determine the biological behavior of the tumors before surgery. We measured time-dependent changes in the contrast enhancement of tumors and described time intensity curves (TIC), dividing the cases into 3 architectural types: completes septum (CS), incomplete septum (IS), and diffuse types. The TICs of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH, 2 cases) of CS type and idiopathic orbital inflamation (1), RLH (5) of IS type, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (4), and malignant lymphoma (1) and OH (1) showed rapid increase with low peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase with high peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase and plateau, and gradual increase type, respectively. In order words, OLT showed various TIC, roughly correlating with pathological findings. These results indicate that dynamic MRI may be useful in the preoperative clinical diagnosis of OLT. (author).

  7. HMGB1 exacerbates experimental mouse colitis by enhancing innate lymphoid cells 3 inflammatory responses via promoted IL-23 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Lingyun; Khan, Muhammad Noman; Shi, Lifeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Zheng, Fang; Gong, Feili; Fang, Min

    2016-11-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), as an endogenous inflammatory molecule, can promote inflammatory cytokines secretion by acting on TLR2/4 resulting in tissue damage. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report a novel role of HMGB1 in controlling the maintenance and function of intestine-resident group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that are important innate effector cells implicated in mucosal homeostasis and IBD pathogenesis. We showed that mice treated with anti-HMGB1 Ab, or genetically deficient for TLR2 -/- or TLR4 -/- mice, displayed reduced intestinal inflammation. In these mice, the numbers of colonic ILC3s were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-17 and IL-22 that can be secreted by ILC3s were also decreased in the colon tissues. Furthermore, HMGB1 promoted DCs via TLR2/4 signaling to produce IL-23, activating ILC3s to produce IL-17 and IL-22. Our data thus indicated that the HMGB1-TLR2/4-DCs-IL-23 cascade pathway enhances the functions of ILC3s to produce IL-17 and IL-22, and this signal way might play a vital role in the development of IBD.

  8. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Tongue Base Causing Upper Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah B. Sands

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe benign lymphoid hyperplasia (LH is unusual in the head and neck region, but the diagnosis of LH is of clinical importance as it may be confused with malignant lymphoma, both on clinical examination and pathologically. While the etiology is poorly understood, a number of previous theories exist, which are included here in the context of a literature review. In this paper we present a case of severe pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia causing airway obstruction and requiring tracheotomy and subsequent surgical debulking.

  9. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju (KR)

    2011-08-15

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  10. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in tissues of experimentally infected cattle and in hard salami.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. L.; Doyle, M P; Cassens, R. G.; Schoeni, J L

    1988-01-01

    Muscle, organ, and lymphoid tissues of four Holstein cows experimentally inoculated (intravenously) with Listeria monocytogenes were examined 2, 6, or 54 days postinoculation for the presence of the organism by direct plating and cold enrichment procedures. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 66% of the tissues sampled; 38% of the isolations were attributed to the use of cold enrichment. Isolation of the organism from muscle tissue was possible only with animals inoculated 2 days before slaugh...

  11. Cloning of human and mouse EBI1, a lymphoid-specific G-protein-coupled receptor encoded on human chromosome 17q12-q21.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickart, V L; Raport, C J; Godiska, R; Byers, M G; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Gray, P W

    1994-10-01

    A lymphoid-specific member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family has been identified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotides. We have determined that this receptor, also reported as the Epstein-Barr-induced cDNA EBI1, is expressed in normal lymphoid tissues and in several B- and T-lymphocyte cell lines. While the function and the ligand for EBI1 remain unknown, its sequence and gene structure suggest that it is related to the receptors that recognize chemoattractants, such as interleukin-8, RANTES, C5a, and fMet-Leu-Phe. Like the chemoattractant receptors, EBI1 contains intervening sequences near its 5' end; however, EBI1 is unique in that both of its introns interrupt the coding region of the first extracellular domain. The gene is encoded on human chromosome 17q12-q21.2. None of the other G-protein-coupled receptors has been mapped to this region, but the C-C chemokine family has been mapped to 17q11-q21. The mouse EBI1 cDNA has also been isolated and encodes a protein with 86% identity to the human homolog.

  12. Distinct pattern of lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis is associated with different circulating T-helper and helper-like innate lymphoid cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Hanning, Uta; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Schwab, Nicholas; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Distinct lesion topography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) might be due to different antigen presentation and/or trafficking routes of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate whether distinct lesion patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) might be associated with a predominance of distinct circulating T-helper cell subset as well as their innate counterparts. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of patients with exclusively cerebral (n = 20) or predominantly spinal (n = 12) disease manifestation. Patients with exclusively cerebral or preferential spinal lesion manifestation were associated with increased proportions of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing TH1 cells or interleukin (IL)-17-producing TH17 cells, respectively. In contrast, proportions of peripheral IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), the innate counterpart of TH17 cells, were enhanced in RRMS patients with exclusively cerebral lesion topography. Distinct T-helper and T-helper-like innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets are associated with different lesion topography in RRMS.

  13. Identifying HIV infection in diagnostic histopathology tissue samples--the role of HIV-1 p24 immunohistochemistry in identifying clinically unsuspected HIV infection: a 3-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonim, Mufaddal T; Alarcon, Lida; Freeman, Janet; Mahadeva, Ula; van der Walt, Jon D; Lucas, Sebastian B

    2010-03-01

    Because of the clinical difficulty in identifying the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the histopathologist often has to consider the diagnosis of HIV in tissue samples from patients with no previous suspicion of HIV infection. The aim was to investigate the practicality and utility of routine HIV-1 p24 immunohistochemistry on tissue samples received at a London histopathology laboratory. Over a 3-year period, HIV-1 p24 was evaluated immunohistochemically on 123 cases. Of these, 37 (30%) showed positive expression of p24 in lesional follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Of these 37 cases, 11 were not clinically suspected to be HIV+ and had no prior serological evidence of HIV infection. These cases represented lymph node biopsies, tonsillar and nasopharyngeal biopsies and a parotid excision. In addition to expression on FDCs, in 22 cases (60%), p24 also highlighted mononuclear cells and macrophages. p24 was also useful in confirming the presence of HIV in lymphoid tissue in non-lymphoid organs such as the lung, anus, salivary gland and brain. Immunonegativity occurred in occasional known HIV+ cases, probably related to treatment or tissue processing. This study confirms the usefulness of this technique in detecting unsuspected HIV infection in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs on histopathological material and should be part of routine evaluation of lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue in other organs if morphological or clinical features suggest HIV infection.

  14. Increased number and frequency of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in nonlesional psoriatic skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring-Andersen, B; Geisler, Carsten; Agerbeck, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory disease that affects the skin and joints. The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17A axis and IL-22 play key roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-23-responsive innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with a high capacity to produce IL-17 and/or IL-22...

  15. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strober, S.

    1981-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

  16. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities.

  17. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon [Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14{+-}1.22 mm vs 9.37{+-}1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38{+-}0.36 mm vs 1.74 {+-} 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  18. NFIL3 Orchestrates the Emergence of Common Helper Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a family of effectors that originate from a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor. However, the transcriptional program that sets the identity of the ILC lineage remains elusive. Here, we show that NFIL3 is a critical regulator of the common helper-like innate lymphoid cell progenitor (CHILP. Cell-intrinsic Nfil3 ablation led to variably impaired development of fetal and adult ILC subsets. Conditional gene targeting demonstrated that NFIL3 exerted its function prior to ILC subset commitment. Accordingly, NFIL3 ablation resulted in loss of ID2+ CHILP and PLZF+ ILC progenitors. Nfil3 expression in lymphoid progenitors was under the control of the mesenchyme-derived hematopoietin IL-7, and NFIL3 exerted its function via direct Id2 regulation in the CHILP. Moreover, ectopic Id2 expression in Nfil3-null precursors rescued defective ILC lineage development in vivo. Our data establish NFIL3 as a key regulator of common helper-like ILC progenitors as they emerge during early lymphopoiesis.

  19. Another Armament in Gut Immunity: Lymphotoxin-Mediated Crosstalk between Innate Lymphoid and Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.

    2011-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are novel players in innate immunity. Tumanov et al. (Tumanov et al., 2011) demonstrate that crosstalk between ILCs and dendritic cells involving membrane-bound lymphotoxin in ILCs and its receptor is critical for protection against colitogenic bacteria

  20. Automatic classification of atypical lymphoid B cells using digital blood image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, S; Merino, A; Mujica, L E; Ruiz, M; Bigorra, L; Rodellar, J

    2014-08-01

    There are automated systems for digital peripheral blood (PB) cell analysis, but they operate most effectively in nonpathological blood samples. The objective of this work was to design a methodology to improve the automatic classification of abnormal lymphoid cells. We analyzed 340 digital images of individual lymphoid cells from PB films obtained in the CellaVision DM96:150 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, 100 hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells, and 90 normal lymphocytes (N). We implemented the Watershed Transformation to segment the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the peripheral cell region. We extracted 44 features and then the clustering Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) was applied in two steps for the lymphocyte classification. The images were automatically clustered in three groups, one of them with 98% of the HCL cells. The set of the remaining cells was clustered again using FCM and texture features. The two new groups contained 83.3% of the N cells and 71.3% of the CLL cells, respectively. The approach has been able to automatically classify with high precision three types of lymphoid cells. The addition of more descriptors and other classification techniques will allow extending the classification to other classes of atypical lymphoid cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Properties of Leukemia Stem Cells in a Novel Model of CML Progression to Lymphoid Blast Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Craig T

    2006-01-01

    ...% of patients developing acute lymphoid disease. Based on this observation, we generated a novel mouse model in which combination of the well-known BCR/ABL translocation with loss of function mutation at the p16Ink4a/p19Arf locus induces a very...

  2. Brief report: Enrichment of activated group 3 innate lymphoid cells in psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Emmerik F A; van Kempen, Tessa S.; Boes, Marianne; Michels-van Amelsfort, Jocea M R; Hijnen, Dirkjan; Hartgring, Sarita A Y; van Roon, Joel A G; Wenink, Mark H.; Radstake, Timothy R D J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently discovered group of cells that are essential to epithelial homeostasis and are implicated in psoriasis pathogenesis, yet they have never been reported in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: ILC classes and subsets were characterized in the

  3. Donor-Specific Antibodies Are Produced Locally in Ectopic Lymphoid Structures in Cardiac Allografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M. M H; Gareau, A. J.; Beerthuijzen, J. M T; Siera-de Koning, E.; van Kuik, J.; Kamburova, E. G.; Vink, A.; de Jonge, N.; Lee, T. D G; Otten, H. G.; de Weger, R. A.

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a transplant pathology, limiting graft survival after heart transplantation. CAV arteries are surrounded by ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) containing B cells and plasma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the antigenic targets of antibodies

  4. Myeloma, Hodgkin disease, and lymphoid leukemia after renal transplantation: characteristics, risk factors and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillard, Sophie; Agodoa, Lawrence Y; Bohen, Erin M; Abbott, Kevin C

    2006-03-27

    Hodgkin disease and myeloma were recently included in the classification of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). However, because their incidence is low, not much is known about their particular features. The incidence, characteristics, risk, and prognostic factors of myeloma, Hodgkin disease, and lymphoid leukemia using the United States Renal Data System from 1991 to 2000 among 66,159 Medicare patients were analyzed. In all, 1,169 recipients developed a lymphoid disease: 823 (1.2%) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), 160 (0.24%) myelomas, 60 (0.1%) Hodgkin lymphomas, and 126 (0.2%) lymphoid leukemias. Older age was associated with an increased risk of myeloma and leukemia. The incidence of hepatitis C virus infection was higher in recipients with myeloma (6.9 vs. 3.9%, P=0.05). Induction therapy was associated with a greater risk of myeloma and leukemia, but not Hodgkin disease. Azathioprine was associated with a lower risk of myeloma, and tacrolimus with a lower risk of Hodgkin disease. According to the type of malignancy, ten-year survival rates were significantly different: 42, 26, 55 and 39% respectively for NHL, myeloma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia. These results support specific features and risk factors related to the occurrence of each type of lymphoid-proliferation and suggest for the first time a possible association between hepatitis C virus and myeloma in kidney transplant recipients.

  5. Development of T and B cell areas in peripheral lymphoid organs of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Levenbach, M. G.; van den Brink, H. R.; Streefkerk, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    In the present study the early development of peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen, popliteal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and Peyer's patches) is described in terms of homing patterns of T and B cells, demonstrated with immunohistoperoxidatic detection of characteristic membrane antigen in

  6. Regulation of inducible BALT formation and contribution to immunity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S Y; Phipps, S

    2010-11-01

    Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) is an organized tertiary lymphoid structure that is not pre-programmed but develops in response to infection or under chronic inflammatory conditions. Emerging research has shown that iBALT provides a niche for T-cell priming and B-cell education to assist in the clearance of infectious agents, highlighting the prospect that iBALT may be engineered and harnessed to enhance protective immunity against respiratory pathogens. Although iBALT formation is associated with several canonical factors of secondary lymphoid organogenesis such as lymphotoxin-α and the homeostatic chemokines, CXCL13, CCL19, and CCL21, these cytokines are not mandatory for its formation, even though they influence its organization and function. Similarly, lymphoid tissue-inducer cells are not a requisite of iBALT formation. In contrast, dendritic cells are emerging as pivotal players required to form and sustain the presence of iBALT. Regulatory T cells appear to be able to attenuate the development of iBALT, although the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. In this review, we discuss facets unique to iBALT induction, the cellular subsets, and molecular cues that govern this process, and the contribution of this ectopic structure toward the generation of immune responses in the pulmonary compartment.

  7. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  8. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  9. IL-25 Elicits Innate Lymphoid Cells and Multipotent Progenitor Type 2 Cells That Reduce Renal Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Tan, Jing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Yun; Ma, Haijun; Lee, Vincent W S; Sun, Shuming; Song, Xiangfeng; Guo, Minghao; Wang, Yiping; Cao, Qi

    2015-09-01

    IL-25 is an important immune regulator that can promote Th2 immune response-dependent immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair in asthma, intestinal infection, and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-25 in renal ischemic/reperfusion injury (IRI). Treating IRI mice with IL-25 significantly improved renal function and reduced renal injury. Furthermore, IL-25 treatment increased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in serum and kidney and promoted induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in kidney. Notably, IL-25 treatment also increased the frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPP(type2)) cells in kidney. IL-25-responsive ILC2 and MPP(type2) cells produced greater amounts of Th2 cytokines that associated with the induction of M2 macrophages and suppression of classically activated (M1) macrophages in vitro. Finally, adoptive transfer of ILC2s or MPP(type2) cells not only reduced renal functional and histologic injury in IRI mice but also induced M2 macrophages in kidney. In conclusion, our data identify a mechanism whereby IL-25-elicited ILC2 and MPP(type2) cells regulate macrophage phenotype in kidney and prevent renal IRI. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Cross-talk between type 3 innate lymphoid cells and the gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela, Kristine-Ann G; Omenetti, Sara; Pizarro, Theresa T

    2015-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly-identified population of immune cells prevalent in, but not limited to, mucosal tissues that not only play a significant role in immune homeostasis and host defense, but also in disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the importance of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) and their interactions with the intestinal microflora, both in maintaining gut health and in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Distinct lineages of ILCs are defined based on the presence of cell surface proteins, secretion of effector cytokines and expression of master transcription factors that determine their differentiation and inflammatory behavior. These ILC subgroups mirror corresponding CD4 T-cell subsets, with which they share many phenotypic, morphologic and functional attributes. ILC3s, in particular, through direct and indirect interactions with the gut microbiota, have been identified to promote protection and maintenance of epithelial integrity, as well as to regulate intestinal inflammation and fibrosis, such as that observed in IBD. Gut mucosal ILCs respond to environmental cues, such as diet and microflora composition, which can shape downstream immune function. As such, ILCs represent attractive targets for the development of therapeutic modalities to maintain gut health and to potentially treat IBD.

  11. Sex Differences in Asthma: A Key Role of Androgen-Signaling in Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Sophie; Blanquart, Eve; Guéry, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways mediated by exacerbated type 2 immune responses. Sex differences have been reported in the incidence, prevalence, and severity of asthma. While during childhood, males are more susceptible to asthma than females, there is a switch at the onset of puberty as for many other allergic diseases. This decrease of asthma incidence around puberty in males suggests that hormonal mediators could play a protective role in the susceptibility to allergic responses in male. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently emerged as critical players in the initiation of allergic responses, but also in the resolution of parasitic infection, through their capacity to rapidly and potently produce type 2 cytokines. This review will cover the current understanding of the impact of sex-linked factors in allergic inflammation, with a particular focus on the role of sex hormones on the development and function of tissue-resident ILC2s.

  12. Activation of Type 3 innate lymphoid cells and interleukin 22 secretion in the lungs during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele, Laurye; Carnoy, Christophe; Cayet, Delphine; Ivanov, Stoyan; Porte, Rémi; Deruy, Emeric; Chabalgoity, José A; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Eberl, Gérard; Benecke, Arndt G; Trottein, François; Faveeuw, Christelle; Sirard, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-01

    Mucosal sites are continuously exposed to pathogenic microorganisms and are therefore equipped to control respiratory infections. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are key players in antimicrobial defense in intestinal mucosa, through interleukin 17 and interleukin 22 (IL-22) production. The present study aimed at analyzing the distribution and function of ILC3 in the respiratory tract. We first observed that lung mucosa harbors a discrete population of ILC3 expressing CD127, CD90, CCR6, and the transcriptional factor RORγt. In addition, lung ILC3 were identified as a major source of IL-22 in response to interleukin 23 stimulation. During Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, ILC3 rapidly accumulated in the lung tissue to produce IL-22. In response to S. pneumoniae, dendritic cells and MyD88, an important adaptor of innate immunity, play critical functions in IL-22 production by ILC3. Finally, administration of the Toll-like receptor 5 agonist flagellin during S. pneumoniae challenge exacerbated IL-22 production by ILC3, a process that protects against lethal infection. In conclusion, boosting lung ILC3 might represent an interesting strategy to fight respiratory bacterial infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Protein kinase Cθ controls type 2 innate lymphoid cell and TH2 responses to house dust mite allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouri, Fahima; Chenuet, Pauline; Beuraud, Chloé; Fauconnier, Louis; Marchiol, Tiffany; Rouxel, Nathalie; Ledru, Aurélie; Gallerand, Margaux; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; Marquant, Quentin; Apetoh, Lionel; Erard, François; Le Bert, Marc; Trovero, Fabrice; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Togbe, Dieudonnée

    2017-05-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) θ, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in T H 2 cell activation and proliferation. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) resemble T H 2 cells and produce the T H 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 but lack antigen-specific receptors. The mechanism by which PKC-θ drives innate immune cells to instruct T H 2 responses in patients with allergic lung inflammation remains unknown. We hypothesized that PKC-θ contributes to ILC2 activation and might be necessary for ILC2s to instruct the T H 2 response. PRKCQ gene expression was assessed in innate lymphoid cell subsets purified from human PBMCs and mouse lung ILC2s. ILC2 activation and eosinophil recruitment, T H 2-related cytokine and chemokine production, lung histopathology, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) mRNA expression, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT1) protein expression were determined. Adoptive transfer of ILC2s from wild-type mice was performed in wild-type and PKC-θ-deficient (PKC-θ -/- ) mice. Here we report that PKC-θ is expressed in both human and mouse ILC2s. Mice lacking PKC-θ had reduced ILC2 numbers, T H 2 cell numbers and activation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and expression of the transcription factors IRF4 and NFAT1. Importantly, adoptive transfer of ILC2s restored eosinophil influx and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production in lung tissue, as well as T H 2 cell activation. The pharmacologic PKC-θ inhibitor (Compound 20) administered during allergen challenge reduced ILC2 numbers and activation, as well as airway inflammation and IRF4 and NFAT1 expression. Therefore our findings identify PKC-θ as a critical factor for ILC2 activation that contributes to T H 2 cell differentiation, which is associated with IRF4 and NFAT1 expression in allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HMGA1 drives stem cell, inflammatory pathway, and cell cycle progression genes during lymphoid tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuldenfrei Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1 gene is widely overexpressed in diverse cancers and portends a poor prognosis in some tumors, the molecular mechanisms that mediate its role in transformation have remained elusive. HMGA1 functions as a potent oncogene in cultured cells and induces aggressive lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice. Because HMGA1 chromatin remodeling proteins regulate transcription, HMGA1 is thought to drive malignant transformation by modulating expression of specific genes. Genome-wide studies to define HMGA1 transcriptional networks during tumorigenesis, however, are lacking. To define the HMGA1 transcriptome, we analyzed gene expression profiles in lymphoid cells from HMGA1a transgenic mice at different stages in tumorigenesis. Results RNA from lymphoid samples at 2 months (before tumors develop and 12 months (after tumors are well-established was screened for differential expression of > 20,000 unique genes by microarray analysis (Affymetrix using a parametric and nonparametric approach. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in a subset of genes. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for cellular pathways and functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Early in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced inflammatory pathways with NFkappaB identified as a major node. In established tumors, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cell cycle progression, cell-mediated immune response, and cancer. At both stages in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cellular development, hematopoiesis, and hematologic development. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that stem cell and immature T cell genes are enriched in the established tumors. To determine if these results are relevant to human tumors, we knocked-down HMGA1 in human T-cell leukemia cells and identified a subset of genes dysregulated in both the transgenic and human lymphoid tumors. Conclusions We found that HMGA1 induces

  15. IL-33-responsive innate lymphoid cells are an important source of IL-13 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joanne L; Fakhri, Samer; Citardi, Martin J; Porter, Paul C; Corry, David B; Kheradmand, Farrah; Liu, Yong-Jun; Luong, Amber

    2013-08-15

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine polarization, respectively; however, the pathophysiology of CRS remains unclear. The importance of innate lymphoid cells in Th2-mediated inflammatory disease has not been clearly defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the epithelial cell-derived cytokine IL-33 and IL-33-responsive innate lymphoid cells in the pathophysiology of CRS. Relative gene expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Innate lymphoid cells in inflamed ethmoid sinus mucosa from patients with CRSsNP and CRSwNP were characterized using flow cytometry. Cytokine production from lymphoid cells isolated from inflamed mucosa of patients with CRS was examined using ELISA and intracellular cytokine staining. Elevated expression of ST2, the ligand-binding chain of the IL-33 receptor, was observed in inflamed sinonasal mucosa from CRSwNP compared with CRSsNP and healthy control subjects. An increased percentage of innate lymphoid cells was observed in inflamed sinonasal mucosa from CRSwNP compared with CRSsNP. ST2(+) innate lymphoid cells are a consistent source of IL-13 in response to IL-33 stimulation. Significant induction of IL-33 was observed in epithelial cells derived from patients with CRSwNP compared with patients with CRSsNP in response to stimulation with Aspergillus fumigatus extract. These data suggest a role for sinonasal epithelial cell-derived IL-33 and an IL-33-responsive innate lymphoid cell population in the pathophysiology of CRSwNP demonstrating the functional importance of innate lymphoid cells in Th2-mediated inflammatory disease.

  16. Back to the drawing board: Understanding the complexity of hepatic innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotel, Marie; Hasan, Uzma; Viel, Sébastien; Marçais, Antoine; Walzer, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of immune populations in nonlymphoid organs have highlighted the great diversity of the innate lymphoid system. It has also become apparent that mouse and human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have distinct phenotypes and properties. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Harmon et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 2111-2120] characterized human hepatic NK-cell subsets. The authors report that hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells resemble mouse liver ILC1s in that they express CXCR6 and have an immature phenotype. However, unlike mouse ILC1s, they express high levels of Eomes and low levels of T-bet, and upon stimulation with tumor cells, secrete low amounts of cytokines. These unexpected findings further support the differences between human and mouse immune populations and prompt the study of the role of hepatic ILC subsets in immune responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Alternative donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mature lymphoid malignancies after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Celso Arrais; Rocha, Vanderson; Dreger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    an allogeneic unrelated donor transplant using umbilical cord blood (n=104) or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (n=541) after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Unrelated cord blood recipients had more refractory disease. Median follow-up time was 30 months. Neutrophil engraftment (81% vs. 97......%), and relapse or progression (28% vs. 35%) at 36 months. There were also no significant differences in 2-year progression-free survival (43% vs. 58%, respectively) and overall survival (36% vs. 51%) at 36 months. In a multivariate analysis, no differences were observed in the outcomes between the two stem cell......We have reported encouraging results of unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with lymphoid malignancies. Whether those outcomes are comparable to matched unrelated donor transplants remains to be defined. We studied 645 adult patients with mature lymphoid malignancies who received...

  18. Autotaxin, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing ectoenzyme, promotes lymphocyte entry into secondary lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Hidenobu; Newton, Rebecca; Klein, Russell; Morita, Yuka; Gunn, Michael D.; Rosen, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular lysophospholipase D, autotaxin (ATX), and its product lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) have diverse roles in development and cancer, but little is known about functions in the immune system. We found that ATX was highly expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymphoid organs and was secreted. Chemokine-activated lymphocytes expressed enhanced receptors for ATX, providing a mechanism to target the secreted ATX onto lymphocytes undergoing recruitment. LPA induced chemokines...

  19. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Montalvillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  1. Immunofluorescent staining of nuclear antigen in lymphoid cells transformed by Herpesvirus papio (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H

    1981-01-01

    An improved fixation method for antigen detection in lymphoblastoid cells is described. Herpesvirus papio nuclear antigen (HUPNA) could be stained in several transformed lymphoid cell lines by anti-complement immunofluorescence (ACIF). Antibody to HUPNA was detected in many human sera containing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid and nuclear antigen (EBNA). Rheumatoid arthritis sera showed a high incidence of both anti-EBNA and anti-HUPNA antibodies.

  2. Lymphoid associated antigen expression in new cases of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of aberrant phenotype has been reported in acute leukemias with varying frequency though its prognostic importance remains controversial. In acute myeloid leukemias, aberrant phenotype, as high as 88 %, has been reported. To evaluate the occurrence of aberrant lymphoid phenotypes and to correlate their presence with various French American British classification, 100 cases of fresh acute myeloid leukemias were analyzed for lymphoid markers CD 4,7,8,10 and 19. Materials and Methods: Whole blood or bone marrow aspirate collected in EDTA were processed by standard method and subjected to immunophenotyping for B Cells marker CD 19 and 10 and T cell marker CD 4, 7 and 8. Results: Aberrant lymphoid markers were seen in 35(35% cases. All FAB subtypes except M7 showed aberrancy for the markers studied. However it was the most common in M0 (100%, followed by M2 (51.9%. T cell aberrancy was the most common, comprising 62.8% (22/35 of total aberrancy. CD 7 was the most common aberrantly expressed marker, seen in 20% AML, followed by CD 4(14% and CD 19 (8%. Conclusion: Occurrence of lymphoid phenotypes is frequent in pediatric as well adult AML. Though T cell markers are more common, only B cell as well as both B and T cell markers may be co expressed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8999   Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 487-490

  3. Lymphoid cell blastogenesis as an in vitro indicator of cellular immunity to Legionella pneumophila antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, F; Widen, R; Klein, T; Friedman, H

    1984-01-01

    The lymphocyte blastogenic transformation assay was adapted to study responsiveness of lymphoid cells from animals and humans to Legionella pneumophila antigens in vitro. Spleen cells from guinea pigs after active immunization with Legionella vaccine, but not from normal animals, responded by blast cell transformation when stimulated in vitro with killed Legionella whole-cell vaccine, sonic extracts thereof, or a purified somatic antigen. The response was dose dependent. Similar lymphocyte bl...

  4. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...... that ADV is the direct causal agent of this disease in mink kits and that cofactors, which could have been present in the original ADV-K isolate, do not play a role. Acute interstitial pneumonia characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells, intranuclear viral inclusions...... plasma cells in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph node, and intestine. Surviving kits also had hypertrophy of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and focal subpleural, intraalveolar accumulations of large cells with foamy cytoplasm, so-called lipid pneumonia....

  5. Synchronous BALT Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Coincidence or Linkage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Oikonomou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man presented with weight loss, fever, and malaise. Chest radiograph and CT revealed two large ill-defined masses in middle and left lower lobes. CT-guided biopsy of left lower lobe mass disclosed bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma. Middle lobe mass was considered second deposit in contralateral lung. The patient received chemotherapy for BALT. Followup CT disclosed regression of left lower lobe mass and stability of middle-lobe mass and of right paratracheal lymph nodes. CT-guided biopsy of middle-lobe mass revealed squamous cell lung carcinoma. Surgical biopsy of right paratracheal lymph nodes revealed malignancy. Disease was staged T3, N2, and M0. Combined chemotherapy for lung cancer and BALT lymphoma was initiated.

  6. Two tracheal BALT lymphoma patients successfully treated with chemotherapy including rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Yoshihisa; Iikura, Motoyasu; Kogure, Yoshihito; Hirashima, Junko; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito

    2014-03-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the trachea, an important differential diagnosis for tracheal tumors, is a rare disease with characteristic bronchoscopic findings. In this study, we reviewed 2 cases of patients who were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis, with tumors in the trachea and left main bronchus, putting them at high risk for asphyxia. Chemotherapies including rituximab were administered, and complete remission was confirmed in both cases. Because tracheal tumors often have a pernicious course, it might be beneficial to initiate a chemotherapeutic treatment regimen instead of adopting the "wait-and-see" approach in patients with symptomatic tracheal BALT lymphoma. © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synchronous BALT Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Coincidence or Linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Astrinakis, Emanuelle; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Kaloutsi, Vassiliki; Didilis, Vassileios; Tsatalas, Konstantinos; Prassopoulos, Panos

    2013-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with weight loss, fever, and malaise. Chest radiograph and CT revealed two large ill-defined masses in middle and left lower lobes. CT-guided biopsy of left lower lobe mass disclosed bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma. Middle lobe mass was considered second deposit in contralateral lung. The patient received chemotherapy for BALT. Followup CT disclosed regression of left lower lobe mass and stability of middle-lobe mass and of right paratracheal lymph nodes. CT-guided biopsy of middle-lobe mass revealed squamous cell lung carcinoma. Surgical biopsy of right paratracheal lymph nodes revealed malignancy. Disease was staged T3, N2, and M0. Combined chemotherapy for lung cancer and BALT lymphoma was initiated.

  8. ZNF423 and ZNF521: EBF1 Antagonists of Potential Relevance in B-Lymphoid Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mesuraca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the B-lymphoid cell lineage is tightly controlled by the concerted action of a network of transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. EBF1, a central component of this network, is essential for B-lymphoid specification and commitment as well as for the maintenance of the B-cell identity. Genetic alterations causing loss of function of these B-lymphopoiesis regulators have been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-lymphoid malignancies, with particular regard to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALLs, where their presence is frequently detected. The activity of the B-cell regulatory network may also be disrupted by the aberrant expression of inhibitory molecules. In particular, two multi-zinc finger transcription cofactors named ZNF423 and ZNF521 have been characterised as potent inhibitors of EBF1 and are emerging as potentially relevant contributors to the development of B-cell leukaemias. Here we will briefly review the current knowledge of these factors and discuss the importance of their functional cross talk with EBF1 in the development of B-cell malignancies.

  9. TYK2 is a key regulator of the surveillance of B lymphoid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Dagmar; Kovacic, Boris; Schuster, Christian; Schellack, Carola; Karaghiosoff, Marina; Kreibich, Rita; Weisz, Eva; Artwohl, Michaela; Kleine, Olaf C.; Muller, Mathias; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Ghysdael, Jacques; Freissmuth, Michael; Sexl, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the JAK-STAT pathway has been implicated in tumor formation; for example, constitutive activation of JAK2 kinase or the enforced expression of STAT5 induces leukemia in mice. We show here that the Janus kinase TYK2 serves an opposite function. Mice deficient in TYK2 developed Abelson-induced B lymphoid leukemia/lymphoma as well as TEL-JAK2–induced T lymphoid leukemia with a higher incidence and shortened latency compared with WT controls. The cell-autonomous properties of Abelson murine leukemia virus–transformed (A-MuLV–transformed) TYK2–/– cells were unaltered, but the high susceptibility of TYK2–/– mice resulted from an impaired tumor surveillance, and accordingly, TYK2–/– A-MuLV–induced lymphomas were easily rejected after transplantation into WT hosts. The increased rate of leukemia/lymphoma formation was linked to a decreased in vitro cytotoxic capacity of TYK2–/– NK and NKT cells toward tumor-derived cells. RAG2/TYK2 double-knockout mice succumbed to A-MuLV–induced leukemia/lymphoma faster than RAG2–/–TYK2+/– mice. This defines NK cells as key players in tumor surveillance in Abelson-induced malignancies. Our observations provide compelling evidence that TYK2 is an important regulator of lymphoid tumor surveillance. PMID:15578097

  10. Establishment of B-lymphoid cell lines retaining cytogenetic characteristics of Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Kubonishi, I; Sandberg, A A

    1983-06-01

    The present study describes the establishment of and chromosomal changes in B-lymphoid cell lines from cells of Bloom syndrome (BS) patients using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Even though PHA-stimulated BS lymphocytes from all five patients studied showed high levels of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), three EBV-transformed BS-B-lymphoid cell lines had normal levels of SCE and two yielded two types of cell populations, i.e., one with increased SCE and chromosome instability (including breaks and quadriradials) and another with normal levels of SCE and without structural aberrations. The karyotypic abnormalities, as observed in the BS lines have not been seen in the cells of any established normal B-lymphoid lines transformed by EBV and strongly suggest that the chromosome abnormalities in the BS--B-cell lines with abnormal karyotypes originated in vivo and not through an in vitro effect of EBV. Furthermore, in the EBV-transformed B-cell lines, we found quadriradial formation between sister chromosomes during endomitoses instead of between homologous chromosomes, strongly suggesting that quadriradial formation may be closely related to SCE. The coexistence in BS subjects of abnormal and normal populations of cells with respect to the number of SCE awaits explanation.

  11. IL-17–induced CXCL12 recruits B cells and induces follicle formation in BALT in the absence of differentiated FDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Henrike; Ravens, Sarina; Moschovakis, Georgios Leandros; Bölter, Jasmin; Willenzon, Stefanie; Sutter, Gerd; Häussler, Susanne; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid tissue, such as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lung, develops spontaneously at sites of chronic inflammation or during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying the neogenesis of such tertiary lymphoid tissue are still poorly understood. We show that the type of inflammation-inducing pathogen determines which key factors are required for the formation and maturation of BALT. Thus, a single intranasal administration of the poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is sufficient to induce highly organized BALT with densely packed B cell follicles containing a network of CXCL13-expressing follicular DCs (FDCs), as well as CXCL12-producing follicular stromal cells. In contrast, mice treated with P. aeruginosa (P.a.) develop BALT but B cell follicles lack FDCs while still harboring CXCL12-positive follicular stromal cells. Furthermore, in IL-17–deficient mice, P.a.-induced BALT largely lacks B cells as well as CXCL12-expressing stromal cells, and only loose infiltrates of T cells are present. We show that Toll-like receptor pathways are required for BALT induction by P.a., but not MVA, and provide evidence that IL-17 drives the differentiation of lung stroma toward podoplanin-positive CXCL12-expressing cells that allow follicle formation even in the absence of FDCs. Taken together, our results identify distinct pathogen-dependent induction and maturation pathways for BALT formation. PMID:24663215

  12. IL-17-induced CXCL12 recruits B cells and induces follicle formation in BALT in the absence of differentiated FDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Henrike; Ravens, Sarina; Moschovakis, Georgios Leandros; Bölter, Jasmin; Willenzon, Stefanie; Sutter, Gerd; Häussler, Susanne; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Immo; Förster, Reinhold

    2014-04-07

    Ectopic lymphoid tissue, such as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lung, develops spontaneously at sites of chronic inflammation or during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying the neogenesis of such tertiary lymphoid tissue are still poorly understood. We show that the type of inflammation-inducing pathogen determines which key factors are required for the formation and maturation of BALT. Thus, a single intranasal administration of the poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is sufficient to induce highly organized BALT with densely packed B cell follicles containing a network of CXCL13-expressing follicular DCs (FDCs), as well as CXCL12-producing follicular stromal cells. In contrast, mice treated with P. aeruginosa (P.a.) develop BALT but B cell follicles lack FDCs while still harboring CXCL12-positive follicular stromal cells. Furthermore, in IL-17-deficient mice, P.a.-induced BALT largely lacks B cells as well as CXCL12-expressing stromal cells, and only loose infiltrates of T cells are present. We show that Toll-like receptor pathways are required for BALT induction by P.a., but not MVA, and provide evidence that IL-17 drives the differentiation of lung stroma toward podoplanin-positive CXCL12-expressing cells that allow follicle formation even in the absence of FDCs. Taken together, our results identify distinct pathogen-dependent induction and maturation pathways for BALT formation.

  13. Neumonía intersticial linfoidea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable Interstitial lymphoid pneumonia associated with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Peralta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía intersticial linfoidea (NIL es una rara entidad, descripta como hiperplasia no neoplásica del tejido linfoide pulmonar y clasificada dentro de las enfermedades intersticiales idiopáticas. Se la ha descripto asociada a infección por HIV, fenómenos autoinmunes, hipergamaglobulinemia policlonal o menos frecuentemente a hipogammaglobulinemia. Presentamos una paciente de 66 años de edad con diabetes mellitus, síndrome de Sjögren e hipertensión arterial, derivada a nuestro centro por tos seca y disnea clase funcional II-III. En el examen físico presentaba rales tipo “velcro” bibasales y esplenomegalia. Los estudios de laboratorio evidenciaron plaquetopenia (50 000/mm³ e hipogammaglobulinemia; la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC de tórax mostró compromiso intersticial bibasal, con nódulos peribroncovasculares menores a un centímetro. Se realizó una videotoracoscopia con biopsia pulmonar, la anatomía patológica mostró hallazgos compatibles con neumonía intersticial linfoidea. Se inició tratamiento con metilprednisona 40 mg/día vía oral e infusión endovenosa de gammaglobulina 500 mg/kg, mensual, evolucionando con mejoría clínico-radiológica. Por persistencia de plaquetopenia, asociada a hiperesplenismo, se realizó esplenectomía con buena respuesta. En la anatomía patológica no se observo clonalidad linfoide.The interstitial lymphoid pneumonia (LIP is an uncommon disorder, described as non-neoplastic lung lymphoid tissue hyperplasia and classified as an interstitial lung disease. It has been described in association with HIV infection, autoimmune disorders, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia and less frequently, with hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the case of a 66 year old female patient with a history of diabetes, Sjögren syndrome and hypertension. She was referred to our hospital due to a dry cough and dyspnea (FC II-III. The physical examination showed bilateral dry crackles and splenomegaly

  14. Biomaterials innovation for next generation ex vivo immune tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur

    2017-06-01

    Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues. The complexity of such animal models limits our ability to modulate the parameters that control the process of immune cell development, differentiation, and immunomodulation. Engineering functional, living immune tissues using biomaterials can grant researchers the ability to reproduce immunological events with tunable parameters for more rapid development of immunotherapeutics, cell-based therapy, and enhancing our understanding of fundamental biology as well as improving efforts in regenerative medicine. Here the author provides his review and perspective on the bioengineering of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, and biomaterials innovation needed for the construction of these immune organs in tissue culture plates and on-chip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Localization of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Dong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10–13 months of gestation, young (1–2 years, pubertal (3–5 years, middle-aged (6–16 years and old (17–20 years. The FcRn expressions were observed and analyzed in detail with histology, immunohistochemistry, micro-image analysis and statistical methods. Results The results showed that the FcRn was expressed in mucosal epithelial cells of ALNA from the fetus to the old group, although the expression level rapidly declined in old group; moreover, after the ALNA maturated, the FcRn expression level in the non-follicle-associated epithelium (non-FAE was significantly higher than that in FAE (P < 0.05. In addition, the FcRn was also expressed in the vessel endothelium, smooth muscle tissue, and macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs of secondary lymphoid follicles (sLFs. Conclusions It was demonstrated that FcRn was mainly expressed in non-FAE, the effector sites, although which was expressed in FAE, the inductive sites for mucosal immunity. And it was also expressed in DCs and macrophages in sLFs of all ages of Bactrian camels. The results provided a powerful evidence that IgG (including HCAb could participate in mucosal immune response and tolerance in ALNA of Bactrian camels through FcRn transmembrane transport.

  16. Impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Cui-Cui; Jia, Shuai; Liu, Lei; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2017-10-06

    The aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in the abomasum is a special organized lymphoid tissue discovered only in Bactrian camels at present. This study aimed to explore the impact of aging on distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in ALNA in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Twenty-four Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following four age groups: young (1-2years), pubertal (3-5years), middle-aged (6-16years) and old (17-20years). IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells in the lamina propria of ALNA were observed and analyzed using immunohistochemical and statistical techniques. The results showed that, in ALNA, the distribution of IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells were diffuse, and only a few were in subepithelium dome (SED) and most of them in non-SED. Meanwhile, there were significantly more IgA(+) cells than IgG(+) cells in SED from the young to the middle aged group, but which reversed in old group (PIgG(+) cells populations in non-SED (PIgG(+) cells, but which were both significantly lower in old group than those in young group (PIgG(+) cells populations and impacted on the defense barriers formed by IgA and IgG, but had no impact on the scattered characteristics. In inductive sites, the aging dramatically declined their densities, and they should have close relationships with immune memory. These findings lay the foundation for further researching the mucosal immune disorder or decline caused by aging, and especially underscore the importance of researching the impact of aging on the relationship between IgA(+) and IgG(+) cells populations and the microbiota colonized in abomasum of Bactrian camels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome: study of 21 patients with CD3-CD4+ aberrant T-cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Aubert, Hélène; Taieb, Alain; Salles, Gilles; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Ghomari, Kamel; Ackerman, Félix; Legrand, Fanny; Baruchel, André; Launay, David; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Khouatra, Chahera; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Labalette, Myriam; Borie, Raphäel; Cotton, François; Gouellec, Noémie Le; Morschhauser, Franck; Trauet, Jacques; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Capron, Monique; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Prin, Lionel; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    The CD3-CD4+ aberrant T-cell phenotype is the most described in the lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES), a rare form of HES. Only a few cases have been reported, and data for these patients are scarce. To describe cha