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Sample records for bronchodilator agents

  1. Expert Statement on the Single-Agent Use of Inhaled Bronchodilator in the Treatment of Stable Mild-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Alcázar, Bernardino; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Casanova, Ciro; Celli, Bartolomé; de-Torres, Juan P; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the evidence- and experience-based expert consensus on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with stable mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using Delphi methodology, a panel of 7 respiratory medicine experts was established, who, in the first nominal group meeting defined the scope, users, and document sections. The panel drew up 14 questions on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with mild-moderate stable COPD to be answered with a systematic review of the literature. The results of the review were discussed in a second nominal group meeting and 17 statements were generated. Agreement/disagreement with the statements was tested among16 different experts including respiratory medicine experts and primary care physicians. Statements were scored from1 (total disagreement) to10 (total agreement). Agreement was considered if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation of the systematic literature review was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels. A total of 12 of the 17 statements were selected. Specific statements were generated on different profiles of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD in whom single-agent bronchodilators could be prescribed. These statements on the use of single-agent bronchodilators might improve the outcomes and prognosis of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    van der Hoeven, Sophia M; Binnekade, Jan M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; Bosch, Frank H; Endeman, Henrik; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P; van der Meer, Nardo J M; Merkus, Maruschka P; Moeniralam, Hazra S; van Silfhout, Bart; Slabbekoorn, Mathilde; Stilma, Willemke; Wijnhoven, Jan Willem; Schultz, Marcus J; Paulus, Frederique

    2015-09-02

    Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs is a strategy aimed at the prevention of sputum plugging, and therefore atelectasis and pneumonia, in intubated and ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The present trial aims to compare a strategy using the preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol with nebulization on indication in intubated and ventilated ICU patients. The preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE) trial is a national multicenter open-label, two-armed, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial in the Netherlands. Nine hundred and fifty intubated and ventilated ICU patients with an anticipated duration of invasive ventilation of more than 24 hours will be randomly assigned to receive either a strategy consisting of preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol or a strategy consisting of nebulization of acetylcysteine and/or salbutamol on indication. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days and surviving on day 28. Secondary endpoints include ICU and hospital length of stay, ICU and hospital mortality, the occurrence of predefined pulmonary complications (acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, large atelectasis and pneumothorax), and the occurrence of predefined side effects of the intervention. Related healthcare costs will be estimated in a cost-benefit and budget-impact analysis. The NEBULAE trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol shortens the duration of ventilation in critically ill patients. NCT02159196, registered on 6 June 2014.

  3. Adrenergic bronchodilator overdose

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    Adrenergic bronchodilators are inhaled medicines that help open up the airways. They are used to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis. Adrenergic bronchodilator overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  4. Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M; Scribani, Melissa B

    2014-06-17

    Bronchiolitis is an acute, viral lower respiratory tract infection affecting infants and is sometimes treated with bronchodilators. To assess the effects of bronchodilators on clinical outcomes in infants (0 to 12 months) with acute bronchiolitis. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 12, MEDLINE (1966 to January Week 2, 2014) and EMBASE (1998 to January 2014). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bronchodilators (other than epinephrine) with placebo for bronchiolitis. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. We obtained unpublished data from trial authors. We included 30 trials (35 data sets) representing 1992 infants with bronchiolitis. In 11 inpatient and 10 outpatient studies, oxygen saturation did not improve with bronchodilators (mean difference (MD) -0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.92 to 0.06, n = 1242). Outpatient bronchodilator treatment did not reduce the rate of hospitalization (11.9% in bronchodilator group versus 15.9% in placebo group, odds ratio (OR) 0.75, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.21, n = 710). Inpatient bronchodilator treatment did not reduce the duration of hospitalization (MD 0.06, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.39, n = 349).Effect estimates for inpatients (MD -0.62, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.16) were slightly larger than for outpatients (MD -0.25, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.11) for oximetry. Oximetry outcomes showed significant heterogeneity (I(2) statistic = 81%). Including only studies with low risk of bias had little impact on the overall effect size of oximetry (MD -0.38, 95% CI -0.75 to 0.00) but results were close to statistical significance.In eight inpatient studies, there was no change in average clinical score (standardized MD (SMD) -0.14, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.12) with bronchodilators. In nine outpatient studies, the average clinical score decreased slightly with bronchodilators (SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.79 to -0.06), a statistically significant finding of questionable clinical importance. The clinical score outcome showed significant heterogeneity (I(2

  5. Cigarette smoke retention and bronchodilation in patients with COPD. A controlled randomized trial.

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    van Dijk, Wouter D; Heijdra, Yvonne; Lenders, Jacques W M; Klerx, Walther; Akkermans, Reinier; van der Pouw, Anouschka; van Weel, Chris; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2013-01-01

    Bronchodilators are the cornerstone for symptomatic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many patients use these agents while persisting in their habit of cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that bronchodilators increase pulmonary retention of cigarette smoke and hence the risk of smoking-related (cardiovascular) disease. Our aim was to investigate if bronchodilation causes increased pulmonary retention of cigarette smoke in patients with COPD. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial, in which COPD patients smoked cigarettes during undilated conditions at one session and maximal bronchodilated conditions at the other session. Co-primary outcomes were pulmonary tar and nicotine retention. We performed a secondary analysis that excludes errors due to possible contamination. Secondary outcomes included the biomarkers C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, and smoke inhalation patterns. Of 39 randomized patients, 35 patients completed the experiment and were included in the final analysis. Bronchodilation did not significantly increase tar retention (-4.5%, p = 0.20) or nicotine retention (-2.6%, p = 0.11). Secondary analysis revealed a potential reduction of retention due to bronchodilation: tar retention (-3.8%, p = 0.13), and nicotine retention (-3.4%, p = 0.01). Bronchodilation did not modify our secondary outcomes. Our results do not support the hypothesis that cigarette tar and nicotine retention in COPD patients is increased by bronchodilation, whereas we observed a possibility towards less retention. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981851. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bronchodilator treatment of stable COPD: long-acting anticholinergics

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    W. Vincken

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Since airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is to some extent reversible, bronchodilators play an important role in the maintenance treatment of COPD the more they reduce hyperinflation and, as a result, improve dyspnoea and exercise capacity. Since parasympathetic activity is the dominant reversible component of airflow obstruction in COPD, inhaled short-acting anticholinergic agents (SAAC, in particular ipratropium, became an efficient and safe first-line treatment, especially when combined with a short-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Even better results were obtained when combining the SAAC ipratropium to a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA, once they became available. Recently, tiotropium bromide, the first of a new class of selective and long-acting anticholinergic agents was introduced for once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD patients. Several large long-term randomised clinical trials comparing tiotropium to placebo as well as to the SAAC ipratropium and the LABA salmeterol, have confirmed the long-acting and superior bronchodilator effect of tiotropium without any evidence of drug tolerance developing. These studies also have clearly demonstrated that tiotropium positively affects several other important health outcomes, such as dyspnoea sensation, exercise capacity, utilisation of rescue bronchodilators, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations and hospitalisations because of exacerbations. The improvement in these real-life outcomes appears related to the reduction in both static and dynamic hyperinflation. In all these studies, tiotropium was well tolerated and safe; the only relevant side-effect encountered being dry mouth, usually mild and often transitory. Finally, it has been shown that the combination of tiotropium with a LABA affords superior bronchodilatation than both agents alone, indicating that both classes of long-acting bronchodilators should be

  7. Cardiovascular morbidity and the use of inhaled bronchodilators

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    Christine Macie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine Macie, Kate Wooldrage, Jure Manfreda, Nicholas AnthonisenDepartment of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: We used the Manitoba Health database to examine the relationship between use of inhaled respiratory drugs in people with chronic obstructive respiratory diseases and cardiovascular hospitalizations from 1996 through 2000. The drugs examined were beta agonists [BA], ipratropium bromide IB, and inhaled steroids (ICS. End points were first hospitalizations for supraventricular tachycardia, myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke. A nested case control analysis was employed comparing people with and without cardiovascular events. Cases and controls were matched for gender and age, and conditional logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis considering other respiratory drugs, respiratory diagnosis and visit frequency, non-respiratory, non-cardiac comorbidities, and receipt of drugs for cardiovascular disease. In univariate analyses, BA, IB and ICS were all associated with hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease, but in multivariate analyses ICS did not increase risk while both BA and IB did. There were interactions between respiratory and cardiac drugs receipt in that bronchodilator associated risks were higher in people not taking cardiac drugs; this was especially true for stroke. There were strong interactions with specific cardiac drugs; for example, both BA and IB substantially increased the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in patients not anti-arryhthmic agents, but not in the presence of such agents. We conclude that bronchodilator therapy for chronic obstructive diseases is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially in patients without previous cardiovascular diagnoses, and that this is unlikely due to the severity of the respiratory disease, since risk was not increased with ICS.Keywords: bronchodilator therapy, inhaled corticosteroids, nested case

  8. Bronchodilator Response in Patients with Persistent Allergic Asthma Could Not Predict Airway Hyperresponsiveness

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    Petanjek Bojana B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinergics, or specific antimuscarinic agents, by inhibition of muscarinic receptors cause bronchodilatation, which might correlate with activation of these receptors by the muscarinic agonist methacholine. The aim of this study was to determine whether a positive bronchodilator response to the anticholinergic ipratropium bromide could predict airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with persistent allergic asthma. The study comprised 40 patients with mild and moderate persistent allergic asthma. Diagnosis was established by clinical and functional follow-up (skin-prick test, spirometry, bronchodilator tests with salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, and methacholine challenge testing. The bronchodilator response was positive to both bronchodilator drugs in all patients. After salbutamol inhalation, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 increased by 18.39 ± 6.18%, p 1 increased by 19.14 ± 6.74%, p 1 decreased by 25.75 ± 5.16%, p 20 FEV1 [provocative concentration of methacholine that results in a 20% fall in FEV1] from 0.026 to 1.914 mg/mL. Using linear regression, between methacholine challenge testing and bronchodilator response to salbutamol, a positive, weak, and stastistically significant correlation for FEV1 was found (p

  9. Interaction in COPD experiment (ICE): a hazardous combination of cigarette smoking and bronchodilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    van Dijk, W D; Heijdra, Y; Scheepers, P T J; Lenders, J W M; van Weel, C; Schermer, T R J

    2010-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent disease, characterised by poorly reversible, obstructive airflow limitation. Alongside other comorbidities, COPD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease - mainly heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Both diseases share an important risk factor, namely, smoking. About 50% of COPD patients are active cigarette smokers. Bronchodilation is the cornerstone of pharmaceutical treatment for COPD symptoms, and half of all COPD patients use long-acting bronchodilating agents. Discussion about these agents is currently focusing on the association with overall mortality and morbidity in COPD patients, of cardiovascular origin in particular. Bronchodilation diminishes the hyperinflated state of the lung and facilitates the pulmonary deposition of cigarette smoke by deeper inhalation into the smaller airways. Smaller particles, as in smoke, tend to penetrate and depose more in these small airways. In addition, bronchodilation indeed increases carbon monoxide uptake in the lungs, an important gaseous compound of cigarette smoke. Since the number of cigarettes smoked is positively correlated to mortality from cardiac events, we therefore hypothesise that chronic bronchodilation increases cardiovascular disease and mortality in COPD patients who continue smoking by increasing pulmonary retention of pathogenic smoke constituents. Indeed, a recent meta-analysis is suggestive that long-acting anticholinergics might increase cardiovascular disease if patients exceed a certain number of cigarettes smoked. To demonstrate the fundamental mechanism of this pathogenic interaction we will perform a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over trial to investigate the effect of maximum bronchodilation on the retention of cigarette smoke constituents. In 40 moderate to severe COPD patients we measure the inhaled and exhaled amount of tar and nicotine, as well during maximum

  10. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

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    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  11. Bronchodilator responsiveness as a phenotypic characteristic of established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Paul; Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness is a potential phenotypic characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied whether change in lung function after a bronchodilator is abnormal in COPD, whether stable responder subgroups can be identified, and whether these subgroups experience...

  12. Evidence that CFTR is expressed in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells and contributes to bronchodilation

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    Mettey Yvette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF. CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease is caused by mutations of the CFTR gene, which normally encodes a multifunctional and integral membrane protein, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressed in airway epithelial cells. Methods To demonstrate that CFTR is also expressed in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC, we used iodide efflux assay to analyse the chloride transports in organ culture of rat TSMC, immunofluorescence study to localize CFTR proteins and isometric contraction measurement on isolated tracheal rings to observe the implication of CFTR in the bronchodilation. Results We characterized three different pathways stimulated by the cAMP agonist forskolin and the isoflavone agent genistein, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by hypo-osmotic challenge. The pharmacology of the cAMP-dependent iodide efflux was investigated in detail. We demonstrated in rat TSMC that it is remarkably similar to that of the epithelial CFTR, both for activation (using three benzo [c]quinolizinium derivatives and for inhibition (glibenclamide, DPC and CFTRinh-172. Using rat tracheal rings, we observed that the activation of CFTR by benzoquinolizinium derivatives in TSMC leads to CFTRinh-172-sensitive bronchodilation after constriction with carbachol. An immunolocalisation study confirmed expression of CFTR in tracheal myocytes. Conclusion Altogether, these observations revealed that CFTR in the airways of rat is expressed not only in the epithelial cells but also in tracheal smooth muscle cells leading to the hypothesis that this ionic channel could contribute to bronchodilation.

  13. INTERPRETATION OF BRONCHODILATOR RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAYS DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; QUANJER, PH; POSTMA, DS; KERSTJENS, HAM; KOETER, GH; DEKHUIJZEN, PNR; SLUITER, HJ

    Background There is no agreement on how a bronchodilator response should be expressed. Ideally, the index used should be able to distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive lung disease and be independent of initial FEV1. Methods Two hundred and seventy four adult (aged 18-60 years) outpatients with

  14. Effects of short-acting Bronchodilators added to maintenance tiotropium therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Bantje, Theo A.; Luursema, Peter B.; Sinninghe, Henk E. J.; de Jong, Jan W.; Lee, Angela; Wijker, Stella P. C.; Cornelissen, Piet J. G.

    Background: Combining bronchodilators has been shown to be beneficial in patients with COPD. The additive effects of short-acting bronchodilators added to maintenance tiotropium therapy, however, are unknown. Methods: Following 3 weeks of tiotropium pretreatment, 60 patients with COPD (FEV1 40% of

  15. Obesity and bronchodilator response in black and Hispanic children and adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Meghan E; Castellanos, Elizabeth; Thakur, Neeta; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Avila, Pedro C; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, increased asthma morbidity, and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that obesity would be associated with decreased bronchodilator responsiveness in children and adolescents with asthma. In addition, we hypothesized that subjects who were obese and unresponsive to bronchodilator would have worse asthma control and would require more asthma controller medications. In the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study, two identical, parallel, case-control studies of asthma, we examined the association between obesity and bronchodilator response in 2,963 black and Latino subjects enrolled from 2008 to 2013 using multivariable logistic regression. Using bronchodilator responsiveness, we compared asthma symptoms, controller medication usage, and asthma exacerbations between nonobese (< 95th% BMI) and obese (≥ 95th% BMI) subjects. The odds of being bronchodilator unresponsive were 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49) higher among obese children and adolescents compared with their not obese counterparts after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, recruitment site, baseline lung function (FEV1/FVC), and controller medication. Bronchodilator-unresponsive obese subjects were more likely to report wheezing (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70), being awakened at night (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65), using leukotriene receptor inhibitors (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70), and using inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting β2-agonist (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78) than were their nonobese counterpart. These associations were not seen in the bronchodilator-responsive group. Obesity is associated with bronchodilator unresponsiveness among black and Latino children and adolescents with asthma. The findings on obesity and bronchodilator unresponsiveness represent a unique opportunity to identify factors affecting asthma

  16. Bronchodilation and smoking interaction in COPD: a cohort pilot study to assess cardiovascular risk.

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    van Dijk, Wouter D; Lenders, Jacques W M; Holtman, Joran; Grootens, Joke; Akkermans, Reinier; Heijdra, Yvonne; van Weel, Chris; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and bronchodilator treatment are both extensively studied as key elements in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about whether or not these elements interact in terms of developing cardiovascular diseases in patients with COPD. To explore to what extent the risk of developing ischemic cardiovascular disease in COPD patients is mediated by smoking status, use of bronchodilators and--specifically--their interaction. We performed an observational pilot study on a relatively healthy Dutch COPD cohort from a primary care diagnostic center database with full information on spirometry tests, smoking status, bronchodilator use and other prescribed medication. We defined first ischemic cardiovascular events as primary outcome, measured by first prescription of antiplatelet drugs and/or nitrates. Unadjusted analyses by Kaplan-Meier were followed by adjusted Cox' proportional hazards. 845 COPD patients, totaling 2,169 observation years, were included in the analyses. We observed an increased risk for nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events by smoking (adjusted HR=3.58, p=0.001) and a protective effect of bronchodilators (adjusted HR=0.43, p=0.01). Although the protective effect of bronchodilators appears to be substantially minimized in patients that persist in smoking, we could not statistically confirm a hazardous interaction between bronchodilators and smoking (HR 2.50, p=0.21). Our study reveals bronchodilators may protect from ischemic cardiovascular events in a relatively 'healthy' COPD population. We did not confirm a hazardous interaction between bronchodilators and smoking, although we observed current smokers benefit substantially less from the protective effect of bronchodilators. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Searching for Synergistic Bronchodilators and Novel Therapeutic Regimens for Chronic Lung Diseases from a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan

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    Hou, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhou, Mengge; Fang, Runping; Jiang, Min; Hou, Wenbin; Bai, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25397687

  18. Searching for synergistic bronchodilators and novel therapeutic regimens for chronic lung diseases from a traditional Chinese medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hou

    Full Text Available Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD.

  19. Pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function as predictors of mortality in the Lung Health Study

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    Diaz-Guzman Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is supposed to be classified on the basis of post-bronchodilator lung function. Most longitudinal studies of COPD, though, do not have post-bronchodilator lung function available. We used pre-and post bronchodilator lung function data from the Lung Health Study to determine whether these measures differ in their ability to predict mortality. Methods We limited our analysis to subjects who were of black or white race, on whom we had complete data, and who participated at either the 1 year or the 5 year follow-up visit. We classified subjects based on their baseline lung function, according to COPD Classification criteria using both pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function. We conducted a survival analysis and logistic regression predicting death and controlling for age, sex, race, treatment group, smoking status, and measures of lung function (either pre- or post-bronchodilator. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI and also calculated area under the curve for the logistic regression models. Results By year 15 of the study, 721 of the original 5,887 study subjects had died. In the year 1 sample survival models, a higher FEV1 % predicted lower mortality in both the pre-bronchodilator (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81, 0.94 per 10% increase and post-bronchodilator (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90 models. The area under the curve for the respective models was 69.2% and 69.4%. Similarly, using categories, when compared to people with "normal" lung function, subjects with Stage 3 or 4 disease had similar mortality in both the pre- (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75, 3.03 and post-bronchodilator (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.41, 5.15 models. In the year 5 sample, when a larger proportion of subjects had Stage 3 or 4 disease (6.4% in the pre-bronchodilator group, mortality was significantly increased in both the pre- (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.51, 4.75 and post-bronchodilator (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.63, 3

  20. Variants in the interleukin 8 gene and the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis

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    Larissa Lazzarini Furlan

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: This study highlighted the importance of the rs4073 variant of the interleukin 8 gene, regarding response to inhaled bronchodilators, and of the assessment of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.

  1. Oscillometric and Spirometric Bronchodilator Response in Preschool Children with and without Asthma

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    Youn Ho Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children.

  2. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma.

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    Brehm, John M; Ramratnam, Sima K; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A; Raby, Benjamin A; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L; Nugent, Nicole R; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L; Martinez, Fernando D; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L; Barnes, Kathleen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Strunk, Robert C; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K; Fritz, Gregory K; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S; Almli, Lynn M; Burchard, Esteban G; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9-14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1-14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4(+) lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children.

  3. A method to study the effect of bronchodilators on smoke retention in COPD patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Klerx, W.; Weel, C. van; Schermer, T.R.J.; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease, associated with cardiovascular disease. Many patients use (long-acting) bronchodilators, whilst they continue smoking alongside. We hypothesised an interaction between bronchodilators and smoking that enhances smoke

  4. Can bronchodilators improve exercise tolerance in COPD patients without dynamic hyperinflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Enedina Aquino Scuarcialupi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the modulatory effects that dynamic hyperinflation (DH, defined as a reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC, has on exercise tolerance after bronchodilator in patients with COPD. METHODS: An experimental, randomized study involving 30 COPD patients without severe hypoxemia. At baseline, the patients underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET. On two subsequent visits, the patients were randomized to receive a combination of inhaled fenoterol/ipratropium or placebo. All patients then underwent spirometry and submaximal CPET at constant speed up to the limit of tolerance (Tlim. The patients who showed ΔIC(peak-rest 0.05. In addition, both groups showed similar improvements in Tlim after bronchodilator (median [interquartile range]: 22% [3-60%] vs. 10% [3-53%]; p > 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in TLim was associated with an increase in IC at rest after bronchodilator in HD- patients with COPD. However, even without that improvement, COPD patients can present with greater exercise tolerance after bronchodilator provided that they develop DH during exercise.

  5. Variants in the interleukin 8 gene and the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Larissa Lazzarini; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Salomão Junior, João Batista; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima

    Interleukin 8 protein promotes inflammatory responses, even in airways. The presence of interleukin 8 gene variants causes altered inflammatory responses and possibly varied responses to inhaled bronchodilators. Thus, this study analyzed the interleukin 8 variants (rs4073, rs2227306, and rs2227307) and their association with the response to inhaled bronchodilators in cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of interleukin 8 gene variants was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction. The association between spirometry markers and the response to inhaled bronchodilators was evaluated by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The analysis included all cystic fibrosis patients, and subsequently patients with two mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene belonging to classes I to III. This study included 186 cystic fibrosis patients. There was no association of the rs2227307 variant with the response to inhaled bronchodilators. The rs2227306 variant was associated with FEF 50% in the dominant group and in the group with two identified mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The rs4073 variant was associated with spirometry markers in four genetic models: co-dominant (FEF 25-75% and FEF 75% ), dominant (FEV 1 , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , and FEF 25-75% ), recessive (FEF 75% and FEF 25-75% ), and over-dominant (FEV 1 /FVC). This study highlighted the importance of the rs4073 variant of the interleukin 8 gene, regarding response to inhaled bronchodilators, and of the assessment of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with wheezing associated respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    1994-07-01

    The responsiveness to bronchodilator is variable in infants with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI). Factors for prediction of the response will lead to more rational use of the bronchodilator in these infants. We examined the possible predictive factors in 44 children under 2 years of age who had their first episode of WARI. All of them were treated with 0.15 mg/kg of nebulized salbutamol. Thirty patients (68%) with decreasing clinical score > or = 3 after treatment were considered as the responders while the remainder (14 infants) were non responders. By using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test to compare the data of the 2 groups, the significant factors for the responders were older than 6 months and history of previous LRI (p < 0.01). The significant factors for the non-responders included concurrent diarrhea, patchy pulmonary infiltration and positive RSV in the nasopharyngeal secretion (p < 0.01). These results suggested effective bronchodilator therapy in infants older than 6 months or having a history of previous LRI. Those who had acute RSV infection or patchy infiltration in chest X-ray and associated diarrhea were less likely to respond.

  7. Effectiveness and safety of concurrent beta-blockers and inhaled bronchodilators in COPD with cardiovascular comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Corrao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the most common chronic respiratory disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide, in both industrialised and developing countries. Its prevalence is ∼5% in the general population and it is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases; in fact, ∼64% of people suffering from COPD are treated for a concomitant cardiovascular disease and approximately one in three COPD patients die as a consequence of cardiovascular diseases. Inhaled bronchodilators might have adverse cardiovascular effects, including ischaemic events and arrhythmias, and beta-blockers might adversely influence the respiratory symptoms and the response to bronchodilators. For these reasons, it is important to know the safety profiles and the possible interactions between these two classes of drug, in order to prescribe them with greater awareness. In this article, we review the literature about the epidemiology of COPD, its association with cardiovascular diseases, and the safety of concurrent use of inhaled bronchodilators and beta-blockers, as a tool for improving the approach to complex therapies in clinical practice.

  8. Impact of varying physical activity levels on airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Johnson, Ariel M; Kolmer, Sarah A; Harms, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of physical activity influences airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy subjects across a range of physical activity levels. Thirty healthy subjects (age, 21.9 ± 2.6 years; 13 men/17 women) with normal pulmonary function reported to the laboratory on 2 separate occasions where they were randomized to breathe either hypertonic saline (HS) (nebulized hypertonic saline (25%) for 20 min) or HS followed by 5 deep inspirations (DIs), which has been reported to bronchodilate the airways. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed prior to both conditions and following the HS breathing or 5 DIs. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level was measured via accelerometer worn for 7 days. Following the HS breathing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly decreased from baseline by -11.8% ± 8.4% and -9.3% ± 6.7%, respectively. A 2-segment linear model determined significant relationships between MVPA and percent change in FEV1 (r = 0.50) and FVC (r = 0.55). MVPA above ∼497 and ∼500 min/week for FEV1 and FVC, respectively, resulted in minor additional improvements (p > 0.05) in PFTs following the HS breathing. Following the DIs, FEV1 and FVC decreased (p 0.05) to MVPA. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that higher MVPA levels attenuated airway sensitivity but not bronchodilation in healthy subjects.

  9. Antitussive, antispasmodic, bronchodilating and cardiac inotropic effects of the essential oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jehison Jiménez; Ragone, María Inés; Bonazzola, Patricia; Bandoni, Arnaldo L; Consolini, Alicia E

    2018-01-10

    maximal relaxation that was 1.9 times higher than that of papaverine. In the isolated heart, EO-Bs induced a poor negative inotropic response, and did not improve the contractile and energetic recovery after ischemia and reperfusion. In the mouse cough model, EO-Bs (90mg/Kg) was as effective as codeine (30mg/Kg) in reducing cough frequency. The results indicate that the preparations from Blepharocalyx salicifolius leaves were effective as central antitussive, bronchodilating and antispasmodic agents, suggestive of a mechanism associated with the inhibition of Ca 2+ influx into smooth muscle. The EO-Bs displayed only a poor ability to reduce cardiac inotropism, and was devoid of any cardioprotective properties. Thus, the present study validates the traditional use of this South American plant for asthma, cough and bronchospasm, shedding new light into its potency and putative mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Redistributed Regional Ventilation after the Administration of a Bronchodilator Demonstrated on Xenon-Inhaled Dual-Energy CT in a Patient with Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yu, Jin Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report here on the redistributed regional ventilation abnormalities after the administration of a bronchodilator and as seen on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT in a patient with asthma. The improved ventilation seen in the right lower lobe and the decreased ventilation seen in the right middle lobe after the administration of a bronchodilator on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT could explain a positive bronchodilator response on a pulmonary function test. These changes may reflect the heterogeneity of the airway responsiveness to a bronchodilator in patients with asthma.

  11. Redistributed Regional Ventilation after the Administration of a Bronchodilator Demonstrated on Xenon-Inhaled Dual-Energy CT in a Patient with Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yu, Jin Ho [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We report here on the redistributed regional ventilation abnormalities after the administration of a bronchodilator and as seen on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT in a patient with asthma. The improved ventilation seen in the right lower lobe and the decreased ventilation seen in the right middle lobe after the administration of a bronchodilator on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT could explain a positive bronchodilator response on a pulmonary function test. These changes may reflect the heterogeneity of the airway responsiveness to a bronchodilator in patients with asthma.

  12. Combined bronchodilators (tiotropium plus olodaterol) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Kabbara, Wissam K; El Khoury, Ghada M; Al Assir, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a respiratory disease characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators, such as long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs) or long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), are the cornerstone of maintenance therapy for patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. For patients not sufficiently controlled on a single long-acting bronchodilator, a combination of different bronchodilators has shown a significant increase in lung function. Tiotropium, a once-daily dosing LAMA, demonstrated sustained improvements in lung function as well as improved health-related quality of life, reduced exacerbations, and increased survival without altering the rate of decline in the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) with fairly tolerable side effects. Olodaterol is a once-daily dosing LABA that has proven to be effective in improving lung function, reducing rescue medication use, and improving dyspnea and health-related quality of life, as well as improving exercise endurance with an acceptable safety profile. The combination of olodaterol and tiotropium provided additional improvements in lung function greater than monotherapy with each drug alone. Several well-designed randomized trials confirmed that the synergistic effect of both drugs in combination was able to improve lung function and health-related quality of life without a significant increase in adverse effects. The objective of this paper is to review available evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of tiotropium, olodaterol, and their combination in patients with COPD. PMID:26586940

  13. Response to bronchodilators in very preterm infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow DK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel K Morrow, Diane Schilling, Cindy T McEvoy Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: There are few effective and safe medications to treat very low birth weight (VLBW infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Bronchodilators are often given to patients who have clinical signs of reactive airway disease, but there is not enough information regarding their effectiveness within this population. Objective: To quantify the pulmonary function response to bronchodilator therapy in a population of VLBW infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of an ongoing large database of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in premature infants. We reviewed the pre- and post-bronchodilator PFTs ordered by a physician due to concern for reactive airway disease. Inclusion criteria: Birth weight (BW <1,500 g; >14 days of age; admission diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome; requiring ongoing oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure, or ventilator support at the time of PFT. PFTs were done prior to albuterol therapy and repeated 30 minutes after the therapy was given. PFTs included the measurement of passive respiratory mechanics with the single breath occlusion technique, including passive respiratory system compliance, resistance, and tidal volume. Results: Forty VLBW infants (mean gestation of 27.4 weeks; mean BW of 848 g were identified as having PFTs. Twenty-nine of these patients had a BW of ≤1,000 g. The patients were studied at a mean corrected gestational age of 34.9 weeks. Twenty-nine of 40 patients were extubated at the time of the PFT. Of these patients, 21 (52.5% had a decrease in respiratory system resistance of ≥10%. From the other 19 patients, five (12.5% had a decrease of 0% to <10% in respiratory system resistance, and 14(35% showed no response to therapy. There was no significant difference in respiratory system

  14. Acute bronchodilator responsiveness and health outcomes in COPD patients in the UPLIFT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decramer Marc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR. Methods At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT® trial, patients had spirometry performed before and after administration of ipratropium bromide 80 mcg and albuterol 400 mcg. Patients were split according to three BDR thresholds: ≥12% + ≥200 mL above baseline (criterion A, ≥15% above baseline (criterion B; and ≥10% absolute increase in percent predicted FEV1 values (criterion C. Several outcomes (pre-dose spirometry, exacerbations, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score were assessed according to presence or absence of BDR in the treatment groups. Results 5783 of 5993 randomized patients had evaluable pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry at baseline. Mean age (SD was 64 (8 years, with 75% men, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 1.33 ± 0.44 L (47.6 ± 12.7% predicted and 30% current smokers. At baseline, 52%, 66%, and 39% of patients had acute BDR using criterion A, B, and C, respectively. The presence of BDR was variable at follow-up visits. Statistically significant improvements in spirometry and health outcomes occurred with tiotropium regardless of the baseline BDR or criterion used. Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients demonstrate significant acute BDR. BDR in these patients is variable over time and differs according to the criterion used. BDR status at baseline does not predict long-term response to tiotropium. Assessment of acute BDR should not be used as a decision-making tool when prescribing tiotropium to patients with COPD.

  15. Components of Stem Barks of Winchia calophylla A. DC. and Their Bronchodilator Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ming ZHU; Hong-Ping HE; Li-Ming FAN; Yue-Mao SHEN; Jun ZHOU; Xiao-Jiang HAO

    2005-01-01

    The Dai medicinal plant Winchia calophylla A. DC. (Apocynaceae) has efficacy as an anticough and anti-asthmatic medication. In order to investigate its relative bioactive components, we studied the chemical constituents of this plant. Using repeated column chromatography, 28 compounds, including loganin, six phenolic compounds, 17 indole alkaloids, three pyridine alkaloids, and a quinoline alkaloid,were isolated from the stem barks of W. calophylla. Loganin, paeonol, N (4)-methyl akuammicine, and cantleyine exhibited a moderate relaxation effect on isolated smooth muscles of guinea-pig tracheal spirals and lung strips and may be the bioactive components responsible for the bronchodilation produced by W. calophylla.

  16. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  17. [Community-acquired pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with inhaled corticosteroids or other bronchodilators. Study PNEUMOCORT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morros, Rosa; Vedia, Cristina; Giner-Soriano, Maria; Casellas, Aina; Amado, Ester; Baena, Jose Miguel

    2018-04-13

    To analyse the risk of pneumonia and/or exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who receive treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (CI), in comparison with those who are not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (NCI). To estimate the risk of pneumonia according to CI dose. Population-based cohort study. Primary Healthcare. Institut Català de la Salut. Patients ≥45 years-old diagnosed with COPD between 2007 and 2009 in the Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). Two cohorts; patients initiating CI and patients initiating bronchodilators after COPD diagnosis. Demographics, smoking, medical history, pneumonias, exacerbations, vaccinations, and drug therapy. A total of 3,837 patients were included, 58% in the CI and 42% in the NCI group. Higher incidence rates of pneumonia and exacerbations were detected in the CI group compared with the NCI (2.18 vs. 1.37). The risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations was not significantly different between groups, HR; 1.17 (95% CI; 0.87-1.56) and 1.06 (95% CI; 0.87-1.31), respectively. Patients in the CI group had a higher risk of mild exacerbations, HR; 1.28 (95% CI; 1.10-1.50). Variables associated with a higher risk of pneumonia were age, diabetes, previous pneumonias and bronchitis, very severe COPD, treatment with low doses of β 2 -adrenergic or anticholinergic agents, and previous treatment with oral corticosteroids. There were no differences between cohorts in the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations. The risk of mild exacerbations was higher in the CI group. Pneumonias and severe exacerbations were more frequent in patients with severe COPD and in patients receiving high doses of CI. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting treatable traits for long-acting bronchodilators in patients with stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jieun Kang,1,* Ki Tae Kim,2,* Ji-Hyun Lee,3 Eun Kyung Kim,3 Tae-Hyung Kim,4 Kwang Ha Yoo,5 Jae Seung Lee,1 Woo Jin Kim,6 Ju Han Kim,2 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Seoul National University Biomedical Informatics and Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Division of Biomedical Informatics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, 4Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: There is currently no measure to predict a treatability of long-acting β-2 agonist (LABA or long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We aimed to build prediction models for the treatment response to these bronchodilators, in order to determine the most responsive medication for patients with COPD.Methods: We performed a prospective open-label crossover study, in which each long-acting bronchodilator was given in a random order to 65 patients with stable COPD for 4 weeks, with a 4-week washout period in between. We analyzed 14 baseline clinical traits, expression profiles of 31,426 gene transcripts, and damaged-gene scores of 6,464 genes acquired from leukocytes. The gene expression profiles were measured by RNA microarray and the damaged-gene scores were obtained after DNA exome sequencing. Linear regression analyses were performed to build prediction models after using

  19. Seventeen-Year Nationwide Trends in Use of Long-acting Bronchodilators and Inhaled Corticosteroids among Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild

    2018-01-01

    , the total annual amount of prescribed long-acting bronchodilators and ICS increased by 39%. Similarly, the proportion of adult users increased from 2.6% to 4.5%, mainly driven by the introduction of combination therapy and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). Though the rate of new users of fixed......-acting bronchodilators and ICS over time, mainly driven by the introduction of combination drugs and LAMA. Special attention should be paid to the low level of persistence, especially among young individuals and users of ICS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Bronchodilator response of advanced lung function parameters depending on COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarenbäck L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Linnea Jarenbäck,1 Göran Eriksson,1 Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson1 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Background: COPD is defined as partly irreversible airflow obstruction. The response pattern of bronchodilators has not been followed in advanced lung function parameters. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate bronchodilator response pattern in advanced lung function parameters in a continuous fashion along forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 percent predicted (%p in COPD patients and controls. Patients and methods: Eighty-one smokers/ex-smokers (41 controls and 40 COPD performed spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and single-breath helium dilution carbon monoxide diffusion at baseline, after salbutamol inhalation and then after an additional inhalation of ipratropium. Results: Most pulmonary function parameters showed a linear increase in response to decreased FEV1%p. The subjects were divided into groups of FEV1%p <65 and >65, and the findings from continuous analysis were verified. The exceptions to this linear response were inspiratory capacity (IC, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC and expiratory resistance (Rex, which showed a segmented response relationship to FEV1%p. IC and FVC, with break points (BP of 57 and 58 FEV1%p respectively, showed no response above, but an incresed slope below the BP. In addition, in patients with FEV1%p <65 and >65, response of FEV1%p did not correlate to response of volume parameters. Conclusion: Response of several advanced lung function parameters differs depending on patients’ baseline FEV1%p, and specifically response of volume parameters is most pronounced in COPD patients with FEV1%p <65. Volume and resistance responses do not follow the flow response measured with FEV1 and may thus be used as a

  1. Regional bronchodilator response assessed by computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kaoruko; Makita, Hironi; Hasegawa, Masaru; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fuke, Satoshi; Nagai, Katsura; Yoshida, Takayuki; Suzuki, Masaru; Konno, Satoshi [First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Department of Biostatistics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishimura, Masaharu, E-mail: ma-nishi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Background and objective: The reliability of CT assessment of regional bronchodilation is not universally accepted. In this study, using our proprietary 3D-CT software, we first examined airway inner luminal area (Ai) before and after inhalation of SFC in a group of COPD patients and then evaluated the same parameters for two sets of CT data obtained from clinically stable subjects with no intervention. Methods: We conducted CT at deep inspiration and pulmonary function tests before and one week after inhalation of SFC in 23 COPD patients. As a non-intervention group, we used two sets of CT data obtained with one-year interval in another group of subjects who demonstrated stable pulmonary function (n = 8). We measured Ai at the mid-portions of 3rd to 6th generation in 8 bronchi of the right lung, a total of 32 identical sites before and after intervention. Results: The average bronchodilation at all sites (ΔAi%: 28.2 ± 4.1 (SE)%) (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of each generation significantly correlated with % improvement of FEV1 (ΔFEV1%), which increased from 1.40 ± 0.10 L to 1.58 ± 0.10 L. When subjects were classified into two groups in terms of mean ΔFEV1%, even the poor responders (ΔFEV1% <14% above baseline, n = 13) displayed significantly larger ΔAi% compared with the non-intervention group (19.1 ± 4.6% versus 2.1 ± 3.9%). Inter-observer variability for overall ΔAi% was within acceptable levels. Conclusions: CT can reliably detect the regional bronchodilation in 3rd to 6th generation airways when ΔFEV1 is as small as 180 ml on average. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) system ( (http://www.umin.ac.jp/). No. UMIN 000002668)

  2. SEPARATE AND COMBINED EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS AND BRONCHODILATORS ON AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION AND AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; POSTMA, DS; BREEDERVELD, N; ALTINGHEBING, D; VANDERMARK, TW; KOETER, GH

    We have investigated separate and interactive effects of corticosteroids and bronchodilators on airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Twelve allergic subjects with asthma were treated in a double-blind, crossover, randomized study with budesonide, 1.6 mg daily for 3 weeks, prednisone,

  3. Short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation does not increase cardiovascular events in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Emmy; van Dijk, Wouter D; Heijdra, Yvonne; Lenders, Jacques W M; van Weel, Chris; Akkermans, Reinier; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that bronchodilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the smoke-related risk to develop cardiovascular disease, and aimed to study the effect of short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation and smoking on cardiovascular events. We performed a secondary analysis on data from the Lung Health Study, a large randomized clinical trial of smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction, 35-60 years old, without cardiovascular comorbidity. We used Cox proportional survival analysis, controlling for several confounders, to study the effect on 5-year risk of fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Secondary outcome encompassed fatal and non-fatal coronary events. Of 2745 participants, 23 (0.8%) died of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and sixty-two participants were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event, and 94 participants due to a coronary event. Survival analysis revealed no effect between smoking and short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation on fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events, hazard ratio = 1.12 (0.58-2.19), nor on coronary events, hazard ratio = 1.46 (0.60-3.56). Our study results show that short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation had no detrimental effect on cardiovascular disease in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Assessment and validation of bronchodilation using the interrupter technique in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Laura; Sly, Peter D; Calogero, Claudia; Bernardini, Roberto; Novembre, Elio; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Lombardi, Enrico

    2010-07-01

    To determine and validate a cut-off value for bronchodilation using the interrupter resistance (Rint) in preschool children. Rint was measured in 60 healthy children (age range 2.7-6.4 years) before and after salbutamol inhalation (200 microg). Four potential methods for assessing BDR were evaluated: percent change from baseline, percent change of predicted values, absolute change in Rint, and change in Z-score. These cut-off values, determined as the fifth percentile of the healthy group, were applied to children referred for the assessment of recurrent wheezing, classified on the basis of acute symptoms and/or abnormal chest examination into symptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.9-6.1 years) and asymptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.5-5.7 years) groups. The cut-off values for bronchodilation calculated in healthy children were: -32% baseline; -33% predicted; -0.26 kPa L(-1) sec; and -1.25 Z-scores. Assessing BDR in children with a history of wheezing by either a decrease in absolute Rint or a decrease in Z-score gave sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value all >80% for detecting children with current respiratory symptoms. Both a decrease in Rint > or =0.26 kPa L(-1) sec and a decrease in Z-score of > or =1.25 are appropriate for assessing BDR in preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. As Z-score is a more general solution, we recommend using a change in Z-score to determine BDR in preschool children. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine the clinical utility of measuring BDR in managing lung disease in such children.

  5. Prevalence of Airflow Limitation Defined by Pre- and Post-Bronchodilator Spirometry in a Community-Based Health Checkup: The Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Satoru; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Kaneko, Yasuko; Kan-o, Keiko; Noda, Naotaka; Tajiri-Asai, Yukari; Nakano, Takako; Ishii, Yumiko; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-02-01

    Spirometry in health checkup may contribute to early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Although post-bronchodilator airflow limitation is essential for definite diagnosis of COPD and post-bronchodilator normalization of airflow is suggestive of asthma, this test has not been prevailed in health checkup. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation defined by pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry in health checkup. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was conducted for participants with airflow limitation in a town-wide health checkup for residents aged 40 years and older in Hisayama, a town in the western part of Japan. The prevalence of pre- and post-bronchodilator airway limitation defined by FEV1/FVC spirometry. In males, the age of current smokers was significantly younger than those of never smokers and former smokers. In females, the ages of current- and former smokers were significantly younger than never smokers. The values of %FEV1 and %FVC in current smokers were significantly lower than those in former smokers and never smokers. Two hundred sixty nine subjects, 85% of total subjects with a pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC spirometry. The prevalence of pre-bronchodilator airflow limitation was 14.6% in males and 13.7% in females, and the prevalence of post-bronchodilator airway limitation was 8.7% and 8.7%, respectively. Post-bronchodilator spirometry in health checkup would reduce the number of subjects with probable COPD to two-third. Recommendation for those examinees to take further evaluations may pave the way for early intervention.

  6. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  7. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

  8. Content and retention evaluation of an audiovisual patient-education program on bronchodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, M S; Self, T H; Ryan, M R; Vanderbush, R E; Boswell, R L

    1981-05-01

    A study was conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of a slide-tape program on patients' short-term and long-term knowledge about their bronchodilator medications; and (2) determine it any differences exist in learning or retention patterns for different content areas of drug information. The knowledge of 30 patients was measured using a randomized sequence of three comparable 15-question tests. The first test was given before the slide-tape program was presented, the second test within 24 hours, and the last test one to six months (mean = 2.8 months) later. Scores attained on the first posttest were significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than pretest scores. Learning differences among drug-information-content areas were not evidenced on the first posttest. No significant difference was demonstrated between scores on pretest and last posttest (p = 0.100). However, retention patterns among content areas were found to differ significantly (p less than 0.05). Carefully designed audiovisual programs can impart drug information to patients. Medication counseling should be repeated at appropriate opportunities because patients lose drug knowledge over time.

  9. Validation of ethnopharmacological uses of Heliotropium strigosum Willd. as spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid H; Javed, Sana; Saqib, Fatima; Imran, Imran; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-06-06

    Heliotropium strigosum is used in traditional medicine to manage gastrointestinal pain, respiratory distress and vascular disorders. The present study was undertaken to provide scientific evidences for these folkloric uses by in vitro experimental settings. A crude methanol extract of the Heliotropium strigosum (Hs.Cr) was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations to detect the possible presence of spasmolytic activity. Moreover, isolated rabbit tracheal and aorta preparations were used to ascertain the relaxant effects of the extract. The Hs.Cr exhibited relaxant effects in rabbit jejunum in a concentration dependent manner (0.01-3.0 mg/ml). The Hs.Cr also relaxed K(+) (80 mM)-induced spastic contractions in rabbit jejunum and shifted the Ca(2+) concentration response curves towards right. The extract relaxed carbachol (1 μM)- as well as K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in rabbit trachea at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 mg/ml. Moreover, Hs.Cr. also relaxed (0.01-3.0 mg/ml) the phenylephrine (1 μM)- and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta. The Hs.Cr was found to exhibit spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant activities on isolated rabbit jejunum, trachea and aorta preparations, likely mediated through Ca(2+) channel blockade. This finding may provide a scientific basis for the folkloric uses of the plant.

  10. Resorcinol-, catechol- and saligenin-based bronchodilating β2-agonists as inhibitors of human cholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak, Anita; Knežević, Anamarija; Gazić Smilović, Ivana; Šinko, Goran; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of bronchodilating β2-agonists on the activity of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and usual, atypical and fluoride-resistant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). We determined the inhibition potency of racemate and enantiomers of fenoterol as a resorcinol derivative, isoetharine and epinephrine as catechol derivatives and salbutamol and salmeterol as saligenin derivatives. All of the tested compounds reversibly inhibited cholinesterases with K i constants ranging from 9.4 μM to 6.4 mM and had the highest inhibition potency towards usual BChE, but generally none of the cholinesterases displayed any stereoselectivity. Kinetic and docking results revealed that the inhibition potency of the studied compounds could be related to the size of the hydroxyaminoethyl chain on the benzene ring. The additional π-π interaction of salmeterol's benzene ring and Trp286 and hydrogen bond with His447 probably enhanced inhibition by salmeterol which was singled out as the most potent inhibitor of all the cholinesterases.

  11. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Jong Hyo

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% ± 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm 2 ) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm 2 ); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator

  12. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% {+-} 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm{sup 2}) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm{sup 2}); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator.

  13. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20

  14. The Impact of Bronchodilator Therapy on Systolic Heart Failure with Concomitant Mild to Moderate COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoto Kato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In older adults, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is commonly associated with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, and the high prevalence of this combination suggests that customized treatment is highly necessary in patients with COPD and HFrEF. To investigate whether the treatment of COPD with tiotropium, an anticholinergic bronchodilator, reduces the severity of heart failure in patients with HFrEF complicated by mild to moderate COPD, forty consecutive participants were randomly divided into two groups and enrolled in a crossover design study. Group A inhaled 18 μg tiotropium daily for 28 days and underwent observation for another 28 days. Group B completed the 28-day observation period first and then received tiotropium inhalation therapy for 28 days. Pulmonary and cardiac functions were measured on days 1, 29, and 56. In both groups, 28 days of tiotropium inhalation therapy substantially improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (from 36.3 ± 2.4% to 41.8 ± 5.9%, p < 0.01, in group A; from 35.7 ± 3.8% to 41.6 ± 3.8%, p < 0.01, in group B and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (from 374 ± 94 to 263 ± 92 pg/mL, p < 0.01, in group A; from 358 ± 110 to 246 ± 101 pg/mL, p < 0.01, in group B. Tiotropium inhalation therapy improves pulmonary function as well as cardiac function, and reduces the severity of heart failure in patients with compensated HFrEF with concomitant mild to moderate COPD.

  15. Oscillometric and spirometric bronchodilator response in preschool children with and without asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Youn Ho; Jang, Sun Jung; Yoon, Jung Won; Jee, Hye Mi; Choi, Sun Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Warburton, David; Han, Man Yong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR) are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children. OBJECTIVES: To compare conventional spirometry with an impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in healthy and asthmatic preschool children. METHODS: Data from 30 asthmatic children and 29 controls (two to six years of age) who underwent IOS and spirometry before and after salbutamol administration were analyzed. RESULTS: Stable asthmatic subjects significantly differed versus controls in their spirometry-assessed BDR (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity) as well as their IOS-assessed BDR (respiratory resistance at 5 Hz [Rrs5], respiratory reactance at 5 Hz and area under the reactance curve). However, comparisons based on the area under the ROC curve for ΔFEV1 % initial versus ΔRrs5 % initial were 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.87), respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity for ΔFEV1 ≥9% were 0.53 and 0.93, respectively. Importantly, sensitivity increased to 0.63 when either ΔFEV1 ≥9% or ΔRrs5 ≥29% was considered as an additional criterion for the diagnosis of asthma. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of asthma diagnosis in preschool children may be increased by combining spirometry with IOS when measuring BDR. PMID:22891189

  16. Effects of Nebulizer Position, Gas Flow, and CPAP on Aerosol Bronchodilator Delivery: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lorenzo; Sutherasan, Yuda; Caratto, Valentina; Sanguineti, Elisa; Marsili, Maria; Raimondo, Pasquale; Ferretti, Maurizio; Kacmarek, Robert M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different delivery circuit configurations, nebulizer positions, CPAP levels, and gas flow on the amount of aerosol bronchodilator delivered during simulated spontaneous breathing in an in vitro model. A pneumatic lung simulator was connected to 5 different circuits for aerosol delivery, 2 delivering CPAP through a high-flow generator tested at 30, 60, and 90 L/min supplementary flow and 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O CPAP and 3 with no CPAP: a T-piece configuration with one extremity closed with a cap, a T-piece configuration without cap and nebulizer positioned proximally, and a T-piece configuration without cap and nebulizer positioned distally. Albuterol was collected with a filter, and the percentage amount delivered was measured by infrared spectrophotometry. Configurations with continuous high-flow CPAP delivered higher percentage amounts of albuterol compared with the configurations without CPAP (9.1 ± 6.0% vs 6.2 ± 2.8%, P = .03). Among configurations without CPAP, the best performance was obtained with a T-piece with one extremity closed with a cap. In CPAP configurations, the highest delivery (13.8 ± 4.4%) was obtained with the nebulizer placed proximal to the lung simulator, independent of flow. CPAP at 15 cm H2O resulted in the highest albuterol delivery (P = .02). Based on our in vitro study, without CPAP, a T-piece with a cap at one extremity maximizes albuterol delivery. During high-flow CPAP, the nebulizer should always be placed proximal to the patient, after the T-piece, using the highest CPAP clinically indicated. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Rita; Vidal, Paula Cristina; Sarria, Edgar Enrique; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25-75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications. A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma entidade clínica que tem sido classificada como obstrução fixa e constritiva do lúmen por tecido fibrótico. Entretanto, estudos recentes utilizando oscilometria de impulso relataram resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes com BOPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta broncodilatadora em pacientes pediátricos com

  18. Inhaled hyaluronic acid microparticles extended pulmonary retention and suppressed systemic exposure of a short-acting bronchodilator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Han, Meihua; Liu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomucoadhesive carbohydrate polymer to prolong the pulmonary retention and reduce the systemic exposure of inhaled medicine. Salbutamol sulphate (SAS), a model bronchodilator, was co-spray dried with HA...... to spray-dried plain SAS powders, the SAS-loaded HA microparticles possessed enhanced biomucoadhesive property in vitro and had much longer pulmonary retention and reduced systemic exposure in vivo. By incorporation, the pulmonary retention time of SAS was prolonged from 2h to 8h while the maximum...

  19. Role of bronchodilation and pattern of breathing in increasing tidal expiratory flow with progressive induced hypercapnia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Kevin E; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-01-01

    Hypercapnia (HC) in vitro relaxes airway smooth muscle; in vivo, it increases respiratory effort, tidal expiratory flows (V̇ exp ), and, by decreasing inspiratory duration (Ti), increases elastic recoil pressure (Pel) via lung viscoelasticity; however, its effect on airway resistance is uncertain. We examined the contributions of bronchodilation, Ti, and expiratory effort to increasing V̇ exp with progressive HC in 10 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) 53% predicted. Lung volumes (Vl), V̇ exp , esophageal pressure (Pes), Ti, and end-tidal Pco 2 ([Formula: see text]) were measured during six tidal breaths followed by an inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing air, and at three levels of HC. V̇ exp and V̇ with submaximal forced vital capacities breathing air (V̇ sFVC ) were compared. Pulmonary resistance ( Rl) was measured from the Pes-V̇ relationship. V̇ exp and Pes at end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) + 0.3 tidal volume [V̇ (0.3Vt) and Pes (0.3Vt) , respectively], Ti, and Rl correlated with [Formula: see text] ( P pulmonary disease (COPD), progressive HC increases tidal expiratory flows by inducing bronchodilation and via an increased rate of inspiration and lung viscoelasticity, a probable increase in lung elastic recoil pressure, both changes increasing expiratory flows, promoting lung emptying and a stable end-expiratory volume. Bronchodilation with HC occurred despite optimal standard bronchodilator therapy, suggesting that in COPD further bronchodilation is possible.

  20. Assessment of bronchodilator response through changes in lung volumes in chronic airflow obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Figueroa-Casas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Although FEV1 improvement is routinely used to define bronchodilator (BD response, it correlates poorly with clinical effects. Changes in lung volumes (LV have shown better correlation with exercise tolerance and might be more sensitive to detect BD effects. We assessed the additional contribution of measuring LV before and after BD to detect acute improvement in lung function not demonstrated by FEV1, and the influence of the response criteria selected on this contribution. We analyzed 98 spirometries and plethismographies performed pre and post BD in patients with airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC 10% of baseline (D>5 anD>15% were also analyzed. FEV1 identified as responders 32% of patients. Greater proportions were uncovered by slow vital capacity (51%, p5 anD>15%. Mean change and proportions of responders for each LV varied significantly (pSi bien el aumento del VEF1 es habitualmente utilizado para definir respuesta a broncodilatadores (BD, su correlación con efectos clínicos es pobre. Los cambios en volúmenes pulmonares (VP han demostrado mejor correlación con tolerancia al ejercicio y podrían ser más sensibles para detectar efectos de los BD. Nosotros evaluamos la contribución adicional de medir VP antes y después de BD para detectar mejoría funcional aguda no demostrada por cambios del VEF1, y la influencia del criterio de respuesta seleccionado en esta contribución. Se analizaron 98 espirometrías y pletismografías realizadas pre y post BD en pacientes con obstrucción al flujo aéreo (VEF1/CVF 10% del basal (D>5 y 15% fueron también analizados. El VEF1 identificó como respondedores a 32% de los pacientes. Proporciones mayores fueron identificadas por capacidad vital lenta (51%, p5 y 15%. El cambio promedio y las proporciones de respondedores para cada VP variaron significativamente (p<0.05 según que el cambio fuese expresado como porcentaje del basal o del valor predicho. Una proporción considerable de pacientes con obstrucci

  1. Serelaxin Elicits Bronchodilation and Enhances β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Airway Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with β-adrenoceptor agonists does not fully overcome the symptoms associated with severe asthma. Serelaxin elicits potent uterine and vascular relaxation via its cognate receptor, RXFP1, and nitric oxide (NO signaling, and is being clinically evaluated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its direct bronchodilator efficacy has yet to be explored. Tracheal rings were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350g and tricolor guinea pigs, and precision cut lung slices (PCLS containing intrapulmonary airways were prepared from rats only. Recombinant human serelaxin (rhRLX alone and in combination with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist; recently described as a novel dilator or β-adrenoceptor agonists (isoprenaline, salbutamol were added either to pre-contracted airways, or before contraction with methacholine or endothelin-1. Regulation of rhRLX responses by epithelial removal, indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor and ODQ (guanylate cyclase inhibitor were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize RXFP1 to airway epithelium and smooth muscle. rhRLX elicited relaxation in rat trachea and PCLS, more slowly than rosiglitazone or isoprenaline, but potentiated relaxation to both these dilators. It markedly increased β-adrenoceptor agonist potency in guinea pig trachea. rhRLX, rosiglitazone and isoprenaline pretreatment also inhibited the development of rat tracheal contraction. Bronchoprotection by rhRLX increased with longer pre-incubation time, and was partially reduced by epithelial removal, indomethacin and/or L-NAME. SQ22536 and ODQ also partially inhibited rhRLX-mediated relaxation in both intact and epithelial-denuded trachea. RXFP1 expression in airway was at higher levels in epithelium than smooth muscle.In summary, rhRLX elicits large and small airway relaxation via epithelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms, likely

  2. Measures of bronchodilator response of FEV1, FVC and SVC in a Swedish general population sample aged 50–64 years, the SCAPIS Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available K Torén,1 B Bake,1 A-C Olin,1 G Engström,2 A Blomberg,3 J Vikgren,4 J Hedner,5 J Brandberg,4 HL Persson,6,7 CM Sköld,8 A Rosengren,9 G Bergström,9 C Janson10 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 2Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Malmö, 3Division of Medicine/Respiratory Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 4Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 5Department of Internal Medicine/Lung Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, 7Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 8Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 9Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 10Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology and Lung, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Data are lacking from general population studies on how to define changes in lung function after bronchodilation. This study aimed to analyze different measures of bronchodilator response of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and slow vital capacity (SVC. Materials and methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study (SCAPIS Pilot study. This analysis comprised 1,050 participants aged 50–64 years from the general population. Participants were investigated using a questionnaire, and FEV1, FVC and SVC were recorded before and 15 minutes after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. A bronchodilator response was defined as the relative change from baseline value expressed as the difference in units of percent predicted normal

  3. Influenza A virus infection and cigarette smoke impair bronchodilator responsiveness to β-adrenoceptor agonists in mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Chantal; Seow, Huei Jiunn; Bourke, Jane E; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-05-01

    β2-adrenoceptor agonists are the mainstay therapy for patients with asthma but their effectiveness in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. In addition, bronchodilator efficacy of β2-adrenoceptor agonists is decreased during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), caused by respiratory viruses including influenza A. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the β2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol (SALB) on small airway reactivity using mouse precision cut lung slices (PCLS) prepared from CS-exposed mice and from CS-exposed mice treated with influenza A virus (Mem71, H3N1). CS exposure alone reduced SALB potency and efficacy associated with decreased β2-adrenoceptor mRNA expression, and increased tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression. This impaired relaxation was restored by day 12 in the absence of further CS exposure. In PCLS prepared after Mem71 infection alone, responses to SALB were transient and were not well maintained. CS exposure prior to Mem71 infection almost completely abolished relaxation, although β2-adrenoceptor and TNFα and IL-1β expression were unaltered. The present study has shown decreased sensitivity to SALB after CS or a combination of CS and Mem71 occurs by different mechanisms. In addition, the PCLS technique and our models of CS and influenza infection provide a novel setting for assessment of alternative bronchodilators. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Project PriMo: sharing principles and practices of bronchodilator therapy monitoring in COPD: a consensus initiative for optimizing therapeutic appropriateness among Italian specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Mario; Brusasco, Vito; Centanni, Stefano; Cerveri, Isa; De Michele, Fausto; Di Maria, Giuseppe; Palange, Paolo; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Polverino, Mario; Rossi, Andrea; Papi, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Even after publication of the 2011 update of GOLD report, some fundamental questions in the management of COPD are still open and this may weaken the applicability of these guidelines in everyday clinical practice. To assess the level of consensus amongst Italian respirologists on different topics related to diagnosis, monitoring and role of bronchodilator therapy in COPD, by using the Delphi technique. A Delphi study was undertaken between July and November 2011, when two questionnaires were consecutively sent to a panel of experts to be answered anonymously. After each round, the data were aggregated at group level of question topics and structured feedback was given to the panel. A first-round questionnaire was sent to 208 pulmonologists randomly selected from different Italian regions. The 132 respondents (63% of those initially selected) were from northern (53%), central (19%) and southern (28%) Italy. A second-round questionnaire was sent to all the first-round respondents, and a response was received from 110 of them (83%). The main topics that reached the pre-defined cut off for consensus (67% or more) were: a) bronchodilator therapy with long-acting bronchodilators could be beneficial in patients with airflow limitation even in the absence of symptoms, b) in patients not fully controlled with one long-acting bronchodilator, maximizing bronchodilation (i.e. adding another bronchodilator with a different mechanism of action) is the preferable option; and c) the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) as add on therapy should be considered in severe patients with frequent exacerbations. Italian specialists agree on several aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of COPD and expert opinion could support everyday decision process in the management of COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  6. Impact of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators on lung function in a patient with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

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    Calabrese, Cecilia; Corcione, Nadia; Rea, Gaetano; Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a small airways disease characterized by fixed airflow limitation. Therefore, inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids are not recommended as maintenance therapy options. The management of PIBO currently consists only of close monitoring of affected patients, aimed at the prevention and early treatment of pulmonary infections. In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of PIBO in the pediatric population. Patients with PIBO are characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, accompanied by a decrease in overall functional capacity. Here, we report the case of a relatively young man diagnosed with PIBO and followed for three years. After short- and long-term therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting 2 agonist combination, together with an inhaled long-acting antimuscarinic, the patient showed relevant improvement of airway obstruction that had been irreversible at the time of the bronchodilator test. The lung function of the patient worsened when he interrupted the triple inhaled therapy. In addition, a 3-week pulmonary rehabilitation program markedly improved his physical performance. RESUMO A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma doença das pequenas vias aéreas caracterizada por limitação fixa do fluxo aéreo. Portanto, os broncodilatadores e os corticosteroides inalatórios não são recomendados como opções de terapia de manutenção. Atualmente, o manejo da BOPI consiste apenas de um acompanhamento rigoroso dos pacientes afetados, visando à prevenção e ao tratamento precoce de infecções pulmonares. A incidência de BOPI tem aumentado na população pediátrica nos últimos anos. Os pacientes com BOPI caracterizam-se por um declínio progressivo da função pulmonar, associado a uma diminuição da capacidade funcional global. Relatamos aqui o caso de um homem relativamente jovem diagnosticado com BOPI, acompanhado por três anos. Ap

  7. Does a single dose of the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, cilomilast (15 mg), induce bronchodilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, D. C.; Gauw, S. A.; Baan, R.; Kelly, J.; Murdoch, R. D.; Sterk, P. J.; Rabe, K. F.

    2003-01-01

    Maintenance treatment with PDE(4) inhibitor cilomilast improves FEV(1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We investigated the acute bronchodilating effects of a single dose of cilomilast with or without concomitant administration of inhaled salbutamol and/or ipratropium

  8. Effect of interleukin 13 on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the bronchoprotective effect of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators and corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert G; Gendapodi, Pradeep R; Qutna, Nidal; Evans, Joseph; Romero, Francisco A; Abel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone affects airway bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and enhances bronchodilation and bronchoprotection induced by beta-adrenergic agonists. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), however, induces BHR. To test the hypotheses that fluticasone inhibits BHR after either allergen sensitization or IL-13 administration and that fluticasone restores the bronchodilation and bronchoprotective effects of beta-agonists. The BHR to methacholine induced by IL-13 or ovalbumin was determined in BALB/c mice, and the provocation concentration of methacholine that caused an increase in enhanced pause in expiration of 200% (PC200) was calculated. We compared this response to methacholine in control mice with the response after treatment with IL-13 receptor alpha 2-IgGFc fusion protein (IL-13R alpha 2) (an IL-13 blocker), fluticasone, albuterol, salmeterol, fluticasone-albuterol, and fluticasone-salmeterol. IL-13R alpha 2 (PC200, 17.59) completely blocks the BHR-induced effects of IL-13 (PC200, 7.28; P < .005). After IL-13 therapy (PC200, 5.90; P < .005), 1 mg/mL of albuterol (PC200, 3.38; P = .33), fluticasone (PC200, 4.59; P = .40), or fluticasone plus 50 microg/mL of salmeterol (PC200, 5.59; P = .11) showed no significant bronchoprotection. In nonsensitized mice, fluticasone plus 0.25 microg/mL of salmeterol (PC200, 25.90; P < .005) showed significantly greater bronchoprotection than did salmeterol alone (PC200, 11.08; P = .26). Fluticasone plus 0.3 mg/mL of albuterol and fluticasone plus 1 mg/mL of albuterol were significantly more protective than was fluticasone or albuterol alone in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. The protective effects of fluticasone, beta-agonists, and fluticasone plus beta-agonists are significantly less in IL-13-treated mice than in nonsensitized or ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

  9. Beta 2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, at codons 16 and 27, and bronchodilator responses in adult Venezuelan asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Nancy; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny Valentina; Velasquez, Olga; Martin-Rojo, Joana; Talamo, Carlos; Garcia, Alexis; De Sanctis, Juan Bautista

    2013-12-01

    One of the gene polymorphisms often studied in asthmatic patients is the β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2). Even though in the Venezuelan Mestizo population there is a high incidence of asthma, there are no direct reports of ADRβ2 gene polymorphism, and treatment response. The aim of this study was to assess, in this population, the gene frequency of ADRβ2 polymorphisms at codons 16 Arg/Gly and 27 Gln/Glu, allergen sensitization, and its relationship to bronchodilator response. Purified genomic DNA was obtained form 105 Mestizo asthmatic and 100 Mestizo healthy individuals from Venezuela. The two polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Patient sensitization to aeroallergens and their response to bronchodilatation were correlated. Significant differences between patients and controls were recorded in: 1) the prevalence of Arg/Arg at codon 16 (28.6% in patients vs. 47% in controls, P<0.01), 2) the frequency of heterozygotes Arg/Gly (55% in patients vs. 35% in controls, P<0.01). Conversely, no differences in polymorphism frequencies were found at codon 27. The haplotypes Arg/Gly-Gln/Gln were more common in patients than controls (P <0.01), whereas the Arg/Arg-Gln/Glu combination prevailed in the control group (P<0.01). The Arg/Gly and Gln/Glu genotypes were associated with better responses after salbutamol. The asthmatic homozygotes Arg/Arg have higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. The difference in Arg/Arg frequency between groups suggests that this could be a protective genotype although the asthmatic group had a higher sensitivity to aeroallergens. The asthmatic heterozygotes had better bronchodilator responses than the homozygotes.

  10. Determinants of use of the bronchodilator test in primary and secondary care: results of a national survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Calle, Myriam

    2016-03-01

    A recent study evaluated the use of spirometry in primary (PC) and secondary care (SC) in Spain. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the determinants of use of the bronchodilator test (BDT) with a special emphasis in the type of drugs used, waiting times and positive test criteria followed. Cross-sectional trial surveying 605 PC and 200 SC centers in Spain. Regarding the BDT, variables collected were: name of the drugs available for the BDT, name of the drug normally used, number of inhalations, waiting time for the second spirometry, staff involved and criteria used for a positive test. Adherence to actual guidelines according to five quality criteria was evaluated. Although a range of short-acting bronchodilators were used, only 25.9% of centers used a correct dose. The waiting time was correct in 63.7% and 72.8% of PC and SC, respectively (P = 0.023). A threshold higher than 12% and 200 mL to consider a positive test was fulfilled in 55.8% and 52.8% of PC and SC, respectively. Altogether, only 7.6% of PC and 6.0% of SC fulfilled all five quality criteria. Factors identified to be associated with this fulfillment were the number of spirometries per week, not being conducted by a nurse, periodical retraining, training for interpreting and daily calibration. The present study identifies determinants of the performance of the BDT in Spain identifying strengths and weaknesses. Health managers should use this information to improve the quality of spirometries in chronic respiratory patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of the variability of the annual rates of change in FEV1 determined from serial measurements of the pre- versus post-bronchodilator FEV1 over 5 years in mild to moderate COPD: Results of the lung health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of interventions on the progressive course of COPD is currently assessed by the slope of the annual decline in FEV1 determined from serial measurements of the post-, in preference to the pre-, bronchodilator FEV1. We therefore compared the yearly slope and the variability of the slope of the pre- versus the post-bronchodilator FEV1 in men and women with mild to moderate COPD who participated in the 5-year Lung Health Study (LHS. Methods Data were analyzed from 4484 of the 5887 LHS participants who had measurements of pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 at baseline (screening visit 2 and all five annual visits. The annual rate of decline in FEV1 (±SE measured pre- and post-bronchodilator from the first to the fifth annual visit was estimated separately using a random coefficient model adjusted for relevant covariates. Analyses were performed separately within each of the three randomized intervention groups. In addition, individual rates of decline in pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 were also determined for each participant. Furthermore, sample sizes were estimated for determining the significance of differences in slopes of decline between different interventions using pre- versus post-bronchodilator measurements. Results Within each intervention group, mean adjusted and unadjusted slope estimates were slightly higher for the pre- than the post-bronchodilator FEV1 (range of differences 2.6-5.2 ml/yr and the standard errors around these estimates were only minimally higher for the pre- versus the post-bronchodilator FEV1 (range 0.05-0.11 ml/yr. Conversely, the standard deviations of the mean FEV1 determined at each annual visit were consistently slightly higher (range of differences 0.011 to 0.035 L for the post- compared to the pre-bronchodilator FEV1. Within each group, the proportion of individual participants with a statistically significant slope was similar (varying by only 1.4 to 2.7% comparing the estimates

  12. Effect of allergic phenotype on treatment response to inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Hsu Hui Wang,1 Ching-Hsiung Lin3–5 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, 4Department of Respiratory Care, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, 5School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder encompassing different phenotypes with different responses to treatment. The present 1-year, two-center hospital-based study investigated whether the plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE level and/or eosinophil cell count could be used as biomarkers to stratify patients with COPD according to predicted responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS-based therapy. Methods: A hospital-data based cohort study of COPD patients treated at two territory hospital centers was conducted for 1 year. Allergic biomarkers, including blood eosinophil counts and IgE levels, were assessed at baseline. Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT, were also evaluated. The frequencies of acute exacerbation (AE and pneumonia were also measured. Eosinophilia and a high IgE level were defined as >3% and 173 IU/mL, respectively. Results: A total of 304 patients were included. Among patients with eosinophilia and high IgE levels, ICS-based therapy was associated with significant improvements in FEV1, FVC, and CAT scores, compared with bronchodilator (BD therapy (P≤0.042. ICS-based therapy was also associated with a significantly lower incidence of AE vs BD-based therapy (11.7% vs 24.1%; P<0.008. Among patients with only eosinophilia, ICS-based therapy yielded significantly better CAT score results vs BD-based treatment

  13. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  14. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  15. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Sickle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. METHODS: Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM (ACT, to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. RESULTS: Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years; 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35 at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60 at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66; however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18 for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04 and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44; no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26 was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location and triggers, and improved

  16. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  17. Selectivity of beta-adrenergic stimulating and blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Studies have been performed to answer two questions: whether there are subgroups of beta 2-receptors separating effects in bronchial and skeletal muscle and whether beta 1-receptors in asthmatic airways mediate bronchoconstriction. Asthmatic patients have been studied in randomised cross-over trials. Effects on FEV1, heart rate and skeletal muscle tremor have been monitored. In some experimental studies, two new compounds, D2343 and QH-25, have shown a selectivity for beta 2-receptors in bronchial muscle compared to skeletal muscle. Studies in asthmatics did not confirm this. Thus, the beta 2-receptors in the two organs appear to be identical. The clinical effect of beta 1-receptors in the the airways was studied by giving selective beta 1-receptor blocking agents. It was shown that pafenolol , a beta-blocker more beta 1-selective than metoprolol, had less effect on FEV1 than metoprolol given in equipotent beta 1-blocking doses. Beta 1-receptor stimulation with a new selective beta 1-stimulating agent, prenalterol, did not give bronchodilation in doses which gave a significant increase of heart rate. Thus, beta 1-receptors do not contribute to bronchodilation in asthmatic patients.

  18. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisaku Fujimoto1, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi2, Shintaro Kanda2, Kazuhisa Urushihata2, Masayuki Hanaoka2, Keishi Kubo21Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41 or salmeterol (n = 31 were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, six-minute walking distance, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ before and 2–3 months following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol. They were then visually divided into an emphysema dominant phenotype (n = 25 in the tiotropium-treated group and n = 22 in the salmeterol-treated group and an emphysema nondominant phenotype on high-resolution computed tomography, and the efficacy of the two drugs in each phenotype was retrospectively analyzed.Results: Tiotropium significantly improved airflow limitation, oxygenation, and respiratory impedance in both the emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant phenotypes, and improved dynamic hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and SGRQ in the emphysema dominant phenotype but not in the emphysema nondominant phenotype. Salmeterol significantly improved total score for SGRQ in the emphysema phenotype, but no significant effects on other parameters were found for either of the phenotypes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol for airflow limitation regardless of emphysema dominance, and also can improve dynamic hyperinflation in the emphysema dominant phenotype, which results in further

  19. Childhood measles contributes to post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Jennifer L; Matheson, Melanie C; Gurrin, Lyle C; Johns, David P; Burgess, John A; Thompson, Bruce R; Lowe, Adrian J; Markos, James; Morrison, Stephen S; McDonald, Christine F; Wood-Baker, Richard; Svanes, Cecilie; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2018-03-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population. The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced. A history of childhood measles infection was obtained from school medical records. During the fifth decade follow-up (n = 5729 responses), a subgroup underwent further lung function measurements (n = 1389). Relevant main associations and interactions by asthma and/or smoking on post-BD forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC; continuous variable) and AO (FEV 1 /FVC childhood measles. Childhood measles augmented the combined adverse effect of current clinical asthma and smoking at least 10 pack-years on post-BD FEV 1 /FVC ratio in middle age (z-score: -0.70 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.3) vs -1.36 (-1.6 to -1.1), three-way interaction: P = 0.009), especially for those with childhood-onset asthma. For never- and ever-smokers of childhood measles, paradoxically, the odds for post-BD AO was not significant in the presence of childhood measles (OR: 12.0 (95% CI: 3.4-42) vs 2.17 (0.9-5.3)). Childhood measles infection appears to compound the associations between smoking, current asthma and post-BD AO. Differences between asthma subgroups provide further insight into the complex aetiology of obstructive lung diseases for middle-aged adults. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Clinical benefit of fixed-dose dual bronchodilation with glycopyrronium and indacaterol once daily in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long-acting bronchodilators are the preferred option for maintenance therapy of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of the once-daily fixed-dose du...... for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] spirometric criteria). Furthermore, a very recent study has shown that fixed-dose indacaterol/glycopyrronium improves exercise endurance time compared with placebo, although no significant difference was observed between fixed-dose indacaterol...

  1. Inhaled Beta Agonist Bronchodilator Does Not Affect Trans-diaphragmatic Pressure Gradient but Decreases Lower Esophageal Sphincter Retention Pressure in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, Leonardo M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Bigatao, Amilcar M; Jardim, Jose R; Patti, Marco G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have a high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) whose pathophysiology seems to be linked to an increased trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and not to a defective esophagogastric barrier. Inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators are a common therapy used by patients with COPD. This drug knowingly not only leads to a decrease in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure, favoring GERD, but also may improve ventilatory parameters, therefore preventing GERD. This study aims to evaluate the effect of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators on the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and the esophagogastric barrier. We studied 21 patients (mean age 67 years, 57 % males) with COPD and GERD. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry and esophageal pH monitoring. Abdominal and thoracic pressure, trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient (abdominal-thoracic pressure), and the LES retention pressure (LES basal pressure-transdiaphragmatic gradient) were measured before and 5 min after inhaling beta agonist bronchodilators. The administration of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators leads to the following: (a) a simultaneous increase in abdominal and thoracic pressure not affecting the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and (b) a decrease in the LES resting pressure with a reduction of the LES retention pressure. In conclusion, inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators not only increase the thoracic pressure but also lead to an increased abdominal pressure favoring GERD by affecting the esophagogastric barrier.

  2. Randomized controlled trials and real-world observational studies in evaluating cardiovascular safety of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardos P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kardos,1 Sally Worsley,2 Dave Singh,3 Miguel Román-Rodríguez,4 David E Newby,5 Hana Müllerová2 1Group Practice and Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Unit, Red Cross Maingau Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany; 2GSK, Stockley Park, Middlesex, 3University of Manchester, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 4Primary Care Respiratory Research Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma IdisPa, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; 5BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, The Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA or long-acting β2-agonist (LABA bronchodilators and their combination are recommended for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Although the efficacy of LAMAs and LABAs has been well established through randomized controlled trials (RCTs, questions remain regarding their cardiovascular (CV safety. Furthermore, while the safety of LAMA and LABA monotherapy has been extensively studied, data are lacking for LAMA/LABA combination therapy, and the majority of the studies that have reported on the CV safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy were not specifically designed to assess this. Evaluation of CV safety for COPD treatments is important because many patients with COPD have underlying CV comorbidities. However, severe CV and other comorbidities are often exclusion criteria for RCTs, contributing to a lack in external validity and generalizability. Real-world observational studies are another important tool to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of COPD therapies in a broader population of patients and can improve upon the external validity limitations of RCTs. We examine what is already known regarding the CV and cerebrovascular safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy from RCTs and real-world observational studies, and explore the advantages and

  3. Advantage of impulse oscillometry over spirometry to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and monitor pulmonary responses to bronchodilators: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Saadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This retrospective study was a comparative analysis of sensitivity of impulse oscillometry and spirometry techniques for use in a mixed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group for assessing disease severity and inhalation therapy. Methods: A total of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were monitored by impulse oscillometry, followed by spirometry. Lung function was measured at baseline after bronchodilation and at follow-up (3–18 months. The impulse oscillometry parameters were resistance in the small and large airways at 5 Hz (R5, resistance in the large airways at 15 Hz (R15, and lung reactance (area under the curve X; AX. Results: After the bronchodilator therapy, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 readings evaluated by spirometry were unaffected at baseline and at follow-up, while impulse oscillometry detected an immediate improvement in lung function, in terms of AX (p = 0.043. All impulse oscillometry parameters significantly improved at follow-up, with a decrease in AX by 37% (p = 0.0008, R5 by 20% (p = 0.0011, and R15 by 12% (p = 0.0097. Discussion: Impulse oscillometry parameters demonstrated greater sensitivity compared with spirometry for monitoring reversibility of airway obstruction and the effect of maintenance therapy. Impulse oscillometry may facilitate early treatment dose optimization and personalized medicine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  4. Broncodilatadores en la crisis asmática: ¿Aerosol o nebulización? Bronchodilators in acute asthma: metered dose inhalers or wet nebulizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Lombardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El número de consultas por asma aguda en el Hospital María Ferrer ha aumentado de 3300 consultas anuales en 1980 a 15364 en 2002. Los broncodilatadores de acción corta (salbutamol-ipratropio en nebulizaciones, procedimiento que consume tiempo y recursos humanos, eran el tratamiento inicial en 2002. Para tratar de mejorar el cumplimiento del tratamiento frente al aumento de la demanda, se reemplazaron las nebulizaciones por aerosoles dosificadores. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de este cambio. Comparamos 90 pacientes con crisis asmática tratados con aerosoles en diciembre del 2003 con igual número tratados con nebulizaciones en diciembre del 2002 pareados por sexo, edad, altura, VEF1 teórico y de ingreso. Con aerosoles se observó una reducción significativa del tiempo de permanencia en el Departamento de Emergencia (mediana 3 h (2-4.75 versus 4 h (1-6 p=0.01 y un número mayor de altas en las primeras 2 horas (48% vs. 31% p=0.03. Los pacientes tratados con aerosol recibieron el 87% de las dosis prescriptas, mientras que el otro grupo recibió sólo el 38%. El VEF1 mostró una tendencia a ser mayor al egreso en el grupo que recibió aerosoles, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (78% ± 17% vs. 73% ± 17% p=0.09. El porcentaje de alta final fue similar en los dos grupos (96% vs. 93%. El tratamiento con aerosoles produjo una mejoría más rápida y mejor cumplimiento de las normas de tratamiento indicadas.The number of patients attending our Emergency Department (ED with acute asthma has increased from 3300 patient/year in 1980 to 15364 in 2003. Short acting bronchodilators (albuterol/ipratropium administered in wet nebulizations, a resource consuming procedure, were our main initial treatment in 2002. To improve treatment goals, we switched the method of bronchodilator delivery to metered dose inhalers (MDI in 2003. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of this change in the

  5. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  6. Improvement in 24-hour bronchodilation and symptom control with aclidinium bromide versus tiotropium and placebo in symptomatic patients with COPD: post hoc analysis of a Phase IIIb study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Beier,1 Robert Mroz,2,3 Anne-Marie Kirsten,4 Ferran Chuecos,5 Esther Garcia Gil5 1insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 2Centrum Medycyny Oddechowej, 3Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland; 4Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 5AstraZeneca PLC, Barcelona, Spain Background: A previous Phase IIIb study (NCT01462929 in patients with moderate to severe COPD demonstrated that 6 weeks of treatment with aclidinium led to improvements in 24-hour bronchodilation comparable to those with tiotropium, and improvement of symptoms versus placebo. This post hoc analysis was performed to assess the effect of treatment in the symptomatic patient group participating in the study. Methods: Symptomatic patients (defined as those with Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS™] in COPD baseline score ≥10 units received aclidinium bromide 400 µg twice daily (BID, tiotropium 18 µg once daily (QD, or placebo, for 6 weeks. Lung function, COPD respiratory symptoms, and incidence of adverse events (AEs were assessed. Results: In all, 277 symptomatic patients were included in this post hoc analysis. Aclidinium and tiotropium treatment improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 from baseline to week 6 at all time points over 24 hours versus placebo. In addition, improvements in FEV1 from baseline during the nighttime period were observed for aclidinium versus tiotropium on day 1 (aclidinium 157 mL, tiotropium 67 mL; P<0.001 and week 6 (aclidinium 153 mL, tiotropium 90 mL; P<0.05. Aclidinium improved trough FEV1 from baseline versus placebo and tiotropium at day 1 (aclidinium 136 mL, tiotropium 68 mL; P<0.05 and week 6 (aclidinium 137 mL, tiotropium 71 mL; P<0.05. Aclidinium also improved early-morning and nighttime symptom severity, limitation of early-morning activities, and E-RS Total and domain scores versus

  7. Efficacy of perioperative administration of long-acting bronchodilator on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preliminary results of a randomized control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidemi; Sekine, Yasuo; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are recommended as a first-line treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although their effects for postoperative lung cancer patients with COPD are still not well known. A prospective randomized trial was used to examine the efficacy of bronchodilators on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL). Twenty lung cancer patients with COPD who had lobectomies were randomized. A control group (n=10) did not receive bronchodilators. An experimental group (n=10) received tiotropium and salmeterol. Patients were divided into two COPD grades: stage I COPD and stage II-III COPD. Results for pulmonary function, 6-minute walking test, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were compared. Diaphragmatic motion on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was also analyzed. The patient demographics were similar in the two groups. Except for pulmonary function results at 2 weeks, no other parameters were significantly different. However, in stage II-III COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, the total score of the SGRQ, and diaphragmatic motion in the experimental group (n=5) were significantly better than those in the control group (n=4) at various time points (all P<0.05). The daily inhalation of bronchodilators was effective for maintaining the respiratory function and QOL in lung cancer patients with moderate to severe COPD. (author)

  8. Bronchodilator Efficacy of Single Doses of Indacaterol in Japanese Patients with COPD: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motokazu Kato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Indacaterol is an investigational, novel, inhaled once-daily ultra-long-acting beta-2 agonist for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study evaluated the 24-h bronchodilatory efficacy and safety of indacaterol in Japanese patients with COPD. Methods: This Phase-II, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study comprised four double-blind, single-dose treatment periods (washout between periods: 14-28 days. Japanese patients aged 40-75 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomised to receive single doses of indacaterol (150, 300, or 600 μg or placebo via a single-dose dry-powder inhaler. Efficacy (primary endpoint: standardised FEV1AUC22-24h and safety were assessed for 24 h post-dose in each treatment period. Results: Of the 50 patients randomised (92% male; mean age, 67.2 years, 45 completed the study. Standardised FEV1AUC22-24h was significantly higher for all indacaterol doses as compared with placebo, with clinically relevant differences of 130, 160, and 170 mL for 150, 300, and 600 μg, respectively (P < 0.001. The improvement in FEV1 was seen as early as 5 min post-dose with indacaterol and sustained for 24 h (P < 0.001 vs placebo at all time points. All indacaterol doses were well tolerated and showed no clinically meaningful effect on pulse rate, blood pressure, QTc interval, and laboratory parameters when compared with placebo. Conclusions: In the Japanese COPD population studied, single doses of indacaterol (150, 300, and 600 μg provided sustained 24-h bronchodilation, with onset of action within 5 min post-dose. All doses were well tolerated. These results are consistent with data from Caucasian populations. KEY WORDS: beta2-agonists, bronchodilator, COPD, efficacy, indacaterol

  9. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  10. Effect of Bronchodilation and Exercise Training with Behavior Modification on Exercise Tolerance and Downstream Effects on Symptoms and Physical Activity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Lavoie, Kim L; Sedeno, Maria; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean

    2018-04-17

    Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161). All patients were enrolled into SMBM and randomized 1:1:1:1 to once-daily placebo, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, or tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg plus 8 weeks ExT. EET, measured by endurance shuttle walk test after 8 weeks, was the primary endpoint. Additional endpoints assessed downstream effects on PA (measured via accelerometry), and activity-related dyspnea and difficulty (using validated patient-reported questionnaires). SMBM + tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, significantly improved EET at Week 8 versus SMBM + placebo (treatment ratio versus placebo: with ExT 1.46 [95% CI: 1.20, 1.78]; P=0.0002; without ExT 1.29 [1.06, 1.57]; P=0.0109). No significant increases in steps per day from baseline were observed over SMBM + placebo at Week 12 (increase of 1,098) when other therapies were added. Adding tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, to SMBM reduced activity-related dyspnea versus placebo, while adding tiotropium/olodaterol + ExT reduced activity-related difficulty. Tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, improved EET in patients with COPD taking part in an SMBM program. Combination bronchodilation, ±ExT, did not provide additional increases in objective PA compared with SMBM alone, but did reduce physical activity-related dyspnea and difficulty. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT02085161.

  11. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  12. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  13. Development of SPME-LC-MS method for screening of eight beta-blockers and bronchodilators in plasma and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryński, Krzysztof; Kiedrowicz, Alicja; Bojko, Barbara

    2016-08-05

    The current work describes the development and validation of a simple, efficient, and fast method using solid phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS/MS) for the concomitant measurement of eight beta-blockers and bronchodilators in plasma and urine. The presented assay enables quantitative determination of acebutolol, atenolol, fenoterol, nadolol, pindolol, procaterol, sotalol, and timolol. In this work, samples were prepared on a high-throughput platform using the 96-well plate format of the thin film solid phase microextraction (TFME) system, and a biocompatible extraction phase made of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance particles. Analytes were separated on a pentafluorophenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by gradient elution using an UPLC Nexera coupled with an LCMS-8060 mass spectrometer. The mobile phase consisted of water-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The linearity of the method was checked within therapeutic blood-plasma concentrations, and shown to adequately reflect typically expected concentrations of future study samples. Post-extraction addition experiments showed that the matrix effect ranged in plasma from 98% for procaterol to 115% for nadolol, and in urine, from 85% for nadolol and pindolol to 119% for atenolol. The method was successfully validated using Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, and met all acceptance criteria for bioanalytical assays at five concentration levels for all selected drugs. The final protocol can be successfully applied for monitoring concentrations of the selected drugs in both plasma and urine matrices obtained from patients or athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  15. Efeito do broncodilatador no tempo de apneia voluntária máxima em pacientes com distúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos Bronchodilator effect on maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raqueli Biscayno Viecili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar o papel do broncodilatador no tempo de apneia voluntária máxima em pacientes com distúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos (DVOs. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle incluindo pacientes com DVOs e grupo controle. Foram realizadas espirometrias antes e após o uso de broncodilatador, assim como testes de apneia respiratória, utilizando-se um microprocessador eletrônico e um pneumotacógrafo como transdutor de fluxo. As curvas de fluxo respiratório foram exibidas em tempo real em um computador portátil, e os tempos de apneia voluntária inspiratória e expiratória máximos (TAVIM e TAVEM, respectivamente foram determinados a partir do sinal adquirido. RESULTADOS: Um total de 35 pacientes com DVOs e 16 controles foram incluídos no estudo. O TAVIM sem o uso de broncodilatador foi significativamente menor no grupo DVO que no grupo controle (22,27 ± 11,81 s vs. 31,45 ± 15,73; p = 0,025, mas essa diferença não foi significativa após o uso de broncodilatador (24,94 ± 12,89 s vs. 31,67 ± 17,53 s. Os valores de TAVEM foram significativamente menores no grupo DVO que no grupo controle antes (16,88 ± 6,58 s vs. 22,09 ± 7,95 s; p = 0,017 e após o uso de broncodilatador (21,22 ± 9,37 s vs. 28,53 ± 12,46 s; p = 0,024. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados fornecem uma evidência adicional da utilidade clínica do teste de apneia na avaliação da função pulmonar e do papel do broncodilatador nesse teste.OBJECTIVE: To identify the role of bronchodilators in the maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study including patients with OLD and a control group. Spirometric tests were performed prior to and after the use of a bronchodilator, as were breath-hold tests, using an electronic microprocessor and a pneumotachograph as a flow transducer. Respiratory flow curves were displayed in real time on a portable computer. The maximal breath-hold times at end

  16. Pre- and post-bronchodilator airway obstruction are associated with similar clinical characteristics but different prognosis – report from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawalha S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sami Sawalha,1 Linnea Hedman,2 Eva Rönmark,2 Bo Lundbäck,3 Anne Lindberg1 1Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 3Krefting Research Center, Institution of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Introduction: According to guidelines, the diagnosis of COPD should be confirmed by post-bronchodilator (post-BD airway obstruction on spirometry; however, in clinical practice, this is not always performed. The aim of this population-based study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis, assessed as mortality, between subjects with airway obstruction divided into pre- but not post-BD obstruction, post-BD airway obstruction (COPD, and subjects without airway obstruction.Materials and methods: In 2002–2004, four adult population-based cohorts were reexamined with spirometry and structured interview. Subjects with airway obstruction, with a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to (forced vital capacity <0.70 (n=993, were identified together with sex- and age-matched referents (n=993. These subjects were further divided into subjects with pre- but not post-BD airway obstruction (pre- not post-BD obstruction and subjects with post-BD airway obstruction (COPD. Mortality data were collected until December 31, 2014.Results: Out of 993 subjects with airway obstruction, 736 (74% had COPD and 257 (26% pre- not post-BD obstruction. Any respiratory symptoms, allergic rhinitis, asthma, exacerbations, and comorbidities were equally common among subjects with COPD and pre- not post-BD obstruction, but less common among nonobstructive subjects. Mortality was highest among subjects with COPD and higher in men than in women. In both sexes, COPD, but not pre- not post-BD obstruction, was associated with an increased risk for death compared to those without

  17. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination tiotropium-olodaterol for patients with COPD in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Job Fm; Kocks, Janwillem Wh; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    The fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination (FDC) of tiotropium and olodaterol showed increased effectiveness regarding lung function and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with the use of its mono-components. Yet, while effectiveness and safety have been shown, the health economic implication of this treatment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-utility and budget impact of tiotropium-olodaterol FDC in patients with moderate to very severe COPD in the Netherlands. A cost-utility study was performed, using an individual-level Markov model. To populate the model, individual patient-level data (age, height, sex, COPD duration, baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were obtained from the tiotropium-olodaterol TOnado trial. In the model, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and patient-level data were extrapolated to utility and survival, and treatment with tiotropium-olodaterol FDC was compared with tiotropium. Cost-utility analysis was performed from the Dutch health care payer's perspective using a 15-year time horizon in the base-case analysis. The standard Dutch discount rates were applied (costs: 4.0%; effects: 1.5%). Both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Budget impact was annually assessed over a 5-year time horizon, taking into account different levels of medication adherence. As a result of cost increases, combined with quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains, results showed that tiotropium-olodaterol FDC had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €7,004/QALY. Without discounting, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €5,981/QALY. Results were robust in univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Budget impact was estimated at €4.3 million over 5 years assuming 100% medication adherence. Scenarios with 40%, 60%, and 80% adherence resulted in lower 5-year incremental cost increases of €1.7, €2

  18. Risk of Pneumonia with Inhaled Corticosteroid versus Long-Acting Bronchodilator Regimens in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A New-User Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L.; Sampson, Tim; Le, Hoa Van; Hinds, David; Davis, Kourtney J.; Bakerly, Nawar Diar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies using case-control designs have showed an increased risk of pneumonia associated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing medications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). New-user observational cohort designs may minimize biases associated with previous case-control designs. Objective To estimate the association between ICS and pneumonia among new users of ICS relative to inhaled long-acting bronchodilator (LABD) monotherapy. Methods Pneumonia events in COPD patients ≥45 years old were compared among new users of ICS medications (n = 11,555; ICS, ICS/long-acting β2-agonist [LABA] combination) and inhaled LABD monotherapies (n = 6,492; LABA, long-acting muscarinic antagonists) using Cox proportional hazards models, with propensity scores to adjust for confounding. Setting: United Kingdom electronic medical records with linked hospitalization and mortality data (2002–2010). New users were censored at earliest of: pneumonia event, death, changing/discontinuing treatment, or end of follow-up. Outcomes: severe pneumonia (primary) and any pneumonia (secondary). Results Following adjustment, new use of ICS-containing medications was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia hospitalization (n = 322 events; HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.10) and any pneumonia (n = 702 events; HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.83). Crude incidence rates of any pneumonia were 48.7 and 30.9 per 1000 person years among the ICS-containing and LABD cohorts, respectively. Excess risk of pneumonia with ICS was reduced when requiring ≥1 month or ≥ 6 months of new use. There was an apparent dose-related effect, with greater risk at higher daily doses of ICS. There was evidence of channeling bias, with more severe patients prescribed ICS, for which the analysis may not have completely adjusted. Conclusions The results of this new-user cohort study are consistent with published findings; ICS were associated

  19. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination tiotropium–olodaterol for patients with COPD in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Boven JF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Job FM van Boven,1,2 Janwillem WH Kocks,2 Maarten J Postma1,3,4 1Department of Pharmacy, Unit of PharmacoEpidemiology & PharmacoEconomics, 2Department of General Practice, Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD (GRIAC, 3Institute of Science in Healthy Aging & healthcaRE (SHARE, 4Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Purpose: The fixed-dose dual bronchodilator combination (FDC of tiotropium and olodaterol showed increased effectiveness regarding lung function and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD compared with the use of its mono-components. Yet, while effectiveness and safety have been shown, the health economic implication of this treatment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the cost–utility and budget impact of tiotropium–olodaterol FDC in patients with moderate to very severe COPD in the Netherlands.Patients and methods: A cost–utility study was performed, using an individual-level Markov model. To populate the model, individual patient-level data (age, height, sex, COPD duration, baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second were obtained from the tiotropium–olodaterol TOnado trial. In the model, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and patient-level data were extrapolated to utility and survival, and treatment with tiotropium–olodaterol FDC was compared with tiotropium. Cost–utility analysis was performed from the Dutch health care payer’s perspective using a 15-year time horizon in the base-case analysis. The standard Dutch discount rates were applied (costs: 4.0%; effects: 1.5%. Both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Budget impact was annually assessed over a 5-year time horizon, taking into account different levels of medication adherence.Results: As a result of cost increases, combined with quality-adjusted life-year (QALY

  20. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  1. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  2. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  3. Resposta broncodilatadora imediata ao formoterol em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com pouca reversibilidade Immediate bronchodilator response to formoterol in poorly reversible chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Sperb Rubin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, por meio de provas de função pulmonar, a eficácia broncodilatadora do formoterol após 30 min de sua administração em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC com pouca reversibilidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 40 pacientes portadores de DPOC com resposta negativa ao broncodilatador de curta duração utilizado no teste espirométrico-variação menor que 200 mL e 7% do previsto do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1. Os pacientes encontravam-se nos estágios II, III ou IV da DPOC (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease e apresentavam VEF1 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, using pulmonary function tests, the effectiveness of formoterol as a bronchodilator at 30 min after its administration in patients with poorly reversible COPD. METHODS: A prospective study including 40 COPD patients not responding to the short-acting bronchodilator used in the spirometric test-variation of less than 200 mL and less than 7% of predicted in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. All patients were classified as having stage II, III, or IV COPD (Brazilian Thoracic Society/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and presented FEV1 < 70% of predicted value. The patients were randomized into two groups of 20, with similar clinical characteristics, receiving, via a dry powder inhaler, either formoterol or a placebo. The pulmonary function testing (plethysmography was repeated at 30 min after formoterol or placebo administration. RESULTS: In the formoterol group, the mean values obtained for FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and forced vital capacity were significantly greater than those obtained in the placebo group (p = 0.00065, p = 0.05, and p = 0.017, respectively, whereas that obtained for airway resistance was significantly lower (p = 0.010. Less pronounced differences were observed for residual volume, vital capacity and

  4. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  5. Relationship of bronchodilator response with oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold in children with asthma: the effect of body composition and progressive aerobic activity in an environment with low humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samera Puyan majd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily complications. The purpose of the present study was to relationship bronchodilator response (BDR with oxygen pulse (OP and ventilatory threshold (VT in asthma children with various body compositions during progressive aerobic activities. Material and Methods: 25 obese children (BMI>25 and %fat>30with asthma(10 subjects, and healthy children (15 subjects  and 25 lean children(BMI<20 and %fat<20 with asthma(13 subjects, and healthy children (7 subjects performed an exercise protocol in a constant temperature environment 2 ± 22 ° C and humidity (5 ± 35%. During exercise, the steady-state levels of cardio-respiratory parameters were measured using gas analyzer (K4B2. Results: The results showed that after a progressive aerobic activity, values peak oxygen consumption(vo2peak ​​, bronchodilator(BDR, oxygen pulse(OP and ventilatory threshold(VT  in lean and obese asthmatic children were lower than in healthy lean and obese children. In addition, lean children with asthma had lower VT and higher VO2peak , OP and BDR values​​, as compared obese asthmatic children. Between BDR and VT in lean and obese asthmatic children an inverse relationship between BDR and OP and a direct link to asthma in obese children and obese asthmatic children, there was a negative relationship non-significant. Conclusion: Compared with lean children, asthma, obesity as an additional load will affect lung function and increase the pressure on childhood asthma. Therefore, we can accept that obesity may limit performance of exercise in childhood asthma.

  6. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  7. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  8. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  9. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  10. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  11. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  12. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  13. Características funcionais pulmonares e uso de broncodilatador em pacientes com fibrose cística Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Harumi Muramatu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características funcionais pulmonares, a resposta farmacodinâmica a um broncodilatador e sua prescrição em pacientes com diagnóstico de fibrose cística (FC. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de pacientes (6-18 anos com diagnóstico de FC acompanhados em um centro de referência, capazes de realizar testes de função pulmonar (TFP entre 2008 e 2010. Foram analisados CVF, VEF1 e FEF25-75%, em percentual do previsto, antes e após prova broncodilatadora (pré-BD e pós-BD, respectivamente de 312 TFP. Foram realizadas ANOVA para medidas repetidas e comparações múltiplas. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 56 pacientes. Desses, 37 e 19, respectivamente, tinham resultados de TFP entre 2008 e 2010 e apenas em 2009-2010, formando dois grupos. No grupo com TFP nos três anos estudados, houve redução significativa em VEF1 pós-BD em 2008-2010 (p = 0,028 e 2009-2010 (p = 0,036 e em FEF25-75% pré-BD e pós-BD em todas as comparações múltiplas (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; e 2009 vs. 2010. No grupo com TFP apenas em 2009-2010, não houve diferenças significativas em nenhuma das comparações das variáveis estudadas. Dos 312 TFP, somente 24 (7,7% apresentaram resposta significativa ao broncodilatador e pertenciam a pacientes sem prescrição de broncodilatador durante o período estudado. CONCLUSÕES: Houve perda funcional, com indicação de doença pulmonar progressiva, nos pacientes com FC estudados. Houve maiores alterações no FEF25-75%, sugerindo o comprometimento inicial de vias aéreas menores.OBJECTIVE: To analyze pulmonary function parameters and pharmacodynamic response to a bronchodilator, as well as the prescription of bronchodilators, in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients 6-18 years of age, diagnosed with CF, and followed at a referral center between 2008 and 2010. We evaluated only those patients who were able to perform pulmonary

  14. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  15. Early bronchodilator action of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in moderate-to-severe COPD patients: a cross-over blinded randomized study (Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin JM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose M Marin,1 Kai M Beeh,2 Andreas Clemens,3 Walter Castellani,4 Lennart Schaper,5 Dinesh Saralaya,6 Anthony Gunstone,7 Ricard Casamor,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,3 Maryam Aalamian-Mattheis3 1University Hospital Miguel Servet, IISAragón, CIBERES, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Hospital Piero Palagi, Fiorenze, Italy; 5Research Institute and Practice, Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany; 6Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, UK; 7Staploe Medical Center, Soham, Cambridge, UK; 8Novartis Farmaceutica SA, Barcelona, Spain Background: Morning symptoms associated with COPD have a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Long-acting bronchodilators with rapid onset may relieve patients’ symptoms. In the Symptoms and Pulmonary function in the moRnING study, we prospectively compared the rapid onset bronchodilator profile of glycopyrronium (GLY and tiotropium (TIO during the first few hours after dosing in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.Methods: Patients were randomized (1:1 to receive either once-daily GLY (50 µg or TIO (18 µg and corresponding placebos in a cross-over design for 28 days. The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of GLY versus TIO in area under the curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4h forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after the first dose. The secondary objective was to compare GLY versus TIO using the patient reported outcomes Morning COPD Symptoms Questionnaire 3 hours post-inhalation.Results: One-hundred and twenty-six patients were randomized (male 70.2%; mean age 65.7 years and 108 patients completed the study. On Day 1, GLY resulted in significantly higher FEV1 AUC0-4h after the first dose versus TIO (treatment difference [Δ], 0.030 L, 95% confidence interval 0.004–0.056, P=0.025. Improvements in morning COPD symptoms from baseline at Days 1 and 28 were similar between GLY and TIO. Post hoc

  16. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  17. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  18. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  20. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  1. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  2. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  3. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  4. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  5. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  6. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  7. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  10. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  11. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  12. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  13. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  14. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  15. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  16. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  17. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  18. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  19. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  20. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  1. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  2. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  3. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  4. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  5. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  6. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  7. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  8. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  9. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  10. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  11. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  12. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  13. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  14. Aerosol formulation and clinical efficacy of bronchodilators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, Pieter

    1998-01-01

    This thesis subject is the improvement of the formulation of inhaled aerosols. It is well known that the formulation of inhaled drugs is not optimal: the major part of the mass delivered does not reach the lower airways. This phenomenon is due to the particle size of the inhaled particles, which

  15. Latrophilin receptors : Novel bronchodilator targets in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiz, A.; Donovan, C.; Nieuwenhuis, M. A. E.; van den Berge, M.; Postma, D. S.; Yao, S.; Park, C. Y.; Hirsch, R.; Fredberg, J. J.; Tjin, G.; Halayko, A. J.; Rempel, K. L.; Ward, J. P. T.; Lee, T.; Bosse, Y.; Nickle, D. C.; Obeidat, M.; Vonk, Judith M.; Black, J. L.; Oliver, B. G.; Krishnan, R.; McParland, B.; Bourke, J. E.; Burgess, J. K.

    Background Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide. In asthma, the major cause of morbidity and mortality is acute airway narrowing, due to airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypercontraction, associated with airway remodelling. However, little is known about the transcriptional differences between

  16. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  17. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  18. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  19. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  20. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  1. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  2. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  3. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  4. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  5. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  6. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  8. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  9. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  10. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  11. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  12. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  13. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  14. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  15. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  16. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  17. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  18. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  19. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  20. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  1. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  2. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  3. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  4. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  5. Técnica de oscilações forçadas na análise da resposta broncodilatadora em voluntários sadios e indivíduos portadores de asma brônquica com resposta positiva Using the forced oscillation technique to evaluate bronchodilator response in healthy volunteers and in asthma patients presenting a verified positive response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Veiga Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, através da técnica de oscilações forçadas, pacientes asmáticos com resposta broncodilatadora positiva pelo laudo espirométrico e comparar esses resultados com os obtidos em indivíduos sadios. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 53 indivíduos não tabagistas, sendo 24 sadios sem história de doença pulmonar e 29 asmáticos com resposta broncodilatadora positiva segundo o laudo espirométrico. Todos foram submetidos à técnica de oscilações forçadas e a espirometria antes e após vinte minutos da administração de salbutamol spray (300 g. Os parâmetros derivados da técnica de oscilações forçadas foram: resistência total, reatância total, resistência extrapolada para o eixo y, coeficiente angular da reta de resistência e complacência dinâmica. Na espirometria, os parâmetros utilizados foram o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e a capacidade vital forçada. RESULTADOS: No grupo controle, a utilização do broncodilatador produziu alteração significativa na resistência extrapolada para o eixo y (p OBJECTIVE: To use the forced oscillation technique to evaluate asthma patients presenting positive bronchodilator responses (confirmed through spirometry and compare the results with those obtained in healthy individuals. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 53 non-smoking volunteers: 24 healthy subjects with no history of pulmonary disease and 29 asthmatics presenting positive bronchodilator response, as determined through analysis of spirometry findings. All of the subjects were submitted to forced oscillation technique and spirometry immediately before and 20 minutes after the administration of salbutamol spray (300 g. The parameters derived from the forced oscillation technique were total respiratory resistance, total respiratory reactance, resistance extrapolated to the y axis, the slope of resistance, and dynamic compliance. The parameters measured in the spirometry evaluation tests were forced

  6. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  7. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  8. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agent model * market structure * smart traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  9. 76 FR 44475 - Labeling for Bronchodilators To Treat Asthma; Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... receive the full benefits from their drugs and to prevent life-threatening conditions associated with..., and Cosmetic Act. This judgment balances the benefits of these drug products against their potential... benefits: namely, averted loss of work time, using the 2009 median hourly wage of $15.95 plus benefits...

  10. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  11. Agents Play Mix-game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    In recent years, economics and finance see the shift of paradigm from representative agent models to heterogeneous agent models [1, 2]. More and more economists and physicists made efforts in research on heterogeneous agent models for financial markets. Minority game (MG) proposed by D. Challet, and Y. C. Zhang [3] is an example among such efforts. Challet and Zhang's MG model, together with the original bar model of Arthur, attracts a lot of following studies [4-6]. Given MG's richness and yet underlying simplicity, MG has also received much attention as a financial market model [4]. MG comprises an odd number of agents choosing repeatedly between the options of buying (1) and selling (0) a quantity of a risky asset. The agents continually try to make the minority decision, i.e. buy assets when the majority of other agents are selling, and sell when the majority of other agents are buying. Neil F. Johnson [4, 5] and coworkers extended MG by allowing a variable number of active traders at each timestep— they called their modified game as the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG). GCMG, and to a lesser extent the basic MG itself, can reproduce the stylized facts of financial markets, such as volatility clustering and fat-tail distributions.

  12. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  13. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  14. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  15. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  16. Dynamics of Three Agent Games

    OpenAIRE

    Rador, Tonguc; Mungan, Muhittin

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers $p$, $t$ and $q$ denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parame...

  17. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  18. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  20. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  1. Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GOTTLIEB, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Defence date: 24 February 2012 Examining Board: Giancarlo Corsetti, Arpad Abraham, Juan Carlos Conesa, Jonathan Heathcote. This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic envir...

  2. Agents in E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mencke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  3. Building Agents to Serve Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuceanu, Mihai; Fox, Mark S.; Hong, Lei; Lallement, Yannick; Zhang, Zhongdong

    2004-01-01

    AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help companies provide better-quality and more costeffective customer service. Our customer-service agents use natural language to interact with customers, enabling customers to state their intentions directly instead of searching for the places on the Web site that may address their concern. We use planning methods to search systematically for the solution to the customer's problem, ensuring that a r...

  4. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  5. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  6. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  7. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    -, č. 81 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Smart traders * price movements * smart traders concept Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  8. Homeostatic Agent for General Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto

    2018-03-01

    One of the essential aspect in biological agents is dynamic stability. This aspect, called homeostasis, is widely discussed in ethology, neuroscience and during the early stages of artificial intelligence. Ashby's homeostats are general-purpose learning machines for stabilizing essential variables of the agent in the face of general environments. However, despite their generality, the original homeostats couldn't be scaled because they searched their parameters randomly. In this paper, first we re-define the objective of homeostats as the maximization of a multi-step survival probability from the view point of sequential decision theory and probabilistic theory. Then we show that this optimization problem can be treated by using reinforcement learning algorithms with special agent architectures and theoretically-derived intrinsic reward functions. Finally we empirically demonstrate that agents with our architecture automatically learn to survive in a given environment, including environments with visual stimuli. Our survival agents can learn to eat food, avoid poison and stabilize essential variables through theoretically-derived single intrinsic reward formulations.

  9. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  10. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  11. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  12. O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo não é suficiente para avaliar resposta broncodilatadora em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Measuring forced expiratory volume in one second alone is not an accurate method of assessing response to bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felícia de Moraes Branco Tavares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de variação no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, em uma amostra de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Correlacioná-la com dados clínicos e demográficos e avaliar a freqüência de resposta na capacidade vital forçada, capacidade vital lenta, capacidade inspiratória, volume residual, resistência das vias áreas e condutância das vias aéreas. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e quatro pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica foram submetidos a pletismografia de corpo inteiro e foi medida a reversibilidade da broncoconstrição após o uso de 400 µg de fenoterol. RESULTADOS: Tiveram resposta no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo 31% dos pacientes. Excluindo-se os pacientes com resposta no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, 5% tiveram resposta em 5 dos demais parâmetros, 10% responderam em 4 parâmetros, 17,5% em 3, 27,5% em 2 e 25% em apenas 1 parâmetro. CONCLUSÃO: Os volumes pulmonares estáticos, a resistência e a condutância das vias aéreas, quando incluídos na avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador juntamente com o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, permitem avaliar com maior amplitude o número de pacientes com resposta funcional à prova farmacodinâmica. Os resultados estão de acordo com a observação de que muitos pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, mesmo sem melhora no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, apresentam melhora clínica e alívio da dispnéia.OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of variation in forced expiratory volume in one second after bronchodilator use in a sample of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, correlating such variation with clinical and demographic variables and evaluating the frequency of response presented in forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, inspiratory capacity

  13. Alkylating agents for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Tan, Jianlong; Wu, Taixiang

    2009-01-21

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow infiltration and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Uncertainty remains if alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil, melphalan or cyclophosphamide, are an effective form of management. To assess the effects and safety of the alkylating agents on Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), the Chinese Biomedical Base (1982 to 2008) and reference lists of articles.We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings from 1990 to 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing alkylating agents given concomitantly with radiotherapy, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, stem-cell transplantation in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of WM. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse effects information from the trials. One trial involving 92 participants with pretreated/relapsed WM compared the effect of fludarabine versus the combination of cyclophosphamide (the alkylating agent), doxorubicin and prednisone (CAP). Compared to CAP, the Hazard ratio (HR) for deaths of treatment with fludarabine was estimated to be 1.04, with a standard error of 0.30 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.48) and it indicated that the mean difference of median survival time was -4.00 months, and 16.00 months for response duration. The relative risks (RR) of response rate was 2.80 (95% CI 1.10 to 7.12). There were no statistically difference in overall survival rate and median survival months, while on the basis of response rate and response duration, fludarabine seemed to be superior to CAP for pretreated/relapsed patients with macroglobulinaemia. Although alkylating agents have been used for decades they have never actually been tested in a proper randomised trial. This

  14. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  15. Comparação da variação de resposta ao broncodilatador através da espirometria em portadores de asma ou doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Comparison of spirometric changes in the response to bronchodilators of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Correia Silvestri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial entre asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC através da resposta aos broncodilatadores inalatórios na espirometria ainda é controverso. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar quais variáveis espirométricas melhor diferenciam asma de DPOC. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado entre abril de 2004 e janeiro de 2006, comparando-se os parâmetros espirométricos de 103 pacientes asmáticos, não fumantes, com os de 108 pacientes portadores de DPOC, fumantes de mais de 10 anos-maço. Todos os pacientes tinham mais de 40 anos e apresentavam doença estável no momento do exame. RESULTADOS: O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 pré-broncodilatador foi igual nos dois grupos (VEF1 = 51%, mas os portadores de DPOC eram mais velhos (66 ± 9 anos vs. 59 ± 11 anos, p 10% constitui o melhor parâmetro espirométrico para diferenciar asma de DPOC.OBJECTIVE: Making the differential diagnosis between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on the response to inhaled bronchodilators by means of spirometry is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the most useful spirometric variables in order to distinguish between asthma and COPD. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted from April of 2004 to January of 2006, comparing the spirometric parameters of 103 nonsmoking patients with asthma to those of 108 patients with COPD who were smokers for more than 10 pack-years. All of the patients included in the study were older than 40 and presented stable disease at the time of the test. RESULTS:Initial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was the same in the two groups (pre-bronchodilator VEF1 = 51%. However, patients with COPD were older (66 ± 9 years vs. 59 ± 11 years, p 10% is the best spirometric parameter to distinguish asthma from COPD.

  16. Imprecise Beliefs in a Principal Agent Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigotti, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a principal-agent model where the agent has multiple, or imprecise, beliefs. We model this situation formally by assuming the agent's preferences are incomplete. One can interpret this multiplicity as an agent's limited knowledge of the surrounding environment. In this setting,

  17. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  18. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  19. Fundamental studies of oral contrast agents for MR. Comparison of manganese agent and iron agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Osamu; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Suginobu, Yoshito; Takeuchi, Masayasu; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated and compared signal intensity and the effect of imaging the upper abdomen with blueberry juice (B.J.), a Mn agent utilizing the properties of paramagnetic metals, and FerriSeltz (F.S.), an iron agent. Since the relaxation effect was much stronger with B.J. than with F.S., the signal intensity required of a peroral contrast agent was able to be obtained at a much lower concentration of B.J. In imaging the upper abdomen, B.J. had a positive effect on imaging in T1-weighted images, and a negative effect in T2-weighted images. F.S. had a positive imaging effect in both, and because it showed extremely high signals in T2-weighted images, motion artifact arose. (author)

  20. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  1. Real Estate Agent Commission Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among Procuring Cause Law, real estate agent years of experience, and real estate commission disputes. A pilot survey was conducted in the southwestern United States among real estate agents, realtor(s, and brokers. After testing the hypothesis, the decision was made to fail to reject the hypothesis and conclude that real estate agent experience and not Procuring Cause Law produced favorable outcomes in disputes. As a result, the following recommendations were made: (a Agency seller and buyer’s agreements should be used in each transaction to avoid disputes, (b proper expectations and guidelines should be reviewed prior to starting any real estate transaction, (c a checklist may assist in the assurance that all valuable information is reviewed, (d agents could benefit from fully understanding Procuring Cause Law and sharing this information with their clients, (e state and national regulatory requirements of the law could be modified for easier understanding and use, and (f consumers who willfully violate the law could be subject to monetary penalties.

  2. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  3. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  4. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  6. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  7. Design of Collaborative Information Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Klusch, M.; Treur, J.; Klusch, M.; Kerschberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    Effective development of nontrivial systems of collaborative information agents requires that an in-depth analysis is made resulting in (1) specification of requirements at different levels of the system, (2) specification of design structures, and (3) a systematic verification. To support a

  8. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.

    2005-01-01

    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  9. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.; Trumper, J.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  10. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  11. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  12. Agent Supported Serious Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidou, Theodouli; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Miliou, Christina; Sourvinou, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and applies a novel concept for an AI enhanced serious game collaborative environment as a supplementary learning tool in tertiary education. It is based on previous research that investigated pedagogical agents for a serious game in the OpenSim environment. The proposed AI features to support the serious game are the…

  13. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  14. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  15. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  16. Security Infrastructure and Applicationsfor Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Shibli, Awais

    2010-01-01

    Research areas of this dissertation are security for mobile agents, for applications based on mobile agents, and for distributed network environments in which mobile agents execute. Mobile agents paradigm has captured researchers’ and industry’s interests long time ago because of its innovative capabilities and attractive applications. The ability of mobile agents to autonomously migrate from host to host, transferring their code and internal state, enables them to accomplish tasks in network...

  17. From SMART to agent systems development

    OpenAIRE

    Ashri, R; Luck, M; d'Inverno, M

    2005-01-01

    In order for agent-oriented software engineering to prove effective it must use principled notions of agents and enabling specification and reasoning, while still considering routes to practical implementation. This paper deals with the issue of individual agent specification and construction, departing from the conceptual basis provided by the smart agent framework. smart offers a descriptive specification of an agent architecture but omits consideration of issues relating to\\ud construction...

  18. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  19. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  20. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  1. Innovative agents in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P

    2005-01-01

    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  2. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  3. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...

  4. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. Diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updike, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations. According to the invention, a binding protein (protein globulins, antibodies) of an aqueous solution specific for the substance to be determined is incorporated in gel particles of a strongly hydrophilic insoluble gel of controlled pore size. After subsequent drying of the system, a radioactively labelled form of the substance to be determined from a non-aqueous medium is included. The mixture is dried again. The diagnostic agent forred can be well stored and is very stable. There is no loss of activity of the specific bonding protein when drying according to the invented method. The described reagent can be effectively applied to the determination of many antigens and haptens: The gel is rehydrated by the sample to be investigated; as a result of this, the non-bonded tracer is set free and competes with the non-labelled substance for the bonding position. (VJ) [de

  6. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  7. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Thurau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  8. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  9. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  10. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  11. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  12. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  13. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  14. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  15. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  16. Prostate Activated Prodrugs and Imaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Graham B

    2004-01-01

    .... The substrate chosen was a 3 component system composed of a peptide sequence with affinity for PSA, an imaging agent and a deactivating bridge-linker, which electronically incapacitates the imaging agent...

  17. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  18. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  19. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  20. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  1. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  2. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  3. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  4. Modelling an Agent's Mind and Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Boman, M.

    1997-01-01

    In agent models often it is assumed that the agent maintains internal representations of the material world (e.g., its beliefs). An overall model of the agent and the material world necessarily incorporates sub-models for physical simulation and symbolic simulation, and a formalisation of the

  5. Switching dynamics of multi-agent learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancx, P.; Tuyls, K.P.; Westra, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamics of multi-agent reinforcement learning in multiple state problems. We extend previous work that formally modelled the relation between reinforcement learning agents and replicator dynamics in stateless multi-agent games. More precisely, in this work we use a

  6. Animated BDP agents in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Zwiers, Jakob; Krose, B.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, G.; van Someren, M.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a Believes, Desires and Plans (BDP) agent that acts in a virtual environment using multi-modal interaction with the user. The environment is our virtual theatre environment. In this environment different agents have been introduced. In order to obtain a more uniform framework for agent

  7. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 178.3860 Section 178.3860 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3860 Release agents. Substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins...

  8. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  9. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may

  10. Fairness in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are complex systems in which multiple autonomous entities, called agents, cooperate in order to achieve a common or personal goal. These entities may be computer software, robots, and also humans. In fact, many multi-agent systems are intended to operate in cooperation with or as

  11. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  12. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  13. Individualism and Collectivism in Trade Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Agent-Based Modeling can contribute to the understanding of international trade processes. Models for the effects of culture and cultural differences on agent behavior are required for realistic agent-based simulation of international trade. This paper makes a step toward modeling of culture in

  14. A principal-agent Model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  15. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social

  16. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Kump, Patrizia; Krejs, Guenter J

    2012-09-01

    Circulating agents cause intestinal secretion or changes in motility with decreased intestinal transit time, resulting in secretory-type diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea as opposed to osmotic diarrhea is characterized by large-volume, watery stools, often more than 1 L per day; by persistence of diarrhea when patients fast; and by the fact that on analysis of stool-water, measured osmolarity is identical to that calculated from the electrolytes present. Although sodium plays the main role in water and electrolyte absorption, chloride is the major ion involved in secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Antiangiogenic agents in ARMD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroi, Mihaela-Cristiana; Demea, Sorina; Todor, Meda; Apopei, Emmanuela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of age related senile macular degeneration is to destroy coroidian neoformation vessels by minimally affecting the central vision. We present a case of important central vision recovery after 3 intravitreal injections of Avastin. The therapeutic decision and patient monitoring have been made using imaging studies, such as OCT and AFG. A modern therapeutic approach of neovascular forms of age related macular degeneration, backed up by AFG and OCT is a modern treatment method of this disabling illness which brings patients optimal functional and structural improvement.

  18. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms to d...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  19. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  20. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  1. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  2. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  3. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  5. Preemptive mobile code protection using spy agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogridis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    This thesis introduces 'spy agents' as a new security paradigm for evaluating trust in remote hosts in mobile code scenarios. In this security paradigm, a spy agent, i.e. a mobile agent which circulates amongst a number of remote hosts, can employ a variety of techniques in order to both appear 'normal' and suggest to a malicious host that it can 'misuse' the agent's data or code without being held accountable. A framework for the operation and deployment of such spy agents is described. ...

  6. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  7. Building Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Jason-DTU system, including the used methodology, tools as well as team strategy. We also discuss the experience gathered in the contest. In spring 2009 the course “Artificial Intelligence and Multi- Agent Systems” was held for the first time...... on the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). A part of this course was a short introduction to the multi-agent framework Jason, which is an interpreter for AgentSpeak, an agent-oriented programming language. As the final project in this course a solution to the Multi-Agent Programming Contest from 2007, the Gold...

  8. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  9. Broncodilatação na DPOC: muito além do VEF1-efeito do salbutamol nas propriedades resistivas e reativas do sistema respiratório Bronchodilation in COPD: beyond FEV1-the effect of albuterol on resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Marítimo da Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Atualmente existem importantes debates na literatura sobre a resposta broncodilatadora em pacientes com DPOC e se a variação do VEF1 pode ser considerada uma indicação completa de reversibilidade neste caso particular. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do salbutamol nas propriedades resistivas e elásticas do sistema respiratório de portadores de DPOC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 70 indivíduos com DPOC, classificados através da espirometria em dois grupos: broncodilatador (BD-negativo (n = 39; e BD-positivo (n = 31. Utilizou-se a técnica de oscilações forçadas (TOF para avaliar os seguintes parâmetros: a resistência no intercepto (R0, associada à resistência total do sistema respiratório; a resistência média (Rm, relacionada à resistência de vias aéreas centrais; e a complacência dinâmica (Cdyn; assim como o coeficiente angular da resistência (S e a reatância média (Xm, relacionados com a homogeneidade do sistema respiratório. RESULTADOS: O uso do salbutamol resultou em reduções significativas de R0 (p OBJECTIVE: Current debates on the bronchodilator response in COPD patients and whether the variation in FEV1 can be considered as an indicator of complete reversibility in such patients motivated us to conduct this study. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of albuterol on the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system in COPD patients. METHODS: We evaluated 70 patients with COPD, divided into two groups based on spirometry findings: bronchodilator (BD-negative (n = 39; and BD-positive (n = 31. We used the forced oscillation technique (FOT to evaluate the following parameters: resistance at the intercept (R0, associated with the total resistance of the respiratory system; mean resistance (Rm, associated with central airway resistance; dynamic compliance (Cdyn; and the slope of resistance (S and mean reactance (Xm, both of which are associated with the

  10. Variations on agent-oriented programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Baziukė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of the agent paradigm and its further applications have stimulated the emergence of new concepts and methodologies in computer science. Today terms like multi-agent system, agent-oriented methodology, and agent-oriented programming (AOP are widely used. The aim of this paper is to clarify the validity of usage of the terms AOP and AOP language. This is disclosed in two phases of an analysis process. Determining to which concepts, terms like agent, programming, object-oriented analysis and design, object-oriented programming, and agent-oriented analysis and design correspond is accomplished in the first phase. Analysis of several known agent system engineering methodologies in terms of key concepts used, final resulting artifacts, and their relationship with known programming paradigms and modern tools for agent system development is performed in the second phase. The research shows that in most cases in the final phase of agent system design and in the coding stage, the main artifact is an object, defined according to the rules of the object-oriented paradigm. Hence, we say that the computing society still does not have AOP owing to the lack of an AOP language. Thus, the term AOP is very often incorrectly assigned to agent system development frameworks that in most cases, transform agents into objects.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v5i1.1361

  11. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  12. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  13. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  14. Survey of agent for intelligent information retrieval; Chiteki kensaku no tame no agent no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Development of agent systems has been surveyed, to classify and arrange characteristic functions of the agents, and to grasp the realization situation of these agents in their development. In addition, prospective functions of information retrieval systems using the agents at maximum and functions to be developed among these in the future are clarified. The agents are characterized by the expression function, communication function, planning function, adaptive function, and learning function. The agents are desired to be classified into interface agents whose works are to respond to individual workers, coordinator agents which conduct works with high pervasion, such as assignment of works and their control, and task agents which conduct specialized works for individual examples. Thus, design and configuration of the agent system, and improvement and expansion of system functions can be effectively and easily conducted. 52 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  16. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  17. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  18. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  20. Children as digital rights agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at children’s involvement and contribution to internet safety policy. In many respects, the research perspective on children and young people has also seen a shift towards the child as agent, as citizen (Livingstone 2002, 2009; Dahlgren 2007). With increasing attention given...... to children’s communication rights there is an acknowledgement that children’s voices should be heard in all matters that affect them (Hamelink 2008). We still, however, primarily discuss how adults could and should take responsibility in guarding children and young people from risk and harm, and what...... the role of the “adult world” is. We need to focus more on the active role that children and adolescents play, according to age, skills and various capacities, in identifying, reflecting upon and acting according to opportunities and challenges in relation to digital media and digital rights (Hartman et al...

  1. Sustainable Society Formed by Unselfish Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has been pointed out that if the social configuration of the three relations (market, communal and obligatory relations) is not balanced, a market based society as a total system fails. Using multi-agent simulations, this paper shows that a sustainable society is formed when all three relations are integrated and function respectively. When agent trades are based on the market mechanism (i.e., agents act in their own interest and thus only market relations exist), weak agents who cannot perform transactions die. If a compulsory tax is imposed to enable all weak agents to survive (i.e., obligatory relations exist), then the fiscal deficit increases. On the other hand, if agents who have excess income undertake the unselfish action of distributing their surplus to the weak agents (i.e., communal relations exist), then trade volume increases. It is shown that the existence of unselfish agents is necessary for the realization of a sustainable society. However, the survival of all agents is difficult in a communal society. In an artificial society, for all agents survive and fiscal balance to be maintained, all three social relations need to be fully integrated. These results show that adjusting the balance of the three social relations well lead to the realization of a sustainable society.

  2. Process for preparation of MR contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the preparation of an MR contrast agent, said process comprising: i) obtaining a solution in a solvent of a hydrogenatable, unsaturated substrate compound and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of said substrate compound; ii) introducing said solution...... in droplet form into a chamber containing hydrogen gas (H2) enriched in para-hydrogen (p-1H2) and/or ortho-deuterium (o-2H2) whereby to hydrogenate said substrate to form a hydrogenated imaging agent; iii) optionally subjecting said hydrogenated imaging agent to a magnetic field having a field strength below...... earth's ambient field strength; iv) optionally dissolving said imaging agent in an aqueous medium; v) optionally separating said catalyst from the solution of said imaging agent in said aqueous medium; vi) optionally separating said solvent from the solution of said imaging agent in said aqueous medium...

  3. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 491-500

  4. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 491-500

  5. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  6. Pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, You-xian

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of controlling a group of mobile agents in a plane in order to move them towards a desired orbit via pinning control, in which each agent is associated with a chaotic oscillator coupled with those of neighboring agents, and the pinning strategy is to have the common linear feedback acting on a small fraction of agents by random selection. We explore the effects of the pinning probability, feedback gains and agent density in the pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network under a fast-switching constraint, and perform numerical simulations for validation. In particular, we show that there exists a critical pinning density for network synchronization with an unbounded region: above the threshold, the dynamical network can be controlled by pinning; below it, anarchy prevails. And for the network with a single bounded synchronization region, pinning control has little effect as regards enhancing network synchronizability

  7. Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

  8. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social elements, such as existing relational factors. We addressed this necessity by integrating culture into a novel model for simulating human social behavior. With this model, we operationalized a par...

  9. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  10. Emotional Storytelling using Virtual and Robotic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sandra; Brunete, Alberto; Bae, Byung-Chull; Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    In order to create effective storytelling agents three fundamental questions must be answered: first, is a physically embodied agent preferable to a virtual agent or a voice-only narration? Second, does a human voice have an advantage over a synthesised voice? Third, how should the emotional trajectory of the different characters in a story be related to a storyteller's facial expressions during storytelling time, and how does this correlate with the apparent emotions on the faces of the list...

  11. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  12. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin LITOIU; Amelia BADICA; Cristian ETEGAN

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  13. Three essays in agent-based macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Canzian, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    The dissertation is aimed at offering an insight into the agent-based methodology and its possible application to the macroeconomic analysis. Relying on this methodology, I deal with three different issues concerning heterogeneity of economic agents, bounded rationality and interaction. Specifically, the first chapter is devoted to describe the distinctive characteristics of agent-based economics and its advantages-disadvantages. In the second chapter I propose a credit market framework c...

  14. Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-12-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MIdeveloped for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage). An important situation where demonstrating tissue devitalisation is important is in interstitial ablation of focal liver lesions: using microbubble contrast agents at the end of a procedure allows immediate evaluation of the

  15. A Multi-Agent Environment for Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In this chapter we introduce the System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN offers a negotiation environment that supports and facilitates the setup of various negotiation setups. The environment has been designed to analyse negotiation processes between human negotiators, between human and software agents, and between software agents. It offers a range of different agents, different domains, and other options useful to define a negotiation setup. The environment has been used to test and evaluate a range of negotiation strategies in various domains playing against other negotiating agents as well as humans. We discuss some of the results obtained by means of these experiments.

  16. Agent-Based Negotiation in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    An agent aims to secure his projected needs by attempting to build a set of (business) relationships with other agents. A relationship is built by exchanging private information, and is characterised by its intimacy — degree of closeness — and balance — degree of fairness. Each argumentative interaction between two agents then has two goals: to satisfy some immediate need, and to do so in a way that develops the relationship in a desired direction. An agent's desire to develop each relationship in a particular way then places constraints on the argumentative utterances. The form of negotiation described is argumentative interaction constrained by a desire to develop such relationships.

  17. Story telling engine based on agent interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Porcel, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Comics have been used as a programming tool for agents, giving them instructions on how to act. In this thesis I do this in reverse, I use comics to describe the actions of agents already interacting with each other to create a storytelling engine that dynamically generate stories, based on the interaction of said agents. The model for the agent behaviours is based on the improvisational puppets model of Barbara Hayes-Roth. This model is chosen due to the nature of comics themselves. Comics ...

  18. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...... used the implementation from 2009 as a foundation and therefore much of the work done this year was on improving that implementation. We present a description which includes design and analysis of the system as well as the main features of our agent team strategy. In addition we discuss...

  19. Multi-agent and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fenghui; Fujita, Katsuhide; Zhang, Minjie; Ito, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a description of advanced multi-agent and artificial intelligence technologies for the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field. A complex system features a large number of interacting components, whose aggregate activities are nonlinear and self-organized. A multi-agent system is a group or society of agents which interact with others cooperatively and/or competitively in order to reach their individual or common goals. Multi-agent systems are suitable for modeling and simulation of complex systems, which is difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches.

  20. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  2. Conversational Agents in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Alice; Ellis, Richard; Bull, Susan

    This paper discusses the use of natural language or 'conversational' agents in e-learning environments. We describe and contrast the various applications of conversational agent technology represented in the e-learning literature, including tutors, learning companions, language practice and systems to encourage reflection. We offer two more detailed examples of conversational agents, one which provides learning support, and the other support for self-assessment. Issues and challenges for developers of conversational agent systems for e-learning are identified and discussed.

  3. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  4. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  5. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  6. Novel Methylselenoesters as Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Díaz-Argelich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se compounds are potential therapeutic agents in cancer. Importantly, the biological effects of Se compounds are exerted by their metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH being one of the key executors. In this study, we developed a new series of methylselenoesters with different scaffolds aiming to modulate the release of CH3SeH. The fifteen compounds follow Lipinski’s Rule of Five and with exception of compounds 1 and 14, present better drug-likeness values than the positive control methylseleninic acid. The compounds were evaluated to determine their radical scavenging activity. Compound 11 reduced both DPPH and ABTS radicals. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia and two non-malignant (lung and mammary epithelial cell lines. Ten compounds had GI50 values below 10 μM at 72 h in four cancer cell lines. Compounds 5 and 15 were chosen for further characterization of their mechanism of action in the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line due to their similarity with methylseleninic acid. Both compounds induced G2/M arrest whereas cell death was partially executed by caspases. The reduction and metabolism were also investigated, and both compounds were shown to be substrates for redox active enzyme thioredoxin reductase.

  7. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  8. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  9. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent ...... roles are supported by a simple and expressive application framework....

  10. Long-acting beta-agonists in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current and future agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbri Leonardo M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and debilitating symptoms. For patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; as symptoms progress, guidelines recommend combining bronchodilators from different classes to improve efficacy. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs have been licensed for the treatment of COPD since the late 1990s and include formoterol and salmeterol. They improve lung function, symptoms of breathlessness and exercise limitation, health-related quality of life, and may reduce the rate of exacerbations, although not all patients achieve clinically meaningful improvements in symptoms or health related quality of life. In addition, LABAs have an acceptable safety profile, and are not associated with an increased risk of respiratory mortality, although adverse effects such as palpitations and tremor may limit the dose that can be tolerated. Formoterol and salmeterol have 12-hour durations of action; however, sustained bronchodilation is desirable in COPD. A LABA with a 24-hour duration of action could provide improvements in efficacy, compared with twice-daily LABAs, and the once-daily dosing regimen could help improve compliance. It is also desirable that a new LABA should demonstrate fast onset of action, and a safety profile at least comparable to existing LABAs. A number of novel LABAs with once-daily profiles are in development which may be judged against these criteria. Indacaterol, a LABA with a 24-hour duration of bronchodilation and fast onset of action, is the most advanced of these. Preliminary results from large clinical trials suggest indacaterol improves lung function compared with placebo and other long-acting bronchodilators. Other LABAs with a 24-hour duration of bronchodilation include carmoterol, vilanterol trifenatate and oldaterol, with early results indicating potential for once-daily dosing in

  11. Ultrasound contrast agents: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MI < 0.3) so that the microbubbles are not destroyed and scanning can continue in real time. The clinical roles of contrast enhanced ultrasound scanning are expanding rapidly. They are established in echocardiography to improve endocardial border detection and are being developed for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating

  12. A Secure Protocol Based on a Sedentary Agent for Mobile Agent Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmorhit E. Rhazi; Samuel Pierre; Hanifa Boucheneb

    2007-01-01

    The main challenge when deploying mobile agent environments pertains to security issues concerning mobile agents and their executive platform. This paper proposes a secure protocol which protects mobile agents against attacks from malicious hosts in these environments. Protection is based on the perfect cooperation of a sedentary agent running inside a trusted third host. Results show that the protocol detects several attacks, such as denial of service, incorrect execution and re-execution of...

  13. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Roberts, Marilyn C; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan

    During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either

  14. Dynamics of three-agent games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Muhittin; Rador, Tonguc

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers p, t and q denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. The three-agent game can be regarded as a social model where a player can be favored or disfavored for advancement, based on his/her accumulated score. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parameter values (p, q, t), we find six qualitatively different asymptotic score distributions and we provide a qualitative explanation of these results. We also compare our analytical results against numerical simulations of the microscopic model and find these to be in excellent agreement. It is possible to decide the outcome of a three-agent game through a mini-tournament of two-agent competitions among the participating players and it turns out that the resulting possible score distributions are a subset of those obtained for the general three-agent games. We discuss how one can add a steady and democratic decline rate to the model and present a simple geometric construction that allows one to obtain the score evolution equations for n-agent games

  15. Prophylaxis and Therapy Against Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Hematopoietic Consequences F. Dorandeu 5) pH Dependent Toxicity of Sulphur Mustard In Vitro J. Mikler Nerve Agents / Scavengers 1) Mutagenesis...symptoms such as salivation or shortness of breath and lower level exposures could be rendered inconsequential. B.2 CURRENT THERAPY FOR NERVE AGENT

  16. Modeling agents with a theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Training systems with intelligent virtual agents provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks like crisis management or firefighting. Virtual agents provide more adequate behavior and explanations if they not only take their own goals and beliefs into account, but also the

  17. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production of... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120.952 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company...

  18. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  19. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-05-10

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems.

  20. Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdiscplinary Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.; Oskamp, A.; Prins, J.M.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are

  1. Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdisciplinary Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskamp, A.; Brazier, F.M.; Prins, J.E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are

  2. Deliberate normative agents : principles and architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Castelfranchi, C.; Jonker, C.; Treur, J.; Jennings, N.R.; Lespérance, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper norms are assumed to be useful in agent societies. It is claimed that not only following norms, but also the possibility of ‘intelligent’ norm violation can be useful. Principles for agents that are able to behave deliberatively on the basis of explicitly represented norms are

  3. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    Evolution in societies of agents is a challenging phenomenon, both from a fundamental perspective and from an applied perspective. In the literature often genetic programming approaches are used and relatively simple agents are considered, which have no deliberate influence on the direction of the

  4. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  5. Stock market dynamics created by interacting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Riad Remita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a stock market model, consisting in a large number of agents, going eventually to infinity, and evaluate the stock price under the influence of opinions of different agents. Next we study the behavior of prices when the market is very nervous; there appear discontinuities (phase transitions which can be interpreted as stock market crashes.

  6. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  7. Evolution of hemostatic agents in surgical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru P Sundaram

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions : A review of the evolution of topical hemostatic agents highlights opportunities for potential novel research. Fibrin sealants may have the most opportunity for advancement, and understanding the history of these products is useful. With the drive in urology for minimally invasive surgical techniques, adaptation of topical hemostatic agents to this surgical approach would be valuable and offers an opportunity for novel contributions.

  8. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-01-01

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  9. Vivid agents : theory, architecture, and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, M.; Wagner, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Vivid agents (Wagner, 1996) are software-controlled systems whose state comprises the mental components of knowledge, perceptions, tasks, and intentions, and whose behavior is represented by means of action and reaction rules. An execution model for vivid agents is presented, which is based on an

  10. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, M.B. van

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An

  11. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  12. Computational Intelligence Agent-Oriented Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2006), s. 430-433 ISSN 1109-2777 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi-agent systems * adaptive agents * computational intelligence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  13. Explor@ Advisory Agent: Tracing the Student's Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Cayrol, Karin; Paquette, Gilbert; Miara, Alexis; Bergeron, Frederick; Rivard, Jacques; Rosca, Ioan

    This paper presents research and development of an adaptive World Wide Web-based system called Explor@ Advisory Agent, capable of tailoring advice to the individual student's needs, actions, and reactions toward pedagogical events, as well as according to diagnosis of content acquisition. Explor@ Advisory Agent consists of two sub-systems, the…

  14. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  15. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  16. Mansion, A Distributed Multi-Agent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this position summary we present work in progress on a worldwide, scalable multi-agent system, based on a paradigm of hyperlinked rooms. The framework offers facilities for managing distribution, security and mobility aspects for both active elements (agents) and passive elements (objects) in the

  17. Dynamics of three-agent games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Muhittin; Rador, Tonguç

    2008-02-01

    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers p, t and q denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. The three-agent game can be regarded as a social model where a player can be favored or disfavored for advancement, based on his/her accumulated score. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parameter values (p, q, t), we find six qualitatively different asymptotic score distributions and we provide a qualitative explanation of these results. We also compare our analytical results against numerical simulations of the microscopic model and find these to be in excellent agreement. It is possible to decide the outcome of a three-agent game through a mini-tournament of two-agent competitions among the participating players and it turns out that the resulting possible score distributions are a subset of those obtained for the general three-agent games. We discuss how one can add a steady and democratic decline rate to the model and present a simple geometric construction that allows one to obtain the score evolution equations for n-agent games.

  18. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  19. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas.

  20. Agent-Based Models in Social Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Le Anh; Jung, Nam; Cho, Eun Sung; Choi, Jae Han; Lee, Jae Woo

    2018-06-01

    We review the agent-based models (ABM) on social physics including econophysics. The ABM consists of agent, system space, and external environment. The agent is autonomous and decides his/her behavior by interacting with the neighbors or the external environment with the rules of behavior. Agents are irrational because they have only limited information when they make decisions. They adapt using learning from past memories. Agents have various attributes and are heterogeneous. ABM is a non-equilibrium complex system that exhibits various emergence phenomena. The social complexity ABM describes human behavioral characteristics. In ABMs of econophysics, we introduce the Sugarscape model and the artificial market models. We review minority games and majority games in ABMs of game theory. Social flow ABM introduces crowding, evacuation, traffic congestion, and pedestrian dynamics. We also review ABM for opinion dynamics and voter model. We discuss features and advantages and disadvantages of Netlogo, Repast, Swarm, and Mason, which are representative platforms for implementing ABM.

  1. CEST and PARACEST MR contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancu, Ileana; Dixon, W. Thomas; Woods, Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Vinogradov, Elena; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we describe the status of development for a new class of magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents, based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The mathematics and physics relevant to the description of the CEST effect in MR are presented in an appendix published in the online version only. We discuss the issues arising when translating in vitro results obtained with CEST agents to using these MR agents in in vivo model studies and in humans. Examples are given on how these agents are imaged in vivo. We summarize the status of development of these CEST agents, and speculate about the next steps that may be taken towards the demonstration of CEST MR imaging in clinical applications

  2. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  3. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  4. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  5. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  6. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  7. Study of Crossling Agent and Couplink Agent Synergism on Mechanical Properties of HDPE-Cu Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashuri; Sujud, A.A.; Karo Karo, Aloma

    2001-01-01

    The effects of crosslink agents, coupling agents and synergism on mechanical properties of HDPE-Cu composites materials has been investigated. The crosslink was made with dicumyl peroxide as crosslink agents of 2% concentration, so the interface adhesion of matrix-filler was made with 3-amino propyl triethoxysilane as coupling agents of 0.5% concentration. The results of research's showed, that the crosslink and interface adhesion of matrix-filler can increase tensile strength and elongation at break of HDPE-Cu composites. The synergism of two agents can increase tensile strength to 20% and elongation at break to 23% of HDPE-Cu composites materials

  8. Multi-Agent Systems for E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Solodukha, T. V.; Sosnovskiy, O. A.; Zhelezko, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS) and domains that can benefit from multi-agent technology. In the last few years, the agent based modeling (ABM) community has developed several practical agent based modeling toolkits that enable individuals to develop agent-based applications. The comparison of agent-based modeling toolkits is given. Multi-agent systems are designed to handle changing and dynamic business processes. Any organization with complex and distributed business pro...

  9. Traitement de l'hétérogénéité sémantique dans les interactions humain-agent et agent-agent

    OpenAIRE

    Mazuel , Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is the management of semantic heterogeneity in human-agent and agent-agent interaction. We especially focus on the situation where a software agent, supplied with a knowledge representation model, has to understand requests coming from different interlocutors; either it is a human user or another software agent.Most work in this domain either focus on human-agent interaction or agent-agent interaction. On the contrary, we suggest that it is possible to use a co...

  10. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  11. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  12. Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

    Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

  13. New antithrombotic agents in the ambulatory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Neville M; Weightman, William M; Watts, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Many patients presenting for surgical or other procedures in an ambulatory setting are taking new antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents. This review assesses how the novel features of these new agents affect the management of antithrombotic therapy in the ambulatory setting. There have been very few studies investigating the relative risks of continuing or ceasing new antithrombotic agents. Recent reviews indicate that the new antithrombotic agents offer greater efficacy or ease of administration but are more difficult to monitor or reverse. They emphasize the importance of assessing the bleeding risk of the procedure, the thrombotic risk if the agent is ceased, and patient factors that increase the likelihood of bleeding. The timing of cessation of the agent, if required, depends on its pharmacokinetics and patients' bleeding risks. Patients at high risk of thrombotic complications may require bridging therapy. Once agreed upon, the perioperative plan should be made clear to all involved. As there are few clinical studies to guide management, clinicians must make rational decisions in relation to continuing or ceasing new antithrombotic agents. This requires knowledge of their pharmacokinetics, and a careful multidisciplinary assessment of the relative thrombotic and bleeding risks in individual patients.

  14. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  15. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  16. Relay tracking control for second-order multi-agent systems with damaged agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijing; Li, Jing; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a situation where smart agents capable of sensory and mobility are deployed to monitor a designated area. A preset number of agents start tracking when a target intrudes this area. Some of the tracking agents are possible to be out of order over the tracking course. Thus, we propose a cooperative relay tracking strategy to ensure the successful tracking with existence of damaged agents. Relay means that, when a tracking agent quits tracking due to malfunction, one of the near deployed agents replaces it to continue the tracking task. This results in jump of tracking errors and dynamic switching of topology of the multi-agent system. Switched system technique is employed to solve this specific problem. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed tracking strategy and validity of the theoretical results are verified by conducting a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Agent and multi-Agent systems in distributed systems digital economy and e-commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology, in particular artificial intelligence, can be used to support economy and commerce using digital means. This book is about agents and multi-agent distributed systems applied to digital economy and e-commerce to meet, improve, and overcome challenges in the digital economy and e-commerce sphere. Agent and multi-agent solutions are applied in implementing real-life, exciting developments associated with the need to eliminate problems of distributed systems.   The book presents solutions for both technology and applications, illustrating the possible uses of agents in the enterprise domain, covering design and analytic methods, needed to provide a solid foundation required for practical systems. More specifically, the book provides solutions for the digital economy, e-sourcing clusters in network economy, and knowledge exchange between agents applicable to online trading agents, and security solutions to both digital economy and e-commerce. Furthermore, it offers soluti...

  18. Multi-Agent Pathfinding with n Agents on Graphs with n Vertices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho; Groner, Linus; Hoefler, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the multi-agent pathfinding (MAPF) problem with $n$ agents on graphs with $n$ vertices: Each agent has a unique start and goal vertex, with the objective of moving all agents in parallel movements to their goal s.t.~each vertex and each edge may only be used by one agent at a time....... We give a combinatorial classification of all graphs where this problem is solvable in general, including cases where the solvability depends on the initial agent placement. Furthermore, we present an algorithm solving the MAPF problem in our setting, requiring O(n²) rounds, or O(n³) moves...... of individual agents. Complementing these results, we show that there are graphs where Omega(n²) rounds and Omega(n³) moves are required for any algorithm....

  19. Genome-wide linkage analysis of bronchodilator responsiveness and post-bronchodilator spirometric phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, LJ; Celedon, JC; Chapman, HA; Speizer, FE; Weiss, ST; Silverman, EK

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disease associated with significant and increasing morbidity and mortality. The cardinal feature of COPD is persistent airflow obstruction, measured by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices including forced expiratory volume

  20. Mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Damia, G.; D‘Incalci, M.

    1998-01-01

    Alkylating agents are the most widely used anticancer drugs whose main target is the DNA, although how exactly the DNA lesions cause cell death is still not clear. The emergence of resistance to this class of drugs as well as to other antitumor agents is one of the major causes of failure of cancer treatment. This paper reviews some of the best characterized mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents. Pre- and post-target mechanisms are recognized, the former able to limit the formation of...

  1. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  2. Automatic Generation of Agents using Reusable Soft Computing Code Libraries to develop Multi Agent System for Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Priti Srinivas Sajja

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates architecture for a multi agent system in healthcare domain. The architecture is generic and designed in form of multiple layers. One of the layers of the architecture contains many proactive, co-operative and intelligent agents such as resource management agent, query agent, pattern detection agent and patient management agent. Another layer of the architecture is a collection of libraries to auto-generate code for agents using soft computing techni...

  3. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleski, V.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  4. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a "double-agent" approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T 2 -exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T 1 and T 2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as "secret agents" in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging.

  5. Modelling User Preferences and Mediating Agents in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.; Jacobs, N.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    An important ingredient in agent-mediated electronic commerce is the presence of intelligent mediating agents that assist electronic commerce participants (e.g. individual users, other agents, organisations). These mediating agents are in principle autonomous agents that interact with their

  6. Modeling User Preferences and Mediating Agents in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.; Jacobs, N.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Dignum, F.; Sierra, C.

    2001-01-01

    An important ingredient in agent-mediated Electronic Commerce is the presence of intelligent mediating agents that assist Electronic Commerce participants (e.g., individual users, other agents, organisations). These mediating agents are in principle autonomous agents that will interact with their

  7. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Globalization leads to an increase in intercultural encounters with a risk of misunderstandings due to different patterns of behavior and understanding. Learning applications have been proposed that employ virtual agents as their primary tool. Through their embodiment, learning can be done...... in a game-like environment in a more interesting way than for example learning with a textbook. The authors support the idea that virtual agents are a great opportunity for teaching cultural awareness. Realizing this, the concept of culture needs to be translated into computational models and the advantages...... of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...

  8. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  9. Veterans and agent orange: update 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Third Biennial Update), Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

    2001-01-01

    Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 examines the state of the scientific evidence regarding associations between diseases and exposure to dioxin and other chemical compounds in herbicides used in Vietnam...

  10. Ontology-based multi-agent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzic, Maja; Wongthongtham, Pornpit; Dillon, Tharam; Chang, Elizabeth [Digital Ecosystems and Business Intelligence Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The Semantic web has given a great deal of impetus to the development of ontologies and multi-agent systems. Several books have appeared which discuss the development of ontologies or of multi-agent systems separately on their own. The growing interaction between agents and ontologies has highlighted the need for integrated development of these. This book is unique in being the first to provide an integrated treatment of the modeling, design and implementation of such combined ontology/multi-agent systems. It provides clear exposition of this integrated modeling and design methodology. It further illustrates this with two detailed case studies in (a) the biomedical area and (b) the software engineering area. The book is, therefore, of interest to researchers, graduate students and practitioners in the semantic web and web science area. (orig.)

  11. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  12. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  13. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  14. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-05

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Agentes de software móviles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisman Martínez Barrera

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes móviles son programas de software inteligentes que realizan un objetivo que involucran desarrollos soportados en técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial, los cuales pretenden facilitar la interoperabilidad de sistemas. Este artículo define las disciplinas, plataformas y herramientas necesarias para el desarrollo de agentes móviles, sus características principales y las arquitecturas predominantes de éstas; presenta además una evaluación de sus perspectivas futuras.Mobile agents are intelligent software programs that can obtain an objective that involucrates developments supported in Artificial Intelligence techniques. These pretend to facilitate the interoperability of systems. This article defines disciplines, platforms and tools necessary for the development of mobile agents, their principal characteristics and the predominant architectures of these. A final evaluation and future perspectives are offered.

  16. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  17. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  18. Nominaliseeritud protsessi agent meediauudistes / Reet Kasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasik, Reet, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Ajalehe "Postimees" 2005. aasta materjalile toetudes vaadeldakse, mis tüüpi on nominalisatsioonides representeeritavad protsessid ja mis kujul on esitatud protsessi agent ehk tegija. Aluseks on võetud funktsionaalse grammatika põhimõtted.

  19. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S.; Jennings, N. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  20. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...... cancer cells for cancer diagnosis in MRI. F127-Folate coated SPION were stable in various types of suspension medium for over six months. They could specifically target folate receptor of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo thus enhancing the contrast in MRI T2/T2* weighted images. These are preliminary...

  1. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  2. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  3. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  4. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  5. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  6. Spions as nano-theranostics agents

    CERN Document Server

    Zarepour, Atefeh; Khosravi, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs), the different synthesis approaches, their applications in the field of diagnostics and treatment and finally as theranostic agents in cancer.

  7. inventory management, VMI, software agents, MDV model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wieczerzycki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As it is well know, the implementation of instruments of logistics management is only possible with the use of the latest information technology. So-called agent technology is one of the most promising solutions in this area. Its essence consists in an entirely new way of software distribution on the computer network platform, in which computer exchange among themselves not only data, but also software modules, called just agents. The first aim is to propose the alternative method of the implementation of the concept of the inventory management by the supplier with the use of intelligent software agents, which are able not only to transfer the information but also to make the autonomous decisions based on the privileges given to them. The second aim of this research was to propose a new model of a software agent, which will be both of a high mobility and a high intelligence. Methods: After a brief discussion of the nature of agent technology, the most important benefits of using it to build platforms to support business are given. Then the original model of polymorphic software agent, called Multi-Dimensionally Versioned Software Agent (MDV is presented, which is oriented on the specificity of IT applications in business. MDV agent is polymorphic, which allows the transmission through the network only the most relevant parts of its code, and only when necessary. Consequently, the network nodes exchange small amounts of software code, which ensures high mobility of software agents, and thus highly efficient operation of IT platforms built on the proposed model. Next, the adaptation of MDV software agents to implementation of well-known logistics management instrument - VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory is illustrated. Results: The key benefits of this approach are identified, among which one can distinguish: reduced costs, higher flexibility and efficiency, new functionality - especially addressed to business negotiation, full automation

  8. Agent-Based Computing: Promise and Perils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Agent-based computing represents an exciting new synthesis both for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more genrally, Computer Science. It has the potential to significantly improve the theory and practice of modelling, designing and implementing complex systems. Yet, to date, there has been little systematic analysis of what makes an agent such an appealing and powerful conceptual model. Moreover, even less effort has been devoted to exploring the inherent disadvantages that stem from adoptin...

  9. Institutions, Behavior of Agents and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the efficiency criterion, describing the behavior and choices of agents, the influence of moral norms on the model of behavior, as well as the criterion of efficiency as an institution to assess the behavior and development of the economic system. Curve proposed institutional compromise that allows to determine the possibility of changes in the welfare of interacting agents and their compliance with ethical standards when welfare increases due to violation or compliance with these standards. For the purposes of this demonstration of the influence of the model of chart-based dilemmas Holmes-Moriarty. Incentives in determining the agents behaviors play a key role in their formation due to the moral principles of behavior. However, in economics there are situations when moral principles are derived certain behaviors or interactions agents. Holmes and Moriarty there is an alternative interaction, which they can not take advantage of, and there is a full range of alternatives that actually programs the strategic outcomes of interactions that reflect the curves of "institutional compromise." Choosing an agent of moral standards as a potential model determines its behavior and, most importantly, interaction with other agents, adhering to certain moral principles. Assess the condition and the possibility of using a static criterion of Pareto efficiency for the analysis of situations where it is important to measure the economic efficiency. Showing institutional aspects that must be considered in the application or formulation of new performance criteria. It is proved that there is a connection microeconomic efficiency / inefficiency and parameters of behavior of agents that actualizes the need to impact on the behavior of agents incentives to solve the task of changing the structure.

  10. Maintaining the Identify of Dynamically Embodied Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...

  11. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  12. Quality of service agents in the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Schelén, Olov

    1998-01-01

    The Internet is a multi-purpose communication network supporting users and applications with different service demands. To meet these demands, mechanisms for service differentiation in the network are proposed. This thesis presents an admission control architecture where clients can make resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network there is an agent responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable resource reservations for virtual leased lines. Res...

  13. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.

    2013-01-01

    define a proper notion of bisimulation, and prove that bisimulation corresponds to logical equivalence on image-finite models. We relate our results to other epistemic notions, such as safe belief and degrees of belief. Our results imply that there are only finitely many non-bisimilar single......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  14. Non-toxic brominated perfluorocarbons radiopaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Non-toxic bromofluorocarbon radiopaque agents are disclosed. Certain monobrominated acyclic fluorocarbons, e.g., CF 3 (CF 2 ) 6 CF 2 Br, are improved non-toxic radiopaque agents useful in diagnostic roentgenology, for example in visualizing the gastrointestinal tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the alveolar spaces or parenchyma of the lung, the spleen, the urinary bladder and ureters, the common bile duct and its radicals, the pancreatic ducts, the blood vessels, etc. 13 claims, no drawings

  15. Antimicrobial Agents Used in Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina George Kudiyirickal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation alone does not completely eradicate microorganisms from the root canal, hence the next logical step is to perform root canal procedures in conjunction with antimicrobials. The use of an antimicrobial agent improves the efficacy and prognosis of endodontic treatment. This review enumerates the most widely used antimicrobial agents, their mechanism of action and their potential use in reducing the microbial load.

  16. Contrast agent incompatibility with intravascular medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, H.D.; Burbridge, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo precipitation of iodinated contrast agents with commonly used medications have been reported. The intent of this in vitro study is to verify these reports and investigate other medications not previously tested. Contrast agents and medications were analyzed with a light spectrometer and observed for visible precipitates for up to 120 minutes. Previously reported incompatibilities were verified, and several new incompatibilities were discovered

  17. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  18. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  19. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  20. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  1. Transfection Agent Induced Nanoparticle Cell Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Montet-Abou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Loading cells with magnetic nanoparticles, and tracking their fate in vivo by high resolution MRI, is an attractive approach for enhancing the efficacy of cell-based therapies including those utilizing hematopoietic stem cells, neuroprogenitor cells, and T cells. The transfection agent (internalization agent assisted loading with the Feridex IV® nanoparticle is an attractive method of loading because of the low cost of materials, and possible low regulatory barriers for eventual clinical use. We therefore explored the interaction between Feridex IV® and three internalization agents protamine (PRO, polylysine (PLL, and lipofectamine (LFA. Feridex reacted with internalization agents to form aggregates, except when either the internalization agent or Feridex was present in large excess. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with Feridex/LFA or Feridex/PRO mixtures, and washed by centrifugation, nanoparticle aggregates co-purified with cells. With C17.2 cells large iron oxide particles adhered to the cell surface. At 30 μg/mL Feridex and 3 μg/mL LFA, internalization was largely mediated by LFA and was largely cytoplasmic. However, we found that the conditions used to label cells with Feridex and transfection agents need to be carefully selected to avoid the problems of surface adsorption and nanoparticle precipitation.

  2. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  3. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  4. Reaching High Interactive Levels with Situated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Obando J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta un proceso coordinado a través del cual los agentes situados son capaces de trabajar en forma conjunta con el conocimiento de sus habilidades para interactuar con otras entidades similares. Una buena coordinación se deriva de que cada agente situado es capaz de representar sus tasas de idoneidad para llevar a cabo cualquier acción de una manera eficaz. Además de utilizar dichas tasas, un agente puede coordinar sus acciones con otros agentes. En este sentido, cada agente situado trata de seleccionar y realizar sólo las acciones con los mayores índices de ejecución. Algunos experimentos en un verdadero fútbol robótico banco de pruebas están diseñadas para poner en práctica el enfoque coordinado propuesto. Observaciones finales concluir la eficacia y las ventajas de la obra presentada con el fin de aumentar el rendimiento de un equipo integrado por agentes situados cuando tienen que resolver tareas complejas en un escenario dinámico, competitivo e impredecible.

  5. Unibot, a Universal Agent Architecture for Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Mladenović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today there are numerous robots in different applications domains despite the fact that they still have limitations in perception, actuation and decision process. Consequently, robots usually have limited autonomy, they are domain specific or have difficulty to adapt on new environments. Learning is the property that makes an agent intelligent and the crucial property that a robot should have to proliferate into the human society. Embedding the learning ability into the robot may simplify the development of the robot control mechanism. The motivation for this research is to develop the agent architecture of the universal robot – Unibot. In our approach the agent is the robot i.e. Unibot that acts in the physical world and is capable of learning. The Unibot conducts several simultaneous simulations of a problem of interest like path-finding. The novelty in our approach is the Multi-Agent Decision Support System which is developed and integrated into the Unibot agent architecture in order to execute simultaneous simulations. Furthermore, the Unibot calculates and evaluates between multiple solutions, decides which action should be performed and performs the action. The prototype of the Unibot agent architecture is described and evaluated in the experiment supported by the Lego Mindstorms robot and the NetLogo.

  6. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  7. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  8. [Community health agents: profile and education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Junges, José Roque; Selli, Lucilda

    2011-01-01

    This research discusses the profile and education of the community health agents. There is no clarity about the kind of professional needed and the appropriate training to the fulfillment of the function. The research is a case study with exploratory methodology and qualitative approach. The data was collected with a focused group, formed by ten agents, intentional selected from those with more time in service in Family Health Strategy teams from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. The discussions were recorded and transcribed by the researcher. The data was interpreted by content analysis. The results pointed to some important questions concerning the identity of the community health agents: integration on the health team, insertion in the community, profile and education. The profile which emerges from the research, is not different from the one proposed by the Ministry of Health. However, the difference is the professionalization, an initiative assumed by the agent, guided by reality, which he faces in his activity. The gaps, perceived in his formation, cause the agent to construct his professional identity, determined more by the technical aspect of the scientific knowledge than by his social competence as a community agent.

  9. Optimization of extinguishing agents for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boleman, M.; Lipar, M.; Balog, K.

    1998-01-01

    Focus is placed on use of extinguishing agents in nuclear power plants. The advantages and disadvantages of these agents are compared. Further perspectives for using particular extinguishing agents in nuclear power plants are outlined. (author)

  10. Newer agents for the management of overactive bladder | Epstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newer agents for the management of overactive bladder. ... that these newer agents decrease the frequency of incontinence episodes, the number ... for selection of an appropriate agent based on individual factors such as cost and tolerability.

  11. A Novel Security Approach in Mobile Agent Using Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Gupta; Dr. Anurag Dixit

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of software agents has given rise too much discussion of what such an agent is and how it differs from programs in general. An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors & acting upon that environment through actuators. The existing systems can be classified in the context of singleagent systems and multi-agent systems. Mobile agents cantransport themselves from one host to another. Mobile agents have been developed as an extension to and...

  12. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  13. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  14. 2015 Special Sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Josefa; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo; Jiménez-López, María; Botti, Vicente; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Sustainability : the PAAMS Collection

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2015 special sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at 3rd-5th June, 2015: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Agent-based Modeling of Sustainable Behavior and Green Economies (AMSBGE); Emotional Software Agents (SSESA) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES). The volume also includes the paper accepted for the Doctoral Consortium in PAAMS 2015. PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest develo...

  15. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  16. Liposomes as carriers of imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caride, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses the utilization of liposomes as imaging agents or as vehicles for contrast materials. The initial approach was the use of radiolabeled liposomes for scintigraphy. To this end liposomes were either labeled in the lipid membrane or aqueous radiotracers were incorporated inside the lipid vesicles. The lipid labeling provides a more stable association of the radioactive tracer and the lipid vesicles, while the use of water-soluble radiotracers provides a wider selection of compounds. Early attempts at selective tumor imaging using radiolabeled liposomes were unsuccessful. The use of monoclonal antibodies attached to liposomes offers new hopes. Several strategies have been proposed in this respect and several others can be envisioned. The use of liposomes permits the use of several administration routes for imaging agents. Of particular interest is the subcutaneous administration for lymph node visualization. Liposomes offer clear advantages over most radiocontrast agents for prolonged hepatosplenic contrast enhancement. This is particularly relevant in the diagnostic evaluation of the abdomen with computed tomography. Important research efforts are being conducted in this area. Two different approaches have been advanced: the incorporation of contrast agents into liposomes and the preparation of radiopaque liposomes from radiodense lipids. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging can also benefit from contrast agents. Several centers are investigating this exciting field using liposomes loaded with paramagnetic elements.152 references

  17. Constructing Agent Model for Virtual Training Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Sugimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Toru

    Constructing highly realistic agents is essential if agents are to be employed in virtual training systems. In training for collaboration based on face-to-face interaction, the generation of emotional expressions is one key. In training for guidance based on one-to-many interaction such as direction giving for evacuations, emotional expressions must be supplemented by diverse agent behaviors to make the training realistic. To reproduce diverse behavior, we characterize agents by using a various combinations of operation rules instantiated by the user operating the agent. To accomplish this goal, we introduce a user modeling method based on participatory simulations. These simulations enable us to acquire information observed by each user in the simulation and the operating history. Using these data and the domain knowledge including known operation rules, we can generate an explanation for each behavior. Moreover, the application of hypothetical reasoning, which offers consistent selection of hypotheses, to the generation of explanations allows us to use otherwise incompatible operation rules as domain knowledge. In order to validate the proposed modeling method, we apply it to the acquisition of an evacuee's model in a fire-drill experiment. We successfully acquire a subject's model corresponding to the results of an interview with the subject.

  18. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-rays and an iodine containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic x-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the x-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation x-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contains a contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth

  19. Use of contrast agents for liver MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is recognised as one of the most accurate imaging methods for investigating diseases of the liver. Uniquely several different types of contrast agents are available for liver MRI. They can be divided into non-specific extracellular fluid space (ECF), hepatocyte specific and reticulo-endothelial system (RES) specific agents. They are used to improve the detection of focal liver lesions by increasing normal-abnormal tissue contrast and to assist in lesion characterisation by demonstrating tissue perfusion and cellular function. ECF-gadolinium (Gd) chelates have been widely used in abdominal MRI for many years. They provide valuable information regarding the vascularisation and perfusion characteristics of lesions and assist in lesion detection, particularly of hypervascular lesions. The hepatocyte and RES-specific agents further improve lesion detection, provide important functional information and allow the distinction between hepatocellular and non-hepatocellular tumours. This article describes the different MR contrast agents and discusses their current status for diagnosing focal liver lesions. The importance of optimised technique and appropriate selection of contrast agent is emphasised

  20. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  1. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  2. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Davide Paparo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  3. ECONOMÍA COMPUTACIONAL BASADA EN AGENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIÁN ANDRÉS GIRALDO GIRALDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo mostrarvarios trabajos de investigación sobre un enfoque desimulación denominado Economía computacional basadaen agentes, el cual rechaza las asunciones delos enfoques de estudio tradicionales que indican quela economía es un sistema cerrado que eventualmentelogra un estado de equilibrio, en el que deben realizarsesupuestos de racionalidad perfecta e inversioneshomogéneas para que los modelos sean tratadosanalíticamente. En su lugar, ve a la economía comoun sistema complejo, adaptativo y dinámico. Estenuevo enfoque permite usar la simulación basada enagentes para comprender que varios agentes económicos(firmas, grupos económicos con sus propiasreglas y objetivos, son capaces de interactuar entresí y con su entorno para obtener comportamientosemergentes que no son explicables directamente delas propiedades de los agentes individuales.

  4. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  5. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor DUQUE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  6. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo ISAZA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  7. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  8. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, β-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  9. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  10. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  11. Using Mobile Agents to Implement Workflow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIU Xian-xing; GUO Zheng-wei

    2004-01-01

    Current workflow management systems usually adopt the existing technologies such as TCP/IP-based Web technologies and CORBA as well to fulfill the bottom communications.Very often it has been considered only from a theoretical point of view, mainly for the lack of concrete possibilities to execute with elasticity.MAT (Mobile Agent Technology) represents a very attractive approach to the distributed control of computer networks and a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for workflow system.This paper mainly focuses on improving the performance of workflow system by using MAT.Firstly, the performances of workflow systems based on both CORBA and mobile agent are summarized and analyzed; Secondly, the performance contrast is presented by introducing the mathematic model of each kind of data interaction process respectively.Last, a mobile agent-based workflow system named MAWMS is presented and described in detail.

  12. Chromosome analyses of nurses handling cytostatic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksvik, H.; Klepp, O.; Brogger, A.

    1981-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of ten nurses handling cytostatic agents (average exposure, 2150 hours) and ten female hospital clerks revealed an increased frequency of chromosome gaps and a slight increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency among the nurses. The increase may be due to exposure to cytostatic drugs and points to these agents as a possible occupational health hazard. A second group of 11 nurses handling cytostatic agents for a shorter period of time (average exposure, 1078 hours), and three other groups (eight nurses engaged in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology, nine nurses engaged in anesthesiology, and seven nurses in postoperative ward) did not differ from the office personnel, except for an increased frequency of chromosome gaps in the radiology group

  13. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  14. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  15. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2003-01-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed

  16. Non-radiological contrast agents (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.; Lautrou, J.; Meyer, D.; Doucet, D.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years, extensive research has been carried out in an attempt to develop contrast agents that could help improve both the performance (acquisition times) and the diagnostic efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques. On the basis of physicochemical and pharmacological criteria discussed in this presentation, a few efficacious, well-tolerated compounds could be developed. Two of them, the gadolinium complexes Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA, are currently being tried in man. This first generation of contrast agents, which are aspecific markers of the intravascular space, has been shown to have good diagnostic potential in conventional MRI procedures. The diagnostic contribution of these contrast agents will probably be a most essential factor in new MRI techniques using low field strengh or fast imaging sequences [fr

  17. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  18. Nondestructive Intervention to Multi-Agent Systems through an Intelligent Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called ‘shill’, which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior. PMID:23658695

  19. Agent-based land markets: Heterogeneous agents, land proces and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn C.; van der Veen, A.; Amblard, F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a spatially explicit agent-based model of a bilateral land market. Heterogeneous agents form their bid and ask prices for land based on the utility that they obtain from a certain location (houte/land) and base on the state of the market (an excess of demand or supply). We underline the

  20. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games...

  1. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there has recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system, thereby allowing the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. We have d...

  2. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    Full Text Available For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents. However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  3. The agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction: my two sense(s) | Lerm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Careful analysis of various metaethics supports that there are these two senses – analysis, in particular, of a neo-Kantian metaethic, according to which reasons are agent-relative in the dependence sense but agent-neutral in the homogeneous sense, and – perhaps surprisingly – of Utilitarianism, according to which ...

  4. 31 CFR 10.4 - Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Enrollment as an enrolled agent upon examination. The Director of the Office of Professional Responsibility may grant enrollment as an enrolled agent to an applicant who demonstrates special competence in tax... the Office of Professional Responsibility and who has not engaged in any conduct that would justify...

  5. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. (orig./HSI)

  6. 10th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The modern economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, often intruding on the space of other industries, by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating values for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modelling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature inspired manufacturing, etc. that contribute to the modern Digital Economy. This volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent, new digital and knowledge economy research and includes 28 papers classified in the following specific topics: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, anthropic-oriented computing, learning paradigms, business informatics and gaming, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published papers were selected for presentatio...

  7. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  8. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Schwierking

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual luminescence observation under sample illumination by an ordinary hand-held ultraviolet lamp.

  9. Organic Colouring Agents in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuleková M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

  10. Limit values for exposure to physical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The limit values for exposure to thermal environments adopted by the French AFNOR and by the ISO Working Group (AFNOR Standard X 35-201 and ISO Standard 7243, and AFNOR Standard X 35-204). The limit values for exposure to other physical agents established by the American ACGIH for 1982. The following agents are covered: - laser radiation (ocular and skin exposure); - ultraviolet radiation; - visible and near-infrared radiation (retinal thermal and photochemical injury); - airborne and upper sonic and ultrasonic acoustic radiation; - radiofrequency radiation [fr

  11. Quitina y carboximetilquitosana como agentes desintegrantes

    OpenAIRE

    Sol A Fernández Monagas; María D Rodríguez Albadalejo; Ofelia Bilbao Revoredo; Olga M Nieto Acosta

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la quitina y la carboximetilquitosana como agentes desintegrantes, y se evaluó la influencia ejercida por el método empleado en la elaboración de las tabletas sobre la actividad desintegrante de ambos polímeros. La quitina presentó buenas características como agente desintegrante independientemente del método utilizado en la elaboración de las tabletas, mientras que la actividad desintegrante de la carboximetilquitosana fue afectada por el proceso de granu...

  12. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  13. Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e os sentidos de "ser agente" Community Health Agents and the meanings of "being an agent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Milan Pupin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família constitui-se enquanto estratégia de mudança do modelo assistencial. O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa sobre os sentidos de "ser agente" produzidos, por meio de entrevistas abertas, com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde que trabalham nos cinco Núcleos de Saúde da Família da cidade de Ribeirão Preto - São Paulo, vinculados à Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra e analisadas segundo princípios da análise de conteúdo. A análise permitiu a descrição de sentidos acerca de ser agente subdivididos em: Sentidos produzidos na relação com a comunidade e Sentidos produzidos na relação com a equipe. A análise dos sentidos de ser agente possibilitou construir um diálogo sobre as tensões relacionadas a um fazer em saúde ora permeado por concepções atreladas ao modelo biomédico, ora atrelado aos novos paradigmas em saúde.The Family Health Program consists of a strategy to change the health care model. This article presents the results from a qualitative study about the meanings of "being an agent" obtained through open interviews with Community Health Agents who work in five Family Health Centers of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (University of São Paulo, located in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Interviews were tape recorded, fully transcribed, and then content analyzed. The analysis allowed for descriptions of meanings toward "being an agent", subdivided into: Meanings produced by relationships with the community, and Meanings produced by relationships with the team. Analyzing the meanings of being an agent provided the establishment of a dialogue about the tensions related to a health practice that is at times influenced by conceptions associated with the biomedical method, and at other times with the new health paradigm.

  14. AGENTES DE SOFTWARE MÓVILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisman Martínez Barrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes móviles son programas de software inteligentes que realizan un objetivo que involucran desarrollos soportados en técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial, los cuales pretenden facilitar la interoperabilidad de sistemas. Este artículo define las disciplinas, plataformas y herramientas necesarias para el desarrollo de agentes móviles, sus características principales y las arquitecturas predominantes de éstas; presenta además una evaluación de sus perspectivas futuras.

  15. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  16. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63 Ni, 109 Cd, 203 Hg, 144 Ce, 95 Nb and the excretion of 210 Po, 63 Ni, 48 V, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 54 Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  17. Novel anti-inflammatory agents in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukides, Stelios; Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD related inflammation is less responsive to inhaled steroids compared to asthma. There are three major novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of COPD. The first approach is phosphodiesterase...... on these strategies exist at the moment. A third potential approach involves novel agents whose mechanism of action is closely related to COPD mechanisms and pathophysiology. Such novel treatments are of great interest since they may treat both COPD and co-morbidities. Several novel agents are currently under...

  18. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  19. Multi-Agent System for Recruiting Patients for Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Managing Agent: The Trial Managing Agent has been implemented in Java , with support from a MySQL back-end database. This is used to conveniently exchange...these principles via simulation. • Recruitment Agent: The Recruitment Agent has been imple- mented in Java and has been used by 124 GPs so far

  20. Do you get it? User-evaluated explainable BDI agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Hindriks, K.; Bosch, K. van den; Jonker, C.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on explaining to humans the behavior of autonomous agents, i.e., explainable agents. Explainable agents are useful for many reasons including scenario-based training (e.g. disaster training), tutor and pedagogical systems, agent development and debugging, gaming, and

  1. Multi-agent Cooperation in a Planning Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    The promise of multi-agent systems is that multiple agents can solve problems more efficiently than single agents can. In this paper we propose a method to implement cooperation between agents in the planning phase, in order to achive more cost-effective solutions than without cooperation. Two

  2. The design of interacting agents for use in interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connah, D.M.; Brouwer-Janse, M.D.; Harrington, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper situated agents are contrasted with agents which rely on a planning-based model of action. It is suggested that situated agents are particularly appropriate for skill-based tasks and that skill forms the basis of many important applications. The impact of situated agents on

  3. Bacterial agents and sensitivity pattern of neonatal conjuctivitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Africa alone, between 1000 – 4000 children are blinded annually by conjunctivitis. In view of the changing aetiological agents documented in other parts of the world and evolving resistance of infective agents to therapeutic agents, the present study was designed to define the bacterial agents, their antibiotic ...

  4. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  5. Java-based mobile agent platforms for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, F.; Carbone, A.; Fortino, G.; Galzarano, S.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and comparison of mobile agent platforms for the development of wireless sensor network applications. In particular, the architecture, programming model and basic performance of two Java-based agent platforms, Mobile Agent Platform for Sun SPOT (MAPS) and Agent

  6. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  7. Applications of Multi-Agent Technology to Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takeshi

    Currently, agents are focus of intense on many sub-fields of computer science and artificial intelligence. Agents are being used in an increasingly wide variety of applications. Many important computing applications such as planning, process control, communication networks and concurrent systems will benefit from using multi-agent system approach. A multi-agent system is a structure given by an environment together with a set of artificial agents capable to act on this environment. Multi-agent models are oriented towards interactions, collaborative phenomena, and autonomy. This article presents the applications of multi-agent technology to the power systems.

  8. Security Framework for Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venkateshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agent can play a key role in bringing suitable cloud services to the customer based on their requirements. In agent based cloud computing, agent does negotiation, coordination, cooperation and collaboration on behalf of the customer to make the decisions in efficient manner. However the agent based cloud computing have some security issues like (a. addition of malicious agent in the cloud environment which could demolish the process by attacking other agents, (b. denial of service by creating flooding attacks on other involved agents. (c. Some of the exceptions in the agent interaction protocol such as Not-Understood and Cancel_Meta protocol can be misused and may lead to terminating the connection of all the other agents participating in the negotiating services. Also, this paper proposes algorithms to solve these issues to ensure that there will be no intervention of any malicious activities during the agent interaction.

  9. Semiotics, Multi-Agent Systems and Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.; Jorna, René J.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are promising as models of organization because they are based on the idea that most work in human organizations is done based on intelligence, communication, cooperation, and massive parallel processing. They offer an alternative for system theories of organization, which are

  10. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  11. Dialogues for Embodied Agents in Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Christodoulakis, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on our research, design, and implementation of a virtual reality environment where users (visitors, customers) can interact with agents that help them to obtain information, to perform certain transactions and to collaborate with them in order to get some tasks done.

  12. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  13. Learning in engineered multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anup

    Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power---as is the case in present-day wind farms---does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to maximize farm-level power capture. Motivated by such problems, the main focus of this dissertation is a distributed model-free optimization problem in the context of multi-agent systems. The set-up comprises of a fixed number of agents, each of which can pick an action and observe the value of its individual utility function. An individual's utility function may depend on the collective action taken by all agents. The exact functional form (or model) of the agent utility functions, however, are unknown; an agent can only measure the numeric value of its utility. The objective of the multi-agent system is to optimize the welfare function (i.e. sum of the individual utility functions). Such a collaborative task requires communications between agents and we allow for the possibility of such inter-agent communications. We also pay attention to the role played by the pattern of such information exchange on certain aspects of performance. We develop two algorithms to solve this problem. The first one, engineered Interactive Trial and Error Learning (eITEL) algorithm, is based on a line of work in the Learning in Games literature and applies when agent actions are drawn from finite sets. While in a model-free setting, we introduce a novel qualitative graph-theoretic framework to encode known directed interactions of the form "which agents' action affect which others' payoff" (interaction graph). We encode explicit inter-agent communications in a directed

  14. Intelligent Tutoring Agent for Settlers of Catan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Jeroen; van den Broek, Egon; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this

  15. Pharmacological stress agents in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However there are a group of patients who may not be able to undergo treadmill tests. Patients with underlying conditions like neuromuscular disease, musculoskeletal disorder, heart failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis would find it difficult to perform exercise on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. These conditions prevent them from performing adequate exercise. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. Nuclear medicine departments use various pharmacological agents while performing stress tests on cardiac patients. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilators and catecholamines. In addition to these agents, adjuvant use of nitrates and atropine is also a common practice in nuclear cardiology. This review addresses various physiological and pharmacological properties of the commonly used pharmacological stress agents in MPS and critically analyses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their safety and efficacy. (author)

  16. Prospect Theory in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polach, J.; Kukačka, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 1860-711X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Heterogeneous Agent Model * Prospect Theory * Behavioral finance * Stylized facts Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.931, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/kukacka-0488438.pdf

  17. Agent-based simulation in entrepreneurship research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.-J.S.; Chandra, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) has wide applications in natural and social sciences yet it has not been widely applied in entrepreneurship research. We discuss the nature of ABM, its position among conventional methodologies and then offer a roadmap for developing, testing and extending theories of

  18. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  19. Contrasts agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, P.A.; Fernandez, J.P.; Milhavet, J.C.; Chapat, J.P.; Almes, C.; Bruel, J.M.; Rouanet, J.P.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Changing different parameters involved in imaging procedures, paramagnetic substances provide contrast enhancement in MRI. Contrast agents presently studied in animals and clinical trials, are either salts or complexes of mineral ions either nitroxide stable free radicals. Their development should extend the possibilities of tissular characterization and fonctional or metabolic evaluation of the MRI [fr

  20. Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V.cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse