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Sample records for bronchoalveolar lavage fluids

  1. Storage alters feline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Laura A; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R

    2011-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collection is a valuable respiratory diagnostic procedure in cats. This study evaluated effects of BALF storage on total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential cell counts (DCC), cell morphology, and cytological diagnosis. Forty-five research cats with neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and mixed inflammation, and healthy controls were enrolled. BALF samples were processed within 1h (baseline) or stored at 4°C (4C24) or room temperature (RT24) for 24h, or 4°C (4C48) or room temperature (RT48) for 48h before processing. Stored BALF at RT48 had decreased TNCC compared to baseline. The RT24 and RT48 samples had greater eosinophil % and the RT24, 4C48, and RT48 samples had decreased neutrophil % compared with baseline. Cellular morphology deteriorated in all stored samples. Storage resulted in a change in cytological diagnosis in up to 57% of stored samples. We conclude that cytological analysis of BALF in cats should be performed promptly for optimal results.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  3. Nonfibrous mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from blast-furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Delavignette, J P; Baharloo, F; Radermecker, M; Hereng, P; Fransolet, A M; Weber, G; Roelandts, I

    1995-01-01

    Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method and electron microscopy, respectively. Forty-seven blast-furnace workers and 45 healthy white-collar workers volunteered for this study. Significantly increased levels of iron, titanium, zinc, and bromine were found in the steelworkers, and levels of lead, chromium, arsenic, and strontium tended to increase in the macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the steelworkers. Nonfibrous particles, including illite, kaolinite, talc, chlorite, amorphous silica, quartz, iron (compounds), and titanium hydroxide, were found in both groups, but the particle number per ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (particularly iron hydroxides and silicates) was more pronounced in blast-furnace workers. These elements and particles may act synergistically with other occupational carcinogens and cigarette smoke, the result of which may be an increased incidence of lung cancer in the ironsteel industry.

  4. Changes of cell factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats exposed to silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods Experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and three experimental groups(doses of dust:15,30,and 60mg/ml),with 42 rats in each group.Each rat in the control group was treated with 1 ml of normal saline by intratracheal instillation,while each rat in the experimental groups was exposed to 1

  5. Cytological analysis of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Part 1: Comparison of sequential and pooled aliquots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, K; Pirie, R S; Rhind, S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether initial equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) aliquots were more representative of bronchial cytology that bronchiolar and alveolar cytology. Cell viability and total nucleated (TCC), differential (DCC) and absolute cell counts of cytocentrifuged preparations of 3 sequentially collected BALF aliquots (Aliquots 1-3) were compared with those of pooled BALF (Aliquot 4) to assess whether all aliquots were representative of the lavaged lung segment. BALF samples (n = 21) were collected from control horses (n = 5) or heaves-affected horses (n = 5). There were nonsignificant trends of increasing TCC and absolute macrophage count from Aliquot 1 to Aliquot 3 and significant differences in macrophage (Paliquots of all horses; however, no linear trend in this DCC data was observed. There was a significant decrease in mast cell DCC (PAliquot 1 to Aliquot 3 in control horses. Cell viability did not differ significantly among aliquots. There was no diagnostically significant difference in TCC, DCC, absolute cell counts or cell viability, among sequential and pooled BALF aliquots and, therefore, all aliquots can be considered to represent the cytology of the lavaged lung segment. This indicates that even if BALF recoveries are very low, cytological analysis of samples will be of diagnostic value.

  6. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin;

    1998-01-01

    other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium......In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  7. High levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennesen, P.; Veerman, E.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van; Jacobs, J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Keijbus, P. van den; Ramsay, G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with those in non-infectious controls, i.e., ventilated ICU patients without VAP, and nonventilated patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in

  8. Endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis: interchangeable diagnostic modalities in suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Johannes B J; van Dessel, Helke A; Linssen, Catharina F M; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J; van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-10-01

    Authoritative guidelines state that the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be established using either endotracheal aspirate (ETA) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, thereby suggesting that their results are considered to be in accordance. Therefore, the results of ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from a paired ETA-BALF analysis. Different thresholds for the positivity of ETAs were assessed. This was a prospective study of all patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected VAP in a 27-bed university intensive care unit during an 8-year period. VAP was diagnosed when ≥ 2% of the BALF cells contained intracellular organisms and/or when BALF quantitative culture revealed ≥ 10(4) CFU/ml of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from paired BALF analysis by Cohen's kappa coefficients. VAP was suspected in 311 patients and diagnosed in 122 (39%) patients. In 288 (93%) patients, the results from the ETA analysis were available for comparison. Depending on the threshold used and the diagnostic modality, VAP incidences varied from 15% to 68%. For the diagnosis of VAP, the most accurate threshold for positivity of ETA semiquantitative cultures was moderate or heavy growth, whereas the optimal threshold for BALF Gram staining was ≥ 1 microorganisms per high power field. The Cohen's kappa coefficients were 0.22, 0.31, and 0.60 for ETA and paired BALF Gram stains, cultures, and BALF Gram stains, respectively. Since the ETA and BALF Gram stains and cultures agreed only fairly, they are probably not interchangeable for diagnosing VAP.

  9. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

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    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  10. Cellular changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in hyperoxia-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbiao HE; Wei ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that high concentration oxy-gen exposure is a model of acute lung injury (ALI). However, controversy exists over the mechanism. This study was designed to clarify the cellular characteristics in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and body weight loss of rats exposed to oxygen(>90%). Young male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into three groups: (1) room air group (exposed to room air, n=22); (2) hyperoxia < 48 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for less than 48 h, n=18); (3) hyperoxia 66-72 h group (exposed to over 90% oxygen for 66-72 h group, n=7). Compared to the room air group, the total cell counts in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group decreased, whereas the neu-trophils increased significantly. The body weights of the rats exposed to room air continued to increase. However, the body weights of oxygen-exposed rats increased slightly on the first day and weight loss was seen from the second day. All rats were noted to have bilateral pleural effusion in the hyperoxia 66-72 h group. The data suggests that (1) an increase in neutrophil count is an evident feature of hyperoxia-induced lung injury; (2) high concentration oxygen exposure can give rise to anorexia and malnutri-tion, which may play a role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Blocking neutrophil influx into lung tissue in the early phase and improving malnutrition are two effective methods to reduce hyperoxic lung injury.

  11. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  12. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin; Deng, Anmei

    2015-03-01

    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof.

  13. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

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    Maciej Ciebiada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05 and LTB4 (p < 0.05 in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively. Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy.

  14. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

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    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  15. Alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during ischemia-induced acute hepatic failure in the pig.

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    Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Routsi, Christina; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Lekka, Marilena E; Kitsiouli, Eirini; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Nakos, George

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this controlled experimental animal study was to evaluate whether acute hepatic failure (AHF) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and to investigate possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. Seventeen domestic pigs were randomly assigned to AHF and sham groups. AHF was induced by surgical devascularization of liver in 10 animals. Seven animals were sham operated. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, extravascular lung water (EVLW), and intracranial pressure, blood gas, liver function tests, and serum endotoxin levels were measured. Cells count, total protein, and phospholipids and phospholipases A(2) were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Measurements were obtained after the insertion of central lines and 4 hours and 7 hours after the completion of the surgical procedure. Hemodynamic, biochemical, neuromonitoring, and histologic data confirmed the development of liver failure. Seven hours after devascularization, EVLW was higher in AHF (13.7 +/- 1.8 mL/kg) compared with the sham group (5.9 +/- 0.7 mL/kg) (P <.05); in AHF, increase of neutrophils (5% +/- 8% to 25% +/- 8%, P <.001), total protein (6.2 +/- 3.7 to 11.2 +/- 6.5 microg/mL, P <.048), and phospholipase A(2) (1.43 +/- 0.56 to 2.38 +/- 1.38 nmoL/mL/h, P <.03) and decrease in PAF-acetylhydrolase (0.114 +/- 0.128 to 0.039 +/- 0.038 nmol/mL/h, P <.01) compared with baseline were observed; total phospholipids decreased in AHF and increased in the sham model. Histologic examination confirmed lesions compatible with acute lung injury. In conclusion, AHF due to hepatic devascularization induced acute lung injury, confirmed by the increase of inflammatory cells in the alveoli as well as by histologic findings. The decreased PAF-AcH and the increased phospholipase A(2) may play a significant role in the perpetuation of inflammation accompanied by surfactant disorders.

  16. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  17. Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure

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    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Dethloff, L.A.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce pulmonary edema and cause a translocation of blood compartment proteins into the lung's alveolar space compartment. Resulting pulmonary edema was hallmarked by /approximately/25-fold increases in three major blood compartment-derived HPLC protein fractions, two of which have been identified as albumin and immunoglobulin(s). Analysis of lavage fluid from rats exposed to 100 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 15 min, an exposure regimen which also produces pulmonary edema, indicated that the three blood compartment proteins in the lavage fluids were elevated 35- to 72-fold over controls 24 h after exposure. These results demonstrate that HPLC can be used to provide a highly sensitive method for detection and quantitation of pulmonary edema that can occur in acute lung injuries resulting from environmental insults.

  18. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  19. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

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    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  20. Quantification of matrix metalloprotease-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by selected reaction monitoring with microfluidics nano-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prely, Laurette M.; Paal, Krisztina; Hermans, Jos; van der Heide, Sicco; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative protein analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used to quantify matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9; similar to 90 kDa) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients having undergone lung transplantatio

  1. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  2. Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Paulo; Guimaraes, Fernando; Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Caroline; Maria Boldrini Leite, Lidiane; Cristina Senegaglia, Alexandra; Nishiyama, Anita; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56bright or dim) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis. PMID:28287491

  3. TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases and high-resolution computed tomography score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Szlubowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs, growth factors, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, are responsible for cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis, and also for the production and secretion of some components of the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate correlations in DPLDs between TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT score. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 31 DPLD patients in whom a selection of lung segments with high and low intensity of abnormalities was estimated by HRCT score. All patients underwent BAL with TGF-β1 measured by an enzyme immunoassay in BAL fluid and video-assisted thoracic surgery lung biopsy from both selected segments. RESULTS: All 31 patients were diagnosed, and based on histopathology, they were classified into 2 groups: idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (usual interstitial pneumonia – 12, nonspecific interstitialpneumonia – 2, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia – 2, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia – 1 and granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis – 7, extrinsic allergic alveolitis – 5, and histiocytosis X – 2. The final analysis was performed in 28 patients who showed nonhomogenous distribution on HRCT. TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the areas with high intensity of abnormalities assessed by HRCT score (P = 0.018, analysis of variance. These levels were not different between the groups, but a trend towards higher levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that TGF-β1 may be a good but not specific marker of fibrosis in DPLDs. A significant positive correlation between TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid and the HRCT score was observed.

  4. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

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    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  5. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

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    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  6. Ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after burn and inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Todd A; Davis, Christopher S; Bach, Harold H; Romero, Jacqueline; Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L; Majetschak, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 ligands ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after burn and inhalation injury and whether their concentrations in BALF are associated with injury severity, physiological variables, or clinical outcomes. BALF was obtained on hospital admission from 51 patients (48 ± 18 years) with burn (TBSA: 23 ± 24%) and inhalation injury (controls: 10 healthy volunteers, 42 ± 8 years). BALF was analyzed for total protein and for ubiquitin and SDF-1α by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ubiquitin/SDF-1α levels were normalized to total BALF protein content. The extent of inhalation injury was determined during bronchoscopy using a standardized scoring system. Percent TBSA, Baux scores, revised Baux scores, and clinical variables were documented. Ubiquitin and SDF-1α were detectable in 40% of normal BALF specimens. After injury, ubiquitin was detectable in 90% (P patients (P burn and inhalation injury. Increases in BALF ubiquitin after inhalation injury may maintain CXCR4-mediated lung protection and repair processes. The finding that BALF ubiquitin decreased with higher grades of inhalation injury may provide a biological correlate for an insufficient local inflammatory response after severe inhalation injury.

  7. Reconstitution of CD4 T Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kenneth S.; Vinton, Carol; Hage, Chadi A.; Kohli, Lisa M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Zwickl, Beth; Waltz, Jeffrey; Goldman, Mitchell; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The major findings to emerge were the following: (i) BAL CD4 T cells are not massively depleted or preferentially infected by HIV compared to levels for PB; (ii) BAL CD4 T cells reconstitute after the initiation of HAART, and their infection frequencies decrease; (iii) BAL CD4 T-cell reconstitution appears to occur via the local proliferation of resident BAL CD4 T cells rather than redistribution; and (iv) BAL CD4 T cells are more polyfunctional than CD4 T cells in blood, and their functional profile is relatively unchanged after the initiation of HAART. Taken together, these data suggest mechanisms for mucosal CD4 T-cell depletion and interventions that might aid in the reconstitution of mucosal CD4 T cells. PMID:20610726

  8. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

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    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  9. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  10. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  11. Evaluation of PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review.

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    Wenkui Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is emerging as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool. PCR assays on serum have the potential to be a practical diagnostic tool. However, PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF has not been well established. We performed a systematic review of published studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR assays on BALF for invasive aspergillosis (IA. METHODS: Relevant published studies were shortlisted to evaluate the quality of their methodologies. A bivariate regression approach was used to calculate pooled values of the method sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall performance. We calculated the post-test probability to evaluate clinical usefulness. Potential heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Seventeen studies comprising 1191 at-risk patients were selected. The summary estimates of the BALF-PCR assay for proven and probable IA were as follows: sensitivity, 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.79-0.96; specificity, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.96; positive likelihood ratio, 11.90 (95% CI, 6.80-20.80; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.04-0.24. Subgroup analyses showed that the performance of the PCR assay was influenced by PCR assay methodology, primer design and the methods of cell wall disruption and DNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS: PCR assay on BALF is highly accurate for diagnosing IA in immunocompromised patients and is likely to be a useful diagnostic tool. However, further efforts towards devising a standard protocol are needed to enable formal validation of BALF-PCR.

  12. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR Β IN BLOOD SERUM AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

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    E. A. Surkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Progressive obstruction and lung tissue remodeling comprise an important feature of the airways in COPD patients. The main processes involved in tissue remodeling in COPD are protease/antiprotease, oxidant/antioxidant imbalances, like as inflammatory and fibrotic events that contribute to development or progression of disease. TGFβ is a multifunctional growth factor that regulates synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, primarily collagen and fibronectin, thus inducing fibrosis of respiratory ways. The aim of our study was to determine levels of TGFβ in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of COPD patients. All the patients with COPD had increased levels of TGFβ in serum, as compared with subjects without COPD (p < 0.01, but there was no difference in TGFβ concentration between patients at different stages of disease. Increased phagocytic activity of blood monocytes was found in 81% of COPD patients, as compared to controls. Phagocytosis of apoptotic T­cells and bacterial infection of monocytes leads to increased secretion of TGFβ and it may cause higher levels of TGF β in peripheral blood. TGFβ concentration in BALF of patients at stage III of disease was higher than in the patients at stage II (p < 0.05. The level of TGFβ in BALF directly correlates with number of alveolar macrophages (r = 0.39; р = 0.03. These data indicate that TGFβ is involved in chemotaxis of macrophages in COPD patients’ airways. We conclude that increased secretion of TGFβ by peripheral blood monocytes may be a result of their high phagocytic activity. Hence, TGFβ mediates interactions between the two main components underlying lung tissue remodeling, i.e. fibrosis of respiratory airways, and development of emphysema in COPD.

  13. Clinical significance of quantifying Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA by using real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from immunocompromised patients.

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    Botterel, Françoise; Cabaret, Odile; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-02-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopy for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We therefore developed a qPCR assay and compared the results with those of a routine immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and clinical data. The assay included automated DNA extraction, amplification of the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA gene and an internal control, and quantification of copy numbers with the help of a plasmid clone. We studied 353 consecutive BAL fluids obtained for investigation of unexplained fever and/or pneumonia in 287 immunocompromised patients. No qPCR inhibition was observed. Seventeen (5%) samples were both IFA and qPCR positive, 63 (18%) were IFA negative and qPCR positive, and 273 (77%) were both IFA and qPCR negative. The copy number was significantly higher for IFA-positive/qPCR-positive samples than for IFA-negative/qPCR-positive samples (4.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.1 ± 1.1 log(10) copies/μl; P < 10(-4)). With IFA as the standard, the qPCR assay sensitivity was 100% for ≥2.6 log(10) copies/μl and the specificity was 100% for ≥4 log(10) copies/μl. Since qPCR results were not available at the time of decision-making, these findings did not trigger cotrimoxazole therapy. Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and IFA-negative/qPCR-positive BAL fluid had a worse 1-year survival rate than those with IFA-negative/qPCR-negative results (P < 10(-3)), in contrast with solid-organ transplant recipients (P = 0.88) and patients with hematological malignancy (P = 0.26). Quantifying P. jirovecii DNA in BAL fluids independently of IFA positivity should be incorporated into the investigation of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The relevant threshold remains to be determined and may vary according to the underlying disease.

  14. Distribution of Major Pathogens from Sputum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Yi Miao; Xiao-Bin Ji; Hai-Wen Lu; Jia-Wei Yang; Jin-Fu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Noncystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis remains as a common health problem in Asia.Pathogens' distribution in airways of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis is important for doctors to make right decision.Data Sources:We performed this systematic review on the English language literatures from 1966 to July 2014,using various search terms included "pathogens" or "bacteria" or "microbiology" and "bronchiectasis" or "non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis" or "non-CF bronchiectasis" or "NCFB."Study Selection:We included studies of patients with the confirmed non-CF bronchiectasis for which culture methods were required to sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Weighted mean isolation rates for Haemophilus influenzae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Streptococcus pneumoniae,Stapylococcus aureus,Moxarella catarrhails were compared according to different methodology.Results:The total mean bacterial culture positive rates were 63%.For studies using sputum samples,the mean positive culture rates were 74%.For studies using BALF alone or BALF and sputum,it was 48%.The distributions of main bacterial strains were 29% for H.influenzae,28% for P.aeruginosa,1 1% for S.pneumoniae,12% for S.aureus,and 8% for M.catarrhails with methodology of sputum.Meanwhile,the bacterial distributions were 37% for H.influenzae,8% for P.aeruginosa,14% for S.pneumoniae,5% for S.aureus,and 10% for M.catarrhails with methodology of BALF alone or BALF and sputum.Analysis of the effect of different methodology on the isolation rates revealed some statistically significant differences.Conclusions:H.influenzae accounted for the highest percentage in different methodology.Our results suggested that the total positive culture rates and the proportion of P aeruginosa from sputum and BALF specimens had significant differences,which can be used in further appropriate recommendations for the treatment ofnon-CF bronchiectasis.

  15. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d), continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb,ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT.Results:After treatment, TNF-α level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05), while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γin BALF in patients with IPF, and improve the pulmonary

  16. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  17. Changes of Tumor Necrosis Factor, Surfactant Protein A, and Phospholipids in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in the Development and Progression of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the alterations of biomarkers in the development and progression of coal workers'pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods The type and number of cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),pulmonary surfactant protein, phospholipids and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assayed in 14 health active coal miners, 21 coal miners without CWP and 13 miners with CWP of 0/1 to 1/1. Results Compared to active coal miners without CWP (8.23 μg/mL), TNF-α concentration was gradually decreased when dust exposure was stopped (5.90 μg/mL).Elevated surfactant protein A (SP-A) level and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to phosphatidylinositol (PI) ratio were found in miners actively exposed to coal dust (6528 ng/mL for SP-A and 10. for PG/PI), and both parameters decreased when CWP progressed from CWP (0/1) (3419 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.9 for PG/PI) to CWP (1/1) (1654 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.5 for PG/PI).Conclusion Biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid can be used to screen coal miners at high risk of developing coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  18. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons characterizes bacterial composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

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    Yang XJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Jun Yang,1,* Yan-Bo Wang,2,3,* Zhi-Wei Zhou,4,* Guo-Wei Wang,2 Xiao-Hong Wang,1 Qing-Fu Liu,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Zhen-Hai Wang2,3 1Department of Intensive Care Unit, 2Neurology Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and likely mortality, placing a heavy burden on an individual and society. Currently available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for VAP treatment are limited, and the prognosis of VAP is poor. The present study aimed to reveal and discriminate the identification of the full spectrum of the pathogens in patients with VAP using high-throughput sequencing approach and analyze the species richness and complexity via alpha and beta diversity analysis. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from 27 patients with VAP in intensive care unit. The polymerase chain reaction products of the hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene in these 27 samples of VAP were sequenced using the 454 GS FLX system. A total of 103,856 pyrosequencing reads and 638 operational taxonomic units were obtained from these 27 samples. There were four dominant phyla, including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. There were 90 different genera, of which 12 genera occurred in over ten different samples. The top five dominant genera were Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Limnohabitans, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, and the most widely distributed genera were Streptococcus, Limnohabitans, and Acinetobacter in these 27 samples. Of note, the mixed profile of causative pathogens was observed. Taken

  19. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

    2015-03-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative.

  20. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drent (Marjolein)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is currently widely applied to sample cells and proteins present in the bronchoalveolar space for subsequent studies. Moreover, this limited invasive technique is a sensitive indicator of infectious and non-infectious inflammatory disorders, such as interstit

  1. BRONCHIAL LAVAGE AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN ALLERGEN-INDUCED SINGLE EARLY AND DUAL ASTHMATIC RESPONDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; VRUGT, B; SMITH, M; KOETER, GH; TIMENS, W; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypic cellular profile of bronchial lavage (BL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was studied in 7 single early (SR) and 10 dual asthmatic responders (DR). Lavage was performed, after previously having determined bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine and the response to house dust mite

  2. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  3. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cotogni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549 exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3 and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6 in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7. 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3 release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined. Results. The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001. The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001 but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01. The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001 as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01, while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

  4. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  6. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  7. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe......, but sensitivity dropped markedly with this system. A further 33 patients had both induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage performed and the induced sputum was analysed using PCR and routine microbiological methods. The PCR sensitivity on induced sputum was equal to that of routine methods. At present...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  8. Correlation and discriminant analysis between clinical, endoscopic, thoracic X-ray and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology scores, for staging horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, P; Sales Luis, J P; Branco Ferreira, M

    2012-10-01

    As recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is progressive and as medical history is frequently unknown by owners, it's important to suggest a score model to characterize RAO stages for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment. The authors correlated clinical (CS), endoscopic (ES), thoracic X-ray (XRS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALFS) scores in horses with RAO, in an attempt to establish relevance of each factor's contribution for the characterization of RAO stages and to suggest a staging method. Thirty horses with RAO and ten healthy controls were studied. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between CS, ES, XRS and BALFS. Only significant correlation coefficients (>0.60) were considered. One way variance analyses were used to compare the two groups. A discriminant analysis model was adjusted on the RAO staging method suggested. There was a significant correlation coefficient between the CS cough, nostril flare and abdominal lift, all the mucus ES (0.61-0.84), the XRS interstitial pattern, bronchial radiopacity and thickening and tracheal thickening (0.67-0.78) and the BALFS neutrophil percentages (0.63-0.84). These variables (e.g., cough) which presented a significant correlation coefficient were considered relevant and chosen for a score model to characterize RAO stages. The ten healthy controls were attributed stage 0 and the 30 RAO horses were attributed stages 1 (4 horses), 2 (7 horses), 3 (10 horses) and 4 (9 horses). There was also a significant correlation coefficient between all the relevant variables and the RAO stage (0.61-0.89). Furthermore, discriminant analysis of the RAO staging method showed 92.5% of original grouped cases and 85.0% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified, having confirmed major contribution of the same variables that had significant correlation coefficients. Even though further confirmation by lung functional testing is desirable, the significant correlation between relevant variables and RAO stage and

  9. The number of regulatory T cells in transbronchial lung allograft biopsies is related to FoxP3 mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and to the degree of acute cellular rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Dorrit; Madsen, Caroline B; Iversen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs) - a subset of T cells known to suppress a wide range of immune responses. These cells are considered to be pivotal for the induction of tolerance to donor antigens in human allografts. We aimed to correlate...... the number of lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in transbronchial biopsies from lung allografts with the FoxP3 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, we aimed to correlate the number of FoxP3+ cells in transbronchial biopsies with the degree of acute cellular rejection in lung allografts....

  10. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  11. Microscopic examination of intracellular organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia:a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Du Zhaohui; Zhou Qing; Hu Bo; Li Zhifeng; Yu Li; Xu Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of intracellular organisms (ICOs) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a possible method for rapid diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).However,the validity of this diagnostic method remains controversial and the diagnostic thresholds reported by investigators were different.Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of quantification of ICOs in BALF for the diagnosis of VAP,and to detect the best cutoff percentage of PMNs containing ICOs (PIC) in the microscopic examination of BALF for the diagnosis of VAP.Methods This was a prospective multi-center study conducted in 4 ICUs in Wuhan,China,which involved 181 patients suspected of first episode of VAP.BALF was obtained from all enrolled patients.The BALF samples underwent quantitative culture,cytological and bacteriological analysis to detect the culture results,PIC values and the morphological features of microorganisms.Definite diagnosis of VAP was based on pre-set criteria.The receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to detect the best cutoff point for PIG to diagnose VAP,and the diagnostic accuracy was calculated.Moreover,quantitative culture and Gram's stain of BALF were adopted to diagnose VAP,and their diagnostic accuracy was evaluated as well.Results There were 102 patients definitely diagnosed with VAP (VAP group),and 60 patients definitely diagnosed without VAP (no VAP group).We found that ICOs were present in 96.08% (98 out of 102) of VAP patients and 20.00% (12 out of 60) of no VAP patients.The PICs were significantly higher ((9.53±6.65)% vs.(0.52±1.33)%,P<0.01) in VAP group.In our study,the best cutoff point for PIC to diagnose VAP was 1.5%,which had a sensitivity of 94.12%,a specificity of 88.33%,a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.20% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 89.83%.The area under the receiveroperating characteristic curve was 0.956 (95% confidence interval,0

  12. [Mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis in children. Clinical study, analysis of data of bronchoalveolar fluid lavage and respiratory function tests, therapeutic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, L; Baculard, A; Boule, M; Boccon-Gibod, L; Grimfeld, A; Tournier, G

    1991-10-01

    A series of 27 children (mean age: 12 yrs, 5 mos.) presenting with thoracic sarcoidosis is reported. This series, collected from 1961 to 1988 shows the rarity of the disease at that age. However the low rate of asymptomatic forms (22%) suggests that the frequency of the disease is underestimated, as it is not diagnosed. The histological proof is necessary for the diagnosis. When peripheral lesions available for biopsy are lacking, a liver needle biopsy is helpful (93% of positivity). This study shows the frequency of multivisceral types, the intensity of the macrophagic and lymphocytic alveolitis. The therapeutic indications depend on the comparison of the radiological stage, the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT), those of the bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and of the serum granulomatous activity markers, especially concerning angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). When present at the beginning of evolution, several risk factors lead to use a corticosteroid treatment: age of onset before 4 years, multivisceral involvement, presence of functional pulmonary signs, delayed diagnosis and onset of treatment, impaired respiratory function (especially concerning the alveolo-capillary diffusion), PMN cells greater than or equal to 2% in the initial BAL, and IgG proteins greater than 4 SD. Thus sarcoidosis in children differs from that seen in adults as it has a more marked evolutive tendency and leaves severe sequelae in one third of patients.

  13. Effect of sodium cromoglycate on light racehorses with elevated metachromatic cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage and reduced exercise tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, J E; Viel, L; O'Byrne, P M; Conlon, P D

    1994-06-01

    Some young horses with clinical signs of small airway disease demonstrate increased metachromatic cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium cromoglycate treatment on clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology and bronchoalveolar lavage histamine parameters in these horses. Twelve racehorses (age: 3.4 +/- 1.6 years) with a history of respiratory embarrassment at exercise, clinical signs of obstructive airway disease and bronchoalveolar lavage metachromatic cell differential greater than 2% were selected. Horses were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mg sodium cromoglycate or saline placebo nebulized twice daily for 7 days. A clinical respiratory score was assigned and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on each animal on days 0 and 7. Measurements were made of the following bronchoalveolar lavage fluid parameters: total nucleated cell concentration, differential cell percentage and concentration, supernatant and lysate histamine concentration, lysate: supernatant histamine ratio and metachromatic cell histamine content. Between the two evaluation periods, sodium cromoglycate treated horses demonstrated an improvement in respiratory score (P = 0.01) and a stabilizing of metachromatic cell histamine content (P = 0.04) when compared with placebo treated horses. We concluded that sodium cromoglycate is effective for the treatment of small airway disease in this population of young racehorses although the pharmacodynamics of this drug in the horse require further investigation.

  14. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrens Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark.

  15. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T;

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR.......0; confidence interval [CI], 3.8-16.8) or the finding of CMV DNA in serum (RR, 7.4; CI, 3.2-17.3) or BAL fluid (RR, 8.0; CI, 3.1-20.7) by PCR. Mortality was found to be similar for patients who did or did not have CMV detected by either culture or PCR. Detection of CMV DNA by PCR was a more rapid and sensitive...

  16. Primary A (H1N1) pdm09 Influenza Pneumonia Diagnosed on Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid but not Rapid Tests with Nasopharyngeal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Tani, Mayuko; Nishitsuji, Masaru; Nishi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with a fever was highly suspected of having influenza A infection since his wife and son who lived with him had been diagnosed with influenza A. Although repeated rapid tests with a nasopharyngeal swab showed negative findings, the patient developed bilateral pneumonia and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive. We therefore diagnosed him with primary influenza pneumonia and initiated treatment with peramivir plus corticosteroids, which rapidly improved his condition. During the influenza season, sample collection from the lower airway and PCR should be considered for the definitive diagnosis of primary influenza viral pneumonia.

  17. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T;

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR......) for detection of CMV DNA. PCR detected CMV more frequently than did cultures of BAL fluid (PCR of BAL fluid, 53%; PCR of serum, 40%; and culture, 30%). In a multivariate model, development of extrapulmonary CMV disease was predicted by the finding of CMV in BAL fluid by culture (relative risk [RR], 8.......0; confidence interval [CI], 3.8-16.8) or the finding of CMV DNA in serum (RR, 7.4; CI, 3.2-17.3) or BAL fluid (RR, 8.0; CI, 3.1-20.7) by PCR. Mortality was found to be similar for patients who did or did not have CMV detected by either culture or PCR. Detection of CMV DNA by PCR was a more rapid and sensitive...

  18. Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows based on a TaqMan real-time PCR discriminating wild type strains from an lppQ− mutant vaccine strain used for DIVA-strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is the most serious cattle disease in Africa, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC). CBPP control strategies currently rely on vaccination with a vaccine based on live attenuated strains of the organism. Recently, an lppQ− mutant of the existing vaccine strain T1/44 has been developed (Janis et al., 2008). This T1lppQ− mutant strain is devoid of lipoprotein LppQ, a potential virulence attribute of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. It is designated as a potential live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine strain allowing both serological and etiological differentiation. The present paper reports on the validation of a control strategy for CBPP in cattle, whereby a TaqMan real-time PCR based on the lppQ gene has been developed for the direct detection of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows and for the discrimination of wild type strains from the lppQ− mutant vaccine strain. PMID:20381545

  19. Expression of IL-35 in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Tuberculosis%IL-35在结核患者肺泡灌洗液中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春梅; 张军; 胡成进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression level of IL-35 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mononuclear cells in patients with active pulmoanry tuberculosis. Methods 80 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were admitted to this study. All patients were examined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were collected,and mononuclear cells were separated with Hypaque-ficoll method. The separated mononuclear cells were stimulated with extracts from inactive mycobacteria for 36h. Secretions of IL-35 in the culture supernatant of mononuclear cells were detected by IL-35 ELISA kit. mRNA level of IL-35 subunit IL-12a and EBI3 were detected by real-time RT-PCR. EBI3 subunit of IL-35 was detected by Western blot and Treg cells were detected by multicolor flow cytometry. Results The concentration of IL-35 in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mononuclear cells (BLFMC) was 76. 6 + 20. 1 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ,(£=23. 07,P<0. 01). IL-35 expression was only observed in the culture supernatant of BLFMC by Western blot. mRNA level of IL-12a in BLFMC was about 6 folds of PBMC (t=18. 02,P<0. 01) and EBI3 were about 9 folds(£=17. 85,P<0. 01). Percentage of Treg cells in BLFMC were 12. 6%± 3. 3%,which was higher than in peripheral blood (4. 2%±1. 8%) ,(t=12. 24,P<0. 01). Treg cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid expressed a relative higher level of EBI3. Conclusion IL-35 could be detected in BLFMC (mainly Treg) in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis,which suggests that IL-35 play a regulatory role in the cellular immune reaction of My-cobactenum tuberculosis infection.%目的 检测IL-35在结核患者肺泡灌洗液中的表达.方法 80例诊断为进展期肺结核患者全部采用支气管镜检查,收集肺泡灌洗液和外周血,淋巴细胞分离液分离其中的单个核细胞,经50 μg灭活的结核杆菌提取物刺激36 h后,采用ELISA

  20. Detection of bacterial pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by multiplex PCR%多重PCR检测支气管肺泡灌洗液中细菌性病原体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向彩云; 金海山; 庹照林

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the accuracy of detection of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with lower respiratory tract infection using multiplex PCR. Methods There 158 child inpatients infected bacteria were selected from 2006 to 2009 and 30 health children needed fiberoptic bronchoscopy were as control. All children received standard fiberoptic bronchoscopy mediated bronchoalveolar lavage within 24h. Multiplex PCR were used for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae ,Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lavage fluid of these patients were also analyzed by bacterial culture. Results The infection rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae ,Mycoplasma pneumoniae ,Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with lower respiratory tract infections by routine bacteriological diagnosis accounted for 14%, 21%, 3.2%, and 0%;while that of multiplex PCR were accounted for 28% ,47% ,4% and 1%. The sensitivity were 87%,90%, 100% and 0% and the specificity were 81% ,64%, 100% and 99%. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection rate confirmed by bacterial culture was 2.9% ,while compared to 31% by multiple PCR in 104 bronchoscopy patients given antibiotics before examination. The proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infection identified by multiplex PCR in control group were 17% and 40%. Conclusion Multiplex PCR in combination with bronchoalvcolar lavage fluid could effectively identify Streptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae,Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in the patients with lower respiratory tract infections,especially in diagnosis of patients previously treated with antibiotics.%目的 评价呼吸道感染患者肺泡灌洗标本进行多重PCR检测的准确性.方法 选取2006~2009年本院住院的158例儿童为研究对象,同时选用需要接受纤维支气管镜检查的30例同龄非感染

  1. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR for bacterial pathogens applied to bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strålin, K; Korsgaard, J; Olcén, P

    2006-09-01

    The present study assessed the diagnostic usefulness of a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed on 156 hospitalised adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 36 controls. BAL fluid was analysed with bacterial culture and mPCR. By conventional diagnostic methods, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were aetiological agents in 14, 21, 3.2 and 0% of the LRTI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by BAL mPCR in 28, 47, 3.2 and 0.6% of cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities of 86% for S. pneumoniae, 88% for H. influenzae, 100% for M. pneumoniae and 0% for C. pneumoniae, and specificities of 81, 64, 100 and 99% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, respectively. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to bronchoscopy, S. pneumoniae was identified by culture in 2.9% and by mPCR in 31%. Among the controls, mPCR identified S. pneumoniae in 11% and H. influenzae in 39%. In lower respiratory tract infection patients, bronchoalveolar lavage multiplex PCR can be useful for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. The method appears to be particularly useful in patients treated with antibiotics.

  2. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung disease - is it really useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, but BAL must be performed properly and the retrieved BAL fluid adequately processed and analyzed to allow accurate conclusions to be drawn from BAL analysis. A differential cell count of nucleated immune cells can show cell patterns that suggest or support certain diagnoses, and other testing (stains and cultures for infectious pathogens, malignant cell cytology) can be performed on BAL fluid that can also aid in diagnosis. When combined with the results of a careful history, physical examination, thoracic imaging, and other pertinent laboratory testing, the BAL analysis may allow a confident diagnosis of a specific interstitial lung disease to be made without proceeding to more invasive testing (e.g., surgical lung biopsy) that is associated with increased risk of complications.

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners. Cytologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Gosselin, B.; Ramon, P.; Wallaert, B.; Aerts, C.; Lenoir, L.

    1983-01-01

    The cytological characteristics of broncho-alveolar fluid were studied in 94 coal workers and six subjects exposed to varied risks of silicosis. In coal worker's pneumoconiosis with the usual micronodular or nodular type, there was a significant increase in the cellularity of the peripheral airways compared to non-exposed controls, making allowances for smoking habits. There were no striking changes in the white cell count nor any correlation with the possible elevation in the serum angiotensin I-enzyme conversion level. On the other hand a striking elevation of the alveolar lymphocyte count was noted in three cases with rapidly developing silicosis. Where there was the co-existence of another disorder (connective tissue disorders, sarcoid, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, radiation lung or diffuse interstitial fibrosis) the anomalies noted were those occurring during the progress of the associated disease. At the time of collection the alveolar macrophages in the dust exposed subjects showed a similar vitality to these observed in control subjects. After 24 hours of observation '' in vitro '', the vitality of the cells and their phagocytic and bactericidal activity was markedly diminished.

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  5. Induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage as tools for evaluating the effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocker, R E; Out, T A; Weller, F R; de Riemer, M J; Jansen, H M; van der Zee, J S

    2000-07-01

    Changes in airway inflammation can be studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, but the widespread use of this procedure is limited by its invasiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of induced sputum as a non-invasive alternative to bronchoalveolar lavage for studying changes in airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Thirty patients were treated for 12 weeks with an inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate (FP), 250 microg twice daily) or a short-acting beta-agonist (salbutamol (Sb), 400 microg twice daily) in a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized parallel group study. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline solution was performed twice before treatment and after 4, 8, 10, and 11 weeks of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid divided into two pools (first 60 mL portion as bronchoalveolar lavage/bronchial wash (BAL/BW) and subsequent 80 mL as bronchoalveoalar lavage (BAL)) was obtained before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Changes in cell differentials and plasma-protein leakage (alpha2-macroglobulin, albumin, and their ratio (relative coefficient of excretion, RCE)) were analyzed in induced sputum and were compared with changes in BAL/BW and BAL. During treatment with FP, the PC20histamine (interpolated concentration of histamine that caused a fall in FEV1 of 20% of the baseline value) increased (P < .0001), and the percentage of eosinophils (P = .004), levels of (alpha2-macroglobulin (P = .09) and RCE (P = .007) decreased in sputum. These changes were different from those in the Sb group (PC20histamine P< .0001, eosinophils P= .004, alpha2-macroglobulin P= .003, RCE P = .01), in which alpha2-macroglobulin showed a significant increase (P = .015). Changes in the percentage of eosinophils and in the levels of alpha2-macroglobulin in sputum were associated with changes in the PC20histamine (Rs = -0.59, P = .007 and Rs = -0.47, P = .03, respectively). These correlations did not reach significance in BAL/BW and BAL fluid. The

  6. Comparison of concentrations of two proteinase inhibitors, porcine pancreatic elastase inhibitory capacity, and cell profiles in sequential bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, H M; Kramps, J A; Dijkman, J H; Stockley, R A

    1986-06-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is used to obtain cells and proteins from the lower respiratory tract for diagnosis and research. Uncertainity exists about which site in the lung is sampled by the lavage fluid and what effect different lavage volumes have on recovery of the constituents of lavage fluid. Dilution of alveolar lining fluid by lavage fluid is variable and results are usually expressed as protein ratios to surmount this problem. We have compared cell profiles and the concentrations of two proteinase inhibitors--the low molecular weight bronchial protease inhibitor antileucoprotease and alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor, together with alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function and its relationship to the cell profile in sequential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients undergoing bronchoscopy. There was no difference in total or differential cell counts or albumin or alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor concentrations between the first and second halves of the lavage. Both the concentration of antileucoprotease and the ratio of antileucoprotease to albumin were, however, lower in the second half of the lavage (2p less than 0.01 and 2p less than 0.05 respectively). There was no difference in the function of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (assessed by inhibition of porcine pancreatic elastase--PPE) between aliquots (0.28 mole PPE inhibited/mol alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor; range 0-1.19 for the first half and 0.37 mol PPE inhibited/mol alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor; range 0.10-0.80 for the second half). About 60-70% of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor in each half of the lavage fluid was inactive as an inhibitor. The function of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor did not differ between bronchitic smokers and ex-smokers. Alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function was not related to the number of total white cells, macrophages, or neutrophils in the lavage fluid. Contamination of lavage by red blood cells was found to alter the concentration of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor but not its

  7. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe...

  8. Severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from tuberculosis correlates with bronchoalveolar lavage CXCL-8 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adcock, I.M.; Hashemian, S.M.R.; Mortaz, E.; Masjedi, M.R.; Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has previously been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here this study investigates the link between inflammation and TB in ARDS by measuring inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 90 patients with TB or ARDS alone and in

  9. Clinical course and complications following diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabel, R.M.; Velden, K. van der; Osinski, A; Rohde, G.; Roekaerts, P.M.H.J.; Bergmans, D C J J

    2015-01-01

    Background Flexible, fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have been used for diagnostic purposes in critically ill ventilated patients. The additional diagnostic value compared to tracheal aspirations in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been questioned. Nevertheless, BAL can provide extra information for the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease and good antibiotic stewardship. These benefits should outweigh potential hazards caused by the invasivene...

  10. [Fiber bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with asthma. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, B; Dahl, R

    1989-11-27

    Fiber bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia is an examination procedure frequently employed in the remainder of Scandinavia, Europe and USA. It requires only few resources and the costs are considerably less than fiber bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in connection with fiber bronchoscopy is rapidly undertaken but analysis of the material obtained requires considerable time. A method of induction of local anaesthesia, performance of BAL and preparation of the washings obtained is described. Fiber bronchoscopy and BAL are considered to be safe examination procedures in patients with mild asthma in a stable phase. The examination is only associated with slight discomfort for the patients, who will frequently accept repeated investigations, and complications are rare. BAL is a valuable examination procedure in research and the results have increased the knowledge of mechanisms in a series of interstitial pulmonary diseases. Future investigations of the humoral and cellular components in BAL fluid in asthmatic patients will contribute to increase knowledge of the pathological mechanisms in asthmatic disease.

  11. Occult exposure to asbestos in steel workers revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corhay, J.-L.; Delavignette, J.-P.; Bury, T.; Saint-Remy, P.; Radermecker, M.-F. (CHU, Liege (Belgium))

    To investigate the asbestos burden in a steelplant environment, we counted asbestos bodies (ABs) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 65 steel workers who had retired during the previous 5 y. They had worked for at least 15 y in the same area of the plant (coke oven or blast furnace) as maintenance or production workers. On the basis of occupational anamnesis, 28 had occasional past professional exposure to asbestos; the remaining 37 workers denied any contact with asbestos. A total of 54 white-collar workers who had no occupational exposure to asbestos were included in the study as controls. An increased prevalence and concentration of ABs was found in the BALF of steel workers. Electron microscopy and EDAX analysis of AB from steel workers revealed that the core fibers were mainly amphiboles. More ABs were found in the BALF of maintenance workers than in production workers. However, the BALF from steel workers who denied any contact with asbestos revealed an increased AB burden v. controls. This demonstrates that steel workers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the steelplant environment.

  12. Mycological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage in cats with respiratory signs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, L R P; Schubach, T M P; Santos, I B; Figueiredo, F B; Pereira, S A; Reis, R S; Mello, M F V; Ferreira, A M R; Quintella, L P; Schubach, A O

    2007-05-01

    Twenty-three cats with respiratory signs who had domiciliary contact with cats with sporotrichosis were studied. Sneezing was the predominant extracutaneous sign. Twelve cats had no skin lesions and 11 had ulcerated skin lesions. Mycological culture of material obtained from the nasal cavity, oral cavity, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and skin lesions, when present, was performed for all cats. In the case of autopsy, lung fragments were cultured. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from four of the 12 cats without skin lesions: BAL (one cat) and oral and/or nasal cavity (three cats). The latter three animals developed nasal and distant skin lesions within the following 2-4 weeks. The cat with S. schenckii isolated from BAL did not develop skin lesions or lower respiratory tract symptoms during the 6 months of follow-up. S. schenckii was isolated from one or more biological samples of all 11 cats with skin lesions: oral cavity (five), nasal cavity (eight), BAL fluid (four), skin lesions (eight), and blood culture (one). No yeast-like structures were observed upon BAL cytology in any of the 23 cats. The results suggest that S. schenckii can cause infection of skin contiguous to the natural facial orifices through colonisation of the mucosal surfaces of the upper airways.

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage alterations during prolonged ventilation of patients without acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, I; Lekka, M E; Kitsiouli, E; Constantopoulos, S; Nakos, G

    2003-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation deteriorates previously injured lung, but little is known about its effect on healthy human lung. This work was designed to assess the effect of prolonged mechanical ventilation on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid composition of patients without acute lung injury. Twenty-two ventilated patients (tidal volume 8-10 mL x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure 3-5 cmH2O) without lung injury, who did not develop any complication from the respiratory system during the 2-week study period, were studied. They were subjected to three consecutive BALs, the first during 36 h from intubation, the second at the end of the first week of mechanical ventilation and the third at the end of the second week of mechanical ventilation. Total BAL protein increased during mechanical ventilation (148 +/- 62, 381 +/- 288, 353 +/- 215 microg x mL(-1) BAL for the first, second and third BAL, respectively). In contrast, BAL phospholipids decreased (2.7 +/- 1.1, 1.4 +/- 0.6, 1.2 +/- 0.7 microg x mL(-1) BAL, respectively). Large surfactant aggregates were reduced and inflammatory markers, such as platelet activating factor (PAF), PAF-acetylhydrolase and neutrophils, significantly increased after 1 week, but partially remitted after 2 weeks of mechanical ventilation. In summary, this study demonstrates that prolonged mechanical ventilation even of patients without acute lung injury is associated with the presence of inflammatory markers and surfactant alterations.

  14. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J

    1991-02-01

    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  15. Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cytokine profiles: indistinguishable in bronchoalveolar lavage but different in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhunthan Thillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical, radiological and pathological similarities between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis can make disease differentiation challenging. A complicating factor is that some cases of sarcoidosis may be initiated by mycobacteria. We hypothesised that immunological profiling might provide insight into a possible relationship between the diseases or allow us to distinguish between them. METHODS: We analysed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid in sarcoidosis (n = 18, tuberculosis (n = 12 and healthy volunteers (n = 16. We further investigated serum samples in the same groups; sarcoidosis (n = 40, tuberculosis (n = 15 and healthy volunteers (n = 40. A cross-sectional analysis of multiple cytokine profiles was performed and data used to discriminate between samples. RESULTS: We found that BAL profiles were indistinguishable between both diseases and significantly different from healthy volunteers. In sera, tuberculosis patients had significantly lower levels of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4 than those with sarcoidosis (p = 0.004. Additional serum differences allowed us to create a linear regression model for disease differentiation (within-sample accuracy 91%, cross-validation accuracy 73%. CONCLUSIONS: These data warrant replication in independent cohorts to further develop and validate a serum cytokine signature that may be able to distinguish sarcoidosis from tuberculosis. Systemic Th2 cytokine differences between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis may also underly different disease outcomes to similar respiratory stimuli.

  16. 儿童哮喘急性发作支气管肺泡灌洗液病毒病原学分析%The Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Viral Pathogens Analysis of Acute Asthmatic Attack in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俊秀; 范楚平; 范如艳; 陈礼娟; 肖志兵; 刘婵

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解病毒感染与儿童哮喘急性发作相关性。方法:应用直接免疫荧光法(DIF),对实验组(67例哮喘急性发作患儿)和对照组(73例哮喘缓解期患儿)支气管肺泡灌洗液进行7种病毒抗原检测。结果:实验组51例检出至少1种病毒,总检出率76.1%。呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)检出最多,为32例,检出率47.8%,其余,依次为副流感病毒Ⅲ(PIV Ⅲ)7例(10.4% ),腺病毒(ADV)5例(7.5% ),流感病毒 A(IFA) 3例(4.5% ),流感病毒 B(IFB)2例(3.0% ),副流感病毒Ⅰ(PIV Ⅰ)1例(1.5% ),副流感病毒Ⅱ(PIV Ⅱ) 1例(1.5%)。对照组12例检出至少 1种病毒,总检出率16.4%。 呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)检出最多,为9例,检出率12.3%,其余,依次为副流感病毒Ⅲ (PIV Ⅲ) 2例(2.7% ),腺病毒(ADV)1例(1.4% ),流感病毒 A(IFA)、流感病毒 B(IFB)、副流感病毒Ⅰ(PIV Ⅰ)、副流感病毒Ⅱ(PIV Ⅱ)均未检测到。两组比较差异有显著性意义(P< 0.01)。结论:病毒感染与儿童哮喘急性发作有密切相关性,RSV 是引起儿童哮喘急性发作的主要病毒。%Objective :To explore the correlation analysis between virus infection and acute asthmatic attack in chil‐dren .Methods :Totally one‐hundred forty children with asthma were recruited ,and divided into experimental group(n=67) with acute asthmatic attack and control group(n= 73) with asthma in remission stage .Seven virus infections were identified by immunofluorescence testing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) .Results :There are at least one virus was detected in experimental group ,(51/67 ,76 .1% ) and control group(12/73 ,16 .4% ) .Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most (32/67 ,47 .8% in experimental group and 9/73 ,12 .3% in control group) ,and the others were parainfluenza Ⅲ (7

  17. Application of Dellson Fluid-Based Thin-Preparation Cytologic in the Diagnosis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) Cytology%Dellson膜式超薄技术在肺泡灌洗液细胞学诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其春; 何磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)在肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查中的应用.方法 将临床送检的灌洗液,加处理液等系列处理后,用自动液基细胞制片机制片.同时用传统方法制作涂片,两者同步做瑞氏染色或HE染色,镜检观察.结果 通过对106例肺泡灌洗液标本用两种制片方法的对比观察,液基薄层细胞制片的优良率达90.5% (96/106),而传统制片仅为61.3% (65/106);液基薄层细胞制片癌细胞阳性率为46.2% (49/106),可疑癌细胞5.7% (6/106);传统制片的癌细胞阳性率为24.5% (26/106),可疑癌细胞2.8% (3/106).结论 Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)用于肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查,涂片质量及癌细胞检测的阳性率明显高于传统涂片.%Objective To investigate the application of production technology of liquid-based cytology in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology diagnosis. Methods Plus digestive to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, remove the mucus and other substance, the precipitate was transferred to preservation solution. Smear was made with automatic liquid-based cell production machine. Mean while smears were made by traditional methods. They were both dyed by Wright' s staining or hematoxylin eo-sin staining (HE). The effect of the smears was observed under microscope. Results By comparative study of 106 cases of clinical specimens of two kinds of production methods, the good rate of production of liquid-based cytology was 90.5% (96/106),and the traditional production was only 61. 3% (65/106) ;the positive rate of cancer cells in production of liquid-based cytology was 46. 2% (49/106) ,the suspected cancer was 2.8% (3/106) ;the positive rate of traditional production was 24.5% (26/106) .the suspected cancer was 2. 8% (3/106). Conclusion Production technology of liquid-based cytology can be used for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology diagnose,smears quality and detection of

  18. Inflammatory and repair pathways induced in human bronchoalveolar lavage cells with ozone inhalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Leroy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway inflammation and epithelial injury.To examine the responses of airway cells to ozone-induced oxidative injury, 19 subjects (7 with asthma were exposed to clean air (0ppb, medium (100ppb, and high (200ppb ambient levels of ozone for 4h on three separate occasions in a climate-controlled chamber followed by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL 24h later. BAL cell mRNA expression was examined using Affymetrix GeneChip Microarray. The role of a differentially expressed gene (DEG in epithelial injury was evaluated in an in vitro model of injury [16HBE14o- cell line scratch assay].Ozone exposure caused a dose-dependent up-regulation of several biologic pathways involved in inflammation and repair including chemokine and cytokine secretion, activity, and receptor binding; metalloproteinase and endopeptidase activity; adhesion, locomotion, and migration; and cell growth and tumorigenesis regulation. Asthmatic subjects had 1.7- to 3.8-fold higher expression of many DEGs suggestive of increased proinflammatory and matrix degradation and remodeling signals. The most highly up-regulated gene was osteopontin, the protein level of which in BAL fluid increased in a dose-dependent manner after ozone exposure. Asthmatic subjects had a disproportionate increase in non-polymerized osteopontin with increasing exposure to ozone. Treatment with polymeric, but not monomeric, osteopontin enhanced the migration of epithelial cells and wound closure in an α9β1 integrin-dependent manner.Expression profiling of BAL cells after ozone exposure reveals potential regulatory genes and pathways activated by oxidative stress. One DEG, osteopontin, promotes epithelial wound healing in an in vitro model of injury.

  19. THE PECULARITIES OF THE SOLID PHASE OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGES IN CHILDREN WITH THE LUNG DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Modna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute destructive pneumonias (ADP occupy up to 80% of the total number of pneumonias. They require constant improvement of treatment strategy. Nowadays the use of surfactants is a part of most treatment protocols. The aim was to study the features of the solid phase bronchoalveolar lavage in children with the ADPs in the dynamics of complex treatment with exogenous surfactant.Material and methods: We examined 39 patients of contaminated surgery. We identified 2 groups of patients. The patients of first group (n=27 had pulmonary pleural form of ADP, the second group (n=12 had pulmonary form of ADP. All patients got classical treatment and the earlier draining of pleural cavity. We used as an antiseptic reamberin 1.5% by 10 ml/kg and endobronchially injected exogenous surfactant Bl in dose12 mg/kg body weight a day, 6 mg/kg every 12 hours. All the children were made a bronchoscopy to obtain BAL to study the crystallization properties. The solid phase of BAL was studied by method of cuneal dehydration.Results: All facies before treatment were divided into two groups according to classification of facies of biological fluids. Only the facies of the second and the third types were detected there. It was revealed that the sizes of the zones of the facies were different in the comparison groups before treatment and after. And the level of crystalline structures and amorphous aggregates were different in the groups with different degrees of inflammation.Conclusion: So, we can assume that the change in surfactant system is characterized by changes in the morphological structure of solids phases of BAL. And the morphological structure of BAL depends on the chemical composition of BAL.

  20. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  1. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  2. Elevated peptides in lung lavage fluid associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Stone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this discovery-level investigation was to use mass spectrometry to identify low mass compounds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung transplant recipients that associate with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from lung transplant recipients were evaluated for small molecules using ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and correlated to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Peptides associated with samples from persons with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and controls were identified separately by MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: The average bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MS spectrum profile of individuals that developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome differed greatly compared to controls. Controls demonstrated close inter-sample correlation (R = 0.97+/-0.02, average+/-SD while bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed greater heterogeneity (R = 0.86+/-0.09, average+/-SD. We identified 89 features that were predictive of developing BOS grade 1 and 66 features predictive of developing BOS grade 2 or higher. Fractions from MS analysis were pooled and evaluated for peptide content. Nearly 10-fold more peptides were found in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome relative to controls. C-terminal residues suggested trypsin-like specificity among controls compared to elastase-type enzymes among those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has an increase in low mass components detected by mass spectrometry. Many of these features were peptides that likely result from elevated neutrophil elastase activity.

  3. Determination of copper, zinc and iron in broncho-alveolar lavages by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlyk, C; Mccourt, J; Bordin, G; Rodriguez, A R; van der Eeckhout, A

    1997-11-01

    Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Fe were measured in 157 broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL), before and after centrifugation, collected at the Leuven University Hospital (Belgium). Zn was measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy, using direct calibration, while Cu and Fe were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, using the method of standard additions. For Fe only 56 samples were measured. Most of the studied elements are present in the liquid phase (supernatant). About 90% of Cu concentrations lie between 0 and 15 micrograms/kg, while 90% of Zn concentrations are lower than 230 micrograms/kg, with 30% between 30 and 70 micrograms/kg, and 50% between 100 and 200 micrograms/kg. There seems to be a reverse relationship between Cu and Zn levels with high Cu going along with low Zn and vice versa.

  4. PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a useful diagnostic tool in interstitial lunge diseases (ILD. However, differential cell counts are often non specific and immunocytochemistry is time consuming. Staining of glyoproteins by periodic acid Schiff (PAS reaction may help in discriminating different forms of ILD. In addition, PAS staining is easy to perform. BAL cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF (n = 8, sarcoidosis (n = 9, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA (n = 2 were investigated. Cytospins from BAL cells were made and cells were stained using Hemacolor quick stain and PAS staining. Lymphocytic alveolitis was found in sarcoidosis and EAA whereas in IPF both lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased. PAS positive cells were significantly decreased in EAA compared to IPF and sarcoidosis (25.5% ± 0.7% vs 59.8% ± 25.1% and 64.0% ± 19.7%, respectively (P

  5. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V

    2012-01-01

    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  6. Cell populations recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Gosselin, B.; Aerts, C.

    1982-01-01

    Studying the cellular products obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage in 81 patients, 77 coal-miners and 4 other subjects exposed to silicotic risks of various origin, the authors could demonstrate the interest of this new method of exploring the peripheral lung tissues. In 57 cases of usual pneumoconiosis and controls matched for the smoking habits, the repartition of the different cellular types was quite similar. On the contrary, the authors observed an increase of the lymphocytes in three cases of accelerated elution of the pneumoconiosis. Moreover various modifications were noticed in cases with morbid associations as conectivitis, sarcoiedosis, allergic alveolitis, and primitive diffuse interstitial fibrosis as well. At the moment they were collected, the alveolar macrophages of the subjects to dust showed the same properties of vitality and adherence capacity as the controls. After 24 hours of survival their vitality and bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus was clearly diminished.

  7. The characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage from a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, G; Kitsiouli, E; Maneta-Peyret, L; Cassagne, C; Tsianos, E; Lekka, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics as well as the occurrence and specificity of antiphospholipid antibodies in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a patient with both antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome (APS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Proteins, lipids, cells and autoantibodies were determined. Immunoglobulins were purified with affinity chromatography. Autoantibody identification was assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with electrophoresis, followed by immunoblotting and revelation with antihuman IgG-peroxidase conjugate. Antiphospholipid antibodies were found to be present in the BAL fluid as well as in the serum from a patient with APS. Specifically, antiphosphatidylserine and antiphosphatidic acid IgG antibodies in the BAL fluid and antiphosphatidylcholine and anticardiolipin IgG antibodies in the serum were detected at high levels. BAL fluid protein and the percentage of neutrophils were found to be increased. A quantitative as well as qualitative deficiency of surfactant phospholipids was also observed. Antibodies directed against surfactant phospholipids could cause surfactant abnormalities and an inflammatory reaction. These disorders may be one of the causes of the ARDS or a factor in the perpetuation of the inflammation.

  8. 吸烟对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者稳定期支气管肺泡灌洗液中T细胞功能影响的临床研究%Effect of smoking on T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during their stable periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菁; 徐清; 杨硕; 刘梦琳; 聂红; 孙洁民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) influenced by smoking in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during their stable periods.Methods To test the levels of CD3 +,CD4+,CD8+,CD4+ /CD8+ in BALF in patients enrolled by flow cytometry.Results The levels of CD3+,CD4+,CD4+/CD8+ in BALF in patients with COPD during their stable periods decrease compare with normal group ( P < 0.05) while the level of CD8+ increases ( P <0.05).There is no difference among the levels of CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ in patients with COPD ( P > 0.05),yet the level of CD4+/CD8+ decreases apparently in patients who smoke continuedly ( P <0.05).Conclusions Continued smoking leads to the lower T lymphocytes’ function in patients’ airways with COPD during their sable periods.%目的 评价吸烟对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者稳定期支气管肺泡灌洗液(bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,BALF)中T细胞功能的影响.方法 流式细胞术测定吸烟的COPD患者稳定期BALF中CD3+、CD4+、CD8+T细胞和CD4+/CD8+水平.结果 与非COPD组相比,COPD患者稳定期BALF中CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+水平明显下降(P<0.05),CD8+明显升高(P<0.05);在COPD患者中,稳定期BALF中CD3+、CD4+、CD8+T细胞无明显差异(P>0.05),但持续吸烟组CD4+/CD8+明显下降(P<0.05).结论 COPD患者稳定期气道T细胞功能明显异常,其中持续吸烟的COPD患者气道CD4+/CD8+下降最为显著.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using bronchial lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Masahito; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Komeno, Yukiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Ohishi, Nobuya; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detection of Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but it has not yet been able to distinguish infection from contamination. We have established a technique to quantify Aspergillus DNA using a real-time PCR method to resolve this problem, and we report herein a successful application of real-time PCR to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by comparing the amount of Aspergillus DNA in bronchial lavage fluid from an affected area to that from an unaffected area. This novel tool will provide rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  10. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

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    Rateesh Sareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1 To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage , bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2 To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3 To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4 Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%, followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45% and bronchial brushings (8.19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25% followed by brushings (77.78% and BAL (72.69%. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%, followed by brushings (86.67% and BAL (83.67%. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5% and highest in BAL (27.3%. Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

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    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  12. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

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    Adrienne E Moul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  13. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage for evaluation and management of scleroderma disease of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J; Vogelmeier, C; Beinert, T; Meurer, M; Krombach, F; König, G; Fruhmann, G

    1996-08-01

    Fibrosing alveolitis (FA) is a frequent and often fatal complication of systemic sclerosis (SSC). Alveolar inflammation has been recognized as a primary event in the pulmonary manifestation of SSC. To evaluate the significance of the alveolitis in SSC, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and correlated the generated data with changes in lung function over time. Seventy nine SSC patients with pulmonary involvement were followed for 56.8 +/- 3.1 wk (mean +/- SEM) with a repeat lung function test at the end of the follow-up period. During follow-up, 38 patients were treated with a systemic immunosuppressive regimen. For evaluation, patients were assigned to two groups according to whether their BAL cell differential was normal (inactive BAL) or abnormal (active BAL: i.e., polymorphonuclear leukocytes > 5% and/or lymphocytes > 15%). Active BAL was associated with more severe lung function impairment than was inactive BAL, and patients with active BAL deteriorated during follow-up if untreated. In contrast, treated patients with active BAL stabilized or improved. In summary, active alveolitis as characterized by BAL is associated with progressive pulmonary disease in SSC patients, and a significant positive effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the course of pulmonary disease was observed in patients with active BAL.

  15. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo.

  16. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

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    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  17. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branley, Howard M. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, W12 OHS London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: howard.branley@whittington.nhs.uk; Bois, Roland M. du [Royal Brompton Hospital, SW3 6NP London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, SW3 6NP London (United Kingdom); Jones, Hazel A. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, W12 OHS London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Introduction: PK11195 is a ligand with high affinity for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), which are present in large numbers in macrophages. PBRs play a role in antioxidant pathways and apoptosis, key factors in control of lung health. Intrapulmonary PBRs, assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), are decreased in interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite increased macrophage numbers. We wished to ascertain whether the observed decrease in in vivo expression of PBRs in the PET scans could be accounted for by a reduction in PBRs per cell by saturation-binding assays of R-PK11195 in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: We performed receptor saturation-binding assays with [{sup 3}H]-R-PK11195 on a mixed population of cells recovered by BAL to quantify the number of R-PK11195 binding sites per macrophage in 10 subjects with ILD and 10 normal subjects. Results: Receptor affinity [dissociation constant (Kd)] was similar in ILD patients and controls. However, R-PK11195 binding sites per cell [(maximal binding sites available (B {sub max})] were decreased in macrophages obtained by BAL from subjects with ILD compared to normal (P<.0005). Microautoradiography confirmed localization of R-PK11195 to macrophages in a mixed inflammatory cell population obtained by BAL. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that in vitro PBR expression per cell on macrophages obtained by BAL is reduced in patients with ILD indicating a potentially functionally different macrophage phenotype. As PBRs are involved in the orchestration of lung inflammatory responses, this finding offers further insight into the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of ILDs and offers a potential avenue for pharmacological strategy.

  18. Microbubble-enriched lavage fluid for treatment of experimental peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rakhorst, G.; Engels, E.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Ploeg, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Relaparotomies and closed postoperative peritoneal lavage (CPPL) are performed to treat persistent peritonitis. This experimental animal study compared open abdominal lavage with CPPL, and evaluated the potential of microbubble-enriched lavage fluids to improve the efficiency of CPPL and

  19. 胸内结节病18F-FPG PET/CT与支气管肺泡灌洗液检查相关性分析%Correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with thoracic sarcoidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昱; 梁英魁; 冯华松; 段蕴铀; 聂舟山; 丁新民

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between 18fluorine deoxyglucose ( F-FDG) positron emission tomography/ computerized tomography(PET/CT) scan and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in patients with thoracic sarcoidosis, and explore the mechanism of 18F-FDG uptake in sarcoidosis. Methods: Nineteen patients with thoracic sarcoidosis underwent18F-FDG PET/CT scan and BALF. The CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratio and serum angiotensin converting enzyme ( sACE ) , tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor ( sIL-2R) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were detected. F-FDG PET/CT scan was semi-quantitatively analyzed by maximum standardized uptake value ( SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake value ( SUVmean). The correlation between SUVmax, SUVmean, CD4+/CD8 + T cell ratio, sACE, TNF-α and sIL-2R levels was also analyzed. Results: SUVmax was significantly correlated to SUVmean( P < 0. 01 ) . SUVmax was significantly correlated to sACE ( P < 0. 01) and TNF-α ( P < 0. 01 ) , respectively; SUVmean was also significantly correlated to sACE ( P < 0. 01 ) and TNF-α ( P < 0. 01 ) , respectively. SUVmean was correlated to CD4 + /CD8+ T cell ratio (P <0. 05 ). Conclusions: The 18F-FDG uptake capacity is high in high load of sarcoidosis granuloma; its ability to 18F-FDG uptake may be associated with T cell activation. SUVmean may be superior to SUVmax in determining the activity of sarcoidosis.%目的:了解胸内结节病18氟-脱氧葡萄糖正电子发射断层显像/计算机断层扫描(18F-FDG PET/CT)检查与支气管肺泡灌洗液检查(BALF)相关性,探讨结节病摄取18F-FDG机制.方法:19例病理确诊胸内结节病患者行18F-FDG PET/CT检查及BALF,检测CD4+/CD8+ T细胞比值和血清血管紧张素转化酶(sACE)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)及可溶性白细胞介素-2受体(sIL-2R)含量,18F-FDG PET/CT用最大标准摄取值(SUVmax)和平均标准摄取值(SUVmean)半定量分析,并分别分析SUVmax和SUVmean与CD4+/CD8+ T细

  20. Multiplex protein profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

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    Willems Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Methods: At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control ( n = 10, HP ( n = 11, and IPF ( n = 11, based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology: Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb, fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, interleukine (IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, myeloperoxidase (MPO, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC, placental growth factor (PlGF, protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES, surfactant protein-C (SP-C, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 ( P = 0.022, MMP-9 ( P = 0.0020, MCP-1 ( P = 0.0006, MDC ( P = 0.0048, IL-8 ( P = 0.013, MPO ( P = 0.019, and protein-C ( P = 0.0087, whereas VEGF was decreased ( P = 0.0003 compared with

  1. Repeatability of and relationship between potential COPD biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum, and induced sputum.

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    Stefan Röpcke

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily affecting the airways. Stable biomarkers characterizing the inflammatory phenotype of the disease, relevant for disease activity and suited to predict disease progression are needed to monitor the efficacy and safety of drug interventions. We therefore analyzed a large panel of markers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum and induced sputum of 23 healthy smokers and 24 smoking COPD patients (GOLD II matched for age and gender. Sample collection was performed twice within a period of 6 weeks. Assays for over 100 different markers were validated for the respective matrices prior to analysis. In our study, we found 51 markers with a sufficient repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.6, most of these in serum. Differences between groups were observed for markers from all compartments, which extends (von-Willebrand-factor and confirms (e.g. C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6 previous findings. No correlations between lung and serum markers were observed, including A1AT. Airway inflammation defined by sputum neutrophils showed only a moderate repeatability. This could be improved, when a combination of neutrophils and four sputum fluid phase markers was used to define the inflammatory phenotype.In summary, our study provides comprehensive information on the repeatability and interrelationship of pulmonary and systemic COPD-related markers. These results are relevant for ongoing large clinical trials and future COPD research. While serum markers can discriminate between smokers with and without COPD, they do not seem to sufficiently reflect the disease-associated inflammatory processes within the airways.

  2. Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma

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    Hansson Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc. We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses. Methods Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20. The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF. The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance. Results Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc. Conclusion This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast

  3. Analysis of the characteristic and classification of the cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease acute exacerbation period%慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期支气管肺泡灌洗液的细胞分类特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠华; 李广生; 赵芳; 乔晟; 李月川

    2012-01-01

    中性粒细胞和肺泡巨噬细胞.这些细胞一方面通过吞噬异物和参与免疫调节发挥对肺的保护作用,另一方面又通过分泌细胞因子、蛋白酶等参与肺的损伤过程.COPD患者肺泡巨噬细胞及中性粒细胞在肺内大量聚集,肺防御机制被破坏,抗损伤功能减弱,巨噬细胞及中性粒细胞激活呈失控状态,释放过量炎性介质,导致肺损伤.COPD的患者各种致病因子长期得不到清除,自身修复和防御机能的平衡遭到破坏,下呼吸道无菌状态被扰乱,以致细菌在黏膜上定植.%Objective The characteristics of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the infiltration of the airway wall with lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages mainly,but there were mainly neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in airway lumens.Therefore,it was necessary to study more about the characteristics of airway inflammatory cells in COPD acute exacerbation period.Methods 23 patients intubated were treated with mechanically ventilation cause of acute respiratory failure with COPD,were done with bronchoalveolar lavage 32 times,and the lavage fluid were sent to the laboratory for analysis of leukocyte count and cell sorting.Results 14 of 23 patients were recovered and the trachea cannulas were pulled out. 6 of the patients were die,3 of the patients were discharged because of deterioration,23 patients were done with bronchoalveolar lavage 32 times.The recovery of lavage fluid was (12.88±4.98) ml,and the recovery rate was (32.2± 12.45) %,23 patients were lavaged immediately after intubation or in next day.The median of leukocyte count was 50× 106/L,and the median of cell sorting was:epithelial cells 18%, neutrophils 60%, lymphocytes 2%,macrophages 8%,eosinophils 0%,14 of the patients were recovered.The median of leukocyte count was 25× 106/L,and the median of cell sorting was:epithelial cells 19%,neutrophils 60%,lymphocytes 1.5 %,macrophages 6.5

  4. Determination of pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) prepolymers by bronchoalveolar lavage in acute rat inhalation studies according to TRGS 430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, L; Gamer, A O; Deckardt, K; Leibold, E; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2007-02-01

    Pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of two hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI)-based prepolymers (I: polymeric emulsfier modified and II: oligomeric allophanate modified) were determined in acute inhalation studies according to TRGS 430 (Dangerous Substances Technical Rule, isocyanates, Germany), based on benchmark extrapolation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein. It was also investigated if the method is robust enough to be transferred to an independent laboratory. Five male Wistar rats per group were exposed nose-only to the test substances as liquid aerosols to concentrations of 0, 0.5, 3, 15 mg/m(3) for both test substances with an additional test group at 50 mg/m(3) for test substance I. The duration of the exposure was 6h, followed by serial sacrifices 1 day, 3 days and 7 days post exposure. BALF was analyzed for biochemical and cytological markers indicative for injury of the bronchoalveolar region. The exposure of rats to test substance I and II caused dose depended lung irritation with BALF total protein concentration being the most sensitive indicator of pulmonary effects. The extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of test substance I was 1.1 mg/m(3) and that of test substance II 2.3 mg/m(3). The acute pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations were found to be similar to those reported by [Pauluhn, J., 2004. Pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage. J. Appl. Toxicol. 24, 231-247] for HDI-homopolymers and other HDI-based polyisocyanates, and were at least 30 times higher than the MAK (occupational exposure limit) value for the HDI monomer (0.035 mg/m(3)). Thus the EBW (exposure assessment value) for these two HDI-based prepolymers can be established at 10x MAK, i.e. at 0.35 mg/m(3).

  5. [Data on the etiology of the liquid of broncho-alveolar lavage in mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, C; Amouroux, J; Turbie, P; Battesti, J P

    1979-01-01

    The cell population of the liquid of broncho-alveolar lavage of 44 cases of mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis was compared to that of 12 normal controls, of 14 controls with a localized pulmonary affection, who underwent lavage in healthy contro-lateral segment, and of 33 patients with various diffuse interstitial pneumopathies, except hypersensitivity ones. In sarcoidosis, the total number of cells is significantly higher than in controls; such is the case for neutrophils. It is also higher for lymphocytes in sarcoidosis: 21.8, than in controls: 7.8, or in patients with other diffuse interstitial pneumopathies: 10.3. It is independent of the disease radiological stage, but closely related to its degree of activity; it showed important variations, going from 3 to 50%. The observation of a normal level of lymphocytes is not enough to exclude the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  6. Study of Cytological Classification and pathogenic bacteria screening of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with refractory asthma%难治性哮喘患者支气管肺泡灌洗液细胞分类及病原菌筛查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠翠; 温明春; 杜秀伟; 王寒; 蔺兴娟; 张淑萍; 魏春华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To seek the cytological classification and airway pathogenic bacteria colonization,infection situation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with refractoryasthma.Methods Select 138 inpatients with refractory asthma which measure upto national standard,to test the BALF cells classification and bacterial culture through the bronchoscope alveolar lavage.Results ① The inflammatory cells classification of BALF:Neutrophile granulocyte 63.78 ± 30.02,Eosinophilic granulocyte 2.70 ± 4.04,Lymphocyte 5.93 ± 6.48,Alveolarmacrophages 27.21 ± 31.87,display neutrophils increased obviously.② Influence of pathogens on airway inflammation:the mean value of Neutrophils in patients with positive pathogens are an increase compared with patients with negative,but no statistically significant differences,Eosinophils mean value are low compared wiht patients with negative,the differences was statically significant (P < 0.01).③ The inflammatory cells classification of BALF:Classification standard by airway inflammation,138 cases of 24 cases of all the 138 cases are Eosinophil asthma,account for 17.38%,46 cases with Neutrophilic asthma,account for 33.33%,26 cases of Myeloid less asthma,18.84%,42 case with Mixed grain cell asthma,30.43%.General status in the group,Neutrophils group and few cell group have a longer course of disease,older ages,lower cortisol,smoking rateis higher in Neutrophils group.④Previous treatment condition of each inflammation type:patients in Neutrophils groupwith used much more systemic hormones are higher than the Eosinophils group,while the volume of inhaled steroids used less than eosinophils group.⑤Etiology test results:23 cases of pathogenic bacteria were checked out in 138 patients,account for 16.7%,Gram negative bacilli isolated from most of them,a total of 16 cases,percent of total pathogen detection 69.6%.Conclusions ① There is a special table types of airway inflammation cells in patients with refractory

  7. Instilación intratraqueal de elastasa en la rata: Cambios electroforéticos de la α1-AT-antitripsina en el lavado broncoalveolar Intratracheal instillation of elastase in the rat: Electrophoretical changes of alphal-antitrypsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA VECCHIOLA C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la antiproteasa alfa 1-antitripsina ( α1-AT constituye el principal inhibidor endógeno de la elastasa instilada por vía intratraqueal en modelos experimentales. Objetivo: Evaluar mediante electroforesis e inmunodetección por western blot, las distintas formas en que se encuentra la α1-AT en el lavado broncoalveolar (IBA de ratas Sprague Dawley después de la instilación de elastasa, con la hipótesis de que el aumento en la actividad antielastasa previamente encontrada se acompaña de niveles altos de α1-AT activa. Resultados: En las primeras horas post-elastasa la concentración de α1-AT en el IBA aumenta más de 7 veces, debido al aumento de la permeabilidad alvéolo-capilar, encontrándose tanto como proteína nativa (~ 52 kDa, como parte de complejos de mayor tamaño (> 75 kDa y > 100 kDa y como producto de proteólisis (α1-AT inactiva formando complejos, el aumento de la permeabilidad alvéolo-capilar contribuye a mantener niveles altos de α1-AT activa. Estos resultados podrían ser extrapolables a distintos procesos inflamatorios pulmonaresIntroduction: Endogenous alphal-antitrypsin ( α1-AT is the main inhibitor of the intratracheally instilled elastase in experimental animals. Objective: To evaluate by electrophoresis and immunodetection using western blot analysis, the different forms of α1-AT in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of Sprague Dawley rats after intratracheal instillation of elastase, with the hypothesis that the previously observed increment in antielastase activity is due to high levels of active α1-AT. Results: In the first hours after elastase instillation the concentration of α1-AT increases more than seven times due to an increase in alveolar-capillary permeability. α1-AT in BAIF is found as the native protein (~ 52 kDa, as complexes of different molecular sizes (> 75 kDa and > 100 kDa and as a proteolytic product (α1-AT in the inactive form as part of different complexes, the increase

  8. Clinical significance of the combined determination of Tumour markes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to diagnose lung cancer%肺泡灌洗液中肿瘤标志物的联合检测在肺癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍武; 宁洁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)3种肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白片段211(CYFRA211) 、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)对肺癌的临床诊断价值.方法:采用电化学发光法分别检测90例肺癌患者、60例肺部良性病变患者血清及BALF中CEA、CYFRA 211和NSE的含量.结果:肺癌患者BALF中3种肿瘤标志物的含量明显高于肺部良性病变患者(P<0.05),且随着TNM临床分期升高,肿瘤标志物的含量也明显升高.在不同病理类型的肺癌中,3种肺癌肿瘤标志物升高的程度均有所不同.BALF中肿瘤标志物的含量与同期血清中的含量相比,出现更早且浓度更高.结论:肺癌患者BALF中CEA、CYFRA211、NSE联合检测对肺癌诊断有更高的临床参考价值.%Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 3 tumor markers [ carcinoma embryonic antigen ( CEA ),cytokeratin 19 fragments ( CYFRA211 ) and neuron specific enolase( NSE ) ]in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF )to diagnose lung cancer. Methods:The levels of CEA、 CYFRA211 and NSE in BALF and serum were measured in 90 patients with lung cancer and 60 patients with benign lung disease by electro chemiluminescence. Results: The levels of 3 tumor markers in BALF were much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group ( P <0.05 ) and they were higher in patients in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ than those in stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The tumor markers increased to different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found that the levels of these tumor markers were higher and more sensitive in BALF than those in serum. Conclusion:The measurement of tumor markers in BALF is of more significant value than the measurement in serum, which helps early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer.

  9. Clinical value of real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid%实时荧光聚合酶链反应检测支气管肺泡灌洗液结核分枝杆菌DNA诊断肺结核价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍; 覃林珍; 刘守江; 王健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨实时荧光聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)检测支气管肺泡灌洗液结核分枝杆菌脱氧核糖核酸(TB-DNA)诊断肺结核的临床价值。方法选取我院收治的115例肺结核患者作为研究对象,所有患者均进行支气管肺泡灌洗液TB-DNA检测、血清结核分枝杆菌特异性抗原(TB-SA)抗体检测、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检等。结果支气管肺泡灌洗液TB-DNA检测、血清 TB-SA 抗体检测、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检诊断肺结核的敏感度分别为65.2%(75/115)、50.4%(58/115)、20.9%(24/115)。支气管肺泡灌洗液检测 TB-DNA诊断肺结核的敏感度显著高于血清 TB-SA抗体、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检(均P<0.05)。结论采用 FQ-PCR检测支气管肺泡灌洗液 TB-DNA诊断肺结核具有较高的敏感度。%Objective To evaluate the value of real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR )for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in BALF obtained from 1 1 5 patients with tuberculosis pulmonary disease were detected by FQ-PCR, Tuberculosis specific antigen(TB-SA),and smear acid-fast respectivelly.The results were statistically analyzed.Results The sensitiveity of detection of mycobacterium was 65.2%(75/115)in FQ-PCR,50.4%(58/115)in TB-SA,20.9%(24/115)in smear acid-fast.The sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculos detected by FQ-PCR was higher than that by TB-SA and smear acid-fast.Conclusion The detection of TB-DNA in BALF by FQ-PCR could significantly improve the diagnosis sensitivity of pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  10. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV. During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP. A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right MBALs were 325 and 275 minutes, respectively. Despite increased shunt fraction, oxygenation was within acceptable limits during OLV. The trachea was extubated in the operating room uneventfully after each MBAL. The patient’s clinical and laboratory findings were evidently improved. Consequently, if proper conditions are provided, MBAL is safe and beneficial despite its risks and the long duration.

  11. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND SENSIBILITY IN HEALTH AND SICK DOGS La identificación bacteriana y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de líquido de lavado tracheobronchial de sanos y enfermos perros IDENTIFICAÇÃO BACTERIANA E SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DO FLUIDO DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA DE CÃES SADIOS E DOENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Research of antimicrobials use and resistance in food animals have been developed in various countries, although few studies include the bacteria prevalence in respiratory tract of companion animal. The aim of this paper was to verify antimicrobial resistance profile from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of health and sick dogs. Twenty animals were evaluated, 10 in the health group (group 1 and 10 in respiratory distress group (group 2. The bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube or guided by a rigid endoscope. Culture, identification and bacterial sensibility of the fluid were performed through agar diffusion method. The bacterial isolated were: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Of all samples, 63% showed resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Therefore antibiotic resistance is present in sick as well in health animals and ceftriaxone and amoxicilin associated with clavulanic acid are effective against respiratory tract bacteria.

    KEY WORDS: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria, respiratory distress.

    Nacional de Encuestas sobre el uso de antibióticos y la resistencia a los antibióticos en la producción animal se llevan a cabo en varios países, sin embargo pocos estudios que incluyen agentes bacterianos asociados con las vías respiratorias de los animales domésticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en el líquido de lavado tracheobronchial sanos y enfermos perros. Hemos utilizado 20 animales, 10 clínicamente sanos (grupo 1 y 10 con trastorno respiratorio (grupo 2. La colecci��n de la tracheobronchial lavado se realizó con el tubo endotraqueal o guiado con la ayuda de un endoscopio rígido. Se han realizado el cultivo y la identificaci

  12. 白藜芦醇对RSV感染BALB/c小鼠肺泡灌洗液TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6表达的调控趋势%Regulation trend of resveratrol on TNF-α, IL-1β ,IL-6expressions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of RSV-infected BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳曦; 汪受传; 徐建亚; 戴启刚; 徐珊; 孙寒丹; 彭璐璐

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the regulation trend of resveratrol on TNF-α, IL-lβ, IL-6 expressions in bronchoalveolar lav-age fluid ( BALF) of RSV-infected BALB/c mice at different time points. Method: RSV-induced BALB/c mice were orally administered with resveratrol. Their BALFs were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h after the first nasal drip with RSV to detect the level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 by EILSA. Result: The expression of TNF-a, IL-lβ and IL-6 in BALF increased significantly compared with the normal group (P<0.01) in the resveratrol group decreased notably compared with the model group. After 72 hours of infection with RSV, although the expression of TNF-α (P < 0. 05 ) , IL-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) in BALF in model group were higher than those in the normal group, they were much more lower than at 24 h. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the resveratrol groups were down-regulated significantly, but no difference had been shown in TNF-a expression compared with the RSV infection group. After infection with RSV for 144 h, the expression of IL-1β (P<0.01) and IL-6 (P<0. 05) in BALF in the model group were higher than those in the normal group, but there was no difference in the secretion of TNF-α. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 showed also no remarkable difference between the resveratrol groups and the RSV infection group. Conclusion: Resveratrol can inhibit the over expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of RSV-induced BALB/c mice and keep them at a low level with the passing of infection time.%目的:研究白藜芦醇(Res)对呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)感染BALB/c小鼠肺泡灌洗液(BALF)不同时间点肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α),白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β),白细胞介素-6(IL-6)表达的调控趋势.方法:RSV滴鼻感染BALB/c小鼠,白藜芦醇灌胃给药进行干预,并于首次滴鼻后24,72,144 h取各组小鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液,ELISA法检测其中TNF-α,IL-1

  13. Diagnostic value of Xpert MTB/RIF for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid%支气管肺泡灌洗液行Xpert MTB/RIF检测对涂阴肺结核的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春景; 朱述阳

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价支气管肺泡灌洗液行Xpert MTB/RIF检测对涂阴肺结核的诊断价值。方法选取从2014年11月至2015年12月徐州市传染病医院收治的3次痰涂片阴性的可疑肺结核患者110例,对所有患者行支气管镜检查进行刷检及收集BALF,进行涂片镜检找抗酸杆菌、结核分枝杆菌培养及Xpert MTB/RIF检测,同时进行诊断。分别以BALF的罗氏培养结果及临床诊断标准作为肺结核诊断的阳性标准,计算Xpert MTB/RIF 诊断涂阴肺结核的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值及阴性预测值。结果以BALF培养阳性结果作为判断肺结核的阳性标准,BALF行Xpert MTB/RIF检测对诊断涂阴肺结核的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为100%、97.4%、97.8%、100%。以临床诊断标准为诊断肺结核的阳性标准, BALF 行 Xpert MTB/RIF检测对诊断涂阴肺结核的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为81.9%、97.4%、98.3%、74.0%。以DST结果为金标准,Xpert MTB/RIF检测利福平耐药的敏感度、特异度分别为75.0%、96.0%。结论 BALF行Xpert MTB/RIF检测在涂阴肺结核中的敏感度、特异度均较高,且检测快速并能判断是否利福平耐药,对涂阴肺结核的快速诊断及治疗具有较大的应用价值。%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of Xpert MTB/RIF for smear-negative pulmonar tu-berculosis using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Methods From November 2014 to December 2015 in Xuzhou infec-tious disease hospital, we screened 110 suspected PTB patients with 3 consecutive negative sputum smears, bushed and obtained their BLAF specimen by brochchoscopy. BALF was tested by smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli, my-cobacterium tuberculosis culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for Xpert MTB/RIF test were respectively calculated using culture results and? clinical diagnostic criteria as reference stand

  14. Diagnostic value of combination detection of CEA,CYFR21-1,NSE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for early lung cancer%肺泡灌洗液中 CEA 、CYFR21-1、NSE 联合检测对早期肺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元菁; 顾晔

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白19片段(CYFR)21‐1、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)联合检测对早期肺癌的诊断价值,以及其与临床疗效的相关性。方法69例肺癌患者纳入肺癌组,50例肺部良性疾病患者纳入肺良性疾病组。所有患者行肺泡灌洗术(BAL),采用化学发光免疫法检测 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平,比较2组患者及不同临床疗效肺癌患者肿瘤标志物水平的变化。结果肺癌组 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平明显高于肺良性疾病组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Ⅱ期肺癌患者各肿瘤标志物水平均高于Ⅰ期患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);随着临床疗效的下降,CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平逐渐升高(P <0.05);联合检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为62.3%、82.0%,明显高于 CEA 、CY‐FR21‐1、NSE 任一单项的灵敏度和特异度(P<0.05)。结论早期肺癌患者 BALF 中 CEA 、CYFR21‐1、NSE 水平明显升高,且与肺癌病理分期密切相关,联合检测有助于提高早期肺癌检出率及指导临床疗效评估。%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combination detection of carcino‐embryonic antigen(CEA ) ,cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‐1(CYFR21‐1) ,neuron‐specific enolase(NSE) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for early lung cancer and its correlation with clinical effects .Methods 69 cases of lung cancer were included into the lung cancer group and 50 cases of benign pulmonary disease were included into the lung benign disease group .All the patients were given bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) .The chemiluminescence immunoassay was adopted to detect the levels of CEA ,CYFR21‐1 and NSE in BALF .The changes of tumor markers levels were compared between the two groups and among different clinical curative effects in the patients with lung cancer . Results The

  15. [Segmental bronchoalveolar lavage with a flexible probe via a rigid bronchoscope in the diagnosis of mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faina, A G

    1989-01-01

    Segmentary bronchial-alveolar lavage with flexible catheter connected to rigid bronchoscope might be used in diagnosis of mediastinal-pulmonary sarcoidosis, according to a method used by the authors. Cytologic examination of the lavage fluid shows, in the cases studied, the great abundance in cells, with lymphocytes increase to 30 +/- 12% (in agreement with other authors) making thus possible the disease diagnosis. On the other hand, polymorphonuclears increased to 20 +/- 10%. These higher values than those noticed up to now, pointed that the fibrosing process in sarcoidosis has a higher level than assumed, and appear since the onset of the disease.

  16. Broad-Range Detection of Microorganisms Directly from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens by PCR/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullberg, Måns; Lüthje, Petra; Mölling, Paula; Strålin, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    The clinical demand on rapid microbiological diagnostic is constantly increasing. PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, PCR/ESI-MS, offers detection and identification of over 750 bacteria and Candida species directly from clinical specimens within 6 hours. In this study, we investigated the clinical performance of the IRIDICA BAC LRT Assay for detection of bacterial pathogens in 121 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples that were received consecutively at our bacterial laboratory for BAL culture. Commensal or pathogenic microorganisms were detected in 118/121 (98%) BAL samples by PCR/ESI-MS, while in 104/121 (86%) samples by routine culture (PLegionella pneumophila, Bordetella pertussis, Norcadia species and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS detected a broad range of potential pathogens with equal or superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods within few hours directly from BAL samples. This novel method might thus provide a relevant tool for diagnostics in critically ill patients. PMID:28085931

  17. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...... of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, only 2/39 samples from HIV-infected patients without evidence of KS were positive (p = 0.007). Detection of HHV-8 in BAL cells of patients with pulmonary KS was highly specific (95%), with a sensitivity of 58% and a positive predictive value of 78%. In conclusion, HHV-8 is associated with pulmonary KS...

  18. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  19. 非小细胞肺癌 BALF 中 RAR-β基因甲基化与p53突变检测及相关性研究∗%Correlation between RAR-βgene methylation and p53 gene mutation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪; 肖贵华; 程长浩; 常芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance and correlation between RAR-βgene methylation and p53 gene mutation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in non-small-cell lung cancer.Methods BALF samples from 85 lung cancer pa-tients(lung cancer group)and 70 cases(benign lung diseases group)with benign lung diseases were collected.RAR-βgene methyla-tion in BALF samples was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP),and p53 gene mutation was detected by PCR and DNA se-quencing method.Results The rate of RAR-βmethylation and p53 mutation in BALF in lung cancer were 49.4% and 36.5%,re-spectively.Both were higher than in benign lung diseases group(P <0.01).RAR-βmethylation rate(32.5%)of patients with TNM stages(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)(32.5%)was higher than the p53 mutation rate(12.5%)over the same stages (P <0.05).RAR-βmethylation rate and p53 mutation rate of patients with stages(Ⅲ+Ⅳ)were higher than those with stages(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)(P <0.01).p53 mutation rate in lung cancer patients with RAR-βmethylation was higher than those with unmethylated(P <0.01).RAR-βmethylation rate of lung cancer patients with p53 mutation was higher than those without p53 mutation(P <0.01).Conclusion Detection of RAR-βmethyl-ation and p53 mutation in BALF contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer.%目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌患者支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中 RAR-β基因甲基化与 p53基因突变检测的临床意义及二者的相关性。方法收集非小细胞肺癌患者(肺癌组)85例及良性疾病患者(良性疾病组)70例的 BALF 标本,采用甲基化特异性 PCR(MSP)方法检测 BALF 中的 RAR-β基因甲基化,PCR 结合 DNA 测序法检测 p53基因突变。结果肺癌组 BALF 中RAR-β基因甲基化率及 p53基因突变率分别为49.4%、36.5%,均显著高于良性疾病组(P <0.01);(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)期 RAR-β基因甲基化率(32.5%)高于同期 p53基因突变率(12.5%)(P <0.05);(Ⅲ+Ⅳ)期 RAR-β基因甲基化率及 p53基因突变

  20. 旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠血清及肺泡灌洗液总IgE的影响%Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice with allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 闫玉文; 邢杰; 于剑

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on allergic asthma, through the study of the change of total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) when the mice which were infected with Trichinella spiralis were suffering from allergic asthma. [Methods] Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups (six mice each), including A as control group, B as allergic asthma group, C as asthma followed by Trichinella spiralis infection. The animals in group C were intragastrically infected with 200-300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Four weeks later, ovalbumin (OVA) was used to induce allergic asthma for mice in group B and C, in order to establish experimental animal model. After eight weeks, all mice were killed and total IgE levels were measured in serum and BALF.[ Results] Total IgE levels were measured by ELISA. Total IgE levels from serum in group A, B and C were (61.79 ± 25.79) , (437.08 ± 75.68) , (251.64 ± 107.27) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P< 0.05). BALF total IgE levels in group A, B and C were (43.70 ± 29.49), (387.49 ± 148.32), (102.50 ± 49.55) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P < 0.05). [Conclusion] Trichinella spiralis infection can inhibit the total IgE level of mice with the allergic asthma.%通过研究旋毛虫感染小鼠在过敏性哮喘发病时血清及肺泡灌洗液中总IgE水平变化,探讨旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘的影响.[方法]取雌性、8周龄BALB/c小鼠,随机分为3组,A组为空白对照组,B组为单纯过敏性哮喘组,C组为感染旋毛虫后哮喘组.C组经灌胃感染旋毛虫囊包幼虫200 ~ 300条;4周后,以卵清白蛋白(ovalbumin,OVA)分别对B组和C组小鼠进行致敏激发,建立过敏性哮喘模型;8周后,取小鼠血清、肺泡灌洗液,检测总IgE水平.[结果]ELISA法检测血清中A、B、C组小鼠总IgE水平分别为(61.79±25.79)、(437.08±75.68)

  1. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

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    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  2. [Biochemical characteristics of fluid and cells of bronchoalveolar washings in patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskaia, G O; Abdullaev, R Iu; Filippov, V P

    2002-01-01

    In 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA), including 30 and 13 in its acute and chronic disease, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, bronchoalveolar washing fluid (BAWF), isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and unfractionated cellular sediment (NFCS) were separately studied. The BAWF showed high rates of lipid peroxidation (LPO), decreased antiproteolytic defense, and activated local synthesis of haptoglobin (Hp), fibronectin (FN), platelet activation factor (PAF), and enzymes of antioxidative defense (AOD). There was a rise in FN and PAF concentrations in the acute phase of the disease and higher PLO rates and elevated Hp levels in chronic EAA. The rate of oxidative metabolism in AMs was much higher in acute EAA than that in chronic EAA and accompanied by imbalance in the PLO-AOD system. AM levels of PAF was high in patients in both groups. The rate of LPO was higher in NFCS than in AM and was also followed by simultaneous AOD mobilization with preserved imbalance. A particularly significant AOD insufficiency in the NFCS was noted in chronic EAA, which was accompanied by decreased PAF. Thus, local pathochemical processes are of significance in developing the pattern of the process in EAA.

  3. 益气化痰方对慢性阻塞性肺疾病大鼠肺泡灌洗液中AQP5、 TNF-α和MUC5AC的影响%Effect of Yiqi Huatan Decoction on Aquaporin 5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and MUC5AC in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立志; 单丽囡; 黄纯美; 陈创荣; 詹少峰; 钟亮环

    2016-01-01

    【目的】观察益气化痰方对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)大鼠肺泡灌洗液(BALF)水通道蛋白5(AQP5)及其上游信号通道调节因子肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和下游信号通道调节因子黏蛋白5AC(MUC5AC)的调节作用。【方法】选用SD大鼠,随机分为空白组,模型组,益气化痰方低、中、高剂量组(剂量分别为7.398、36.99、73.98 g·kg-1·g-1)。除空白组外,其他组均采用香烟熏结合脂多糖气管滴入法复制COPD大鼠模型。采用益气化痰中药煎剂治疗COPD大鼠30 d后取材,观察肺组织苏木精—伊红(HE)染色,采用免疫组织化学法观察AQP5、 TNF-α、 MUC5AC的表达,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定大鼠肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中AQP5、 TNF-α和MUC5AC的含量。【结果】益气化痰汤各剂量组均可改善COPD大鼠的肺组织病理损害,减弱肺组织MUC5AC、 TNF-α表达,增强AQP5表达。与空白组比较,模型组肺组织BALF中AQP5浓度显著下降(P<0.01), TNF-α和MUC5AC浓度显著升高(P<0.01)。与模型组比较,益气化痰方低、中、高剂量组肺组织BALF中AQP5浓度显著升高(P<0.01), TNF-α和MUC5AC浓度显著下降(P<0.01)。与低、中剂量组比较,益气化痰汤高剂量组作用显著(P<0.01)。【结论】益气化痰方对COPD的疗效可能与水通道转运密切相关。%Objective To investigate Yiqi Huatan Decoction(YHD), a compound recipe with the actions of tonifying Qi and resolving phlegm, on aquaporin 5(AQP5), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α)and mucin 5AC(MUC5AC)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD)rats. Methods SD rats were randomized into blank control group, model group, and low-, middle- and high-dose YHD groups(in the dosage of 7.398, 36.99, 73.98 g·kg-1·d-1 respectively). The rat model of COPD was induced by cigarette smoking combined with intratracheal

  4. SPECTRUM OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Sowmya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The common bacterial pathogens include Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. aureus, Acinetobacter spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance is common among these bacterial isolates. This study was taken up to identify the spectrum of bacteria isolated from bronchoalveolar (BAL samples of patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections and to determine their antibiogram. MATERIALS and METHODS: The retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care centre over a period of one year (March 2013-February 2014.Patients above 18 years with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included in this study. The samples with growth >104 CFU/ml of bacteria were identified and their susceptibility pattern to various antibiotics was performed. RESULTS: Out of 307 BAL samples, 110 were culture positive. The common bacterial pathogens isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (21.8%, Acinetobacter spp. (15.5%, Klebsiella spp.(14.5%, Enterococcus spp.(10.9% and S.aureus (12.7%. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 31.6% of Acinetobacter spp, 22% Klebsiella spp. and 14% in Pseudomonas spp. Methicillin resistance was detected in 21.4% of S.aureus isolates. All strains of S.aureus were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. All isolates of Enterococci were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and high level aminoglycosides. CONCLUSION: Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. were the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from BAL. Carbapenem resistance is on the rise among these gram negative bacterial isolates.

  5. Rapid simultaneous identification and quantitation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa directly from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens using automated microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Steven; Frobel, Rachel A; Dunne, W Michael

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosis of ventilator-assisted pneumonia (VAP) requires pathogen quantitation of respiratory samples. Current quantitative culture methods require overnight growth, and pathogen identification requires an additional step. Automated microscopy can perform rapid simultaneous identification and quantitation of live, surface-immobilized bacteria extracted directly from patient specimens using image data collected over 3 h. Automated microscopy was compared to 1 μL loop culture and standard identification methods for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. in 53 remnant bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Microscopy identified 9/9 S. aureus and 7/7 P. aeruginosa in all specimens with content above the VAP diagnostic threshold. Concordance for specimens containing targets above the diagnostic threshold was 13/16, with concordance for sub-diagnostic content of 86/90. Results demonstrated that automated microscopy had higher precision than 1 μL loop culture (range ~0.55 log versus ≥1 log), with a dynamic range of ~4 logs (~10(3) to 10(6) CFU/mL).

  6. [Role of bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy in the diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedillo Muñoz, A; Lopez Moya, M E; de Lucas Ramos, P; Puente Maestu, L; Sanchez Juanes, M J; Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro, J M; Garcia de Pedro, J; Rodriguez de Guzman, M C

    1996-02-01

    Pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation constitutes a very frequent cause of mortality, as a result precocious aetiologic diagnosis is indispensable. The bronchoscopic techniques, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBB), constitute fundamental procedures for these diagnoses. We begin this study with the aim of evaluating the profitability obtained with these procedures. 36 bronchoscopies were performed on 29 patients with organ transplantation, in all of them we realized BAL and in 20 TBB. We confirm the presence of pneumonia in 30 (in 15 of them we had performed TBB), the BAL was diagnostic in 20 cases (66.6%) and the TBB in 7 (46.6%). With both, BAL and TBB, we obtained a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 75%. We isolated 10 bacteria, 8 Citomegalovirus (CMV), 6 Pneumocystis carinii and 2 Aspergillus fumigatus. The BAL and the TBB contributed significantly in the aetiologic diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with organ transplantation, consequently we consider them basic tools in the management of these infections.

  7. Influence of Dexamethasone on IL-25 and IFN-γin Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Asthmatic Mice%地塞米松对哮喘小鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液中IL-25和IFN-γ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆韦; 王蕾; 谯明; 王玉; 江吉富; 吴中明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of therapeutic action of dexamethasone on asthmatic mice by detecting the levels of IL-25 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Methods Balb/c mice with SPF grade were randomly divided into normal control group, asthma group and dexamethasone group. Asthma group and dexamethasone group were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin ( OVA) . Dexamethasone group was intraperitoneally injected with dexamethasone one hour before challenging. The mice were executed 24 hours after the last challenge, and the HE stained pathological sections of the right lung were made. Pathological sections of lung were observed. BALF in the left lung was also collected. The total white blood cell count and absolute eosinophile ( EOS) count were observed, and the percentage of EOS was calculated. The levels of IL-25 and IFN-γwere measured with ELISA, and correlation analyses were made. Results The counts of total white blood cell and EOS, and the percentage of EOS were significantly higher in the asthma group than in the normal control group and dexamethasone group (P<0. 05). No differences were found between the normal control group and dexamethasone group. The IL-25 level was higher in the asthma group than in the normal control group and dexamethasone group (P<0. 05), and its level in the dexamethasone group was also higher than that in the normal control group. The IFN-γlevel was lower in the asthma group than in the normal control group and dexamethasone group (P<0. 05), while there was no significant difference between the normal control group and dexamethasone group. IL-25 was negatively correlated with IFN-γin each group. Conclusion Part of the mechanisms of dexamethasone acting on asthma are related to its inhibition on the pulmonary inflammation and promotion on the expression of IFN-γ, and possible inhibition of IL-25 expression.%目的通过检测支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中白细胞介素-25(IL-25)和γ-干扰

  8. [The effect of vaporization with thermal sulfurous water on phospholipids in the broncho-alveolar lavage solution following hypobaric hypoxia in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, M C; Montastruc, P; Douste-Blazy, L

    1983-09-01

    We have studied, in the rat, the action of a vaporization with sulphurous water from Bagnères de Luchon on the surfactant modifications caused by hypoxia. The phospholipase activity, subordinate to hypoxia, decreased by 1/5 compared to its value without treatment and the phospholipid composition of the broncho-alveolar lung lavage remained unchanged whereas after hypoxia without treatment the phosphatidylcholines level decreases by 26%. We demonstrated by a dose-response study that this protective action decreased with the thermal water dilution. We also showed that this effect could not be due to the only action of reduced sulphur: different concentrations of sulphur solutions had no action on the phospholipase A activity subordinate to hypoxia. So we can conclude that a vaporization with sulphurous water had a protective action against hypoxia on the broncho-alveolar lavage of rat lung.

  9. [Study of cellular inflammatory response with bronchoalveolar lavage in allergic asthma, aspirin asthma and in extrinsic infiltrating alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiño, Juan C; Garnero, Roberto; Caillet Bois, Ricardo; Gregorio, María J; Ferrero, Mercedes; Romero-Piffiguer, Marta

    2002-01-01

    The asthmatic inflammatory responses present different type of cells involved in this process, such as: Lymphocytes and Eosinophils. In experienced hands the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-tolerated and valuable tool for investigation of basic mechanisms in asthma and other immunological respiratory diseases. The purpose of this work was to study the different cells involved in asthmatic inflammatory responses in allergic and aspirin sensitivity patients and compared with Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis patients (EAA) by BAL procedure. We studied 27 asthmatic patients. This group was divided by etiological conditions in: allergic asthmatic patients (a) (n: 19), (9 male and 10 female) demonstrated by reversible fall of FEV 1 (3) 20% and 2 or more positive skin test for common aeroallergens. The aspirin asthmatic patients (b) (n: 8) (5 male and 3 female) demonstrated by progressive challenge with aspirin and fall of FEV 1 (3) 20%. The third group with compatible symptoms and signs of EAA, demonstrated by lung biopsy, (n: 9) (8 male and 1 female) (c). We determined in all patients: Total IgE serum level by ELISA test. BAL was performed by standard procedure in all patients. The cells count were performed in BAL and were separated in Eosinophils, T lymphocytes defined by monoclonal anti CD 3 antibody, Lymphocytes CD 4 and CD 8 by monoclonal anti CD 4 and CD 8 antibodies respectively. The B lymphocytes defined by surface immunoglobulin isotypes IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE. The IgE level was in (a) 630 +/- 350 kU/L, in (b) it was 85 +/- 62 kU/L and in EAA (c) 55 +/- 23 kU/L, p allergic asthmatic patients as well as in aspirin sensitivity asthmatic patients. The LBA cellular profile of E.AA patients presented eosinophilia and CE8+ Lymphocite predominance when compared with both asthmatic cellular profile.

  10. Effect of Loratadine on Expression of Interleukin 5 and Eosinophil Count in Peripheral Blood and Bronchoal-veolar Lavage Fluid of Asthmatic Guinea Pigs%氯雷他定对哮喘豚鼠肺泡灌洗液及血清白细胞介素-5和嗜酸性粒细胞计数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓丹; 张明; 欧维琳; 郑伟华; 朱春江; 吉艳荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of loratadine which was the second generation of H1 receptor antagonist on the expressions of interleukin 5 (IL- 5 )and eosinophil (EOS) count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and peripheral blood in asthmatic guinea pigs,and explore the role of loratadine on airway high response of asthmatic guinea pigs. Methods Thirty -two guinea pigs were divided into normal control group, asthmatic group, low dose and high dose group of loratadine. After ovalbumin irritated, ovalbumin was inhaled to induce asthma breakout, meanwhile giving loratadine 2 mg · kg-1, 10 mg· kg- 1 in low dose group and high dose group. After the last inhaling ovalbumin,the airway pressure was detected by the animal respirator. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL -5 in BALF and peri-pheral blood,meanwhile,EOS count was also detected. Results The serum IL -5 in normal control group,asthmatic group,low dose group and high dose group were(0.27 ±0.04) ng · L-1 ,(0.41 ±0.03) ng · L-1 ,(0. 38 ±0.02) ng · L-1 and (0.31 ±0.03) ng · L-1;IL-5 in BALF were (0. 10 ±0. 01 )ng · L-1 ,(0.38 ±0.04) ng · L-1 ,(0.33 ±0.05) ng · L-1 and (0.23 ±0.09) ng · L-1, respectively;the count of EOS in serum were(4.0 ±0. 6) × 108L-1, (54.6 ± 7.6) × 108L-1 , (44.5 ± 3.9) × l08L-1 and (29.0 ± 5.8) × 108L- 1 ;EOS in BALF in each group were(3.0 ±0. 5) × 108L-1 ,(33.7 ±3.9) × 108L-1 ,(27. 1 ±3.2) × l08L-1 and ( 18.6 ±3.3) × 108L-1. The differences between every 2 groups in each measurements were significant(Pa <0.05,0. 01 ). When inhaled histamine 10 mg · L-1 and 20 mg · L - 1, the differences between asthmatic group and low dose of loratadine group was not remarkable, but the difference between the rest 2 groups were prominent( Pa < 0. 05 ). Conclusions In asthmatic model, loratadine can ameliorate the airway high response, reverse the high IL-5 expressing condition in asthma,at the same time,the count of eosionphil is also

  11. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia%支气管肺泡灌洗在免疫抑制患者肺部感染中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠萍; 张波

    2014-01-01

    肺部感染是导致免疫抑制患者死亡的重要原因之一.支气管肺泡灌洗是研究肺泡表面液细胞成分和可溶性物质的一种方法,被广泛用于免疫抑制宿主肺部病变的诊断中,是下呼吸道微生物取样的标准方法.现将支气管肺泡灌洗在免疫抑制患者肺部感染中的诊断价值作一综述.%Pneumonia is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients.Bronchoalveolar lavage,as a tool for investigation of the cellular and soluble components in alveolar lining fluid,has been extensively used for diagnosis of pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts.It has become a standard tool in investigation of lower respiratory pathogens.This paper reviews the diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia.

  12. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 9, 24105, Kiel (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L. [Department of Clinical Rheumatology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Bad Bramstedt (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, {kappa} score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD{+-}20.9%); r=-0.54; p<0.001) and very weak with vital capacity and FEV1 (mean values 92.2% (SD{+-}18.3%); r=-0.27; p<0.05 and 89.8% (SD{+-}17.5%); r=-0.31; p<0.01). In patients with GGO, BAL differentials tended towards neutrophilia ({kappa}=0.39; p=0.04; McNemar test p>0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis ({kappa}=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side

  13. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floros Joanna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ozone is a major component of air pollution. Exposure to this powerful oxidizing agent can cause or exacerbate many lung conditions, especially those involving innate immunity. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A plays many roles in innate immunity by participating directly in host defense as it exerts opsonin function, or indirectly via its ability to regulate alveolar macrophages and other innate immune cells. The mechanism(s responsible for ozone-induced pathophysiology, while likely related to oxidative stress, are not well understood. Methods We employed 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, a discovery proteomics approach, coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF to compare the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL proteomes in wild type (WT and SP-A knockout (KO mice and to assess the impact of ozone or filtered air on the expression of BAL proteins. Using the PANTHER database and the published literature most identified proteins were placed into three functional groups. Results We identified 66 proteins and focused our analysis on these proteins. Many of them fell into three categories: defense and immunity; redox regulation; and protein metabolism, modification and chaperones. In response to the oxidative stress of acute ozone exposure (2 ppm; 3 hours there were many significant changes in levels of expression of proteins in these groups. Most of the proteins in the redox group were decreased, the proteins involved in protein metabolism increased, and roughly equal numbers of increases and decreases were seen in the defense and immunity group. Responses between WT and KO mice were similar in many respects. However, the percent change was consistently greater in the KO mice and there were more changes that achieved statistical significance in the KO mice, with levels of expression in filtered air-exposed KO mice being closer to ozone-exposed WT mice than to filtered air-exposed WT mice. Conclusion We postulate that SP-A plays a role

  14. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-β and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matěj, Radoslav; Smětáková, Magdalena; Vašáková, Martina; Nováková, Jana; Sterclová, Martina; Kukal, Jaromír; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoidosis (SARC) and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) share certain markers, making a differential diagnosis difficult even with histopathological investigation. In lung tissue, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is primarily investigated with regard to epithelial and inflammatory perspectives. Varying levels of certain chemokines can be a useful tool for distinguishing EAA and SARC. Thus, in the present study, differences in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) and PAR-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared, using an ELISA method, between 14 patients with EAA and six patients with SARC. Statistically significant higher levels of IL-4R, PAR-2 and the PAR-2/TGF-β1 and PAR-2/TNF-α ratios were observed in EAA patients as compared with SARC patients. Furthermore, the ratios of TNF-α/total protein, TGF-β1/PAR-2 and TNF-α/PAR-2 were significantly lower in EAA patients than in SARC patients. The results indicated a higher detection of PAR-2 in EAA samples in association with TNF-α and TGF-β levels. As EAA and PAR-2 in parallel belong to the Th2-mediated pathway, the results significantly indicated an association between this receptor and etiology. In addition, the results indicated that SARC is predominantly a granulomatous inflammatory disease, thus, higher levels of TNF-α are observed. Therefore, the detection of PAR-2 and investigated chemokines in BALF may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between EAA and SARC.

  15. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhardt Wolfram

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5 or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5. For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5 or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5 were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition.

  16. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease.

  17. 纤支镜下支气管肺泡灌洗在多发伤并肺挫伤中的应用%Application of Bronchoalveolar Lavage by Fibrobronchoscopy in Multiple Injury with Pulmonary Contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边革元; 郝江; 罗积慎; 张萍; 杨明浩; 刘军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage by fibrobronchoscopy for the examination and treatment of multiple injury patients with pulmonary contusion. [Methods] Multiple injury patients with pulmonary contusion who needed invasive ventilation were randomly divided into control group and fibrobronchoscopy treatment group. Beside antibiotics, circulatory and respiratory support and corticoids,bronchoalveolar lavage was used in the treatment group. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid included normal saline 100ml and ambroxol hydrochloride injection 150mg. Bronchoalveolar lavage at bedside was performed for 3times with once a day. Meanwhile sputum smear was performed. The efficacy was compared between two groups. [Results] Compared with the control group, the oxygenation index(PaO2/FiO2) target reaching (≥300mmHg) time, chest-X ray shadow fade time and invasive mechanical ventilation time in the fibrobronchoscopy treatment group decreased, and there were significant differences between two groups( P >0.05). Fibrobronchoscopy could promptly find mucosal injury and airway obstruction, and timely take local irrigate and medication for removing the obstruction. [Conclusion] Mechanical ventilation combined with bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and effective measure for the treatment of multiple injury complicated with pulmonary contusion.%[目的]探讨纤支镜下支气管肺泡灌洗(BAL)对多发伤并肺挫伤患者的检查与治疗效果.[方法]将多发伤并肺挫伤且需使用有创机械通气患者分为对照与纤支镜治疗组,除抗感染、循环呼吸支持、皮质激素等治疗外,治疗组病程中均采用纤支镜,以生理盐水100 mL+盐酸氨溴索注射液150 mg作为灌洗液,床旁行BAL灌洗3次,每2天1次,并行痰检,比较两组的治疗效果.[结果]经纤支镜治疗组氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)改善(≥300 mmHg)时间、胸片阴影消退时间、有创机械通气时间三项指标均较对照组有所

  18. Legionella pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients suffering from severe respiratory infections: Role of age, sex and history of smoking in the prevalence of bacterium

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    Faradonbeh Fatemeh Alaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly detected cause of legionellosis, which is an acute respiratory tract infection with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of L. pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavages and study the role of sex, age and history of smoking as risk factors for susceptibility to the bacterium. Methods. One hundred bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from the Iranian health centers and immediately transferred to laboratory. The samples were cultured and those that were L. pneumophila positive were subjected to PCR method with respect to the 16S rRNA gene. Results. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive for L. pneumophila (12%. Patients older than 70 years had the highest incidence of L. pneumophila (17.77%. Prevalence of L. pneumophila in male and female patients was 14.81% and 8.69%, respectively. Total incidence of L. pneumophila in patients with and without history of smoking was 18% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the incidence of bacterium between groups of our study. Conclusion. Sex, age and history of smoking are predominant risk factors for the occurrence of L. pneumophila. However, more studies should be undertaken to confirm these results.

  19. Influence of refractory ceramic fibres - asbestos substitute - on the selected parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage 6 months after intratracheal instillation to W-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbánková, Marta; Cerná, Silvia; Gergelová, Petra; Wimmerová, Sona

    2005-12-01

    Industrial fibrous dusts are applied in many industrial branches and represent adverse factors in occupational and environmental area. Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) - amorphous alumina silicates - are used as one kind of asbestos substitutes. Because RCFs are relatively durable and some RCFs are respirable, they may present a potential health hazard by inhalation. The aim of present work was to find out the subchronic effect of RCFs on selected parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in W-rats, confirm the biopersistence of RCFs after 6 month instillation and contribute to the understanding of the pathomechanism of lung injury after fibrous dust exposure. Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled with 4 mg/animal of RCFs - exposed group and with 0.4 ml saline solution/animal - control group. Animals were sacrificed after 6 month exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and selected BAL parameters (mainly inflammatory and cytotoxic) were examined. After treatment with RCFs the following changes were observed: statistically significant increase in proportion of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclears as well as in % of immature alveolar macrophages (AM) and phagocytic activity of AM; statistically significant decrease in viability of AM and proportion of AM (from the differential cell count) in comparison with the control group. The results of this study indicated that RCFs even 6 months after intratracheal instillation very significantly changed the majority of examined BAL parameters. The presence of inflammatory and cytotoxic response in lung may signalize beginning or developing disease process.

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of polyvinyl chloride particles after repeated intratracheal instillations in rats. Elevated CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Vanhooren, Hadewijch M; Verbeken, Erik; Yu, Lisong; Lin, Yuan; Nemery, Benoit; Hoet, Peter H M

    2004-01-15

    Occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles has been associated with interstitial lung disease. Our previous study showed that a single intratracheal instillation of emulsion PVC particles, with or without residual additives, induces acute but transient alveolitis in a dose-dependent manner in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pulmonary response after the administration of the same PVC particles (PVC-E3 and PVC-W3) given in the same cumulative doses (10 and 50 mg/kg BW), but fractionated as seven intratracheal instillations (7 x 1.4 and 7 x 7.1 mg/kg BW) in the course of 3 weeks (day 0 to day 21). Pulmonary response was characterized by analysis of lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, and cell cytology, and a microscopic evaluation of lung tissue. BAL T lymphocyte phenotypes (CD3 + CD4 +, CD3 + CD8+) were analyzed by flow cytometry. On day 28, lung weights, BAL-LDH, cell numbers in BAL, and CD4/CD8 ratios in BAL T lymphocytes were higher in rats that had received the high dose of PVC-E3 or PVC-W3 than in rats that had received the low dose of PVC particles and control rats. On day 90, the pulmonary response had partially regressed towards control values, but there were still microscopically evident lesions in the lungs and greater CD4/CD8 ratio in the high dose groups. There were significant positive correlations between the CD4/CD8 ratio and a histopathology score of the lung (r = 0.36, P = 0.038 on day 28, and r = 0.46, P = 0.006 on day 90). In conclusion, repeated intratracheal instillations of PVC particles yielded similar results as single instillations. The examined PVC particles have the potential of inducing a limited and transient acute inflammatory reaction in the lung, and possibly a more persistent alteration of pulmonary T lymphocyte subsets towards a high CD4/CD8 ratio.

  1. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...... and a significant increase in the levels of histamine and tryptase. The challenge of subjects not allergic to pollen produced no such response. Azelastine and cetirizine significantly reduced allergen-induced sneezing and the associated increase in histamine and tryptase levels. No significant differences were...

  2. MRP1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in subjects with lung cancer who were chronically exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Dena-Cazares, Jose Angel; Ramirez-de la Peña, Jorge Luis; Jacobo-Ávila, Antonio; Portales-Castanedo, Arnulfo; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha Patricia; Ocampo-Gomez, Guadalupe; Michel-Ramirez, Gladis

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) expression has been associated with certain lung diseases, and this protein may be pivotal in protecting the lungs against endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of MRP1 in bronchoalveolar cells from subjects with and without lung cancer who had been chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. MRP1 expression was assessed in bronchoalveolar cells in a total of 102 participants. MRP1 expression was significantly decreased in those with arsenic urinary levels >50 μg/L when compared with the controls. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure negatively correlates with the expression of MRP1 in BAL cells in patients with lung cancer.

  3. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  4. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  5. Estudo do lavado broncoalveolar em pacientes com comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose Study of bronchoalveolar lavage in leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement

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    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    2004-04-01

    diffuse bilateral infiltrates in chest X-rays. Such findings may be compatible with alveolar hemorrhage, already described by some authors both in autopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of alveolar hemorrhage, diagnosed through BAL, in bearers of leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement emphasizing the methodís importance for early detection of this complication. METHOD: Seven patients with leptospirosis were submitted to BAL. All presented respiratory symptoms and/or infiltrates in the chest X-rays and/or hypoxemia.Alveolar hemorrhage was defined by the following findings in BAL: percentage of siderophages eî20% and/ or Golde score >100 and/or hemorrhagic fluid. Culture and direct tests for leptospirosis were performed in BAL. Diagnosis of disease was confirmed by microscopy serum agglutination. RESULTS: The aspect of the bronchoscopy was normal in five patients, showed blood in the bronchial tree in one case and inflammatory manifestations in another. The BAL aspect was hemorrhagic for all patients portraying alveolar hemorrhage. Culture and direct tests were negative for Leptospiras in the BAL. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage. The BAL was confirmed as an efficient method for detection of alveolar hemorrhage in leptospirosis, to recommend immediate therapy for the purpose of preventing its evolution to massive hemoptysis and respiratory failure.

  6. Comparison of endotracheal aspirate and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Atıkan, Başak; Karapınar, Bülent; Aydemir, Şöhret; Vardar, Fadıl

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation. Quantitative cultures were examined in Ege University Department of Diagnostic Microbiology, Bacteriology Laboratory. Fourty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of study subjects was 47.2±53.6 months. A total of 28 in 82 specimens taken with both methods were negative/negative; 28 had positive result with ETA and a negative result with non-bronchoscopic BAL and both results were negative in 26 specimens. There were no patients whose respiratory specimen culture was negative with ETA and positive with non-bronchoscopic BAL. These results imply that there is a significant difference between two diagnostic methods (p ETA results were compared with this method. ETA's sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100%, 50%, 100% and 48% respectively. The study revealed the ease of usability and the sensitivity of non-bronchoscopic BAL, in comparison with ETA.

  7. Microbial interaction between a CTXM-15 -producing Escherichia coli and a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage: influence of cefotaxime in the dual-species biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; Gomes, Rita; Curvelo, Sara; Cravo, Sara; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins da Costa, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Two isolates, Escherichia coli ella00 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ella01, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage, were found to be closely associated in clusters in agar medium. Escherichia coli ella00 was multidrug resistant and CTXM-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, while P. aeruginosa ella01 was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. These observations impelled for further studies aimed to understand their microbial interaction. The P. aeruginosa ella01 biofilm-forming capacity was reduced and not affected when it was co-cultured with E. coli ella00 and E. coli ATCC 25922 respectively. Interestingly, the co-culture of ella isolates in the presence of high concentrations, such as 160 μg ml(-1) , of cefotaxime allowed the formation of more biofilm than in the absence of the antibiotic. As revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, in co-culture, P. aeruginosa ella01 survived and subsequently flourished when exposed to this third-generation cephalosporin at a concentration 10 × higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and this was mostly due to β-lactamases production by E. coli ella00. In fact, it was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography that cefotaxime was absent for the culture medium 4 h after application. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bacterial species can interact differently depending on the surrounding conditions (favourable or stressing), and that those interactions can switch from unprofitable to beneficial.

  8. Unique cytokine and chemokine patterns in bronchoalveolar lavage are associated with specific causative pathogen among HIV infected patients with pneumonia, in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, Yoav; Rueda, Zulma V; Aguilar, Yudy; Trajtman, Adriana; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2015-06-01

    We wanted to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile associated with the etiological agents identified in HIV patients. Immunosuppressed patients admitted to two hospitals in Medellin, Colombia, with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia were enrolled in the study. After consent, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected for bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal diagnosis. All patients were followed for a year. A stored BAL sample was used for cytokine/chemokine detection and measurement using commercial, magnetic human cytokine bead-based 19-plex assays. Statistical analysis was performed by assigning cytokine/chemokine concentrations levels into 75 percentile (higher). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were conducted to identify the clustering of cytokines with the various infectious etiologies (fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis - MTB, and bacteria). Average age of patients was 35, of whom 77% were male, and the median CD4 count of 33cells/μl. Of the 57 HIV infected patients, in-hospital mortality was 12.3% and 33% died within a year of follow up. The PCA revealed increased IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, GCSF, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β concentrations to be associated with MTB infection. In patients with proven fungal infection, low concentrations of IL-1RA, IL-8, TNF-α and VEGF were identified. Bacterial infections displayed a distinct cytokine pattern and were not misclassified using the MTB or fungi cytokine patterns (p-value<0.0001). Our results indicate a unique pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine, allowing differentiation between bacterial and non-bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found distinct, if imperfectly discriminatory, cytokine/chemokine patterns associated with MTB and fungal infections.

  9. Fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings, bronchoscopic brushing and post bronchoscopic sputum along with cytological examination in cases of suspected tuberculosis

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    Vijay Kumar Bodal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ever since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882, many diagnostic methods have been developed. However "The gold standard" for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is still the demonstration of acid fast Bacilli (AFB by microscopic examination of smear or bacteriological confirmation by culture method. Materials and Methods: In suspected 75 patients with active pulmonary TB, the materials obtained bronchoscopically, were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, bronchial brushings, bronchial washings and post bronchoscopic sputum. Four smears were made from each of the specimen. Fluorescent Staining, Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN, Pap and May Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stains were carried out for cytological examination. Results: Fluorescent stain yielded maximum AFB positivity in all the methods, that is 36 (48% in post fibre-optic bronchoscopy (FOB sputum and 19 (25.33% by fluorescence microscopy in both bronchial brushings and bronchial washings. Maximum yield of AFB with ZN staining 12 (16% was equal to the post FOB sputum and bronchial brushings samples. It was followed by 6 cases (8% in BAL and 4 (5.3% in bronchial washings. The cytological examination was suggestive of TB in only 8 (10.66% cases in bronchial washings and 6 (8% cases in post FOB collection. It was equal in BAL and Bronchial brushings each that is 5 (6.67%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool and fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive than ZN and cytology. On X-ray examination, other diseases like malignancy or fungus can also mimick TB. So apart from ZN staining or fluorescence microscopy, Pap and MGG stain will be worthwhile to identify other microorganisms.

  10. Effect of low doses of lipopolysaccharide prior to ozone exposure οn bronchoalveolar lavage. Differences between wild type and surfactant protein A-deficient mice

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    Rizwanul Haque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. BACKGROUND: Several aspects of the inflammatory response to a single insult, i.e., exposure to 2 ppm of ozone (O3 for 3 h or 6 h, are less pronounced in surfactant protein A deficient (SP-A -/- mice (KO than in wild type mice (WT. It was hypothesized that a mild insult, specifically low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, would adversely affect host defense and differentially potentiate O3-induced injury in WT and KO mice. METHODS: WT and KO mice were treated with different doses of LPS or LPS (2 ng + O3 (2 ppm or filtered air (FA for 3 h, then sacrificed 4 h following exposure (O3, FA or 20 h after LPS treatment alone. Several endpoints of inflammation were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. RESULTS: 1 At 20 h after LPS treatment alone, both WT and KO mice exhibited signs of inflammation, but with differences in the macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 response pattern, total cells (at 0.5 ng LPS and basal levels of oxidized protein and phospholipids; 2 After LPS + O3, KO compared to WT showed decrease in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs and MIP-2 and increase in phospholipids, and after LPS + FA an increase in total cells; 3 WT after LPS + FA showed an increase in SP-A with no further increase after LPS + O3, and an increase in oxidized SP-A dimer following O3 or LPS + O3. CONCLUSIONS: LPS treatment has negative effects on inflammation endpoints in mouse BAL long after exposure and renders KO mice less capable of responding to a second insult. LPS and O3 affect SP-A, quantitatively and qualitatively, respectively. Pneumon 2009; 22(2:131–155.

  11. Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans.

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    Yadunanda Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.

  12. Cytopathologic diagnosis on joint lavage fluid for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Toshinari; Kumagai, Akiko; Aomura, Tomoyuki; Javed, Fawad; Sugiyama, Yoshiki; Mizuki, Harumi; Takeda, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) are usually diagnosed based on the patient's clinical findings and the results of image investigations; however, understanding of the inflammatory process in TMJ is difficult. In addition, many of the TMJ disease types share common principal symptoms. Therefore, TMJ diseases in the early stage can be misdiagnosed with TMD. It is hypothesized that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids is useful in interpreting the TMD-associated inflammatory process from a cellular aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the TMJ lavage fluid cytopathologically in TMD patients. Thirty-nine patients, clinically diagnosed as TMD, were included in the present study. Clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. Forty-four samples of TMJ lavage fluid were collected and paraffin-embedded cell sections were made by cell block tissue array method. Cytologic conditions in upper articular cavity of TMJ were cytopathologically diagnosed and were compared with the clinical symptoms of each patient. Cell components were detected in 22 of the 44 analyzed joint lavage fluids. There was a correlation between cytopathologic findings and clinical symptoms. Variety of cytopathology and inflammatory conditions in patients with similar clinical symptoms were also found. The results suggested that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids from TMD patients is helpful for gaining an understanding of the inner local conditions of TMJ at the cellular level.

  13. Subjective food hypersensitivity: assessment of enterochromaffin cell markers in blood and gut lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kine Gregersen1,2, Jørgen Valeur1,3, Kristine Lillestøl1,3, Livar Frøyland2, Pedro Araujo2, Gülen Arslan Lied1,3, Arnold Berstad1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, 2National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research; 3Department of Medicine, Section for Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Food hypersensitivity is commonly suspected, but seldom verified. Patients with subjective food hypersensitivity suffer from both intestinal and extraintestinal health complaints. Abnormalities of the enterochromaffin cells may play a role in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate enterochromaffin cell function in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity by measuring serum chromogranin A (CgA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in gut lavage fluid.Methods: Sixty-nine patients with subjective food hypersensitivity were examined. Twenty-three patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 35 healthy volunteers were included as comparison groups. CgA was measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gut lavage fluid was obtained by administering 2 L of polyethylene glycol solution intraduodenally. The first clear fluid passed per rectum was collected and 5-HT was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Serum levels of CgA were significantly lower in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity than in healthy controls (P = 0.04. No differences were found in 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid between patients with subjective food hypersensitivity and the control groups. There was no correlation between serum CgA and gut lavage 5-HT.Conclusion: Decreased blood levels of CgA suggest neuroendocrine alterations in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. However, 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid were normal.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, chromogranin A, serotonin, gut lavage fluid, liquid chromatography

  14. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabodonirina, M; Raffenot, D; Cotte, L; Boibieux, A; Mayençon, M; Bayle, G; Persat, F; Rabatel, F; Trepo, C; Peyramond, D; Piens, M A

    1997-11-01

    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (GeneReleaser). GeneReleaser enabled us to obtain amplification-ready DNA within 20 min without requiring the purification of the DNA. The nested PCR was performed with the primers pAZ102-E, pAZ102-H, and pAZ102-L2 (A. E. Wakefield, F. J. Pixley, S. Banerji, K. Sinclair, R. F. Miller, E. R. Moxon, and J. M. Hopkin, Lancet 336:451-453, 1990.). Results were obtained in about 4 h with the adoption of denaturation, annealing, and extension steps shortened to 20 seconds. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was tested with a P. carinii cyst suspension and was found to be less than one cyst (one to eight nuclei). The detection limit was the same with the use of GeneReleaser or proteinase K-phenol chloroform for DNA extraction. The nested PCR assay was prospectively compared with staining with Giemsa and methenamine silver stains for the detection of P. carinii in 127 BAL samples from 105 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients investigated for acute respiratory illness. Twenty-five BAL specimens (20%) were positive by staining and the nested PCR and 25 (20%) were negative by staining and positive by the nested PCR. These 25 BAL specimens with conflicting results were obtained from 23 patients, 82% of whom were receiving prophylactic therapy against P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Only two patients were diagnosed with possible PCP. The final diagnosis was not PCP for 20 patients who were considered to be colonized or to have a low level of infection. This colonization is not of clinical importance but is of epidemiological importance. Our rapid, simple, and sensitive amplification protocol may be performed in clinical laboratories for the routine diagnosis of PCP with BAL specimens.

  15. Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

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    ÂNGELA FERREIRA

    2000-06-01

    dusts. The aim of this study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 26 workers with different forms of silicosis: simple form (n = 12, complicated (n = 13 and 1 patient with acute form of the disease. As a control group, 7 healthy individuals were included. Compared to the control group, silicotic patients showed intense pleocytosis constituted mainly by alveolar macrophages with slight lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte subsets present in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL of normal individuals were mature lymphocytes with phenotype CD2+TCRab (87.3% and only 2.9% were CD2+TCRgd. CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.8 with few (16% immature double negative T cells subsets (CD4-CD8-. In contrast, silicotic patients showed reduction of the more mature lymphocyte subset CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ and a great increase (47% of immature (CD4-CD8- T cell subsets. No increase in the NK (CD56+ cell population was observed. Biochemical analysis of protein contents and determination of the Ig/albumin ratio characterized local immunoglobulin production within the pulmonary microenvironment. Furthermore, lack of increase of plasma cells, as well as the maintenance of the percentage of B lymphocyte population (CD19+ in the BAL of silicotic patients, favors the hypothesis that the cells responsible for Ig production are possibly located in the interstitial space. Altogether the results suggest development of lymphopoiesis and tertiary lymphoid tissue within the pulmonary microenvironment during the clinical course of silicosis.

  16. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N;

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...... untreated, prechallenge noses was 400 micrograms/L. (3) The ECP level did not increase during the early phase response. (4) There was a late occurring increase in the ECP concentration (6 to 24 hours). (5) This increase was completely inhibited by budesonide pretreatment. (6) The glucocorticoid therapy also...... reduced the prechallenge ECP concentration. In conclusion, allergen provocation in the nose results in a late occurring increase of ECP in nasal lavage fluid, and one of the therapeutic effects of topical glucocorticoid therapy may be an inhibition of the allergen-induced increase of this cytotoxic...

  17. Clinical effects and bronchoalveolar transfer of levofloxacin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耀广; 苏薇; 徐作军; 白彦

    2001-01-01

    @@To evaluate the clinical effects and bronchoalveolar transfer of levofloxacin (LVFX) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Twenty-eight outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were observed in an open-label, noncomparative study. The concentrations of levofloxacin in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured  by  high-performance  liquid  chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 10 patients and 15 non-levofloxacin users.

  18. Clinical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage in the treatment of lobar pneumonia in children%支气管肺泡灌洗治疗儿童大叶性肺炎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳芳; 刘凤艳

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical value of bronchoalveolar lavage in treatment of children with lobar pneumonia. Method:Randomly selected 50 patients without alveolar lavage of lobar pneumonia (non lavaged group) and 60 cases after bronchoalveolar lavage of lobar pneumonia (lavage group), compared two groups of children with the average hospital stay, average time of using antibiotic and short-term and long-term complications. Result:The treatment group the average hospitalization days and the average time of using antibiotic was shorter than the control group (P<0.01), short term complication rate higher than the treatment group (P<0.05), the long term complication rate of control group was higher than the treatment group P<0.05. Conclusion:Bronchoalveolar lavage for the treatment of lobar pneumonia in children can significantly reduce the average time of hospitalization in children and the use of antibiotics in time, the short-term complication was transient, safe and reliable, and can reduce the long-term complications of lobar pneumonia.%目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗术治疗儿童大叶性肺炎的临床价值。方法:随机抽取50例未进行肺泡灌洗的大叶性肺炎患儿(未灌洗组)和60例经过肺泡灌洗的大叶性肺炎的患儿(灌洗组),对比两组患儿的平均住院日,平均抗生素使用时间及短期及远期并发症发生率。结果:灌洗组患儿的平均住院日及平均抗生素使用时间明显短于非灌洗组(P<0.01),短期并发症发生率灌洗组高于非灌洗组(P<0.05),远期并发症发生率非灌洗组高于灌洗组 P<0.05。结论:支气管肺泡灌洗术治疗儿童大叶性肺炎可明显减少患儿平均住院治疗时间及抗生素使用时间,其短期并发症多呈一过性,安全可靠,同时可减少大叶性肺炎的远期并发症。

  19. Evolução da pneumonia lipoide exógena em crianças: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o papel da lavagem broncoalveolar Evolution of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and the role of bronchoalveolar lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria de Azevedo Sias

    2009-09-01

    clinical, radiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings, emphasizing the importance of bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: We included 28 children, with a mean age of 20 months (range, 1-108 months, diagnosed with chronic pneumonia refractory to antimicrobial therapy, with TB or with a combination of the two. Most of the children had at least one risk factor for aspiration, and all of them had a history of mineral oil ingestion for intestinal constipation (23/28 or complicated ascaridiasis (5/28. Clinical evaluations, tomographic evaluations and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were carried out at the beginning of treatment and throughout a follow-up period of 24 months. RESULTS: Tachypnea and cough were the most common symptoms. The most common radiological alterations were areas of consolidation (23/28, perihilar infiltrates (13/28 and hyperinflation (11/28. Chest CT scans showed areas of consolidation with air bronchogram (24/28, decreased attenuation in the areas of consolidation (16/28, ground-glass opacities (3/28 and crazy-paving pattern (1/28. In the analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Sudan staining revealed foamy macrophages, confirming the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. After treatment with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (mean = 9.6, 20 children became asymptomatic, 18 of those presenting normal tomographic images. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia should be considered in patients with chronic refractory pneumonia or TB, especially if there is a history of mineral oil ingestion. Bronchoscopy with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages was an efficient treatment for the clearance of mineral oil from the lung parenchyma and the prevention of fibrosis. This strategy contributed to reducing the morbidity of lipoid pneumonia, which remains a rare diagnosis.

  20. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba

    2007-08-01

    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  1. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B.E.

    1992-12-31

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and ``mouth`` breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO{sub 2max}, as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  2. Physiological and lavage fluid cytological and biochemical endpoints of toxicity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to toxic materials can result in a variety of physiologic disturbances that can serve as endpoints of toxicity. In addition to a brief review of commonly assessed physiologic endpoints, attention is given in the first component of this report to the use of both nose breathing and mouth'' breathing rats in toxicity studies that involve measurements of ventilatory functional changes in response to test atmospheres. Additionally, the usefulness of maximum oxygen consumption, or VO[sub 2max], as a physiologic endpoint of toxicity that uses exercising rats after exposure to test atmospheres is described, along with an introduction to post-exposure exercise as an important behavioral activity that can markedly impact on the severity of acute lung injury caused by pneumoedematogenic materials. The second component of this report focuses on bronchoalveolar lavage and cytological and biochemical endpoints that can be assessed in investigations of the toxicities of test materials. As will be shown herein, some of the biochemical endpoints of toxicity, especially, can sensitively detect subtle injury to the lower respiratory tract that may escape detection by changes in some other conventional endpoints of toxicity, including lung gravimetric increases and histopathological alterations.

  3. Application of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis and treatnent of childhood prolonged pneumonia%支气管肺泡灌洗术在儿童迁延性肺炎诊治中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 黄英; 李渠北; 代继宏; 舒畅; 袁小平; 赵华; 符州

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨纤维支气管镜及支气管肺泡灌洗术在儿童迁延性肺炎诊治中的作用.方法 收集2009年1月-12月入院的迁延性肺炎患儿,对其中105例行纤维支气管镜检查及支气管肺泡灌洗,与40例未行此术的患儿进行对照分析.结果 105例行纤维支气管镜检查的患儿均显示不同程度的支气管内膜炎症,其中单纯性气管支气管内膜炎43例,62例同时存在呼吸道基础疾病,呼吸中心中气管支气管软化32例、气管支气管狭窄19例、支气管开口异常6例.支气管肺泡灌洗组治愈85例,治愈率80.95%;对照组治愈22例,治愈率55.00%.两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.005).结论 纤维支气管镜术及支气管肺泡灌洗术对儿童迁延性肺炎有重要的病因诊断和治疗价值,且安全性好.%Objective To explore the use of flexible bronchoscopy examination and bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis and treatment of childhood prolonged pneumonia. Methods A total of 145 cases with prolonged pneumonia between January 2009 and December 2009 were collected and among them 105 patients were given flexible bronchoscopy examination and bronchoalveolar lavage treatment. Results Flexible bronchoscopy examination showed that all of the 105 children with prolonged pneumonia had endobronchitis, in which 62 cases with other respiratory diseases. Among them, simple endobronchitis were 43 cases, tracheobronchomalacia were 32 cases, tracheobronchial stenosis were 19 cases, bronchial abnormal openings were 6 cases, tracheobronchial foreign body were 2 cases. Old pulmonary hemorrhage, bronchus dysplasia, laryngeal cartilage dysplasia was 1 case, respectively. In lavage group,85 cases were cured, 20 cases were improved; In control group, 22 cases were cured, 17 cases were improved, 1 case had no effect. There is statistical significance between lavage group and control group in effective rate( P <0.005). Conclusions Flexible bronchoscopy examination combined with

  4. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and Characterization of Mutations Associated with Sulfa Resistance in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, Anna; Carrera, Paola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Scarpellini, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance. PCR sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 86.7%, respectively, compared to results of microscopic examination. However, 7 out of 19 microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples were collected from subjects with a clinically high probability of P. carinii pneumonia, suggesting that PCR may be more sensitive than microscopic examination, although the absolute performance of PCR cannot be determined. Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%]). PMID:12791912

  5. A comparative study between use of arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis of temporomandibular joint based on computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis, performed with different inner-diameter lavage needles, are the current minimally invasive techniques used in temporomandibular joint disc displacement (TMJ-DD for pain reduction and functional improvement. In the current study, we aimed to explore the biomechanical influence and explain the diverse clinical outcomes of these two approaches with computational fluid dynamics. Data was retrospectively analyzed from 78 cases that had undergone arthroscopic lavage or arthrocentesis for TMJ-DD from 2002 to 2010. Four types of finite volume models, featuring irrigation needles of different diameters, were constructed based on computed tomography images. We investigated the flow pattern and pressure distribution of lavage fluid secondary to caliber-varying needles. Our results demonstrated that the size of outflow portal was the critical factor in determining irrigated flow rate, with a larger inflow portal and a smaller outflow portal leading to higher intra-articular pressure. This was consistent with clinical data suggesting that increasing the mouth opening and maximal contra-lateral movement led to better outcomes following arthroscopic lavage. The findings of this study could be useful for choosing the lavage apparatus according to the main complaint of pain, or limited mouth opening, and examination of joint movements.

  6. Association between the miRNA Signatures in Plasma and Bronchoalveolar Fluid in Respiratory Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new less invasive biomarkers is necessary to improve the detection and prognostic outcome of respiratory pathological processes. The measurement of miRNA expression through less invasive techniques such as plasma and serum have been suggested to analysis of several lung malignancies including lung cancer. These studies are assuming a common deregulated miRNA expression both in blood and lung tissue. The present study aimed to obtain miRNA representative signatures both in plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction that could serve as biomarker in respiratory diseases. Ten patients were evaluated to assess the expression levels of 381 miRNAs. We found that around 50% miRNAs were no detected in both plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction and only 20% of miRNAs showed similar expression in both samples. These results show a lack of association of miRNA signatures between plasma and bronchoalveolar cytology in the same patient. The profiles are not comparable; however, there is a similarity in the relative expression in a very small subset of miRNAs (miR-17, miR-19b, miR-195 and miR-20b between both biological samples in all patients. This finding supports that the miRNAs profiles obtained from different biological samples have to be carefully validated to link with respiratory diseases.

  7. The Study of Mechanical Ventilation Combined Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Treatment of Critical Pneumonia%纤支镜支气管肺泡灌洗治疗机械通气重症肺炎患者临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛绍英

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察纤支镜支气管肺泡灌洗治疗重症肺炎的临床疗效。方法56例需机械通气重症肺炎患者分为两组:治疗组28例,采用机械通气并纤支镜灌洗;对照组28例,采用机械通气并单纯纤支镜吸痰治疗。结果在动脉血气分析、气道峰压降低等方面,治疗组优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论需机械通气重症肺炎患者行纤支镜支气管肺泡灌洗治疗能缩短通气时间,降低死亡率。%Objective To observe the clinical ef ect of mechanical ventilation combined with bronchialavage in the treatment of critical pneumonia.Metheds Fifty-six patients with critical pneumonia were divided into two groups,twenty-eight patients were treated with mechanical ventilation combined bronchoalveolar lavage,and the other twenty-eight patients were treated with mechanical ventilation and routine sputum spiration by fiberoptic bronchoscopy.Results Blood gas analysis,P-peak were bet er in the therapy group than in the contrast group(P<0.05).Concision Ventilation time and death rate were decreased in the mechanical ventilation conbined bronchialavage group.

  8. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  9. 75例小儿严重肺部感染支气管肺泡灌洗术疗效及临床分析%Clinical Efficacy and Analysis of Adjuvant Therapy with Bronchoalveolar Lavage in 75 Children with Severe Pulmonary Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世彪; 翁斌; 陈涵强; 林元

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨纤维支气管镜下肺泡灌洗术对小儿严重肺部感染的疗效,并进行临床分析。方法:选取本院儿科小儿严重肺部感染患儿150例,分为治疗组与对照组各75例,进行临床对照研究。对照组予全身抗感染治疗,治疗组在此基础上,联合支气管肺泡灌洗术、影像学检查。观察两组患儿治疗效果。结果:治疗组显效率为78.0%(59/75),对照组为12.0%(9/75),两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=77.48,P<0.001)。肺泡灌洗液及相关血液检查结果:铜绿假单胞菌感染6例,肺炎克雷杆菌感染5例,鲍曼不动杆菌5例,嗜麦芽寡单胞菌感染3例,肺炎支原体感染3例,甲型流感(H1N1型)2例。腺病毒感染1例,溶血葡萄球菌(耐甲氧西林)感染1例,表皮葡萄球菌感染2例,大肠埃希菌2例,肺炎链球菌感染2例,卡他莫那氏菌感染1例,支气管内膜结核2例,白假丝酵母菌1例。结论:支气管肺泡灌洗术联合全身抗感染综合治疗,对小儿严重肺部感染疗效明确;铜绿假单胞菌感染、肺炎克雷杆菌感染及鲍曼不动杆菌感染较多。%Objective:To investigate the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage in the treatment of severe pulmonary infection in children.Method:One hundred and fifty children with severe pulmonary infection were selected and randomly divided into control group and treatment group,each group had 75 children.Both groups were treated with total body anti-infective therapy,in addition to the basic treatment,the treatment group was given bronchoalveolar lavage according to X-ray image change.The clinical effects were observed.Result:The effective rate of the treatment group was 78.0% (59/75),the control group was 12.0% (9/75),the difference was statistically significant( χ2=77.48,P<0.001).Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood test results:6 cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 5 cases of pneumonia

  10. 右美托咪啶辅助表面麻醉用于患者支气管肺泡灌洗术的效果%Efficacy of dexmedetomidine- assisted topical anesthesia in patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金萍; 蔡璐; 陈公锦; 王淼; 刘冬炎; 金原野; 马连军; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨右美托咪啶辅助表面麻醉用于患者支气管肺泡灌洗术的效果.方法 拟行支气管肺泡灌洗术的ICU患者24例,ASA分级Ⅱ或Ⅲ级,体重50~80 kg,年龄24~64岁,采用随机数字表法,将患者随机分为2组(n=12),A组术前30 min静脉注射0.9%生理盐水5 ml,术前5 min经气管导管或气管套管内注入2%利多卡因5~10 ml,随后按需每15~30 min经纤维支气管镜追加2%利多卡因5 ml,总量控制在20 ml以内;B组术前30 min缓慢静脉注射右美托咪啶0.5~1.0 μg/kg,随后以0.1~0.5 μg·kg-1·h-1速率维持,表面麻醉方法同A组.记录灌洗时间、不良反应及心血管不良事件的发生情况.于灌洗前20 min(T1)、灌洗开始后20 min(T2)、灌洗结束后20 min(T3)时采集血样,测定血浆儿茶酚胺浓度和血清皮质醇浓度.结果 与A组比较,B组血清皮质醇浓度、血浆儿茶酚胺浓度降低、不良反应及心血管不良事件发生率降低,操作时间缩短(P<0.05).与T1时比较,A组T2,3时血清皮质醇及血浆儿茶酚胺浓度升高,B组T2,3时血清皮质醇及血浆儿茶酚胺浓度降低(P<0.05).结论 右美托咪啶辅助表面麻醉可安全有效地用于患者支气管肺泡灌洗术.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine-assisted topical anesthesia in patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage ( BAL). Methods Twenty-four ASA Ⅱ or Ⅲ patients in ICU, aged 24-64 yr, weighing 50-80 kg, scheduled for BAL, were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n = 12 each) : topical anesthesia group (group A) , topical anesthesia + dexmedetomidine group (group B) . In group A, 0.9% normal saline 5 ml was injected intravenously 30 min before operation, 2% lidocaine 5-10 ml was given via a tracheal tube or cannula 5 min before operation and then an increment of 2% lidocaine 5 ml was given using fibreoptic bronchoscope every 15-30 min as required (the total amount was within 20 ml) . In group B, dexmedetomidine 0.5-1.0 μg/kg was

  11. Expression of survivin mRNA in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振宁; 徐惠绵; 姜莉; 周欣; 鲁翀; 张学

    2004-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dissemination is the most common pattern of metastasis in advanced gastric carcinoma with serosal invasion. In the present study, we reported the clinical relevance of a new diagnostic method involving RT-PCR, using survivin as the target gene, for the detection of free cancer cells in peritoneal washes.Methods Intraoperative peritoneal washes were obtained from 48 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. RT-PCR analysis with primers specific for survivin and conventional cytological examinations were both performed.Results Survivin mRNA was not detected in any peritoneal wash samples from patients with benign disease, but was detected in 28 of 48 samples taken from patients with gastric cancer and in all metastastic nodules. Survivin expression in the peritoneal cavity significantly correlated with depth of cancer invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. There were 92% of clinically evident peritoneal metastasis cases showed detectable survivin expression. The combination of survivin RT-PCR and cytological examination yielded positive results in 66.7% (32/48) of patients with gastric cancer, much higher than the results produced by cytological method alone. Conclusions Survivin mRNA detected in peritoneal lavage fluid might indicate the presence of free cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity. The high sensitivity of the RT-PCR-based survivin assay suggests that survivin serves as a molecular marker for detecting peritoneal micrometastasis. Its ubiquitous expression in peritoneal cancer cells and metastatic nodules also suggests a promising future therapeutic strategy based on survivin inhibition for cases of gastric cancer involving peritoneal metastasis.

  12. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung.

  13. Clinical significance of telomerase activity in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric cancer and its relationship with cellular proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Xu Da; Xiao-Ting Wu; Tian-Kang Guo; Zi-Guang Zhao; Ting Luo; Kun Qian; Ming-Ming Zhang; Jie Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of telomerase activity assay and peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) examination in peritoneal lavage fluid for the prediction of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer patients, and to explore the relationship between telomerase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression.METHODS: Telomeric repeated amplification protocol (TRAP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure the telomerase activity in 60 patients with gastric cancer and 50 with peptic ulcer. PLC analysis of the 60 patients with gastric cancer was used for comparison. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in gastric carcinoma was immunohistochemically examined.RESULTS: The telomerase activity and PLC positive rate in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric cancer was 41.7% (25/60), and 25.0% (15/60), respectively. The positive rate of telomerase activity was significantly higher than that of PLC in the group Of pT4 (15/16 vs 9/16, P < 0.05), P1-3 (13/13 vs 9/13, P < 0.05) and diffuse type (22/42 vs 13/42, P < 0.05). The patients with positive telomerase activity, peritoneal metastasis, and serosal invasion had significantly higher levels of average PCNA proliferation index (PI), (55.00 ± 6.59 vs 27.43 ± 7.72, 57.26 ± 10.18 vs 29.15 ± 8.31, and 49.82 ± 6.74 vs 24;65 ± 7.33, respectively, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The TRAP assay for telomerase activity is a useful adjunct for cytologic method in the diagnosis of peritoneal micrometastasis and well related to higher proliferating activity of gastric cancer. The results of this study also suggest a promising future therapeutic strategy for treating peritoneal dissemination based on telomerase inhibition.

  14. Clinical analysis of 165 cases whose bronchoalveolar lavage lfuid bacterial culture were positive%支气管肺泡灌洗液细菌培养阳性患儿165例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 余璐; 叶乐平; 杨锦红; 董琳; 李昌崇

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, pathogen spectrum and antibiotic drug sensitive test of patients whose bronchoalveolar lavage lfuid culture were positive. To provide the theory basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment for lower respiratory infection in children.Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 1 159 hospitalized cases from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. The information of the patients whose BLAF were sent to lab including clinical data, bacterial culture and drug sensitivity was ana-lyzed.Results: The bacterial culture of BALF in 165 cases were positive, among whom 99(60.0%) were male and 66(40.0%) female. Overall, 70.4% cases were suffered from pneumonia, especially bronchopneumonia. 19 cases (11.5%) were diagnosed as bronchiolitis and combined with bacterial infection. And 12 cases (7.3%) had protracted bacterial bronchitis. One hundred and sixty ifve organisms from BALF were collected in the survey period, including 112(67.9%) gram-positive bacteria and 53(32.1%) gram-negative bacteria. The ifve most fre-quently isolated pathogens wereStreptococcus pneumoniae (102 strains),Haemophilus inlfuenza (14 strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 strains),Escherichia coli (8 strains) andStraphylococcus aureus (8 strains). Sixty ifve cases (39.4%) had underlying disease and the most common one was deformity of respiratory tract (22 cases) such as malacia, stenosis of trachea or bronchus. There were 14 cases suffered from bronchial asthma. Among 102Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, there were 25 strains penicillin-sensitiveS. pneumoniae, 35 strains pen-icillin-intermediateS. pneumonia and 42 penicillin-resistantS. pneumonia. MostStaphylococcus aureus strains were methicillin-resistant and there was no vancomycin and linezolid-resistant strain. The drug resistant rates ofHaemophilus inlfuenzae to penicillin and the second generation of cephalosporin were high. However, it was sensitive to the third generation of cephalosporin

  15. Change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children.Methods:80 cases of children with diarrhea treated in our hospital were selected. According to clinical symptoms, routine blood and stool test, they were all diagnosed with persistent diarrhea and randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 40 cases in each group. Control group received basic treatment and zinc preparations (zinc gluconate tablets) therapy; experimental group, based on treatment of control group, received probiotics (Siliankang) combined with zinc preparations treatment. Fasting serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were collected before and after treatment to detect IL-6, IL-8, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels, and differences between two groups were compared.Results:After treatment, IL-6 and IL-8 expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, and those of experimental group decreased more significantly; after treatment, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were significantly improved than those before treatment, and those of experimental group were closer to the normal levels than those of control group.Conclusions:Probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children has obvious curative effect; it effectively reduces expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors in serum and colon lavage fluid, and is worth popularization in future clinical treatment.

  16. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise; Andreassen, Helle; Clementsen, Paul; Thim, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our aim was to explore their presence in pulmonary secretions and to investigate whether they are up-regulated in pulmonary diseases characterized by mucin hypersecretion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 92 individuals referred to bronchoscopy. The patients were grouped according to diagnosis and pulmonary function. The concentrations of TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 were measured by ELISA. All three peptides were detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had concentrations two to three times above the levels in the healthy reference group, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases.

  17. Technical note: Bacterial diversity and fermentation end products in rumen fluid samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Browne-Silva, J; Horvath, M B

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if sampling rumen contents via a ruminal cannula or oral lavage tube would yield similar denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial community. Two species of ruminally cannulated animals were used for this study (cattle, n = 2; sheep, n = 3). All animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed. Cattle were fed baled unprocessed sorghum-sudan hay (12% CP, 68% NDF; DM basis), whereas sheep were maintained on chopped alfalfa (18% CP, 40% NDF; DM basis). Ruminal fluid was collected (approximately 20 mL) once per week for 3 wk from each animal using a poly tube equipped with a suction strainer with a hand-held suction pump through the rumen cannula or oral cavity. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrates that yield of bacterial diversity was not different between the 2 sampling methods (P = 0.73). When samples were grouped according to band pattern similarity, groups were most stable according to individual animal and species rather than sampling method. Total VFA and molar proportions of individual VFA did not differ by sampling method (P > 0.40). Additionally, rumen ammonia concentrations were similar for both sampling methods (19.3 vs. 19.1 mM +/- 8.0 for cannula vs. lavage, respectively; P = 0.98). These data indicate that rumen samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula yield similar results. This knowledge will allow sample collection from a greater population of animals and an ability to maintain the value of research livestock that can be lost due to the surgical implantation of a ruminal cannula.

  18. Clinical value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the treatment of severe pneumonia and respiratory failure%支气管肺泡灌洗治疗重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭的临床价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗裕锋; 瞿嵘; 叶初阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗抢救重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭的临床价值。方法:将40例重症肺炎并呼吸衰竭患者随机分为灌洗组和对照组,每组20例。对照组采用抗感染、化痰及营养支持治疗等常规治疗手段,灌洗组在常规治疗基础上加支气管肺泡灌洗,观察两组病例的治疗效果。结果:灌洗前PaO2、PaCO2和氧合指数差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05),治疗后PaO2、PaCO2明显低于对照组,氧合指数明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);灌洗组总有效率为100%,显著高于对照组的65.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:支气管肺泡灌洗抢救重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭,疗效好,可减少使用有创机械通气,有较高的临床价值。%Objective To study the clinical value of the bronchoalveolar lavage in the treatment of severe pneumonia and respiratory fail-ure. Method 40 patients with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure were randomly divided into lavage group and the control group,20 ca-ses in each group,control group adopted anti-infection,eliminating phlegm and nutritional support treatment such as conventional treatments, lavage group on the basis of routine treatment plus bronchoalveolar lavage,the therapeutic effect of two groups of cases was observed. Results The former lavage PaO2,PaCO2 and the oxygenation index were not significant difference(P> 0. 05),PaO2 and PaCO2 were obviously lower than the control group after treatment,oxygenation index was significantly higher than the control group,the difference was statistically signifi-cant( P<0. 05);the total effective rate in lavage group was 100%,which was significantly higher than 65. 0% of control group,the difference was statistically significant( P<0. 05 ). Conclusion Bronchoalveolar lavage rescue severe pneumonia and respiratory failure,good curative effect,can reduce the use of invasive mechanical ventilation

  19. Alkaline phosphatase levels in diagnostic peritoneal lavage fluid as a predictor of hollow visceral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffin, J H; Ochsner, M G; Cole, F J; Rozycki, G S; Kass, M; Champion, H R

    1993-06-01

    Isolated injuries to hollow viscera may result in equivocal diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) findings. Small bowel injuries cause alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels to increase in DPL effluent. The goal of this study was to better define the role of AP levels in the evaluation of the injured abdomen. We prospectively measured AP levels in 672 patients undergoing DPL. These were retrospectively compared with the clinical findings. All 12 patients with small bowel injuries and three of four with large bowel injuries had an AP level > 10 IU/L. There was one patient with an AP level > 10 IU/L without clinically significant intra-abdominal injury. An AP level > 10 IU/L in the DPL effluent predicted injury requiring laparotomy with a specificity of 99.8% and a sensitivity of 94.7%. We recommend using AP levels only in the management of patients with equivocal findings on DPL who would otherwise not undergo laparotomy. This selective use of AP levels will improve the probability of early diagnosis of bowel injury without increasing the cost of care.

  20. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Motohiko; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Kosaka, Takashi; Makino, Hirochika; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Endo, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA) samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) samples, and culture supernatants (CM) of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270) with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  1. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiko Tokuhisa

    Full Text Available Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF samples, and culture supernatants (CM of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270 with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  2. Effect of bronchoalveolar lavage on the heart rhythm and conduction of the children with severe pneumonia%支气管肺泡灌洗术对重度肺炎患儿心脏节律及传导的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明磊; 崔振泽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage on the heart rhythm and conduction of children with severe pneumonia through monitoring the electrocardiogram change of different step of the bronchoalveolar lavage,for proving the safety of the operation of bronchoalveolar lavage from the perspective of cardiac electrophysiology.Method From July 2011 to March 2012,30 patients who were hospitalized in pneumology department of Dalian Children's Hospital and met the inclusion criteria and therapeutic indications of bronchoalveolar lavage were chosen.They were 3 to 12 years old,the average age was 5.3 years,including 17 boys and 13 girls,the ratio of boys and girls is 1.3∶ 1.Continuous sampling the electrocardiogram before and duriug the process including anesthesia,entering into glottis,lavage,aspiration,and revive,and recording the heart rate,rhythm amplitude and width of P wave,the PR interval,the form and width of QRS complex were also measured.The recorded data were analyzed and statistical analysis to reflect the change of the cardiac electrophysiology.Result The incidence of heart rate increase was 100.0%,26 (86.7%) patients began to emerge after anesthesia,the rest of the patients also developed heart rate increase after the start of bronchoscopic operation.All patients had sinus tachycardia,and were most obvious in the progress of lavage and revive.In the process of entering into glottis,lavage,aspiration,13 (43.3%)patients had arrhythmia episodes.Types of arrhythmia included sinus bradycardia,atrioventricular block and premature beat.Incidences of intraoperative arrhythmia compared with the preand post-operation were all statistically significantly different (P =0.00).The most common arrhythmia were premature beat,in 17 of the 30 cases there were premature beat including 9 cases with atrial premature beats and 8 cases ventricular premature contraction.Two patients had Ⅲ ° atrioventricular block accompanied by serious sinus bradycardia

  3. Lower leukotriene C-4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects after 2.5 years of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Y; Overbeek, SE; Douma, R; Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Hoogsteden, HC; Zijlstra, FJ

    1995-01-01

    LONG-TERM treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to result in improvement of symptoms and lung function in subjects with asthma. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. It was assessed whether differences could be found in broncho

  4. Inter-laboratory comparison of three different real-time PCR assays for the detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, C.F.; Jacobs, J.A.; Beckers, P.; Templeton, K.E.; Bakkers, J.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.; Drent, M.; Vink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. While conventional diagnosis of PCP by microscopy is cumbersome, the use of PCR to diagnose PCP has great potential. Nevertheless, inter-laboratory validation and standardization of PCR assays i

  5. Changes in coagulation-fibrinolysis function in alveolar lavage fluid of endotoxemic dogs after partial removal of peripheral leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-gang ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of partial removal of peripheral leucocytes on the coagulation-fibrinolysis function of alveolar lavage fluid(ALF in endotoxemic dogs,and explore the influence and mechanisms of activated leucocytes on lung injury in endotoxemic dogs.Methods Thirty male mongrel dogs were involved in present study and randomly divided into 3 groups(10 each: LPS group(group L,sham leukocytapheresis group(group S and leukocytapheresis group(group T.Endotoxemic model was reproduced in group L by administration of LPS(2mg/kg,but the animals did not receive leukocytapheresis.Animals in group T received leukocytapheresis using a continuous-flow blood cell separator 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.Animals in group S received sham leukocytapheresis(the end products were transfused back into the dogs at 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.At 36h after administration of LPS,the lung tissues were harvested to obtain ALF,and the levels of neutrophil elastase(NE,soluble thrombomodulin(sTM,activated protein C(APC and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1 in ALF were determined,the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was observed by immunohistochemical staining,while the routine pathological examination and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were performed.Results The APC level in ALF was significantly higher,while the NE,sTM and PAI-1 levels in ALF and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were significantly lower in group T than in group L and group S(P < 0.05.Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was higher in group T than in group L and group S.No significant difference was found between group L and group S in the indexes mentioned above.Pathological observation showed the incidence of acute lung injury was significantly lower in group T(2/10 than in group L(7/10 and group S(8/10,P < 0.05.Conclusion Partial removal of peripheral leukocytes may lower the level of NE in ALF

  6. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  7. Comparison of ventilatory effects between three-way laryngeal mask airway and tracheal catheter on patients during bronchoalveolar lavage%三通喉罩与气管导管用于支气管肺灌洗术时通气效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天明; 钟军; 陆卫忠; 赵东海; 范新民; 张春宝; 韦海雷

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比研究三通喉罩(three-way laryngeal mask airway,TLMA)与气管导管(tracheal catheter,TC)通气用于全麻支气管肺灌洗术(bronchoalveolar lavage,BAL)对患者血流动力学、呼吸功能和应激激素水平的影响.方法 40例麻醉风险评估(ASA)Ⅰ-Ⅱ级在全麻下实施BAL的成人患者,按分层抽样原则分为TLMA组(T组,n=20)和TC组(C组,n=20),记录麻醉诱导前(To),插入TLMA/TC前(T1),插入TLMA/TC即刻(T2),插入TLMA/TC通气3 min(T3),5 min(T4),10 min(T5),实施BAL 10min(T6),20 min(T7),30 min(T8),拔除TLMA/TC即刻(T9)和拔除TLMA/TC后3 min(T10)的SpO2,SBP,DBP和HR.连续监测呼吸功能指标,记录T2,T4,T6,T7,T8,T10的潮气量(VT),气道峰压(Ppeak)及呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2);应用高效液相色谱分析法测定T0,T2,T3,T4,T6,T9,T10的静脉血浆肾上腺素(AE),去甲肾上腺素(NE)和多巴胺(DA)水平.采用SPSS 10.0统计软件,血液动力学及应激激素指标行重复测量数据的方差分析,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 C组T2,T3,T9时SBP,DBP,HR显著高于T组(P<0.05);C组Ppeak在T6,T7,T8显著高于T组(P<0.05);C组AE,NE在T2,T3和T9均显著高于T组(P<0.05).结论 在全麻BAL中,TLMA通气优于TC通气,其血流动力学更稳定,应激反应更轻微.%Objective To compare the ventilatory effects between three-way laryngeal mask airway (TLMA)and tracheal catheter (TC) on hemodynamics, respiratory function and stress responses on patients during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Method Forty patients scheduled for BAL under general anesthesia were divided (stratified sampling) into either TLMA group (group T,n = 20) or TC group (group C, n = 20) according to the stratified sampling principle. SpO2, SBP, DBP and HR were measured in 5 min after entering the operating theater (To), just before inserting TLMA or TC(T1), immediately after inserting TLMA or TC(T2) ,3 min(T3), 5 min(T4), 10 min(T5)after mechanical ventilation, 10 min(T6),20 min(T7), 30 min

  8. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... for repeated use in humans. 4. The nasal lavage technique adopted allowed the return of 99.2% (median value) of the instilled volume. The area irrigated was visualized on a gamma-camera, and was demonstrated to cover an area larger than the area reached by challenge from a pumpspray, i.e. a large part...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  9. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent....... No difference was found between the patients who responded and those who did not respond in regard to age, sex, smoker/non-smoker, % recovery of BAL-fluid, total cell count, differential cell counts, histamine content per mast cell, or diagnoses. Also stimulation of the BAL-cells with the calcium-ionophore A......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  10. The diagnostic value in bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan antigen detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients without granulocyte deficiency%支气管肺泡灌洗液半乳甘露聚糖抗原检测对非粒细胞缺乏患者的侵袭性肺曲霉病诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆玲; 郭禹标; 廖康; 朱智文

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨针对感染的肺组织局部进行支气管肺泡灌洗术得到支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)进行半乳甘露聚糖(GM)检测是否能协助提高非粒细胞缺乏的患者并侵袭性肺曲霉病(IPA)的诊断效率,并了解其最佳GM界值. 方法: 收集并分析2011年1月至2013年12月在呼吸科内镜中心检查考虑IPA可能并行BALF GM检测的患者173例. 按照国内外诊断标准,将病例分为4组,IPA组(n=23),肺结核组(n=11),细菌性肺炎组(n = 90),非感染组(n = 49).采用ELISA方法测定血清及BALF GM.用统计学方法了解BALF GM检测在非粒细胞缺乏的患者并发IPA中的诊断价值. 结果:在非粒细胞缺乏的患者并发IPA的诊断中,与非IPA患者相比,IPA患者的BALF GM检测数值高, 组间差异有统计学意义; 与血清GM检测相比, BALF GM检测的IPA诊断效率高.ROC曲线分析发现,当BALF GM检测界值为≥0.95时,IPA的诊断效率最高.结论:BALF GM检测有利于非粒细胞缺乏患者并IPA的早期鉴别与诊断.同时研究发现BALF GM值最佳界值为≥0.95.%Objective To study infection of the lung tissue by bronchoalveolar lavage for BALF and explore whether GM can help improve the he diagnosis efficiency in patients without granulocyte deficiency with IPA, and find the threshold of GM values. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2011, 173 cases of patients were considered possible invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in parallel BALF GM detection in the center of the respiratory endoscopic examination.. According to the diagnostic criteria at home and abroad, all the cases were divided into four groups, including group of IPA, group of tuberculosis, group of bacterial pneumonia and group of non-infection. Using ELISA method for determination of serum and BALF GM. The diagnostic value was made by statistical methods in BALF GM detection without patients of granulocyte deficiency with IPA. Results There were 11 cases in the group of IPA, 23 cases in the

  11. APPLICATION OF CT-GUIDED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH SEVERE PNEUMONIA COMBINED SEPSIS SHOCK%CT 导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗对治疗重症肺炎合并脓毒症休克的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白静; 张军伟; 王建军; 程爱斌; 王红阳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CT导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗对治疗肺感染合并脓毒症休克的疗效。方法对重症医学科2012年10月-2013年6月收治的47例重症肺炎合并脓毒症休克患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。患者入选标准参照2001年国际脓毒症会议。将入选患者随机分为C T 导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗组(A组)和对照组(B组),二组均行早期目标导向治疗(EGDT ),CT 导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗组给予支气管镜肺泡灌洗连续做3d ,1次/d ,而对照组不给予支气管肺泡灌洗。记录患者年龄,性别,开始试验时、治疗后3d、7d的APACHEⅡ评分、肺感染评分、白细胞计数,乳酸降至2mmol/L的时间,机械通气时间,ICU住院时间。结果 A、B二组性别、年龄差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),开始治疗时APACHEⅡ评分、肺感染评分以及开始治疗时二组白细胞计数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后3d和7d时 A组 APACHEⅡ评分、肺感染评分、白细胞计数明显低于B组(P<0.05);A组乳酸降至2mmol/L的时间、机械通气时间和ICU住院时间明显短于B组(P<0.05);CT 导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗操作无任何并发症的发生。结论CT导引支气管镜肺泡灌洗对治疗重症肺炎合并脓毒症休克患者安全有效,值得临床推广。%Objective To evaluate the significance of CT -guided bronchoscope alveolar lavage in severe pneumonia with sepsis shock patients .Methods The clinical experience and data of 47 patients of severe pneumonia with sepsis shock from October 2012 to June 2013 in author's hospital were retrospectively ana-lyzed .The selection criteria was in accordance with criteria set by International Conference On Sepsis in 2001 .All patients were randomly divided into treatment group(n=24)and control group(n=23) .Early goal-directed therapy(EGDT)was used in the first 6 hours of fluid resuscitation .In treatment group

  12. In Vitro Exposure to PC-1005 and Cervicovaginal Lavage Fluid from Women Vaginally Administered PC-1005 Inhibits HIV-1 and HSV-2 Infection in Human Cervical Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Zhang, Shimin; Mizenina, Olga; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Cooney, Michael L; Hoesley, Craig J; Creasy, George W; Friedland, Barbara; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    Our recent phase 1 trial demonstrated that PC-1005 gel containing 50 μM MIV-150, 14 mM zinc acetate dihydrate, and carrageenan (CG) applied daily vaginally for 14 days is safe and well tolerated. Importantly, cervicovaginal lavage fluid samples (CVLs) collected 4 or 24 h after the last gel application inhibited HIV-1 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in cell-based assays in a dose-dependent manner (MIV-150 for HIV-1 and CG for HPV). Herein we aimed to determine the anti-HIV and anti-herpes simplex virus 2 (anti-HSV-2) activity of PC-1005 in human cervical explants after in vitro exposure to the gel and to CVLs from participants in the phase 1 trial. Single HIV-1BaL infection and HIV-1BaL-HSV-2 coinfection explant models were utilized. Coinfection with HSV-2 enhanced tissue HIV-1BaL infection. In vitro exposure to PC-1005 protected cervical mucosa against HIV-1BaL (up to a 1:300 dilution) in single-challenge and cochallenge models. CG gel (PC-525) provided some barrier effect against HIV-1BaL at the 1:100 dilution in a single-challenge model but not in the cochallenge model. Both PC-1005 and PC-525 at the 1:100 dilution inhibited HSV-2 infection, pointing to a CG-mediated protection. MIV-150 and CG in CVLs inhibited HIV (single-challenge or cochallenge models) and HSV-2 infections in explants in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Stronger inhibition of HIV-1 infection by CVLs collected 4 h after the last gel administration was observed compared to infection detected in the presence of baseline CVLs. The anti-HIV and anti-HSV-2 activity of PC-1005 gel in vitro and CVLs in human ectocervical explants supports the further development of PC-1005 gel as a broad-spectrum on-demand microbicide.

  13. Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Schumacher, Cassie A.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Belfer, Rachel; Kalir, Tamara; Reva, Boris; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis. Methods and Findings Uterine lavage and paired blood samples were collected and analyzed from 107 consecutive patients who were undergoing hysteroscopy and curettage for diagnostic evaluation from this single-institution study. The lavage fluid was separated into cellular and acellular fractions by centrifugation. Cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were isolated from each lavage. Two targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panels, one composed of 56 genes and the other of 12 genes, were used for ultra-deep sequencing. To rule out potential NGS-based errors, orthogonal mutation validation was performed using digital PCR and Sanger sequencing. Seven patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on classic histopathologic analysis. Six of these patients had stage IA cancer, and one of these cancers was only detectable as a microscopic focus within a polyp. All seven patients were found to have significant cancer-associated gene mutations in both cell pellet and cfDNA fractions. In the four patients in whom adequate tumor sample was available, all tumor mutations above a specific allele fraction were present in the uterine lavage DNA samples. Mutations originally only detected in lavage fluid fractions were later confirmed to be present

  14. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2011-08-01

    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  15. 抗纤维化治疗对大鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液中头孢噻肟浓度的影响%Effect of Anti-fibrosis treatment on the Concentration of Cefotaxim in Bronchioalveolar Lavage Fluid in Rats with Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of anti-fibrosis drug on the concentration of cefotaxim in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid.Methods 90 Wister male rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control( Group A) 、model( Group B) 、interferon-γ-troated( Group C) 、ambroxol-treated ( Group D) 、Dexamethason-treated( Group E) group.On experimengtal day( day 0), the rats in B,C,D and E were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin(5 mg/Kg body weght) or sterile saline, and then the rats in C, D and E were treated with the interferon-γ(30000 IU/per mouse), ambroxol(75 mg/per mouse), Dexamethason(0.1 mg/per mouse) or sterile saline intraperitoneally respectively.On day 7,14,28 after instillation, six rats form each group were then given a tail vein injection of cefotaxime (600 mg/kg) and bronchoalveolar lavage.The concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids was assayed by liquid chromatography-massspectrometry method.Results On day 7 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group D,Group E was lower than Group B and those of Group C higher than group B.The difference between Group E and Group B was significant statistically(P =0.012.On day 14 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group D, Group E increased,while Group C decreased.The three groups were all higher than Group B.The diferonce between Group D and Group B was significant statistically( P = 0.000.On day 28 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group E increased continuously,which was significanfiy higher than other groups.Group C and Group D decreased continuously, and the concentration of cefotaxim of both groups was lower than Group B.Conclusion Dexamethason could increase the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of the fibrosis stage.%目的 观察抗肺纤维化药物对支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中头孢噻肟浓度的影响.方法 将90只

  16. Extracellular cadmium in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with and without COPD and its association with inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundblad BM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie Sundblad,1,* Jie Ji,1,* Bettina Levänen,1 Klara Midander,2 Anneli Julander,2 Kjell Larsson,1 Lena Palmberg,1 Anders Lindén1 1Unit for Lung and Airway Research, 2Unit for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tobacco contains cadmium, and this metal has been attributed a causative role in pulmonary emphysema among smokers, although extracellular cadmium has not to date been quantified in the bronchoalveolar space of tobacco smokers with or without COPD. We determined whether cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD in vivo, its association with inflammation, and its effect on chemokine release in macrophage-like cells in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, sputum, and blood samples were collected from current, long-term smokers with and without COPD and from healthy nonsmokers. Cadmium concentrations were determined in cell-free BAL fluid using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to cadmium chloride in vitro. Depending upon the type of sample, molecular markers of inflammation were quantified either as protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or as mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in cell-free BAL fluid of smokers compared to that of nonsmokers (n=19–29; P<0.001, irrespective of COPD. In these smokers, the measured cadmium displayed positive correlations with macrophage TNF-α mRNA in BAL, neutrophil and CD8+ cell concentrations in blood, and finally with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 protein in sputum (n=10–20; P<0.05. The cadmium chloride exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular IL-8 protein in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, extracellular cadmium is enhanced in the

  17. 无创通气联合纤维支气管镜肺泡灌洗治疗在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重并呼吸衰竭伴意识障碍患者中的临床应用%Application of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation associated with bronchoalveolar lavage in consciousness disorder patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝欣; 张文艳; 候金兰

    2008-01-01

    positive pressure ventilation(NIPPV)associated with bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL)in consciousness disorder patients due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods Sixty-two acute exacerbation of COPD patients were divided into two groups,which were carefully matched for age,sex,COPD course,and body mass index(BMI)I.Thirty patients with impaired consciousness served as treatment group and 32 without impaired consciousness as control group.MV was never administered in these patients before and there were no contraindications.All patients received both NIPPV and standard medical treatment,BAL was administered in treatment group in addition.Changes from baseline in Glasgow coma scale,arterial blood gas (ABG)levels,duration of NIPPV,success rate of sequential invasive positive pressure ventilation(IPPV)and the mortality rate were compared.Results The success rate of NIPPV with BAL was 63.3%(19/30)in greatment group and the NIPPV success rate was 65.63%(21/32)in group B(P>0.05);ABG levels were improved obviously after treatment both in treatment group and controI group.but with no significant difference in ABG levels between treatment group and control group(P>0.05);6 cases received sequential IPPV in treatment group.and 7 cases in control group,the Success rate was 66.67%(4/6)and 71.43%(5/7)respectively(P>0.05);5 cases died in treatment group,and 4 cases in control group,the mortality was 16.67%(5/30)and 12.5%(4/32)respectively(P>0.05).Conclusions Consciousness disorder secondary to AECOPD should not be considered a contraindication to NIPPV.NIPPV can also be preferred in patients with excessive mucus production in conditions of administering NIPPV with BAL.In patients with impaired consciousness,NIPPV effectiveness may be similar to that in conscious patients if carrying OUt BAL before NIPPV.But the process must be monitored closely by experienced respiratory specialists'and the severity of the illness must be evaluated in time.If the disease

  18. Status Asthmaticus: use of acetylcysteine during bronchoscopy and lavage to remove mucous plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, M; Goodman, A H; Goldstein, I M; Millman, F M; Van Campen, S S

    1983-02-01

    Three patients suffering from severe, chronic, bronchial asthma underwent bronchoscopy and lavage, using in the irrigant fluid acetylcysteine, isoetharine and Solu-Medrol. All patients had a large amount of thick mucus in the tracheobronchial tree which was removed during the lavage. Following the lavage, all three patients were easily treated with conventional allergic measures and were able to lead normal lives, which they could not do before. A discussion of the precautions to be taken by the medical-surgical team in charge of a patient undergoing bronchoscopy and lavage is made. These conclusions were based on the results of two previous reports by the authors in addition to the present communication.

  19. Análise da celularidade do lavado bronco-alveolar em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea: relato de três casos Análisis de la celularidad del lavado bronco-alveolar en pacientes sometidos a revascularización del miocardio con circulación extracorpórea: relato de tres casos Broncho-alveolar lavage cellularity in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brandão Machado

    2006-06-01

    response (SIRS during cardiac procedures. It has been shown in an experimental model that CPB may increase cytokine production. This study aimed at evaluating post-CPB lung cell activation by investigating broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL cellularity in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization (MR with CPB. CASE REPORTS: Participated in this prospective study 3 adult patients submitted to MR with CPB. After general anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation was installed with valve circle system; except during CPB, tidal volume was maintained between 8 and 10 mL.kg-1 with 50% O2 and air. Before aortic unclamping, 40 cmH2O pulmonary inflations were performed. Two BAL samples were collected from all patients at beginning and end of procedure, after anticoagulation reversion. BAL was aspired after 60 mL infusion of 0.9% saline through the bronchofibroscope tube. Material was then referred to laboratorial processing. Analysis has evidenced mean increase in total number of cells from 0.6 × 10(6cel.dL-1 to 6.8 × 10(6 cel.dL-1 with increased neutrophils from 0.8% to 4.7%; 0.6% to 6.2% and 0.5% to 5.3% for each patient, respectively. There has been increased pulmonary fluid cellularity after CPB. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte inflow is described in different clinical pulmonary inflammatory conditions, such as adult respiratory distress syndrome. It is known that CPB is related to systemic and pulmonary inflammation with increased number of cells after CPB and predominance of macrophages.

  20. BV和VVC患者阴道灌洗液中相关细胞因子水平检测及意义%Detection and significance of cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage fluid in patients with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张学军; 戴随

    2011-01-01

    目的 提高细菌性阴道病(BV)和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)诊疗水平.方法 采集35例健康育龄妇女(对照组)、35例BV患者(BV组)、35例VVC患者(VVC组)阴道灌洗液,用ELISA法检测三组相关细胞因子(IL-2、IL-8、IFN-γ、IL-4、IL-13、IL-10、IgE)水平.结果 与对照组比较,BV组IL-2显著降低,IL-13、IL-4、IL-10显著升高,IL-8、IFN-γ、IgE无明显变化;VVC组IFN-γ显著降低,IL-2、IL-13、IL-4、IgE显著升高,IL-8、IL-10无显著变化.讨论 BV与VVC均存在Th1/Th2平衡失调,检测两种疾病局部细胞因子的变化有助于更好的控制感染.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and treament level of bacterial vaginosis(BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC).Methods Cervicovaginal lavage fluid was collected from 35 healthy women in child-bearing age ( control group) ,35 patients with BC(BV group) ,35 patients with VVC (WC group).The level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-8,IFN-γ,IL-4,IL-13 ,IL-10,IgE)of the three groups were detected by ELISA.Results Compared with the control group, the IL-2 of BV group decreased significantly,IL-13,IL-4,IL-10 increased significantly,IL-8,IFN-γ,IgE had no significant change;the IFN-γof VVC group decreased significantly, IL-2,IL-13,IL-4,IgE increased obviously,IL-8,IL-10 had no significant change.Conclusions The un-balance of Th1/Th2 is common in BV and VVC, detecting the changes of local cytokine is helpful for controling their inflammation better.

  1. Reduction of cytokine release of blood and bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells by ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, S; Zissel, G; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J

    1997-03-24

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.

  2. Butyrylcholinesterase in guinea pig lung lavage: a novel biomarker to assess lung injury following inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jacob R; Wright, Benjamin S; Rezk, Peter E; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2006-06-01

    Respiratory disturbances play a central role in chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) induced toxicity; they are the starting point of mass casualty and the major cause of death. We developed a microinstillation technique of inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX and assessed lung injury by biochemical analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Here we demonstrate that normal guinea pig BALF has a significant amount of cholinesterase activity. Treatment with Huperzine A, a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), showed that a minor fraction of BALF cholinesterase is AChE. Furthermore, treatment with tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA), a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), inhibited more than 90% of BChE activity, indicating the predominance of BChE in BALF. A predominance of BChE expression in the lung lavage was seen in both genders. Substrate specific inhibition indicated that nearly 30% of the cholinesterase in lung tissue homogenate is AChE. BALF and lung tissue AChE and BChE activities were strongly inhibited in guinea pigs exposed for 5 min to 70.4 and 90.4 microg/m3 VX and allowed to recover for 15 min. In contrast, BALF AChE activity was increased 63% and 128% and BChE activity was increased 77% and 88% after 24 h of recovery following 5 min inhalation exposure to 70.4 microg/m3 and 90.4 mg/m3 VX, respectively. The increase in BALF AChE and BChE activity was dose dependent. Since BChE is synthesized in the liver and present in the plasma, an increase in BALF indicates endothelial barrier injury and leakage of plasma into lung interstitium. Therefore, a measure of increased levels of AChE and BChE in the lung lavage can be used to determine the chronology of barrier damage as well as the extent of lung injury following exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents.

  3. The effect of peritoneal lavage on the postoperative course after colonic anastomosis and perforation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesjö, B; Breland, U; Petersson, B G

    1975-01-01

    Peritoneal lavage was given during four days to rats subjected either to transection and re-anastomosis or perforation of the descending part of the colon or caecum. Control rats were treated in the smae way but did not receive peritoneal lavage. The rats which were treated with a colonic anastomosis and peritoneal lavage had significantly less abdominal adhesions, peritonitis and peritoneal fluid observed at autopsy 11 or 60 days after surgery. No rats developed anastomosis insufficiency and all survived. Peritoneal lavage in rats subjected to colonic or caecal perforation increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate, the frequency of adhesions and the signs of peritonitis. An increased frequency of peritoneal adhesions was observed after extensive mobilization of the colon during operation when no peritoneal lavage had been given. The peritoneal lavage catheter per se did not cause adhesions.

  4. The Impact of Pleural Lavage Cytology Before and After Resection on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ozkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Regardless of pleural effusion, presence of tumor in pleural cavity indicates presence of more aggressive tumor. In this study, we analysed positive tumor results in preoperative pleural lavage in operable malignant cases with no pleural fluid according to the mass and mediastinal lymph node characteristics. Material and Method: Pleural lavage before preoperative dissection and after resection was performed on 199 cases that underwent surgery for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Findings of lavage were statistically evaluated based on gender, lesion shape and size, lymph node involvement in positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT, SUV-max value of lesion, localisation of the lesion, N1 and N2 metastases, local invasion findings, histopathological type of tumor and type of resection. Results: Cases included in this study were followed for four years. Ten of the cases (5% had tumor recurrence and 12 of them (6% had distant organ metastasis. In multivariable analysis, significant correlation was found between the first positive pleural lavage cytology and postoperative distant organ metastasis; the last pleural lavage cytology and tumor recurrence; postoperative distant organ metastasis and lymph node metastasis and the first positive lavage cytology; tumor recurrence and PET-CT lymph node uptake, lymph node metastasis and the last positive pleural lavage cytology. Discussion: Recently there has been an increase in studies on pleural lavage analysis and there is a need for standardization in lavage timing and sampling. We hope that positive lavage cytology, like malign effusion, will be accepted as a prognostic factor in staging as more studies based on wider series are conducted.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation is not accompanied by a release of anandamide into the lavage fluid or a down-regulation of the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, S.; J. Fowler, C.; Rocksén, D.;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide inhalation upon lung anandamide levels, anandamide synthetic enzymes and fatty acid amide hydrolase has been investigated. Lipopolysaccharide exposure produced a dramatic extravasation of neutrophils and release of tumour necrosis factor a into the bronchoalveolar......-acyltransferase and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase in lung membrane fractions did not change significantly following the exposure to lipopolysaccharide. The non-selective fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride was a less potent...... inhibitor of lung fatty acid amide hydrolase than expected from the literature, and a dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. of this compound, which produced a complete inhibition of brain anandamide metabolism, only partially inhibited the lung metabolic activity. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  6. The Physical Properties of a Lavage Mixture of Pulmonary Surfactant, Perfluorodecaline, and Methylprednisolone (Perfactant Lavage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    surfactant , perfluorodecaline, and methylprednisolone (perfectant lavage) Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC, USA Division...release: distribution unlimited Purpose: To characterize the physical properties of a lavage mixture of pulmonary surfactant , perfluorocarbon and...MIXTURE OF PULMONARY SURFACTANT , PERFLUORODECALINE AND METHYLPREDNISOLONE (PERFACTANT LAVAGE) INVESTIGATOR: Timothy F. Haley, MD, LTC, MC, USA

  7. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} heat-treated at 850{degrees}C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of {sup 239}Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods{sup 5}. These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of {sup 239} and the amount of {sup 239}Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was {sup 85}Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of {sup 85}Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for {sup 85}Sr activity.

  8. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} heat-treated at 850{degrees}C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of {sup 239}Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods{sup 5}. These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of {sup 239} and the amount of {sup 239}Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was {sup 85}Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of {sup 85}Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for {sup 85}Sr activity.

  9. Human beta defensin is absent in burn blister fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M R; Ganz, T; Milner, S M

    2000-12-01

    Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. Human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2) is produced by human keratinocytes, and has a potent bactericidal activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. We have recently shown that expression of HBD-2 is present in normal skin and lost in the full-thickness burn wound. Defensins have been found in the blister fluid of chronic wounds. Our study was designed to examine blister fluid from partial-thickness burns for defensin content. Fluid from five patients was collected from partial-thickness burn blisters, and then analysed by sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody to HBD-2. The assay was validated against a Western blot assay for HBD-2 in samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with inflammatory lung disease. No HBD-2 was detectable in any of the burn blister fluids analysed. HBD-2 is lost in the full-thickness burn wound, and we have now demonstrated its absence in burn blister fluid. This finding represents evidence of a host defence defect within the burn wound and suggests a possible therapeutic role for antimicrobial peptides in the management of burn wounds.

  10. Effects of Jiaomu Oil on IL-4 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and NF-κB in lung tissue of asthmatic model in guinea pig%椒目油对哮喘模型豚鼠肺泡灌洗液IL-4、IFN-γ水平及肺组织NF-κB的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿; 戚好文; 谢柏梅

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨椒目油对支气管哮喘(哮喘)豚鼠模型肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中IL-4、IFN-γ水平及肺组织中NF-κB的影响,为椒目油治疗哮喘提供理论依据.方法 实验分4组:正常对照组、哮喘模型组、地塞米松治疗组和椒目油治疗组,每组各10只豚鼠.用卵白蛋白(OVA)腹腔注射致敏和雾化吸入激发建立哮喘豚鼠模型.ELISA法检测豚鼠BALF中IL-4,IFN-γ含量.免疫组化法观察NF-κB在豚鼠支气管上皮的表达.结果 哮喘组BALF中的IL-4、IFN-γ含量及PC20水平都与正常对照组有显著的差别(P均<0.05),分别为(41.36±6.71) ng/L 和 (10.58±1.28) ng/L,(21.15±2.75) ng/L 和 (73.52±5.23) ng/L,(0.013±0.014) g/L 和 (0.168±0.186) g/L,而椒目油组及地塞米松治疗组豚鼠BALF中IL-4含量分别为(15.35±4.28) ng/L、(19.20±3.78) ng/L,明显低于哮喘模型组(P<0.05),其IFN-γ含量分别为(50.65±4.19) ng/L、(53.34±5.64) ng/L和PC20[(0.160±0.180) g/L、(0.144±0.154) g/L]水平较后者显著升高(P<0.05).椒目油治疗组和地塞米松治疗组各指标之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).正常对照组、哮喘模型组、椒目油治疗组和地塞米松治疗组豚鼠气道中NF-κB阳性细胞百分比分别为(9.51±2.82)%、(52.71±7.80)%、(32.26±3.70)%、(29.89±2.01)%,两治疗组均和哮喘模型组有显著差异.结论 椒目油能有效降低豚鼠BALF中IL-4水平,升高IFN-γ含量,同时降低气道高反应性和NF-κB在哮喘豚鼠支气管上皮中的表达.

  11. A comparative study on the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by two Real-time PCR%两种实时定量PCR技术检测肺泡灌洗液中结核分枝杆菌DNA的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞雪; 刘昊; 徐修礼; 郝晓柯; 刘家云

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较结核分枝杆菌及利福平耐药快速检测技术(简称Xpert MTB/RIF)和达安实时定量PCR检测肺泡灌洗液中的结核杆菌DNA对肺结核的诊断和卫生经济学价值.方法 招募2014年3月~2015年11月进入第四军医大学西京医院就诊的疑似肺结核的连续病例112例,收集肺泡灌洗液样本同时进行抗酸染色、MGIT960液体培养和药敏试验、Xpert MTB/RIF和达安实时定量PCR检测.结果 112例纳入的研究对象中经培养确诊的肺结核患者有53例,疑似的肺结核患者15例,非结核患者44例.以MGIT960液体培养为金标准,Xpert MTB/RIF与达安实时定量PCR的灵敏度差异无统计学意义(98.11% vs90.57%,P=0.205),两者的灵敏度均高于抗酸染色灵敏度58.49% (P<0.001);而若以临床诊断为参考标准,Xpert MTB/RIF的灵敏度则高于达安实时定量PCR,且差异有统计学意义(P=0.045).而抗酸染色、达安实时定量PCR和Xpert MTB/RIF的特异性分别为99.73%、88.64%和95.45%,差异无统计学意义(P=0.184).进行成本-效果分析,每检出1例肺结核行1次Xpert MTB/RIF的费用为1 033.85元,远远高于达安实时定量PCR费用196.49元.结论 Xpert MTB/RIF灵敏度高,操作更加简便快速且易于开展,并能同时检测利福平耐药性,可作为检测肺泡灌洗液中结核分枝杆菌DNA的首选方法.但达安实时定量PCR的检测成本较低,更加适用于低收入人群.

  12. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-09-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status.

  13. Ductal lavage and ductoscopy: the opportunities and the limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Seema A; Baird, Carol; Staradub, Valerie L; Morrow, Monica

    2002-08-01

    Two related techniques of breast epithelial sampling have emerged in the past several years: ductal lavage, in which fluid-yielding nipple ducts are cannulated at their orifices and lavaged with saline while the breast is intermittently massaged; and ductoscopy, in which discharging or fluid-yielding duct orifices are dilated, intubated with a microendoscope, and the lumen directly visualized. Both of these techniques have significant potential in terms of allowing the repeated sampling of ductal epithelium over time and, as such, have generated considerable enthusiasm. However, data regarding the impact of these techniques on the detection of significant breast disease is very scant. It is important at the outset of the assessment of this new technology that breast cancer clinicians and clinical researchers think carefully about the standards of evidence that need to be met regarding the benefits of these procedures before they are widely adopted. In this review of the rationale and early results of these procedures, we attempt to define some of these evidentiary requirements.

  14. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Emborg, J; Elkjaer, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory...

  15. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.;

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory...... failure requiring MV amongst patients with PCP treated in the era of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. Furthermore, we studied factors associated with survival in relation to MV. Of 170 consecutive patients with AIDS-related PCP, 18 (11%) required MV. Thirteen of 18 ventilated patients died (72......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  16. No evidence of altered alveolar macrophage polarization, but reduced expression of TLR2, in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikén Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, possibly of infectious aetiology. We aimed to investigate whether the degree of functional polarization of alveolar macrophages (AMs, or Toll-like receptor (TLR expression, is associated with sarcoidosis or with distinct clinical manifestations of this disease. Methods Total BAL cells (cultured four or 24 h in medium, or stimulated 24 h with LPS from 14 patients and six healthy subjects, sorted AMs from 22 patients (Löfgren's syndrome n = 11 and 11 healthy subjects, and sorted CD4+ T cells from 26 patients (Löfgren's syndrome n = 13 and seven healthy subjects, were included. Using real-time PCR, the relative gene expression of IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-23p19, CCR2, CCR7, iNOS, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL16, CCL18, CCL20, CD80, and CD86, and innate immune receptors TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, was quantified in sorted AMs, and for selected genes in total BAL cells, while IL-17A was quantified in T cells. Results We did not find evidence of a difference with regard to alveolar macrophage M1/M2 polarization between sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls. TLR2 gene expression was significantly lower in sorted AMs from patients, particular in Löfgren's patients. CCL18 gene expression in AMs was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Additionally, the IL-17A expression was lower in Löfgren's patients' CD4+ T cells. Conclusions Overall, there was no evidence for alveolar macrophage polarization in sarcoidosis. However, there was a reduced TLR2 mRNA expression in patients with Löfgren's syndrome, which may be of relevance for macrophage interactions with a postulated sarcoidosis pathogen, and for the characteristics of the ensuing T cell response.

  17. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of bronchoalveolar lavage and protected bronchial brush in the diagnosis of pneumonia in pediatric burn patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Ramzy, PI; Wolf, SE; Herndon, DN

    1999-01-01

    Background: Infection is still one of the leading causes of death in burn patients. The diagnosis of respiratory tract infection in critically ill burn patients is still difficult. The diagnostic technique of choice remains uncertain, especially because of the lack of a criterion standard by which o

  19. First reported case of Alcaligenes faecalis isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage in a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial co-infections have been reported in association with dengue fever (DF and can exacerbate dengue infections. However, DF with acute respiratory distress syndrome and co-infection with Alcaligenes faecalis (A. faecalis has not been reported earlier. Most infections caused by A. faecalis are opportunistic. Urinary tract infection, bacterial keratitis, postoperative endophthalmitis, skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, meningitis, wound infections, and peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have been described in association with A. faecalis. A. faecalis, a Gram-negative environmental organism rarely cause significant infections. Treatment can be difficult in some cases due to the high level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. We report a case of fatal bronchopneumonia caused by extensively drug resistance A. faecalis in a patient of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  20. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  1. Short-term intermittent peritoneal fluid loop peritoneal lavage in the clinical observation of early treatment of severe acute pancreatitis%腹膜透析液短期间歇性闭合式腹腔灌洗治疗早期重症急性胰腺炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志松; 冯凌霄; 代荣钦; 邵换璋; 张慧峰; 刘卫青; 秦秉玉

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨早期重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)治疗中,腹膜透析液短期间歇性闭合式腹腔灌洗的临床效果.方法 将54例SAP患者随机分为两组,对照组采用常规基础治疗,灌洗组采用腹膜透析液短期间歇性闭合式腹腔灌洗治疗;观测两组患者治疗前与治疗后第3、7天C反应蛋白(CRP)、系统性炎性反应综合征(SIRS)持续时间、中性粒细胞计数(NUE)水平以及急性生理功能和慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHE-Ⅱ)、出现多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS)器官数和死亡人数.结果 灌洗组治疗后第7天CRP为(42.30 ±23.78) mg/L,APACHE-Ⅱ为(3.31 ±1.81)分,NUE为(4.79±1.82)×109/L,SIRS持续时间为(4.07 ±2.00)d,出现MODS器官数为(0.23±0.43)个,无死亡病例;对照组治疗后第7天CRP为(89.19 ±58.21) mg/L,APACHE-Ⅱ为(4.67±1.72)分,NUE为(9.85±3.27)×109/L,SIRS持续时间为(7.83 ±4.62)d,出现MODS器官数为(0.85±0.94)个,2例死亡;结论 腹膜透析液短期间歇性闭合式腹腔灌洗可有效改善早期SAP的临床症状,控制病死率和MODS的发生率,阻断SIRS的发展.%Objective to study the early severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) treatment, peritoneal dialysate short-term clinical effect of closed type peritoneal lavage intermittently.Methods by randomized controlled study, from our selection of 54 patients with SAP were randomly divided into two groups,control group using conventional foundation treatment, lavage group adopt short-term intermittent peritoneal fluid loop peritoneal lavage treatment;Observed two groups of patients before and after treatment, 3,7 d C reactive protein (CRP), duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and neutrophil counts (NUE) levels and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-Ⅱ, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) organs and deaths.Results CRP for 7 d after lavage treatment group (42.30 ±23.78) mg/L, APACHE-Ⅱ is (3.31 ± 1.81) points, NUE for 109/L (4.79 ± 1

  2. Detection of CDH1 gene methylation of suspension cells in abdominal lavage fluid from colorectal cancer patients and its clinical significance%结直肠癌术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1甲基化检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁发龙; 杜刚毅; 郑少康; 彭林; 陈金泉

    2014-01-01

    目的 检测结直肠癌术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因甲基化状态并探讨其与结直肠癌临床病理资料及预后的关系.方法 前瞻性纳入2011年10月至2013年10月间中山市中医院手术治疗的原发性结直肠癌患者.采用实时荧光甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应技术,检测术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因启动子区域5'-CpG岛的甲基化状态,将甲基化百分率大于20%定义为甲基化,小于或等于20%为非甲基化;分析CDH1基因甲基化状态与结直肠癌临床病理特征及预后的关系.结果 共102例患者纳入研究,其中CDH1甲基化组47例,非甲基化组55例.与非甲基化组比较,甲基化组患者肿瘤直径更大,浸润型比例更高,分化程度更低,淋巴结转移和远处转移率更高,临床分期更晚(均P<0.05).甲基化组患者中位生存期短于非甲基化组(26.0月比41.4月,P<0.05).Cox模型分析显示,CDH1甲基化状态是结直肠癌患者术后生存的独立危险因素(RR=27.5,95%CI:3.8~51.3,P<0.01].结论 术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因发生甲基化的结直肠癌患者恶性程度较高,易发生淋巴结转移和远处转移,预后较差.%Objective To detect the CDH1 gene methylation of suspension cells in intraoperative abdominal lavage fluid from colorectal cancer patients,and to examine its association with clinicopathology and prognosis.Methods Real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) was used to investigate the methylation status of the CDH 1 gene promoter 5'-CpG islands from intraoperative abdominal lavage fluid in 102 patients with colorectal cancer.The associations between methylation of CDH1 genes and clinicopathologic features and prognosis were investigated.Results Among the 102 colorectal cancer patients,aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene was detected in 47 patients.Significant associations were found between CDH1 methylation status and tumor size,growth pattern

  3. Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW: design and rationale for a large, multicenter collaborative 2 × 3 factorial trial of irrigating pressures and solutions in patients with open fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open fractures frequently result in serious complications for patients, including infections, wound healing problems, and failure of fracture healing, many of which necessitate subsequent operations. One of the most important steps in the initial management of open fractures is a thorough wound irrigation and debridement to remove any contaminants. There is, however, currently no consensus regarding the optimal approach to irrigating open fracture wounds during the initial operative procedure. The selection of both the type of irrigating fluid and the pressure of fluid delivery remain controversial. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irrigation solutions (soap vs. normal saline and pressure (low vs. high; gravity flow vs. high; low vs. gravity flow on re-operation within one year among patients with open fractures. Methods/Design The FLOW study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial using a 2 × 3 factorial design. Surgeons at clinical sites in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit 2 280 patients who will be centrally randomized into one of the 6 treatment arms (soap + low pressure; soap + gravity flow pressure; soap + high pressure; saline + low pressure; saline + gravity flow pressure; saline + high pressure. The primary outcome of the study is re-operation to promote wound or bone healing, or to treat an infection. This composite endpoint of re-operation includes a narrow spectrum of patient-important procedures: irrigation and debridement for infected wound, revision and closure for wound dehiscence, wound coverage procedures for infected or necrotic wound, bone grafts or implant exchange procedures for established nonunion in patients with postoperative fracture gaps less than 1 cm, intramedullary nail dynamizations in the operating room, and fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. Patients, outcome adjudicators, and data analysts will be blinded. We will compare

  4. Hyperoxygenated solution for improved oxygen supply in patients undergoing lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHOU Hai-yan; XU Pei-hua; WANG Hong-mei; LIN Xian-ming; WANG Xuan-ding

    2009-01-01

    Background At present,the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis(PAP)remains whole-lung lavage in spite of the usually accompanying severe hypoxemia,which is expected to be prevented by hyperoxygenated solution improving oxygen supply during lavage.In this study,the efficacy and safety of the effect of hyperoxygenated solution were evaluated.Methods Five patients underwent whole-lung lavage over a 28-month period.Each lung was lavaged with hyperoxygenated(HO)and normal saline solution(plain lactated Ringer's solution,NO)randomly and alternatively until the reclaimed fluid was clear.Random number was generated by computer before every cycle of lavage.If the number was odd,the patient was assigned to receive a lavage cycle with hyperoxygenated solution(HO group,n=109);if the number was even,normal saline solution was used(NO group,n=115).Data of saturation of peripheral oxygen(SPO2),mean arterial pressure(MAP),central venous pressure(CVP),heart rate(HR)and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2)were taken down at 0,30,60,90,120,150,180,210 and 240 seconds from the beginning of the instillation of solution,and frequency and volume of unilateral lung lavage were also recorded.Time interval between the left and the right lung lavage was 1 week.Results No patient was withdrawn from the study due to low SPO2 or leakage.Oxygen pressure was(730.21±7.43)mmHg in the hyperoxygenated solution against(175.73±5.92)mmHg in the normal saline solution(P<0.01).Compared with baseline,SPO2 increased significantly as the instillation of solution began(P<0.01),leveled for about 30 seconds(P>0.05),and then decreased significantly to the lowest at the time of drainage(compared with 120 seconds or peak,P<0.01).SPO2 was higher in HO group than in NO group(P<0.01).There were no significant differences in MAP,HR,CVP and PETCO2 between HO group and NO group(P>0.05)and also among different time points(P>0.05).Conclusion During the lung lavage for pulmonary

  5. Peritoneal Lavage in the Diagnosis of Acute Surgical Abdomen Following Thermal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    disease, others6𔄂-15 have confirmed his Sepsis syndrome 13 findings. Hoffman16 reviewed the literature on the use of Abdominal distension 11 Ileus 7 DPL...developed sepsis, ileus , and abdominal distention 98 Fourteen of the 17 patients died, a mortality rate of 82%. days following injury. Lavage fluid...the greater omentum. The difficulty in diag- whelming pulmonary sepsis or multisystem organ failure, nosing biliary disease with DPL has been

  6. Early activation of the alveolar macrophage is critical to the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidu, BV; Krishnadasan, B; Farivar, AS; Woolley, SM; Thomas, R; Rooijen, van N.; Verrier, ED; Mulligan, MS

    2003-01-01

    .006) and marked reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid leukocyte accumulation. Alveolar macrophage-depleted animals also demonstrated marked reductions of the elaboration of multiple proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in the lavage effluent and nuclear transcription factors in lung homoge

  7. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzyk, D A; Baynes, R E; Messenger, K M; Martinez, M; Smith, G W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare active drug concentrations in the plasma vs. different effector compartments including interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy preruminating (3-week-old) and ruminating (6-month-old) calves. Eight calves in each age group were given a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (8 mg/kg) of danofloxacin. Plasma, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected over 96 h and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PELF concentrations were calculated by a urea dilution assay of the BAL fluids. Plasma protein binding was measured using a microcentrifugation system. For most preruminant and ruminant calves, the concentration-time profile of the central compartment was best described by a two-compartment open body model. For some calves, a third compartment was also observed. The time to maximum concentration in the plasma was longer in preruminating calves (3.1 h) vs. ruminating calves (1.4 h). Clearance (CL/F) was 385.15 and 535.11 mL/h/kg in preruminant and ruminant calves, respectively. Ruminant calves maintained higher ISF/plasma concentration ratios throughout the study period compared to that observed in preruminant calves. Potential reasons for age-related differences in plasma concentration-time profiles and partitioning of the drug to lungs and ISF as a function of age are explored.

  8. 非肺孢子菌肺炎患者支气管肺泡灌洗液肺孢子菌检出情况%Detection results of Pneumocystis jirovecii from non-Pneumocystis pneumonia patients' bronchial alveolar lavage fluid samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任珊珊; 田小军; 齐志群; 安亦军; 范东瀛; 王爱东; 任翊

    2015-01-01

    目的 利用常规PCR、巢式PCR(Nest PCR,nPCR)和定量PCR(Quantitative PCR,qPCR)方法,调查非肺孢子菌肺炎(Non-Pneumocystis pneumonia,non-PCP)患者支气管肺泡灌洗液(Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid,BALF)中耶氏肺孢子菌(Pneumocystis jirovecii,Pj)的检出情况.方法 入选non-PCP患者50例留取BALF,分别以线粒体大亚基rRNA(Mi-tochondrial large subunit rRNA,mtLSUrRNA)为靶基因进行常规PCR(Mt-PCR)和巢氏PCR(Mt-nPCR),以主要表面糖蛋白(Major surface glycoprotein,Msg)为靶基因进行常规PCR(Msg-PCR),检测Mt-PCR,Mt-nPCR和Msg-PCR三种方法的Pj特异性核酸片段检出率,并对PCR检出为阳性的样本分别用以mtLSU rRNA和Msg为靶基因的qPCR来检测相应Pj核酸片段拷贝数.结果 50例BALF中,Mt-nPCR、Mt-PCR及Msg-PCR的检出率分别为56%(28/50)、36%(18/50)和26%(13/50),其中三种检测方法同时阳性5例(10%),任意两种方法阳性13例(26%),任意一种方法阳性18例(36%),三种方法均为阴性14例(28%).36例PCR检测结果阳性的标本分别进行mtLSU rRNA定量PCR(Mt-qPCR)和Msg定量PCR(Msg-qPCR)检测,其中Mt-qPCR检测结果为:1000拷贝/μL~9 999拷贝/μL有36例(100%);Msg-qPCR检测结果为:100拷贝/μL~999拷贝/μL有3例(8.3%),1 000拷贝/μL~9 999拷贝/μL有16例(44.4%),10 000拷贝/μL~99 999拷贝/μL有9例(25%),105拷贝/μL以上8例(22.2%).36例配对检测qPCR样本中,Msg-qPCR拷贝数大于Mt-qPCR拷贝数样本28例(77.8%).结论 在non-PCP患者BALF中,Pj核酸扩增方法的检出率为72%,Mt-qPCR拷贝数主要位于103拷贝/μL数量级,Msg-qPCR拷贝数主要分布于103至105拷贝/μL.用核酸扩增方法在BALF中检测出Pj时,临床意义解读需要谨慎.

  9. 社区获得性肺炎患者血清及支气管肺泡灌洗液中IL-6、IL-8和IL-10水平变化及其临床意义%The levels of IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁静; 魏希强; 孙伟

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨社区获得性肺炎( CAP)患者血清和支气管肺泡灌洗液( BALF)中炎症因子白细胞介素( IL)-6、IL-8和IL-10水平的变化及其临床意义。方法:选取CAP患者50例( CAP组),入院第1天进行临床肺部感染评分,0.05);而CAP组血清中IL-8水平在入院第30天仍保持较高水平,显著高于对照组(P0. 05). The level of IL-8 in serum of CAP patients remained at a high level on day 30 of admission,which was significantly higher than that in control group(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 were involved in the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum and levels of IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 in BALF can reflect the severity of pulmonary infection. The detection of IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 in serum has certain clinical value in the early diagnosis of CAP.

  10. Pulmonary levels of high-mobility group box 1 during mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Wolthuls, Esther K; Choi, Goda; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 is a recently discovered proinflammatory mediator that contributes to acute lung injury. We determined HMGB-1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients during mechanical ventilation (MV) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

  11. Laparoscopic Lavage for Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis has traditionally been treated with open colon resection and stoma formation with risk for reoperations, morbidity, and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage alone has been suggested as definitive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare laparoscopic...

  12. Laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis: a population analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C

    2012-09-01

    Laparoscopic lavage has shown promising results in nonfeculent perforated diverticulitis. It is an appealing strategy; it avoids the complications associated with resection. However, there has been some reluctance to widespread uptake because of the scarcity of large-scale studies.

  13. Anaesthetic management of bilateral alveolar proteinosis for bronchopulmonary lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The most hazardous manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is progressive hypoxia for which bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL is the single most effective treatment. Unfortunately this procedure under general anesthesia itself increases the risk of hypoxia due to the need for one lung ventilation. It was therefore considered interesting to report the successful anaesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis for Bronchopulmonary lavage.

  14. COPD纤维支气管镜肺泡灌洗液中可溶性晚期糖基化终末产物受体水平的临床意义%The Clinical Significances of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts in Bronchoscopy Alveolus Lavage Fluid among Patients with COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴官; 雷超; 胡占升

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical significances of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products ( sRAGE)in bronchoscopy alveolus lavage fluid( BALF)in patients with COPD. Methods A total of 40 patients with COPD who were admitted to the department of intensive care unit of the First Hospital Affiliated to Liaoning Medical University from Oc-tober 2012 to May 2013,were selected as the COPD group,meanwhile 40 patients with non-COPD were selected as the non-COPD group,and these COPD patients were divided into mild group(12 cases),moderate group(10 cases),severe group (10 cases),very severe group(8 cases). The sRAGE concentrations in BALF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay(ELISA). Results The concentration of sRAGE in BALF of patients in the COPD group(191 ±71)ng/L was sig-nificantly higher than that in the non-COPD group(55 ±56)ng/L(t=9. 44,P<0. 001). The concentration of sRAGE in BALF of COPD patients in the mild group,moderate group,severe group and very severe group was(111 ± 44) ng/L,(184 ±45)ng/L,(226 ±34)ng/L,and(273 ±30)ng/L,respectively,there were significant differences in concentration of sRAGE among these groups(F=30. 48,P<0. 001),and the concentration of sRAGE in very severe COPD group was signifi-cantly higher than that in severe COPD group,the concentration of sRAGE in severe COPD group was significantly higher than that in moderate group,the concentration of sRAGE in moderate group was significantly higher than that in mild group( P <0. 05 ) . Linear correlation analysis results showed that the concentration of sRAGE in BALF of COPD patients were negatively cor-related with FEV1%(r= -0. 738,P <0. 05). Conclusion The concentration of sRAGE in BALF of COPD patients was higher than that of non-COPD patients;The concentration of sRAGE in BALF is related to severity of COPD,it could be used as an index of the prognosis evaluation of COPD.%目的:探讨纤维支气管镜肺泡灌洗液中可溶性晚期

  15. Whole lung lavage in comparison with bronchoscopic lobar lavage using the rigid bronchoscope in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Is it time to change strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Alkady

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Whole-lung lavage is more efficient than bronchoscopic lobar lavage in treating PAP as it provides larger lavage volumes in shorter time periods and is also associated with lower rate of recurrence of symptoms and the need of relavage.

  16. Elevated CXCL-8 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage correlates with disease severity in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohamad Reza; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Tabarsi, Payam; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Maghsoomi, Zohreh; Khosravi, Adnan; Garssen, Johan; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare but known cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of inflammatory cytokines in the progression of ARDS in TB patients is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated the possible link between the levels of inflammatory cytokines in

  17. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

    1989-01-01

    found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis...

  18. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  19. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection ra

  20. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. L.; Kaestli, M; Chang, A. B.; Binks, M. J.; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L. R.; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-01-01

    Background Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway mic...

  1. Comparison of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fluids and tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Waggoner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction using the Cell-free 1000 and Pathogen Complex 400 protocols on the QIAsymphony Sample Processing (SP system were compared using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, tissue samples, and urine. The QIAsymphonyAssay Set-up (AS system was used to assemble reactions using artus CMV PCR reagents and amplification was carried out on the Rotor-Gene Q. Samples from 93 patients previously tested for CMV DNA and negative samples spiked with CMV AD-169 were used to evaluate assay performance. The Pathogen Complex 400 protocol yielded the following results: BAL, sensitivity 100% (33/33, specificity 87% (20/23; tissue, sensitivity 100% (25/25, specificity 100% (20/20; urine, sensitivity 100% (21/21, specificity 100% (20/20. Cell-free 1000 extraction gave comparable results for BAL and tissue, however, for urine, the sensitivity was 86% (18/21 and specimen quantitation was inaccurate. Comparative studies of different extraction protocols and DNA detection methods in body fluids and tissues are needed, as assays optimized for blood or plasma will not necessarily perform well on other specimen types.

  2. Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Gonzales, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    , randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann’s Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients...... morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer reoperations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs...... and increased quality of life....

  3. Early experience with laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swank, H.A.; Mulder, I.M.; Hoofwijk, A.G.; Nienhuijs, S.W.; Lange, J.F.; Bemelman, W.A.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic lavage has recently emerged as a promising alternative to sigmoid resection in the treatment of perforated diverticulitis. This study examined an early experience with this technique. METHODS: The files of all patients with complicated diverticulitis were searched in 34 teac

  4. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S

    1996-08-01

    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  5. Immune responses in mice to oral administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Helicobacter pylori urease B subunit by a lavage technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-feng; LIU Chang-jiang; HU Jia-lu; JIA Ai-qin; SUN Zi-qin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To determine whether attenuated Salmonella typhimurium producing Helicobacter pylori (Hp) urease subunit B(UreB)can elicit specific immune responses against Hp in mice tested by a lavage technique. Methods: Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium producing Hp UreB immunized orally Balb/c mice twice at a 3-week interval. After 12 weeks,mice intestinal secretions were obtained without harm by administering a lavage solution intragastrically.The mice intestinal secretions of immune group were also directly washed out after the mice were killed. The antibody responses were evaluated by using serum and intestinal fluid with ELISA assay. Results: The multiple oral immunizations with SL3261/pTC01 UreB induced significantly Hp-specific mucosal IgA response as well as serum IgG response. The IgA was also consistently higher in the intestinal fluid obtained by the lavage solution than by direct washout. In addition, no obvious side effects and changes in gastric inflammation were observed in mice.Conclusion: The attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Hp UreB may be used as an oral vaccine against Hp infection. And the lavage technique is an ideal method in the study of mucosal immune responses.

  6. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  7. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic lavage for Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Gervaz; Patrick Ambrosetti

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic lavage and drainage is a novel approach for managing patients with Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis. However, this less invasive technique has important limitations, which are highlighted in this systematic review. We performed a Pub Med search and identified 6 individual series reporting the results of this procedure. An analysis was performed regarding treatment-related morbidity, success rates, and subsequent elective sigmoid resection. Data was available for 287 patients only, of which 213(74%) were actually presenting with Hinchey Ⅲ diverticulitis. Reported success rate in this group was 94%, with 3% mortality. Causes of failure were:(1) ongoing sepsis;(2) fecal fistula formation; and(3) perforated sigmoid cancer. Although few patients developed recurrent diverticulitis in follow-up, 106 patients(37%) eventually underwent elective sigmoid resection. Our data indicate that laparoscopic lavage and drainage may benefit a highly selected group of Hinchey Ⅲ patients. It is unclear whether laparoscopic lavage and drainage should be considered a curative procedure or just a damage control operation. Failure to identify patients with either:(1) feculent peritonitis(Hinchey Ⅳ);(2) persistent perforation; or(3) perforated sigmoid cancer, are causes of concern, and will limit the application of this technique.

  8. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  9. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  10. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  11. Penetrating torso injuries: the role of paracentesis and lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, L A; Thomas, C W; Gorenbein, S; Wolfman, E F

    1977-03-01

    Controversy still exists regarding the proper approach to patients with penetrating torso injuries. Mandatory immediate celiotomy and selective observation both have associated risks. Paracentesis with lavage is a rapid, easily performed and readily available technique which can, with a high degree of accuracy, differentiate on initial evaluation those patients with penetrating visceral injuries from those without such injuries. Complications are minimal. The use of these two procedures in evaluating penetrating torso injuries has led to improved patient care and produced major lowering of medical and socioeconomic costs.

  12. Ductal lavage, nipple aspiration, and ductoscopy for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, William C

    2003-01-01

    The intraductal approach to breast cancer has been invigorated this year by a series of papers exploring ductal-based screening through nipple aspiration and lavage and ductal exploration through endoscopy. The merging of these efforts to define the earliest biologic changes in the progression toward breast cancer is opening new fields for both bench-translational and clinical research. These techniques have already begun to show value in defining the presence and extent of proliferative disease in high-risk patients, allowing for more informed therapeutic decision making.

  13. Effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation on levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert T. Verhoeven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In smoking COPD patients the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid contains high numbers of inflammatory cells. These cells might produce arachidonic acid (AA metabolites, which contribute to inflammation and an increased bronchomotor tone.

  14. Pseudo-outbreak of pseudomonas aeruginosa in HIV-infected patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J; Lerche, A; Kristoffersen, Kirsten Lydia;

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 8 consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy at an infectious diseases unit. None of the patients developed signs of respiratory tract infection that could be ascribed to the organism. The source of contamination...

  15. PLASMA NA/K CHANGES AFTER GASTRIC LAVAGE WITH TAP WATER IN INGESTION POISONING PATIENTS

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    K MONTAZERI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion poisoning include 79% of all poisoning. Usually the first step in management of these patients is gastric lavage, which in most centers is done by tap water (exepct for children below 4 years old. Due to low Na and K of tap water and daily secretion of Na and K in stomach, one of the probable complications of this lavage is lasting the Na and K, and electrolyte imbalance in patients. Methods. This study was done on 100 poisoned patients undergone Gastric lavage. All of patients were more than 4 years old. Poisoning by toxin or drug contain sodium or potassium, cause to exclude patients from study. For all patients Na/K of plasma before and half hour after gastric lavage were measured. After gastric lavage, volume of lavage, Na/K of lavage liquid and Na/K of tap water were recorded. Results. The changes of plasma Na in all patients were from 7 mmol/lit increasing to 12 mmol/Lit decreasing, and for plasma K were from 1 mmol/lit increasing to 1.2 mmol/lit decreasing. Means changes of Na was 2.74 mmol/lit decreasing and mean change of K was 0.33 mmol/Lit. Decreasing in plasma electrolytes in patients with high volume of gastric lavage was predominant but this relation between. volume of lavage and changing of plasma electrolytes was not considerable. Also total Na and K excretion" in all volumes of lavage was nearly equal. Discussion. In patients without underlying disesae, plasma Na/K changes during gastric lavage is not considerable but in patients with underlying disease or old patients can lead to electrolytes disturbance and to be recommended in these patients plasma elcectrolytes to be measured.

  16. Analysis of a Panel of 48 Cytokines in BAL Fluids Specifically Identifies IL-8 Levels as the Only Cytokine that Distinguishes Controlled Asthma from Uncontrolled Asthma, and Correlates Inversely with FEV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoki, Koa; Ying, Sun; Corrigan, Christopher; Qi, Huibin; Kurosky, Alexander; Jennings, Kristofer; Sun, Qian; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids that distinguish asthma from healthy control subjects and those that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma. Following informed consent, 36 human subjects were recruited for this study. These included 11 healthy control subjects, 15 subjects with controlled asthma with FEV1≥80% predicted and 10 subjects with uncontrolled asthma with FEV1 cytokines were measured in these fluids. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with asthma had significantly more percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, G-CSF, GROα (CXCL1), MIP-1β (CCL4), MIG (CXCL9), RANTES (CCL5) and TRAIL in their BAL fluids. The only inflammatory markers that distinguished controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma were neutrophil percentage and IL-8 levels, and both were inversely correlated with FEV1. We examined whether grouping asthma subjects on the basis of BAL eosinophil % or neutrophil % could identify specific cytokine profiles. The only differences between neutrophil-normal asthma (neutrophil≤2.4%) and neutrophil-high asthma (neutrophils%>2.4%) were a higher BAL fluid IL-8 levels, and a lower FEV1 in the latter group. By contrast, compared to eosinophil-normal asthma (eosinophils≤0.3%), eosinophil-high asthma (eosinophils>0.3%) had higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, IL-16, and PDGF-bb, but same neutrophil percentage, IL-8, and FEV1. Our results identify neutrophils and IL-8 are the only inflammatory components in BAL fluids that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma, and both correlate inversely with FEV1.

  17. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rennis Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

  18. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Yang, N.; Lendvai, A.; Klip, H. G.; Volders, H. H.; Buikema, H. J.; van Hemel, B. M.; Voll, M.; Bennink, H. J. T. Coelingh; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G. B. A.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of DNA methylation analysis for the detection of cervical neoplasia in self-obtained cervico-vaginal lavages. Methods. Lavages collected by a self-sampling device and paired cervical scrapings were obtained from 20 cervical cancer patients and 23 patients referr

  19. Laparoscopic lavage is superior to colon resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis-a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angenete, Eva; Bock, David; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Perforated diverticulitis often requires surgery with a colon resection such as Hartmann's procedure, with inherent morbidity. Recent studies suggest that laparoscopic lavage may be an alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare re-operations, morbidity, and mort......PURPOSE: Perforated diverticulitis often requires surgery with a colon resection such as Hartmann's procedure, with inherent morbidity. Recent studies suggest that laparoscopic lavage may be an alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare re-operations, morbidity......, and mortality as well as health economic outcomes between laparoscopic lavage and colon resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and Embase were searched. Published randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective cohorts...... compared to colon resection, with overall comparable morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, Hartmann's resection was more costly than laparoscopic lavage. We therefore consider laparoscopic lavage a valid alternative to surgery with resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis....

  20. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus

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    Zhou Haibo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modified function of immune cells in nasal secretions may play a role in the enhanced susceptibility to respiratory viruses that is seen in smokers. Innate immune cells in nasal secretions have largely been characterized by cellular differentials using morphologic criteria alone, which have successfully identified neutrophils as a significant cell population within nasal lavage fluid (NLF cells. However, flow cytometry may be a superior method to fully characterize NLF immune cells. We therefore characterized immune cells in NLF by flow cytometry, determined the effects of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV on NLF and peripheral blood immune cells, and compared responses in samples obtained from smokers and nonsmokers. Methods In a prospective observational study, we characterized immune cells in NLF of nonsmokers at baseline using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Nonsmokers and smokers were inoculated with LAIV on day 0 and serial nasal lavages were collected on days 1-4 and day 9 post-LAIV. LAIV-induced changes of NLF cells were characterized using flow cytometry. Cell-free NLF was analyzed for immune mediators by bioassay. Peripheral blood natural killer (NK cells from nonsmokers and smokers at baseline were stimulated in vitro with LAIV followed by flow cytometric and mediator analyses. Results CD45(+CD56(-CD16(+ neutrophils and CD45(+CD56(+ NK cells comprised median 4.62% (range 0.33-14.52 and 23.27% (18.29-33.97, respectively, of non-squamous NLF cells in nonsmokers at baseline. LAIV did not induce changes in total NK cell or neutrophil percentages in either nonsmokers or smokers. Following LAIV inoculation, CD16(+ NK cell percentages and granzyme B levels increased in nonsmokers, and these effects were suppressed in smokers. LAIV inoculation enhanced expression of activating receptor NKG2D and chemokine receptor CXCR3 on peripheral blood NK cells from both nonsmokers and smokers in vitro but did not induce

  1. Helicobacter Genotyping and Detection in Peroperative Lavage Fluid in Patients with Perforated Peptic Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.P. Komen (Niels); M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta); J.F. Lange (Johan); P.W. de Graaf

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and Objectives Certain Helicobacter pylori genotypes are associated with peptic ulcer disease; however, little is known about associations between the H. pylori genotype and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate which genotypes are pre

  2. Health economic analysis of laparoscopic lavage versus Hartmann's procedure for diverticulitis in the randomized DILALA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrman, J; Angenete, E; Björholt, I;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Open surgery with resection and colostomy (Hartmann's procedure) has been the standard treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. In recent years laparoscopic lavage has emerged as an alternative, with potential benefits for patients with purulent peritonitis...

  3. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  4. Neutrophil influx measured in nasal lavages of humans exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, D.; Henderson, F.; House, D.

    1988-05-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) obtained by nasal lavage were counted to determine if ozone, an oxidant air pollutant, induces an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of humans. Background data were obtained by the nasal lavages from 200 nonexperimentally exposed subjects. Then, using a known inflammatory agent for the URT, rhinovirus-type 39, the induction, peak, and resolution of an acute inflammatory response was shown to be documented by the nasal lavage PMN counts. To determined if ozone induces this response, 41 subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.5 ppm ozone for 4 hr, on 2 consecutive days. Nasal lavages were taken pre-, immediately post each exposure, and 22 hr following the last exposure. Lavage PMN counts increased significantly (p = .005) in the ozone-exposed group, with 3.5-, 6.5-, and 3.9-fold increases over the air-exposed group at the post 1, pre 2, and post 2 time points, respectively. Ozone induces an inflammatory response in the URT of humans, and nasal lavage PMN counts are useful to assay the inflammatory properties of air pollutants.

  5. Lavagem traqueobrônquica por sondagem nasotraqueal em bezerros Tracheobronchial lavage in calves using a nasotracheal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Gonçalves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a técnica de lavagem traqueobrônquica por sondagem nasotraqueal e caracterizou-se a população celular em 10 bezerros clinicamente sadios. Após a contenção dos animais em decúbito lateral e auxílio de sonda guia, foi introduzida uma sonda de menor diâmetro até a bifurcação da traquéia, para produzir tosse e obter o lavado traqueobrônquico. A média de células totais nas amostras de lavado foi de 133.750 células/ml. À citologia, foram observados na contagem diferencial: 77,2% macrófagos, 14,9% células epiteliais cilíndricas, 6,0% neutrófilos e 1,8% linfócitos. Das células epiteliais cilíndricas, 79,0% eram do tipo ciliadas e 21,0% não-ciliadas. A média de contagem de macrófagos binucleados foi de 78,5 células/lâmina, a de macrófagos trinucleados de 20,5/lâmina e a de células gigantes 28,5/lâmina. Concluiu-se que o método de colheita por sondagem nasotraqueal é eficiente para caracterizar a citologia do lavado traqueobrônquico de bezerros clinicamente sadios.Tracheobronchial lavage through nasotracheal via was performed in 10 clinically health calves. They were maintained in lateral recumbence to perform the procedure. A small tube inserted into a guide tube was introduced until the tracheal bifurcation, producing cough, facilitating the collection of the lavage fluid. The mean number of total cells present in the samples was 133,750 cells/ml. The differential counting was represented by 77.2% of macrophages, 14.9% of cylindrical epithelial cells, 6.0% of neutrophils, 1.8% of lymphocytes. The cylindrical ciliated cells represented 79.0% of the sample and the nonciliated cells represented 21.0%. The mean number of macrophages was 78.5 of binucleated cells, 20.5 of trinucleated cells, and 28.5 of giant cells per smear. The tracheobronchial lavage obtained by this technique was an efficient method to characterize the cytological population of the lungs of clinically health calves.

  6. Comparison of Irrigation Times Using Gravity and High-Pressure Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatelli, Stefano; Howe, Andrea; O'Hara, Nathan N; O'Toole, Robert V; Sprague, Sheila A; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2017-01-11

    The benefits of high-pressure pulsatile lavage for open fracture irrigation have been controversial based on conflicting experimental animal research. Recently published data definitively demonstrated that irrigation pressure does not affect the incidence of reoperation for the treatment of open fractures. However, proponents of pulsatile lavage argue a faster irrigation time is an important benefit of the high-pressure treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in irrigation time between gravity and high-pressure lavage. The experimental setup was designed to mimic clinical practice and compared mean irrigation flow times for high-pressure pulsatile lavage and gravity flow with 2 commonly used tube diameters. Each irrigation setup was tested 5 times at 3 different irrigation bag heights. Analysis of variance and Student's t tests were used to compare the mean flow times of 3 irrigation methods at each height and among the 3 heights for each irrigation method. The mean irrigation flow time in the various experimental models ranged from 161 to 243 seconds. Gravity irrigation with wide tubing was significantly faster than pulsatile lavage or gravity with narrow tubing (P<.001). Increasing irrigation bag height had only a marginal effect on the overall flow times (<9% difference). The difference in mean flow time among the testing techniques was slightly longer than 1 minute, which is unlikely to have a material impact on procedural costs, operating times, and subsequent gains in patient safety. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  7. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  8. Peritoneal taurolidine lavage in children with localised peritonitis due to appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Axel; Sack, Ulrich; Rothe, Karin; Bennek, Joachim

    2005-06-01

    Despite aggressive surgical treatment, rational antibiotic therapy, and modern intensive care, generalised peritonitis remains a major threat in the paediatric age group. Several adjuvant strategies such as peritoneal saline lavage and peritoneal drainage have been utilised. Taurolidine, derived from the amino acid taurine, has bactericidic, antiendotoxic, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been introduced previously for intraoperative peritoneal lavage in treating peritonitis in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of peritoneal taurolidine lavage on the clinical course and serological inflammation markers in children with perforated appendicitis and localised peritonitis. A series of 27 children presenting with appendicitis between January 1999 and July 2001 were included in the study after parental informed consent. All patients underwent open appendectomy. Taurolidine peritoneal lavage was applied in 15 randomly selected children (eight girls and seven boys; mean age 10 years and 10 months). Twelve children received saline peritoneal lavage and served as the control group (six girls and six boys; mean age 9 years and 7 months). Blood was taken preoperatively and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Full blood cell count, C-reactive protein, endotoxin, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and procalcitonin were investigated to evaluate the serological course of inflammation. Both groups initially presented with severe inflammation as evidenced clinically and serologically. The clinical postoperative course was uneventful in 13/15 patients in the treatment group and 10/12 patients in the control group. The remaining patients presented complications: intraperitoneal abscess or early postoperative bowel obstruction. With regard to the serological inflammatory parameters, no significant differences were found between the two groups except for the soluble interleukin-2-receptor on the 7

  9. Gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel; Léia Damasceno de Aguiar Brotto; Carolina Maia Martins Sales; Eliana Zandonade; Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar a padronização da coleta do lavado gástrico para diagnóstico de tuberculose em crianças. Métodos: Estudo de revisão sistemática referente aos anos de 1968 a 2008. O levantamento de artigos científicos foi feito nas bases de dados Lilacs, SciELO e Medline, utilizando-se a estratégia de busca ("gastric lavage and tuberculosis" ou "gastric washing and tuberculosis", com o limite "crianças com idade até 15 anos"; e "gastric lavage and tuberculosis and childhood" ou "gastric was...

  10. Physiological, Biochemical, and Biophysical Characterization of the Lung-Lavaged Spontaneously-Breathing Rabbit as a Model for Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesca; Catozzi, Chiara; Murgia, Xabier; Rosa, Brenda; Amidani, Davide; Lorenzini, Luca; Bianco, Federico; Rivetti, Claudio; Catinella, Silvia; Villetti, Gino; Civelli, Maurizio; Pioselli, Barbara; Dani, Carlo; Salomone, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in spontaneously-breathing premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant administration techniques compatible with nCPAP ventilation strategy are actively investigated. Our aim is to set up and validate a respiratory distress animal model that can be managed on nCPAP suitable for surfactant administration techniques studies. Surfactant depletion was induced by bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) on 18 adult rabbits. Full depletion was assessed by surfactant component analysis on the BALs samples. Animals were randomized into two groups: Control group (nCPAP only) and InSurE group, consisting of a bolus of surfactant (Poractant alfa, 200 mg/kg) followed by nCPAP. Arterial blood gases were monitored until animal sacrifice, 3 hours post treatment. Lung mechanics were evaluated just before and after BALs, at the time of treatment, and at the end of the procedure. Surfactant phospholipids and protein analysis as well as surface tension measurements on sequential BALs confirmed the efficacy of the surfactant depletion procedure. The InSurE group showed a significant improvement of blood oxygenation and lung mechanics. On the contrary, no signs of recovery were appreciated in animals treated with just nCPAP. The surfactant-depleted adult rabbit RDS model proved to be a valuable and efficient preclinical tool for mimicking the clinical scenario of preterm infants affected by mild/moderate RDS who spontaneously breathe and do not require mechanical ventilation. This population is of particular interest as potential target for the non-invasive administration of surfactant. PMID:28060859

  11. THE VALUE OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE TREATMENT FOR CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASES%支气管肺泡灌洗治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家萱

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者的应用价值.方法:A组使用氧氟沙星注射液及0.5%甲硝唑注射液灌洗,局部滴入丁胺卡那0.2,地塞米松5mg,B组使用生理盐水灌洗,局部滴入丁胺卡那0.2.疗程:每周2次,连续2周.观察两组患者治疗前后肺功能,血气分析,临床症状,生活质量等.结果:A组治疗后FEV1,PFE高于治疗前及B组,B组虽有改善但不显著(P>0.05),AB两组治疗前后血气分析对比差异具显著性(P<0.05).临床症状及生活质量改善A组明显于B组.结论:支气管肺泡灌洗+滴药可以改善COPD急性期肺功能及临床症状和生活质量,以使用抗生素灌洗加滴入糖皮质激素优于使用生理盐水灌洗,其操作简单易行、创伤少,只要严格把握适应证和禁忌证,就能确保操作安全.

  12. Prospective randomized comparison of oral sodium phosphate and polyethylene glycol lavage for colonoscopy preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lin Hwang; William Tzu-Liang Chen; Koung-Hong Hsiao; Hong-Chang Chen; Ting-Ming Huang; Chien-Ming Chiu; Ger-Haur Hsu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness, patient acceptability, and physical tolerability of two oral lavage solutions prior to colonoscopy in a Taiwanese population. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either standard 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 90 mL of sodium phosphate (NaP) in a split regimen of two 45 mL doses separated by 12 h, prior to colonoscopic evaluation. The primary endpoint was the percent of subjects who had completed the preparation. Secondary endpoints included colonic cleansing evaluated with an overall assessment and segmental evaluation, the tolerance and acceptability assessed by a selfadministered structured questionnaire, and a safety profile such as any unexpected adverse events, electrolyte tests, physical exams, vital signs, and body weights. RESULTS: A significantly higher completion rate was found in the NaP group compared to the PEG group(84.2% vs 27.5%, P<0.001). The amount of fluid suctioned was significantly less in patients taking NaP vs PEG (50.13±54.8 cc vs 121.13±115.4 cc, P<0.001),even after controlling for completion of the oral solution(P = 0.031). The two groups showed a comparable overall assessment of bowel preparation with a rate of "good" or "excellent" in 78.9% of patients in the NaPgroup and 82.5% in PEG group (P = 0.778). Patients taking NaP tended to have significantly better colonic segmental cleansing relative to stool amount observedin the descending (94.7% vs 70%, P = 0.007) andtransverse (94.6% vs 74.4%, P = 0.025) colon. Slightly more patients graded the taste of NaP as "good" or "very good" compared to the PEG patients (32.5% vs 12.5%;P = 0.059). Patients' willingness to take the same preparation in the future was 68.4% in the NaP compared to 75% in the PEG group (P = 0.617). There was a significant increase in serum sodium and a significant decrease in phosphate and chloride levels in NaP group on the day following the colonoscopy without any clinical sequelae. Prolonged (

  13. Effects of fluticasone propionate on arachidonic acid metabolites in BAL-fluid and methacholine dose-response curves in non-smoking atopic asthmatics

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    S. E. Overbeek

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperresponsiveness of the airways to nonspecific stimuli is a characteristic feature of asthma. Airway responsiveness is usually characterized in terms of the position and shape of the dose–response curve to methacholine (MDR. In the study we have investigated the influence of fluticasone propionate (FP, a topically active glucocorticoid, on arachidonic acid (AA metabolites in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid (i.e. TxB2, PGE2, PGD2, 6kPGF1α and LTC4 on the one hand and MDR curves on the other hand. The effect of FP was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 33 stable nonsmoking asthmatics; 16 patients received FP (500 μg b.i.d. whereas 17 patients were treated with placebo. We found that the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1 % predicted increased, the log2PC20 methacholine increased and the plateau value (% fall in FEV1 decreased after a 12 week treatment period. No changes in AA-metabolites could be determined after treatment except for PGD2 which decreased nearly significantly (p = 0.058 within the FP treated group, whereas the change of PGD2 differed significantly (p = 0.05 in the FP treated group from placebo. The levels of the other AA metabolites (i.e. TxB2, PGE2, 6kPGF1α and LTC4 remained unchanged after treatment and were not significantly different from the placebo group. Our results support the hypothesis that although FP strongly influences the position, the shape and also the maximum response plateau of the MDR curve, this effect is not mainly achieved by influence on the level of AA metabolites. Other pro-inflammatory factors may be of more importance for the shape of the MDR curve. It is suggested that these pro-inflammatory factors are downregulated by FP.

  14. Distribution of endotracheally instilled surfactant protein SP-C in lung-lavaged rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; de Leij, Louis; Curstedt, T; ter Haar, J G; Schoots, Coenraad; Wildevuur, Charles; Okken, Albert

    1991-01-01

    In lung-lavaged surfactant-deficient rabbits (n = 6) requiring artificial ventilation, porcine surfactant was instilled endotracheally. This resulted in improvement of lung function so that the animals could be weaned off artificial ventilation. The animals were killed 4 1/2 h after surfactant admin

  15. Impact of bacterial vaginosis, as assessed by nugent criteria and hormonal status on glycosidases and lectin binding in cervicovaginal lavage samples.

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    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA. Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively. The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003 and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001 were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02 when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry.

  16. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage among school-age children from urban and rural areas in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Clóvis Eduardo Santos Galvão

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Some studies have shown that inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect or affect those in the lower airways. We decided to indirectly assess the inflammatory status of the nasal airways in two groups of children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory activity in the nasal airways, through the determination of mediators in nasal lavage fluid in two distinct populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public elementary schools, one in an urban setting and the other in a rural setting of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of 40 elementary school children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens were formed. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were assessed for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and tryptase. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of ECP were observed among students living in the urban area than those in the rural area (p < 0.05. No significant difference in the tryptase levels was observed. Also, the urban children who were sensitized to aeroallergens presented higher levels of ECP in nasal mucosa than the non-sensitized children, while this difference was not observed among the rural children. DISCUSSION: The lack of mast cell activity and increased eosinophil degranulation revealed a chronic inflammatory state in the nasal air passages. The higher eosinophil activity in the urban area, coinciding with higher sensitization to aeroallergens, suggests that there must be some factors in the urban area that can modulate airway inflammation by influencing the activation of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there was no difference in the concentrations of tryptase in nasal lavage fluids between the two studied groups. However, the children from the urban area presented with higher concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein than did those

  17. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

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    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1 no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2 no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3 no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4 combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5 depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera injections for at least 6 months, (6 levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV. Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  18. [Treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection with colonic lavages. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Felipe; Castillo, Richard; Villalón, Constanza; Zúñiga, José Miguel; Manterola, Carla; Molina, María Elena; Bellolio, Felipe; Urrejola, Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    A loop ileostomy with intraoperative anterograde colonic lavage has been described as an alternative to colectomy in the management of cases of Clostridium difficile infection refractory to medical treatment. We report a 69 years old diabetic women admitted with a septic shock. An abdominal CAT scan showed a pan-colitis that seemed to be infectious. A polymerase chain reaction was positive for Clostridium Difficile. Due to the failure to improve after full medical treatment, a derivative loop ileostomy and intra-operatory colonic lavage were performed, leaving a Foley catheter in the proximal colon. In the postoperative period, anterograde colonic instillations of Vancomycin flushes through the catheter were performed every 6 hours. Forty eight hours after surgery, the patient improved. A colonoscopy prior to discharge showed resolution of the pseudomembranous colitis.

  19. [Iatrogenic extravasations of cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions. Value of surgical emergency by aspiration and lavage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, F; Couturaud, B; Arnaud, E; Champeau, F; Revol, M; Servant, J M

    1997-08-01

    Iatrogenic extravasations are characterized by their unpredictable course, the possible repercussions of functional, cosmetic and psychological sequelae, and the absence of a therapeutic consensus. The authors present the protocol used in Hôpital Saint-Louis, based on a synthesis of current procedures, consisting of emergency conservative surgical aspiration and lavage, performed in a context of close collaboration with oncolosits, intensive care physicians and radiologists. From 1994 to March 1997, fifteen patients were operated following extravasation during seven chemotherapeutic protocols, three radiographic examinations with injection of contrast agents and five resuscitation procedures. This simple protocol, applied systematically, achieved cure without cutaneous or functional sequelae in all patients. Aspiration-lavage during the first twelve hours therefore constitutes the treatment of choice of iatrogenic extravasation with cytotoxic or hyperosmolar aqueous solutions.

  20. The real contamination of femoral head allografts washed with pulse lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, P Mikael; Hirn, Martti Y J; Vuento, Risto E

    2002-06-01

    At the Tampere Bone Bank, all the discarded femoral heads from September 1997 to May 2000 were recultured. The grafts had been washed with pulse lavage at harvesting. 48 grafts had been discarded because of a positive culture and 85 with negative cultures because of positive or insufficient serological information. The femoral heads were split into halves, which were recultured as a whole in thioglycolate broth for 14 days. The contamination of previously culture positive and negative femoral heads did not differ. In only 2 cases did we find the same type of bacteria in the primary as in the new culture. Most of the primary contamination proved to be false positive. The real contamination seems to be very low, at least after pulse lavage washing of the femoral head.

  1. Sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma of kidney diagnosed with urine and renal pelvic lavage cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Akihiro; Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    A case of sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of kidney is presented, in which the diagnosis was made cytologically with voided urine and renal pelvis lavage. Cytology of hemorrhagic voided urine revealed highly atypical adenocarcinoma cells with reminiscent ductal structure, which suggested CDC as the most likely diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left renal tumor, and selective lavage of left renal pelvis yielded spindle-shaped, highly atypical cells that indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal cancer with urine cytology is challenging because of small number of tumor cells in the urine, which are often associated with degeneration. As the urinary cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC have not been reported, the characteristic cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC are described in detail, and the differential diagnoses with diagnostic pitfalls were discussed.

  2. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  3. Effect of music on anxiety and pain during joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Sébastien; Bernard, Jean-Luc; Jean-Luc, Bernard; Bardin, Thomas; Thomas, Bardin; Richette, Pascal; Pascal, Richette

    2012-03-01

    Joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis is an invasive procedure that can be stressful and painful. We aimed to assess the impact of music therapy on perioperative anxiety, pain and tolerability of the procedure in patients undergoing joint lavage performed with two needles. We randomized all patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and undergoing joint lavage in our department from November 2009 to October 2010 to an experimental group listening to recorded music or a control group receiving no music intervention. Perioperative anxiety and pain related to the procedure were self-reported on a visual analogic scale (0-100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]), and heart rate and blood pressure were measured during the procedure. Tolerability was assessed on a four-grade scale directly after the procedure. We included 62 patients (31 in each group). Mean age was 68.8 ± 12.6 years (72% females). As compared with the control group, the music group had lower levels of perioperative anxiety (40.3 ± 31.1 vs. 58.2 ± 26.3 mm; p = 0.046) and pain related to the procedure (26.6 ± 16.2 vs. 51.2 ± 23.7 mm; p = 0.0005). Moreover, heart rate was lower in the music group (69.5 ± 11.4 vs. 77.2 ± 13.2; p = 0.043) but not diastolic or systolic blood pressure. Tolerability was higher in the music group (p = 0.002). Music is a simple and effective tool to alleviate pain and anxiety in patients undergoing joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis.

  4. Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Unresected Stage I-III Bronchoalveolar Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Damien [Department of Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Mishra, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Onn, Amir [Department of Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Symon, Zvi; Pfeffer, M. Raphael [Department of Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: yaacovla@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiotherapy (RT) improves the outcome of patients with unresected, nonmetastatic bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) by performing a population-based analysis within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients diagnosed with BAC, Stage I-III, between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria included unknown stage, unknown primary treatment modality, Stage IV disease, and those diagnosed at autopsy. Demographic data, treatment details, and overall survival were retrieved from the SEER database. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 6933 patients with Stage I-III BAC were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 70 years (range, 10-101 years). The majority of patients were diagnosed with Stage I (74.4%); 968 patients (14%) did not undergo surgical resection. Unresected patients were more likely to be older (p < 0.0001), male (p = 0.001), black (p < 0.0001), and Stage III (p < 0.0001). Within the cohort of unresected patients, 300 (31%) were treated with RT. The estimated 2-year overall survival for patients with unresected, nonmetastatic BAC was 58%, 44%, and 27% in Stage I, II, and III, respectively. Factors associated with improved survival included female sex, earlier stage at diagnosis, and use of RT. Median survival in those not receiving RT vs. receiving RT was as follows: Stage I, 28 months vs. 33 months (n = 364, p = 0.06); Stage II, 18 months vs. not reached (n = 31, nonsignificant); Stage III, 10 months vs. 17 months (n = 517, p < 0.003). Conclusions: The use of RT is associated with improved prognosis in unresected Stage I-III BAC. Less than a third of patients who could have potentially benefited from RT received it, suggesting that the medical specialists involved in the care of these patients underappreciate the importance of RT.

  5. Successful resuscitation of a patient who developed cardiac arrest from pulsed saline bacitracin lavage during thoracic laminectomy and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Steven B; Deshur, Mark; Khavkin, Yevgeniy; Karaikovic, Elden; Vender, Jeffery

    2008-06-01

    A patient with a history of T12 burst fracture caused by a fall, and with progressive weakness and sensory loss in the left leg, survived a cardiac arrest after pulsed saline bacitracin lavage irrigation during a posterior spinal fusion.

  6. The role of ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage (barbotage in the treatment of calcific tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Niazi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound guided aspiration and lavage (barbotage is a highly effective, less aggressive method of treatment in cases of calcific tendinosis, especially for cases with severe pain that does not respond to other conservative methods.

  7. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  8. Relationship between changed alveolar-capillary permeability and angiotensin converting enzyme activity in serum in sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, A; Blaschke, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of altered alveolar-capillary permeability on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum (SACE) was studied in 45 patients with sarcoidosis and 21 healthy controls. In sarcoidosis increased albumin concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (L albumin) and increased ratios of L albumin to albumin in serum (S albumin) indicated an increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane. ACE activity in the lavage fluid (LACE) was correlated with the number of al...

  9. Peritoneal lavage fluid′s temperature′s affections to neonate′s abdominal postoperative recovery%腹腔冲洗液温度对新生儿腹部手术术后恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀珍; 纪会娟; 王彦华; 尹维宁; 刘学英; 石磊

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔冲洗液的温度对新生儿腹部手术术后恢复的影响.方法:选择剖腹手术80例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组40例,对照组腹腔冲洗液的温度与室温相同,即22 ~24 ℃,观察组腹腔冲洗液的温度为37 ℃.均用生理盐水1000 ml冲洗,分别记录手术开始前和腹腔冲洗后20 min的肛温、血压、心率以及术后拔出气管插管时间暨完全清醒时间、体温不升、硬肿症的发生情况,进行统计学分析.结果:两组新生儿一般情况比较无明显差异P>0.05.两组患儿不同温度冲洗液治疗后体温、心率比较有明显差异,P<0.05.由于血压受诸多因素的影响,故在此未作比较.对照组患儿术后拔出气管插管时间暨完全清醒时间较实验组延长约21 min,两组比较P<0.01,有明显差异,对照组术后出现体温不升、硬肿的比率明显增加P<0.05有明显差异.结论:腹腔冲洗液加温至37 ℃有利于新生儿术后恢复.%Objective:To explorer the peritoneal lavage fluid's temperature effection on neonatal abdominal postoperative recovery. Methods:80 cases of Lap-arotomy were randomly divided into control group and the experimental group,40 cases in each group. The control group's peritoneal lavage fluid temperature is 22 -24 ℃ ,the same as room temperature. The experimental group's peritoneal lavage fluid's temperature is 37 ℃. Each group used 1000 ml saline to rinse. Each group recorded the rectal temperature, blood pressure, heart rate before surgery and 20 minutes after peritoneal lavage, and recorded postoperative extubation time, awake time, body temperature does not rise, scleredema occurrence, then had statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of normal status in two groups. The temperature and heart has remarkable differentce of two groups after peritoneal lavage with difference temperature. The control group after surgery ( extubated time ) awake time was delay about 21

  10. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Patient and Methods: 355 outpatients between 18 and 75 years were randomized into three groups (A, B, C receiving NaP = A, NaP, and sennosides = B or PEG-ELS and sennosides = C. Gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies were blinded to the type of preparation. All patients documented tolerance and adverse events. Vital signs, premedication, completeness, discomfort, and complications were recorded. A quality score (0–4 of cleanliness was generated. Results: The three groups were similar with regard to age, sex, BMI, indication for colonoscopy, and comorbidity. Drinking volumes (L (A = 4.33 + 1.2, B = 4.56 + 1.18, C = 4.93 + 1.71 were in favor of NaP (P = .005. Discomfort from ingested fluid was recorded in A = 39.8% (versus C: P = .015, B = 46.6% (versus C: P = .147, and C = 54.6%. Differences in tolerability and acceptance between the three groups were statistically not significant. No differences in adverse events and the cleanliness effects occurred in the three groups (P = .113. The cleanliness quality scores 0–2 were calculated in A: 77.7%, B: 86.7%, and C: 85.2%. Conclusions: These data fail to demonstrate significant differences in tolerability, acceptance, and preparation quality between the three types of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Cleansing with NaP was not superior to PEG-ELS.

  11. CD161 Expression Defines a Th1/Th17 Polyfunctional Subset of Resident Memory T Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Alveolar resident memory T cells (T(RM comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3(+CD161(+ T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3(+CD161(+ T cells in the bronchoalveolar space under normal conditions has not been reported. Bronchoalveolar cells (BACs from healthy volunteers were evaluated and found that 8.6% (range 2.5%-21% of these cells were CD3(+ T lymphocytes. Within the CD3(+ population, 4.6% of the cells (2.1-11.3 expressed CD161 on the cell surface, and 74.2% of the CD161(+CD3(+ T cells expressed CD45RO. The number of CD3(+CD161(+ T cells was significantly lower in the bronchoalveolar space than in the blood (4.6% of BACs vs 8.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; P<0.05. We also found that 2.17% of CD4(+ T lymphocytes and 1.52% of CD8(+ T lymphocytes expressed CD161. Twenty-two percent of the alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T lymphocytes produced cytokines upon stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin, and significantly more interferon gamma (IFN-γ was produced compared with other cytokines (P = 0.05. Most alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17 and IFN-γ simultaneously, and the percentage of these cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD3(+CD161- T cells. Moreover, the percentage of alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T lymphocytes that produced IFN-γ/IL-17 was significantly higher than those in the peripheral blood (p<0.05. In conclusion, Th1/Th17-CD3(+CD161(+ TRM could contribute to compartment-specific immune responses in the lung.

  12. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  13. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando

    2010-11-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

  14. Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Jacob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomised study has published any results. Methods DILALA is a Scandinavian, randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL to the traditional Hartmann's Procedure (HP. Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL, re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients are included when surgery is required. A laparoscopy is performed and if Hinchey grade III is diagnosed the patient is included and randomised 1:1, to either LL or HP. Patients undergoing LL receive > 3L of saline intraperitoneally, placement of pelvic drain and continued antibiotics. Follow-up is scheduled 6-12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A QoL-form is filled out on discharge, 6- and 12 months. Inclusion is set to 80 patients (40+40. Discussion HP is associated with a high rate of complication. Not only does the primary operation entail complications, but also subsequent surgery is associated with a high morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer re-operations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs and increased quality of life. Trial registration British registry (ISRCTN for clinical trials ISRCTN82208287http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN82208287

  15. Acute lung injury probably associated with infusion of propofol emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogiannis, K D; Siontis, G C M; Koulouras, V P; Lekka, M E; Nakos, G

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of acute lung injury associated with propofol infusion in a mechanically ventilated patient with intracerebral haemorrhage. Diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other risk factors inducing acute lung injury and on the clinical improvement after discontinuation of the propofol emulsion. Laboratory data such as the increase in total phospholipids, neutral lipids and free fatty acids in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, the remarkably high percentage of alveolar macrophages including fat droplets and the similar lipid composition of propofol and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid support the relationship between propofol and acute lung injury.

  16. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  17. INTRAARTICULAR INJECTION OF HYALURONIC ACID AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC LAVAGE OF THE KNEE: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vladimirovna Luchikhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of arthroscopic lavage in combination with subsequent injection of hyaluronic acid into the joint cavity at shortand long-term follow-ups. Subjects and methods. Eighty-two patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA were examined in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients only after arthroscopic lavage; Group 2 comprised 42 patients who were administered hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic lavage. Clinical evaluation encompassed pain while walking, resting, and moving (by a visual analogue scale, limited ability in covering 100 m (by a 5-point scale, general clinical evaluation (by a 5-point ordinal scale, the presence or absence of pain after 100-m walking, as well as resting pain (its presence or absence. Results. The treatment effect evaluated using different indicators was comparably positive in both groups within 3 months. Following 3 months of therapy, its effect remained stable and even better in Group 2. The latter showed a particularly noticeable superiority a year later. Thus, there were excellent and good results in 88 and 47.5% in Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The clinical symptoms of the disease were absent in 58% in Group 2 and in only 15% in Group 1. Moreover, Group 1 showed worsening and 20% of the patients had no effect. This trend was also seen while evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness in different periods. Thus, after therapy, no substantial difference was found in both groups, but 3 months later this difference was as many as 0.8 scores and a year later Group 2 had many points in its favor (1.2 scores. Conclusion. Arthroscopic lavage followed by the administration of hyaluronic acid makes it possible to prevent the negative effect of a washing liquid on the metabolism and structure of the articular cartilage and to achieve a long-term effect against the major clinical symptoms (joint pain and function affecting the quality of life. The

  18. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.M. De Cramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding.

  19. [Therapy concepts for diffuse peritonitis: When laparoscopic lavage and when open abdomen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Schwab, R; Willms, A

    2016-01-01

    Secondary diffuse peritonitis still has a high morbidity and mortality even now; therefore, the various strategies and options for the different surgical therapies are undergoing an evidence-based review. Laparoscopic lavage without resection of the focus of sepsis for example is a profoundly different approach in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis from the damage control-based strategy of surgery with initial laparostomy and deferred anastomosis. The evidential data for minimally invasive therapy are comparatively well-reviewed for appendicitis, cholecystitis and ulcerated perforation of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, the evidence for laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery with lavage and deferred anastomosis or damage control in secondary peritonitis has improved but is still low and cannot yet be clearly recommended. This article presents an overview of the currently available therapeutic methods for diffuse peritonitis and a critical consideration of the evidence-based data. The key recommendation is that the decision to use a surgical procedure based on the currently available data depends more on the severity of the abdominal sepsis, the duration, the age of the patient and comorbidities than on the individual technique.

  20. Trefoil factors (TFFs) are increased in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby, Niels-Erik; Nexø, Ebba; Kissow, Hannelouise;

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2 and 3 are small polypeptides that are co-secreted with mucin throughout the body. They are up-regulated in cancer and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal system, where they are proposed to be involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection. Our......, and patients with pulmonary malignancies had concentrations of TFF1 and TFF2 three times that of the reference group. The results suggest that TFFs are involved in tissue regeneration, proliferation and protection in lung diseases....

  1. EFFECTS OF FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE ON MYELOPEROXIDASE LEVELS IN NASAL LAVAGE FLUIDS FROM SINUSITIS, ALLERGIC RHINITIS, AND NORMAL SUBJECTS. (R825814)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. A simple technique to restore needle patency during percutaneous lavage and aspiration of calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay

    2013-03-01

    Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement.

  3. ICU management of patients with suspected positive findings of diagnostic peritoneal lavage following blunt abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑东元; 金燕; 陈丽英; 魏琪

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the management for blunt abdominal trauma victims with probable positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) findings. Methods: Data of 76 patients with probable positive DPL findings accepted to ICU in previous 10 years were reviewed. After admission, the patients were evaluated in a settled time according to the protocols of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). Vital signs were continuously monitored and DPL, ultrasound and/or CT scan were repeated when necessary. Results: Eighteen (24%) of 76 patients presented positive DPL findings after repeated DPL. Surgical findings confirmed 7 cases of spleen rupture, 3 hepatorrhexis (infra-Glisson capsule), 4 intestinal perforation, 2 gastric perforation, 1 colon perforation and 1 injured mesentery.

  4. Pulsatile lavage irrigator tip, a rare radiolucent retained foreign body in the pelvis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archdeacon Michael T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retained foreign bodies after surgery have the potential to cause serious medical complications for patients and bring fourth serious medico-legal consequences for surgeons and hospitals. Standard operating room protocols have been adopted to reduce the occurrence of the most common retained foreign bodies. Despite these precautions, radiolucent objects and uncounted components/pieces of instruments are at risk to be retained in the surgical wound. We report the unusual case of a retained plastic pulsatile lavage irrigator tip in the surgical wound during acetabulum fracture fixation, which was subsequently identified on routine postoperative computed tomography. Revision surgery was required in order to remove the retained object, and the patient had no further complications.

  5. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  6. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  7. Anaesthesia for serial whole-lung lavage in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb Stephen T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare condition that requires treatment by whole-lung lavage. We report a case of severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and discuss a safe and effective strategy for the anaesthetic management of patients undergoing this complex procedure. Case presentation A 34-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. He developed severe respiratory failure and subsequently underwent serial whole-lung lavage. Our anaesthetic technique included the use of pre-oxygenation, complete lung separation with a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube, one-lung ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure, appropriate ventilatory monitoring, cautious use of positional manoeuvres and single-lumen endotracheal tube exchange for short-term postoperative ventilation. Conclusion Patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may present with severe respiratory failure and require urgent whole-lung lavage. We have described a safe and effective strategy for anaesthesia for whole-lung lavage. We recommend our anaesthetic technique for patients undergoing this complex and uncommon procedure.

  8. Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 ..mu..m and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 ..mu..g. Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 ..mu..g. The LD50/7 values were 1700 ..mu..g (1300 to 2100 ..mu..g, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) ..mu..g for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

  9. Effects of the treatment with different fluids on alveolar epithelium barrier in rats with acute lung injury%不同液体治疗对急性肺损伤大鼠肺泡上皮细胞屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洪霞; 杨毅; 邱海波; 郭涛; 赵明明; 陈秋华

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察不同液体治疗对急性肺损伤(ALI)大鼠肺泡上皮细胞屏障功能的影响.方法 ①与对照组比较,LPS组、NS组肺损伤评分明显升高(P均0.05),且后3组间比较差异也无统计学意义.②与对照组比较,LPS组、NS组肺W/D比值明显升高(P均0.05).⑤各组肺泡上皮细胞凋亡指数(AI)明显高于对照组(P均0.05).结论 胶体液较NS更能改善ALI大鼠肺泡上皮通透性,保护上皮细胞屏障功能.%Objective To observe the effects of different fluids on alveolar epithelium barrier in rats with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into six groups with 6 rats in each group. ALI was induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Rats in all treatment groups were given different fluids and sacrificed after 4 hours. Evans blue dye (EBD) was injected via the femoral vein 30 minutes before death. Tracheobronchial tree was washed with normal saline (NS) after death, and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. Leakage of EBD from blood into BALF (alveolar epithelial permeability) and wet/dry (W/D) ratio were measured. The mRNA expression of surfactant protein-C (SP-C) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Alveolar epithelium apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Lung injury was evaluated by Smith lung injury score. Results ①Lung injury scores in LPS and NS groups were significantly higher than in control group (both P0.05). No significant difference was found among the latter three groups. ②W/D ratio in LPS and NS groups were significantly higher than that in control group (both P0.05). ⑤Apoptosis index (AI) of alveolar epithelial cell in all the treatment groups were significantly higher than that in control group (all P<0.05). Compared with NS group, AI were noticeably lower in ALB and HES groups (both P<0

  10. β-thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messana Irene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-thymosins play roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, angiogenesis, fibrosis and reparative process, thus suggesting a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of thymosins β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease and the relation of these factors with pulmonary functional and radiological parameters. Methods β-thymosins concentrations were determined by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 46 scleroderma patients with lung involvement and of 15 controls. Results Thymosin β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 were detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and controls. Thymosin β4 levels were significantly higher in scleroderma patients than in controls. In addition, analyzing the progression of scleroderma lung disease at one-year follow-up, we have found that higher thymosin β4 levels seem to have a protective role against lung tissue damage. Thymosin β4 sulfoxide levels were higher in the smokers and in the scleroderma patients with alveolitis. Conclusions We describe for the first time β-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. Thymosin β4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status.

  11. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hoegh, Silje V; Leth-Larsen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a calcium dependent lectin in the innate immune system that facilitates clearance of microbes. The protein is associated with mucosal surfaces, and also found in bronchoalveolar lavage, serum and amniotic fluid. Human SP-D includes trimeric subunits and multimeric a...

  12. Amount of Pneumocystis carinii and degree of acute lung inflammation in HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Nielsen, T L; Junge, Jette

    1993-01-01

    Correlations between semiquantitative amounts of Pneumocystis carinii (PC), the degree of inflammation, and the severity of pneumonia were analyzed in 58 patients with PC pneumonia (PCP). Material from both transbronchial biopsies (TBBs; n = 39) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; n = 57...

  13. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Edvinsson, B; Lundgren, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...

  14. Airway cellular response to two different immunosuppressive regimens in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, DJ; Kauffman, HF; Koeter, GH; Verschuuren, EAM; van der Bij, W; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    A number of new immunosuppressive drugs have become available in transplant medicine. We investigated the effects of two different immunosuppressive protocols on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellular characteristics in 34 lung transplant recipients who were treated with anti-thymocyte globulin induc

  15. Association between circulating DNA, serum (1->3)-β-D-glucan, and pulmonary fungal burden in Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jean-Marc; Botterel, Françoise; Cabaret, Odile; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    Circulating Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and (1→3)-β-d-glucan determined in 70 serum samples from immunocompromised patients were compared to fungal load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both serum biomarkers are influenced by pulmonary fungal load, which should be taken into account when diagnosing Pneumocystis infection.

  16. Dual effects of vitamin D-induced alteration of TH1/TH2 cytokine expression: enhancing IgE production and decreasing airway eosinophilia in murine allergic airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Bäck, Ove; Mondoc, Emma

    2003-01-01

    allergen-induced T-cell proliferation along with T(H)2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) and IgE production. Surprisingly, the local inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue was significantly ameliorated with impaired recruitment of eosinophils and inferior levels of IL-5...

  17. Performance of Different Mono- and Multiplex Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests on a Multipathogen External Quality Assessment Panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loens, K.; van Loon, A. M.; Coenjaerts, F.; van Aarle, Y.; Goossens, H.; Wallace, P.; Claas, E. J. C.; Ieven, M.

    2012-01-01

    An external quality assessment (EQA) panel consisting of a total of 48 samples in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid or transport medium was prepared in collaboration with Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) (www.qcmd.org). The panel was used to assess the proficiency of the three labor

  18. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  19. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Kun Li; Miao Zheng; Chuan-Wen Miao; Jian-Hai Zhang; Guang-Han Ding; Wen-Shen Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer.METHODS: PLC and radioimmunoassay of CEA were performed in peritoneal washes from 64 patients with gastric cancer and 8 patients with benign diseases.RESULTS: The positive rate of pCEA (40.6%) was significantly higher than that of PLC (23.4%) (P<0.05).The positive rates of PLC and pCEA correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). pCEA was found to have a higher sensitivity and a lower false-positive rate in predicting peritoneal metastasis after curative resection of gastric cancer as compared to PLC. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients with positive cytologic findings or positive pCEA results were significantly lower than those of patients with negative cytologic findings or negative pCEA results (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that pCEA was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Intraoperative pCEA is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of peritoneal metastasis as well as prognosis in patients with gastric cancer as compared to PLC method.

  20. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  1. Fungi, β-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL...

  2. MicroRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Do Canto, Luisa Matos; Marian, Catalin; WILLEY, SHAWNA; Sidawy, Mary; DA CUNHA, PATRICIA A.; Rone, Janice D.; LI Xin; Gusev, Yuriy; Haddad, Bassem R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs show promise as excellent biomarkers for breast cancer; however there is still a high degree of variability between studies making the findings difficult to interpret. In addition to blood, ductal lavage (DL) and nipple aspirate fluids represent an excellent opportunity for biomarker detection because they can be obtained in a less invasive manner than biopsies and circumvent the limitations of evaluating blood biomarkers with regards to tissue of origin ...

  3. Lobar flexible fiberoptic lung lavage: therapeutic benefit in severe respiratory failure in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Nicolini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lobar fiberoptic lung lavage is a well-known procedure used in primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP; the use of this procedure has increased in the recent years. This procedure has also been used in other pulmonary diseases such as desquamative interstitial pneumonia with good results. We describe a case of extremely severe respiratory failure due to concurrence of PAP and Influenza A H1N1 virus pneumonia which resolved with the help of this procedure. The patient, a 41- year-old woman, needed less mechanical ventilation after undergoing lobar fiberoptic bronchoscopic lavage. Moreover, a rapid and progressive improvement in the computed tomography of the lungs was observed. Flexibile fiberoptic bronchoscopic lobar lavage is a simple, safe procedure used not only in milder disease, but also in particular severe cases in which the physiological derangement of whole lung lavage would not be tolerated by patient or when extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation is not available.

  4. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  5. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    +, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero...

  6. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    collected in 6 different herds during September and November 2002. All 92 aspirations were analysed for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (BRSV), Parainfluenza-3 virus, Bovine Coronavirus by antigen ELISA. Bacteria were detected by cultivation and H. somni additionally also by PCR. The results showed...

  7. Airborne Fungi in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Maxillary Sinus Lavage at Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriana Maharani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis has a significant impact on the quality of life and health of adult population. Role of airborne fungi remains a controversy and have become the source of discussion for decades. Objective to know the prevalence of airborne fungi in the chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps patients and to know the possible effect of airborne fungi on chronic rhinosinusitis inflammation. Methods: This is a cross sectional research in the Saiful Anwar Public Hospital Malang, there were 29 patients involved. We examine fungi culture, H&E staining and DNA fungi by using PCR from sinus lavage sample. From the blood serum we examine allergen specific IgE, IgG3, IL-13 and IL-5. Results: Fungi culture there were 31,03 % of sample growth but only matches the PCR result in 3 samples (10,34 %. From PCR examinations we found all sample were positive with 2-5 species fungi, Alternaria alternata was found positive in 24,13% samples. There was an increment of IgE allergen specific and IL-5, a decrement of IL-13 and IgG3 in all of our samples regardless presence of nasal polyps and species of fungi found in PCR. Conclusions: PCR is a more reliable method compare to fungal culture. The presence of fungi in all of our samples could indicate fungi contribution to the disease pathophysiology. The increased level of Il-5 was not followed by IL-13; it may happen through PRR pathway. 

  8. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  9. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  10. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  11. Detection of disseminated pancreatic cells by amplification of cytokeratin-19 with quantitative RT-PCR in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage of pancreatic carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katrin Hoffmann; Christiane Kerner; Wolfgang Wilfert; Marc Mueller; Joachim Thiery; Johann Hauss; Helmut Witzigmann

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA for the detection of disseminated tumor cells in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage in patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 37), chronic pancreatitis (n = 16), and non-pancreatic benign surgical diseases (n = 15, control group)were included in the study. Venous blood was taken preoperatively, intraoperatively and at postoperative d 1 and 10. Preoperative bone marrow aspirates and peritoneal lavage taken before mobilization of the tumor were analyzed. All samples were evaluated for disseminated tumor cells by CK-19-specific nested-PCR and quantitative fluorogenic RT-PCR.RESULTS: CK-19 mRNA expression was increased in 24 (64%) blood samples and 11 (30%) of the peritoneal lavage samples in the patients with pancreatic cancer.In 15 (40%) of the patients with pancreatic cancer,disseminated tumor cells were detected in venous blood and bone marrow and/or peritoneal lavage. In the peritoneal lavage, the detection rates were correlated with the tumor size and the tumor differentiation. CK-19 levels were increased in pT3/T4 and moderately/poorly differentiated tumors (G2/G3). Pancreatic cancer patients with at least one CK-19 mRNA-positive sample showed a trend towards shorter survival. Pancreatic cancer patients showed significantly increased detection rates of disseminated tumor cells in blood and peritoneal lavage compared to the controls and the patients with chronic pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Disseminated tumor cells can be detected in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by CK-19 fluorogenic RT-PCR. In peritoneal lavage, detection rate is correlated with tumor stage and differentiation. In the clinical use, CK-19 is suitable for the distinction between malignant and benign pancreatic disease in combination with other tumor-specific markers.

  12. The Effect of Thermal Double Distilled Water on Gastric Cancer Cell Line and Its Effect in Peritoneal Lavage During Radical Gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJunqing; XUHuimian; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect andindications of radical gastrectomy combined with peritoneal lavage with thermal double distilled water(DDW)or DDW plus chlorthexidine acetate.Methods:On the bases of the study on the killing effect of 43℃ DDW on human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 and its inhibiting effect on ascitic tumor of SY86B morse,500 cases of gastric cancer who underwent radical gastectomy from January 1986 to December 1995 were divided into three groups:group A(n=198) subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 10min with 4000ml DDW at 43℃ ;group B(n=89)subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 4min with 4000ml DDW plus 0.6g chlorthexidine acetate,and grup C(n=213) subject to radical gastrectomy and peritoneal lavage for 4 min with 4000ml normal saline at room temperature as control.Results Human gastric cancer cells MGC-803 could be completely killed by treatment of either 43℃ DDW for 10min or DDW plus 0.015ml/L chlorhexidine acetate for 4 min.Clinical trials proved group A and group B(called lavage group as a whole)had almost the same curative effects.The 1-year survival rate and 3-year survival rate were similar in different stages among the groups.The 5-year survival rate was 63.8% in the lavage group and 51.2% in the control group respectively.Most of the cases with good effect were at the mid-stage (Ⅱand Ⅲ stage).Conclusion Radical gastrectom combined with peritoneal peritoneal lavage before closing the abdomen has satisfying effect on patients with gastric cancer at stage Ⅱ and stage ⅢA.

  13. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

  14. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  15. Application of Pulsed Lavage in lumbar posterior single-segment fusion surgery%高压脉冲冲洗在腰椎后路手术中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文天用; 阳普山; 季伟; 张超; 何勍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Pulsed Lavage in lumbar posterior single-segment fu-sion surgery. Methods Eighty patients diagnosed with single-segment lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis and needed a surgery treatment were assigned to receive surgical flush with either pulsed lavage (observation group, n=40) or artificial dumping rinse(the control group, n=40).The surgical flush time, the nature and volume of fluid drainage, the In-flammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-1、6) of the fluid drainage in the 2th day, the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rata(ESR) and the C-reactive protein(CRP)in the 5th day were compared between the two groups. Results The observation group had short-er surgical flush time, less volume of fluid drainage and inflammatory factor(TNF-α, IL-1, 6)expression(P 0.05). Conclusion These results suggested that pulsed lavage device is effective in lumbar posterior single-segment fusion surgery, and can decrease the concentrations of inflammatory factors in fluid drainage, and should be recommended in patients who are affordable.%目的:探讨脉冲高速冲洗方法对于后路脊柱手术的临床效果。方法选择我科2012年8月至2013年7月因腰椎间盘突出或椎管狭窄而行单节段椎间融合后路内固定治疗患者80例,术中应用高压脉冲冲洗者40例(实验组),应用常规倾倒冲洗者40例(对照组),观察对比两组患者术后伤口引流总量、术后第二天伤口引流液内炎性因子(TNF-α,IL-1,IL-6)表达情况及术后第5天血沉及C反应蛋白变化,并进行统计学分析。结果术后伤口引流总量方面,高压脉冲冲洗组为(389.37±109.89)ml,明显高于常规倾倒冲洗组[(275.77±102.00)ml]。术后早期患者伤口引流液TNF-α,IL-1,IL-6分别为(15.06±3.04)ng/L、(13.83±4.13)ng/L、(12.20±3.41)ng/L,显著低于对照组[(25.40±8.45)ng/L、(22.60±4.49)ng/L、(24.58±7.69)ng/L],

  16. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  17. Assessment of utility of ductal lavage and ductoscopy in breast cancer-a retrospective analysis of mastectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Sunil; Wiley, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Norma

    2003-03-01

    Early detection of breast lesions continues to be an important goal in the management of breast cancer. At present, mammographic imaging in addition to physical examination is the main screening method for the detection of cancer. Fiberoptic ductoscopy and duct lavage are being recently used to evaluate patients at risk for breast cancer. Both techniques examine the nipple and central duct area to identify intraductal lesions. In this study, we examined the frequency of involvement of these structures in mastectomy specimens as a surrogate marker to estimate the utility of these methods in breast cancer patients. The presence and type of involvement of the nipple and central duct area was retrospectively evaluated in 801 mastectomy specimens from a 4-year period that had been performed for infiltrating or in situ carcinoma. Atypical proliferation or cells, when seen in the ducts of this region, was considered as evidence of nipple involvement, even if definite evidence of malignancy was lacking. The review of 801 mastectomies showed nipple and central duct involvement in 179 (22%) cases. Among the 665 cases of infiltrating carcinoma, 17% did not have an intraductal component. The relative rarity of nipple and central duct in mastectomy specimens and the lack of an in situ component in many cases raise questions about the utility of fiberoptic ductoscopy and duct lavage as methods for screening of breast cancer. Additionally, as these methods examine only 1-2 ducts of the 15-20 ducts that open at the nipple, they might fail to detect focal abnormalities.

  18. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  19. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  20. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  1. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  2. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-08-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10.

  3. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhang, Kai-Yuan; Li, Jiao; Lu, Hao; Xie, Wan-Ling; Liao, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Dong-Feng; Zeng, Deng-Feng; Lan, Chun-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL) solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT) for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n = 102) or CHT (n = 94) groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  4. Clinical experiences of treating septic arthritis in the equine by repeated joint lavage: a series of 39 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, M C; van Weeren, P R; Rijkenhuizen, A B

    2000-08-01

    The condition of septic arthritis was treated in 12 foals with 21 affected joints (Group I) and in 27 adult horses. The adult horses were divided into three groups, based on aetiology of the condition: haematogenous (Group II, n = 6), iatrogenic (Group III, n = 6), and perforating trauma (Group IV, n = 15). The treatment consisted of an initial systemic antibiotic that anticipated the microbial agents that were considered most likely per group, repeated through-and-through joint lavages every other day and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The antibiotics were adjusted to the results of bacteriological culture and susceptibility tests. Joint lavages were continued until the white blood cell count dropped below 15 G/l and bacteriological culture was negative, after which a single dose of a short-acting corticosteroid was administered intra-articularly. Joint recovery rate in group I was 71%. Patient recovery rate of the foals, however, was lower (42%). Three foals were killed for reasons other than arthritis; one foal because of an arthritis-related problem and three foals because of persistent arthritis. Overall joint recovery rate, equalling patient recovery rate, in the adult horses was 81%. The expected predominance of Streptococcus spp. in haematogenous arthritis in adult horses was not confirmed, indicating that in these cases also, an initial antibiotic treatment with a broad-spectrum combination is preferable. It is concluded that with intensive treatment, the prognosis of septic arthritis in the adult horse can be classified as fair to even good. Results in the foals are not as good, but this seems to be more due to the specific problems surrounding the equine neonate than to unresponsiveness to the treatment.

  5. 初探神经网络在电动洗胃中的应用%Preliminary Study on Application of Neural Network in Electric Gastric Lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed for intelligent gastric lavage design in this paper. The microprocessor collects and computes gastric lavage pressure and its rate of change, liquid level and its rate of change, turbidity, and PH signals in the analogue stomach lavage test, which are processed by neural network algorithm, and then infer gastric lavage work status. Pipe plug, incomplete pipe plug, fault, normal operating, clean etc can be distinguished by neural network. Neural network algorithm can be used for flexible airtight container cleaning.%提出一种智能洗胃的设计方案.利用微处理器采集和计算模拟洗胃试验中的洗胃压力、压力变化率、液位、液位变化率、浑浊度和PH值等信号,通过神经网络算法对信号进行处理,判断洗胃工况.采用神经网络算法能区分管路堵塞、不完全堵塞、故障、洗胃正常和清洁等运行状态.神经网络算法可用于柔性密闭容器的清洗工作.

  6. 改良洗胃法对新生儿洗胃的探讨%Investigation on the modification of gastric lavage in newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金花; 周娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨一种新生儿洗胃方式,提高洗胃效果,减轻伤害.方法 将104例咽下综合征新生儿随机分成3组,即时照组、观察1组、观察2组;对照组即采用传统洗胃法;观察1组插入时、洗胃后2h进行非营养性吸吮,长度为前额发际至剑突;观察2组插入时、洗胃后2h进行非营养性吸吮,长度为前额发际至脐部.结果 3组患儿一次性插管成功率、合作性、洗胃效果差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 新生儿洗胃时增加插入胃管长度,以前额发际至脐部并伴操作中、操作后非营养性吸吮,能提高洗胃的效果,减轻患儿的痛苦,减少临床操作时间.%Objective To explore a neonatal gastric lavage method to improve gastric lavage effect and reduce the damage. Methods 104 newborn with swallowing syndrome randomly divided into 3 groups, namely the control group, observation group 1, observation group 2. The control group namely useded the traditional gastric lavage method; observation group 1 namely carried on the non-trophism suction when feeding tube was being inserted and after 2h of the gastric lavage, and the inserted length was from the forehead hair edge to xiphoid; observation group 2 namely carried on the non-trophism suction when feeding tube was being inserted and after 2h of the gastric lavage, and the inserted length was from the forehead hair edge to navel. Results There were significant differences in one-time success rate of intubation, cooperation, gastric lavage effect among the three groups of newborn(P <0.05 ). Conclusion The effect of gastric lavage can be improved, pain be relieved, the clinical operation time be reduced by increasing the stomach tube length (from the forehead hair edge to navel) and associating non-nutritive sucking during and after operation.

  7. 持续低负压冲吸在小儿腹部术后肠瘘中的作用及护理%The role and effect of nursing for continuing low negative pressure lavage and suction in pediatric abdominal postoperative intestinal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕君; 郑燕丹; 赖志鸿

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨持续低负压冲吸在小儿腹部术后肠瘘中的作用及护理效果。方法:对12例小儿腹部术后并发肠瘘采取持续低负压冲吸治疗与护理,分析护理方法及冲吸效果。结果:持续低负压冲吸治疗能快速吸出肠瘘出物,不但能减少腹腔内污染,而且能有效减少瘘出液对瘘口周围皮肤的刺激,促进伤口愈合,减少换药次数和物品消耗,护理工作量也大为减轻。结论:对于小儿腹部术后并发肠瘘患者,持续低负压冲吸是控制肠瘘出液及保护瘘口皮肤的经济有效的方法。%Objective To study the role and effect of nursing for continuing low negative pressure lavage and suction in pediatric ab-dominal postoperative intestinal fistula. Method To summarize 12 pediatric patients with abdominal postoperative intestinal fistula who had been treated and taken nursing care with continuing low negative pressure lavage and suction,to analyse nursing care methods and impact effect. Results Continuing low negative pressure lavage and suction treatment can quickly suck out intestinal fistula liquid,it not only can reduce the pollution of the abdominal cavity,but also can effectively reduce the fluid in fistula surrounding skin stimulation,promote wound healing and reduce the number of dressing and goods consumption,nursing workload can also be reduced greatly. Conclusion For pediatric abdominal surgery patients with intestinal fistula,continuing low negative pressure lavage and suction of intestinal fistula is economic and ef-fective method to control the liquid and protect skin fistula.

  8. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (pcoal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  10. Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW): A Multicenter, Blinded, Factorial Trial Comparing Alternative Irrigating Solutions and Pressures in Patients with Open Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    months, and 10 • patient’s illness beliefs with the Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping ( SPOC ) questionnaire at 1 week and 6 weeks. 10a. SF-12 The SF...used in a sub-study comparing the test version to the validated version, which uses 3-level response options. 10c. SPOC The SPOC questionnaire...fractures SPOC : Somatic pre-occupation and coping questionnaire SSI: Surgical Site Infection FLOW February 19, 2013 Version: 6.0 Study Summary

  11. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  12. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n=102 or CHT (n=94 groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P>0.05. These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  13. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed.

  14. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  15. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  16. Effects of respiratory rate, plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure on PaO2 oscillations after saline lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Doebrich, Marcus; Otto, Cynthia M

    2002-12-15

    One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits after saline lavage. Using pressure-controlled ventilation with oxygen, ventilator settings were varied in random order over three levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory rate (RR), and plateau pressure minus PEEP (Delta). Dependence of the amplitude of PaO2 oscillations on PEEP, RR, and Delta was modeled by multiple linear regression. Before lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 3 to 22 mm Hg. After lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 5 to 439 mm Hg. Response surfaces showed markedly nonlinear dependence of amplitude on PEEP, RR, and Delta. The large PaO2 oscillations observed provide evidence for cyclic recruitment in this model of lung injury. The important effect of RR on the magnitude of PaO2 oscillations suggests that the static behavior of atelectasis cannot be accurately extrapolated to predict dynamic behavior at realistic breathing frequencies.

  17. Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.

    1996-01-01

    Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.

  18. Does cytomegalovirus predict a poor prognosis in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia treated with corticosteroids? A note for caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A M; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Benfield, T;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the importance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with HIV-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) treated with adjunctive corticosteroids (CS). DESIGN: Analysis of clinical data during a 5-year period. SETTING: Department of i...... of adjunctive CS in severe PCP, the role of CMV as a pulmonary copathogen may have changed. Active CMV infection may be an important cause of failing treatment of severe PCP in those treated with adjunctive CS....

  19. CXCR2 antagonists block the N-Ac-PGP-induced neutrophil influx in the airways of mice, but not the production of the chemokine CXCL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braber, Saskia; Overbeek, Saskia A; Koelink, Pim J; Henricks, Paul A J; Zaman, Guido J R; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-10-15

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells in chronic inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can be attracted to the site of inflammation via the collagen breakdown product N-acetyl Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-Ac-PGP). To elucidate whether CXCR2 is involved in N-Ac-PGP-induced neutrophil migration and activation, studies using specific antagonists were performed in vivo. N-Ac-PGP and keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC; CXCL1) were administered in C57Bl/6 mice via oropharyngeal aspiration. Intraperitoneal applications of CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 or SB332235 were administered 1h prior and 1h after oropharyngeal aspiration. Six hours after oropharyngeal aspiration mice were sacrificed. Neutrophil counts and CXCL1 levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myleoperoxidase (MPO) levels were measured in lung tissue homogenates and an immunohistological staining for neutrophils was performed on lung tissue. N-Ac-PGP and CXCL1 induced a neutrophil influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, which was also reflected by increased MPO levels in lung tissue. The N-Ac-PGP- and CXCL1-induced neutrophil influx and the increased pulmonary tissue MPO levels were inhibited by the CXCR2 antagonists SB225002 and SB332235. Moreover, N-Ac-PGP administration enhanced the CXCL1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which could not be attenuated by both CXCR2 antagonists. In conclusion, neutrophil migration induced by N-Ac-PGP is mediated via direct CXCR2 interaction. The N-Ac-PGP-induced release of CXCL1 is independent of CXCR2. Related to the maximal effect of CXCL1, N-Ac-PGP is more potent at inducing neutrophil migration in the pulmonary tissue than into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or N-ac-PGP may be more potent at inducing MPO levels in the lung tissue.

  20. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-05

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.

  1. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  2. Sauna lung: hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to Exophiala jeanselmei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Lu, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Zih-Gong; Su, Wen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    A 55-year-old man developed progressive cough and dyspnoea after regular attendance at a public steam bath. Hypoxaemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and a predominance of lymphocytes with an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid suggested hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Microbial cultures from the steam bath room and tank identified Exophiala jeanselmei. Immunoblotting assays from the patient's serum confirmed the major antigenic stimulus. The patient recovered fully after systemic corticosteroid treatment and cessation of further exposure.

  3. Mycobacterium abscessus morphotype comparison in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverly, Lindsay J; Caceres, Silvia M; Fratelli, Cori; Happoldt, Carrie; Kidwell, Kelley M; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary infections with Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) are increasingly prevalent in patients with lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus exists in two morphotypes, smooth and rough, but the impact of morphotype on virulence is unclear. We developed an immune competent mouse model of pulmonary M. abscessus infection and tested the differences in host inflammatory response between the morphotypes of M. abscessus. Smooth and rough morphotypes of M. abscessus were isolated from the same American Type Culture Collection strain. Wild type and cystic fibrosis mice were intratracheally inoculated with known quantities of M. abscessus suspended in fibrin plugs. At the time of sacrifice lung and splenic tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected and cultured. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for leukocyte count, differential and cytokine expression. Pulmonary infection with M. abscessus was present at both 3 days and 14 days post-inoculation in all groups at greater levels than systemic infection. Inoculation with M. abscessus rough morphotype resulted in more bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils compared to smooth morphotype at 14 days post-inoculation in both wild type (p = 0.01) and cystic fibrosis (pmorphotype occurred in 12/57 (21%) of mice. These mice trended towards greater weight loss than mice in which morphotype conversion did not occur. In the described fibrin plug model of M. abscessus infection, pulmonary infection with minimal systemic dissemination is achieved with both smooth and rough morphotypes. In this model M. abscessus rough morphotype causes a greater host inflammatory response than the smooth based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil levels.

  4. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E.; Edvinsson, B.; Lundgren, Bettina;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...... be performed in all immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients with symptoms of a systemic infection of unknown etiology. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis does not exclude concomitant infection with T. gondii....

  5. Lipids are co-eluted with immunoglobulins G during purification by recombinant streptococcal protein G affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsiouli, Eirini; Lekka, Marilena E; Nakos, George; Cassagne, Claude; Maneta-Peyret, Lilly

    2002-12-20

    The efficiency of recombinant streptococcal protein G (rec-spG) affinity column chromatography in purifying immunoglobulins G (IgG) from lipids has been studied, with particular reference to IgG fractions from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum samples from different sources. It was found that the IgG fractions purified by rec-spG affinity column chromatography also contained cholesterol and phospholipids.

  6. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25767776

  7. Fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V

    2013-10-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently.

  8. 经纤维支气管镜沐舒坦肺泡灌洗在颈脊髓损伤并发呼吸功能衰竭患者中的应用%Fiberoptic bronchoscopy aspirating sputum and mucovent lavage in the treatment of cervical spinal cord injury with respiratory insufficiency patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路闯; 袁宏伟; 刘俊杰; 代振动; 王灿亚; 田俊华; 贾会光; 赵惠强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颈脊髓损伤并发呼吸功能衰竭患者经纤维支气管镜沐舒坦肺泡灌洗的疗效.方法 选择38例经常规吸氧、抗感染、解痉平喘、化痰止咳或人工通气治疗效果不佳,并具有痰液堵塞的颈脊髓损伤并发呼吸衰竭患者进行经纤支镜沐舒坦支气管肺泡灌洗治疗.结果 显效26例(68.4%),有效9例(23.7%),总有效率为92.1%,无效3例(7.9%).结论 对于分泌物较多难以排出气道的颈脊髓损伤并发呼吸衰竭患者,及时给予经纤支镜沐舒坦肺泡灌洗,有利于迅速解除气道阻塞,改善血气交换.支气管吸引灌洗技术是一种安全有效、简便经济、易被患者接受的治疗方法,应用沐舒坦肺泡灌洗治疗颈脊髓损伤并发呼吸衰竭能改善病情.%[Objective]To investigate the clinical values of aspirating sputum by bronchofibroscopy and bronchoalveolar mucovent lavage in cervical fracture with spinal cord injury patients respiratory insufficiency.[Methods]Bronchoscope was inserted into 38 patients cervical spinal cord injury with respiratory insufficiency through nose or tracheal catheter to clear the secretion, phlegm.[Results]35 lives were saved and the mission successful rate was 92.1%.[Conclusions]The clinical values of bedside fiberoptic bronchoscopy for cervical fracture with spinal cord injury patients respiratory insufficiency are grateful.

  9. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  10. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  11. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The bronchoalveolar lavage is designed to be a rapid screening test to provide an early indicator of...; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon; rectum; urinary bladder; representative lymph...

  13. Effects of nasal saline lavage on pediatric sinusitis symptoms and disease-specific quality of life: a case series of 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sandra Y; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess (1) the effects of daily nasal irrigation in children with chronic sinonasal symptoms and (2) the impact that treatment had on disease-specific quality of life as assessed by a validated instrument, the five-item Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5), and by an overall nasal quality-of-life (NQL) score based on a 10-point faces scale. Our patient population was made up of 10 children-7 girls and 3 boys, aged 3 to 9 years (mean: 6.1)-who had presented with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis for more than 3 months and who had not responded to previous medical management. Patients were administered nasal saline lavage daily for 1 month. These patients and/or their caregivers completed an SN-5 questionnaire upon entry into the study and at the completion of treatment. At study's end, a comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores with paired Student t tests showed that the mean total SN-5 score improved significantly over baseline, falling 45% from 21.4 to 11.7 (p = 0.0002). Moreover, significant overall improvement was seen in each of the five subcategories of the SN-5 survey (p = 0.0009 to 0.038). The NQL scores also improved significantly from 4.7 to 7.7 (p = 0.0034). Compliance with nasal lavage was generally good among the 10 patients, as 8 of them used at least 75% of the recommended quantity of saline at least once a day. During a follow-up period that ranged from 2 to 23 months (mean: 10.4), only 1 patient required an adenoidectomy for symptom control. The results of this pilot study suggest that nasal saline lavage may significantly alleviate chronic sinonasal symptoms and improve disease-specific quality of life in children with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.

  14. MicroRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Canto, Luisa Matos; Marian, Catalin; Willey, Shawna; Sidawy, Mary; Da Cunha, Patricia A; Rone, Janice D; Li, Xin; Gusev, Yuriy; Haddad, Bassem R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs show promise as excellent biomarkers for breast cancer; however there is still a high degree of variability between studies making the findings difficult to interpret. In addition to blood, ductal lavage (DL) and nipple aspirate fluids represent an excellent opportunity for biomarker detection because they can be obtained in a less invasive manner than biopsies and circumvent the limitations of evaluating blood biomarkers with regards to tissue of origin specificity. In this study, we have investigated for the first time, through a real-time PCR array, the expression of 742 miRNAs in the ductal lavage fluid collected from 22 women with unilateral breast tumors. We identified 17 differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor and paired normal samples from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. Most of these miRNAs have various roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis, therapeutic response, or are associated with several clinical and pathological characteristics of breast tumors. Moreover, some miRNAs were also detected in other biological fluids of breast cancer patients such as serum (miR-23b, -133b, -181a, 338-3p, -625), plasma (miR-200a), and breast milk (miR-181a). A systems biology analysis of these differentially expressed miRNAs points out possible pathways and cellular processes previously described as having an important role in breast cancer such as Wnt, ErbB, MAPK, TGF-β, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, p53 signaling pathways. We also observed a difference in the miRNA expression with respect to the histological type of the tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miRNA analysis of breast ductal fluid is feasible and potentially very useful for the detection of breast cancer.

  15. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  16. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  17. Repeated lung lavage with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treating severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to nasogastric tube malposition for enternal nutrition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Xiaoming; Yu, Wenkui; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2012-01-01

    Enternal nutritional support, a frequently applied technique for providing nutrition and energy, played a pivotal role in the treatment of high risk patients. However, severe complications induced by malposition of nasogastric tube caused great danger and even death to the patients. In this case report, we present a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by bronchopleural fistula (BPF) due to malposition of nasogastric tube. Repeated lung lavage combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed after transferring to the ICU of our hospital. Finally, the patient recovered and discharged 7 days after admission.

  18. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  19. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  20. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  1. [Respective roles of gastric lavage, haemodialysis, haemoperfusion, diuresis and hepatic metabolism in the elimination of a massive meprobamate overdose (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontal, P G; Bismuth, C; Baud, F; Galliot, M

    1982-05-01

    A case of massive meprobamate intoxication (100 g) is reported. On admission, 8 hours later, the plasma meprobamate level was 460 mg/l. The initial shock (hours 8-12) was successfully treated with blood volume expansion and dobutamine. The plasma meprobamate level, which was 340 mg/l when haemodialysis and haemoperfusion were started, fell to 110 mg/l at the end of the treatment. Recovery was uneventful. The amounts of drug eliminated by each method were as follows: (a) gastric lavages at 8 and 26 hours: 66 g; (b) haemodialysis (18-29 hours): 8.5 g; (d) haemoperfusion on Hemopur-charcoal (20-28 hours): 7.5 g (as measured by elution); (e) diuresis (26 hours): 2 g. It may be concluded from these data that sizeable amounts of drug can be extracted by haemodialysis and haemoperfusion, that gastric lavage remains the least invasive and most rewarding method of elimination, and that the role of hepatic metabolism in detoxication has to be taken into account.

  2. Chronic calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder-therapy by percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage: a prospective open study of 62 shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J; Gerber, H

    1997-05-01

    In an open study the therapeutic value of percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage performed in local anaesthesia under image intensifier control in patients with chronic calcifying shoulder tendinitis was investigated. 60 patients (62 shoulders) were included in the study. The average age was 48 years, and the median duration of shoulder pain and calcification was 24 months and 7 months respectively. The right shoulder was affected in 34 and the left in 24 patients; two patients had painful calcifications in both shoulders. In 47% X-ray showed calcium deposits in the contralateral shoulder. 77% of the painful deposits projected on the supraspinatus tendon and in most cases image intensifier examination showed multiple calcifications. Calcareous material could be removed by needle aspiration and lavage in 76% of all cases. There was no correlation regarding the preferred working hand and the side of calcifying tendinitis. X-ray controls performed after 2 months revealed a significant reduction of the size of calcifications. The clinical follow-up 2 and 6 months after needling showed a significant reduction of global pain intensity. There were also significant improvements in the areas of pain on movement, pain at night and impairment of sleep. Clinical success was independent of the radiological aspect of the calcifications.

  3. Femur chondrosarcoma misdiagnosed as acute knee arthritis and osteomyelitis--further developing a hitherto unreported complication of tumor embolic ischemic ileal perforation after arthroscopic lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2014-12-01

    The differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor may be difficult due to their overlapping clinical and radiological features. A 25-year-old lady presented with left knee pain and joint effusion associated with redness and hotness. A sub-optimally taken plain radiograph showed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesion in the left lower femur with surrounding soft tissue swelling. Since the clinical diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis and arthritis, arthroscopic lavage was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The removed loose bodies and fibrinous tissue showed pathological features suspicious of chondrosarcoma. Subsequent MRI revealed an infiltrative tumor eroding through the cortex and joint cartilage. En bloc excision of the left lower femur, upper tibia including the knee joint and patella was performed, and the final diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient developed bilateral pulmonary metastasis 33 months after operation. Five months later, she suffered from a hitherto undescribed complication of ischemic perforation of the terminal ileum secondary to tumor embolic arterial obstruction with no macroscopic intestinal or peritoneal tumor deposit. The patient developed multiple brain metastases and died 43 months after initial presentation. Our case illustrates that malignant bone tumor as a differential diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis and arthritis merits recognition and exclusion before arthroscopic lavage, which may enhance tumor dissemination and in our patient results in embolic ischemic ileal perforation.

  4. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  5. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  6. The Fluids RAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo

    2016-11-01

    After fifteen years of experience in rap, and ten in fluid mechanics, "I am coming here with high-Reynolds-number stamina; I can beat these rap folks whose flows are... laminar." The rap relates fluid flows to rap flows. The fluid concepts presented in the song have varying complexity and the listeners/viewers will be encouraged to read the explanations on a site dedicated to the rap. The music video will provide an opportunity to share high-quality fluid visualizations with a general audience. This talk will present the rap lyrics, the vision for the video, and the strategy for outreach. Suggestions and comments will be welcomed.

  7. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  8. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  9. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  10. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  11. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess variables

  12. Applications of fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.R.; Garg, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes flexible and practical approach to learning the basics of fluid dynamics. Each chapter is a self-contained work session and includes a fluid dynamics concept, an explanation of the principles involved, an illustration of their application and references on where more detailed discussions can be found.

  13. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  14. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  15. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  16. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  17. Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Jen,1 Stephen,1 Rennard,2 Don D Sin1,31Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Internal Medicine Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Institute of Heart and Lung Health and the UBC James Hogg Research Center, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic inflammation in the small airways. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS on lung inflammation in COPD remains uncertain. We sought to determine the effects of ICS on inflammatory indices in bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD.Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane database for randomized, controlled clinical trials that used bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate the effects of ICS in stable COPD. For each chosen study, we calculated the mean differences in the concentrations of inflammatory cells before and after treatment in both intervention and control groups. These values were then converted into standardized mean differences (SMD to accommodate the differences in patient selection, clinical treatment, and biochemical procedures that were employed across the original studies. If significant heterogeneity was present (P < 0.1, then a random effects model was used to pool the original data; otherwise, a fixed effects model was used.Results: We identified eight original studies that met the inclusion criteria. Four studies used bronchial biopsies (n = 102 participants and showed that ICS were effective in reducing CD4 and CD8 cell counts (SMD, −0.52 units and −0.66 units, 95% confidence interval. The five studies used bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 309, which together showed that ICS reduced neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (SMD, −0.64 units and −0.64 units, 95% confidence interval. ICS on the other hand

  18. 持续灌洗引流治疗慢性骨髓炎护理分析%Continuous lavage drainage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis nursing analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云清

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察分析持续灌洗引流治疗慢性骨髓炎护理对术后恢复情况的影响,为临床治疗提供可靠依据。方法随机选取2012年—2014年分析30例慢性骨髓炎患者资料,本组患者均是先行病灶彻底清除手术,关闭创面之后进行敏感抗生素的持续灌洗引流。结果30例慢性脊髓炎经过持续灌洗引流之后,康复情况良好,并且对护理的满意度较高。结论在持续灌洗引流期间进行良好的护理,可以有效降低引流导管堵塞的概率,减少患者治疗时间,对患者康复具有积极意义。%Objective To observe the analysis of continuous irrigation drainage for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis nursing effect on postoperative recovery, to provide reliable basis for clinical treatment.Methods Randomly selected from 2012-2014 to analyze the data of 30 cases of chronic osteomyelitis patients, all patients in the group is the first complete focal cleaning operation,continuous lavage closed wound drainage after the sensitive antibiotics.Results 30 cases of chronic inflammation of the spinal cord after continuous drainage,recovering well, and higher satisfaction with care.Conclusion Good nursing care during continuous lavage drainage, can effectively reduce the probability of the drainage catheter jam,reduce patient treatment time,the patient rehabilitation has a positive meaning.

  19. Expression of NKp46 Splice Variants in Nasal Lavage Following Respiratory Viral Infection: Domain 1-Negative Isoforms Predominate and Manifest Higher Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Kundu, Kiran; Shemesh, Avishai; Brusilovsky, Michael; Yossef, Rami; Meshesha, Mesfin; Solomon-Alemayehu, Semaria; Levin, Shai; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Campbell, Kerry S.; Porgador, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor NKp46/NCR1 plays a critical role in elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells. The NCR1 gene can be transcribed into five different splice variants, but the functional importance and physiological distribution of NKp46 isoforms are not yet fully understood. Here, we shed light on differential expression of NKp46 splice variants in viral respiratory tract infections and their functional difference at the cellular level. NKp46 was the most predominantly expressed natural cytotoxicity receptor in the nasal lavage of patients infected with four respiratory viruses: respiratory syncytia virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, or influenza A. Expression of NKp30 was far lower and NKp44 was absent in all patients. Domain 1-negative NKp46 splice variants (i.e., NKp46 isoform d) were the predominantly expressed isoform in nasal lavage following viral infections. Using our unique anti-NKp46 mAb, D2-9A5, which recognizes the D2 extracellular domain, and a commercial anti-NKp46 mAb, 9E2, which recognizes D1 domain, allowed us to identify a small subset of NKp46 D1-negative splice variant-expressing cells within cultured human primary NK cells. This NKp46 D1-negative subset also showed higher degranulation efficiency in term of CD107a surface expression. NK-92 cell lines expressing NKp46 D1-negative and NKp46 D1-positive splice variants also showed functional differences when interacting with targets. A NKp46 D1-negative isoform-expressing NK-92 cell line showed enhanced degranulation activity. To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence showing the physiological distribution and functional importance of human NKp46 splice variants under pathological conditions. PMID:28261217

  20. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  3. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  4. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Periodic motion of three stirrers in a two-dimensional flow can lead to chaotic transport of the surrounding fluid. For certain stirrer motions, the generation of chaos is guaranteed solely by the topology of that motion and continuity of the fluid. Work in this area has focused largely on using physical rods as stirrers, but the theory also applies when the "stirrers" are passive fluid particles. We demonstrate the occurrence of topological chaos for Stokes flow in a two-dimensional lid-driv...

  5. Influence of Gastric Lavage on Blood Rheology of Patients with Oral Poisoning%洗胃对口服中毒患者血液流变学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲月霞; 赵丽文; 王亚婷; 张周良

    2001-01-01

    探讨洗胃对口服中毒患者血液流变学指标的影响。方法测定11例口服中毒患者洗胃前后血液流变学指标的变化,并以18例健康体检者做为正常对照。结果洗胃后多项血液粘滞度指标显著下降,红细胞刚性指数明显升高。结论中毒患者常规洗胃后血液处于低粘状态,是易于出现并发症的原因之一。%Objective To investigate the influence of gastric lavage on blood rheology of patients with oral poisoning. Methods Blood theology of 11 patients with oral poisoning was determined before and after gastric lavage. Eighteen healthy people were used as control. Results Blood viscosity,hematocrit and fibrinogen were remarkably decreased after gastric lavage. Conclusion Routine gastic lavage may result in decreased blood viscosity, posing likelihood of developing complications.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  7. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  8. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  9. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  10. Amniotic Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Amniocentesis; Amnio; Culture - amniotic fluid; Culture - amniotic cells; Fetal ... Back to top When is it ordered? While amniocentesis is safe and has been performed for many ...

  11. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  12. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Cryptococcus gattii fungemia: report of a case with lung and brain lesions mimicking radiological features of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana Silva; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2007-01-01

    A 64-year-old apparently immunocompetent white man developed lung and brain lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. The radiologic features mimicked those of lung cancer metastatic to the central nervous system. C. gattii was recovered from cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, brain biopsy, and blood. The same fungus was recovered from pulmonary and brain specimens at autopsy. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests were diagnostic in our case and should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of unexplained pulmonary and cerebral lesions. A literature search showed few reports of fungemia by this species of Cryptococcus, contrasting to C. neoformans.

  14. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  15. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  17. Characterization of the innate immune response to chronic aspiration in a novel rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chronic aspiration has been associated with several pulmonary diseases, the inflammatory response has not been characterized. A novel rodent model of chronic aspiration was therefore developed in order to investigate the resulting innate immune response in the lung. Methods Gastric fluid or normal saline was instilled into the left lung of rats (n = 48 weekly for 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks (n = 6 each group. Thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected and cellular phenotypes and cytokine concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were determined. Results Following the administration of gastric fluid but not normal saline, histologic specimens exhibited prominent evidence of giant cells, fibrosis, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, and obliterative bronchiolitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from the left (treated lungs exhibited consistently higher macrophages and T cells with an increased CD4:CD8 T cell ratio after treatment with gastric fluid compared to normal saline. The concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens following gastric fluid aspiration compared to normal saline. Conclusion This represents the first description of the pulmonary inflammatory response that results from chronic aspiration. Repetitive aspiration events can initiate an inflammatory response consisting of macrophages and T cells that is associated with increased TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2 and fibrosis in the lung. Combined with the observation of gastric fluid-induced lymphocyitic bronchiolitis and obliterative bronchiolitis, these findings further support an association between chronic aspiration and pulmonary diseases, such as obliterative bronchiolitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and asthma.

  18. Vorticity in holographic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, Marco M; Petkou, Anastasios C; Petropoulos, P Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos

    2012-01-01

    In view of the recent interest in reproducing holographically various properties of conformal fluids, we review the issue of vorticity in the context of AdS/CFT. Three-dimensional fluids with vorticity require four-dimensional bulk geometries with either angular momentum or nut charge, whose boundary geometries fall into the Papapetrou--Randers class. The boundary fluids emerge in stationary non-dissipative kinematic configurations, which can be cyclonic or vortex flows, evolving in compact or non-compact supports. A rich network of Einstein's solutions arises, naturally connected with three-dimensional Bianchi spaces. We use Fefferman--Graham expansion to handle holographic data from the bulk and discuss the alternative for reversing the process and reconstruct the exact bulk geometries.

  19. 急性有机磷中毒洗胃的护理体会%The experience of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学君

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨并分析对急性有机磷中毒患者进行洗胃的方法及临床效果。方法对于2005年9月至2010年12月间在我院就诊的30例急性有机磷中毒患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。通过随机的方式将30例患者分为试验组和对照组两组,其中试验组患者15例,对照组患者15例。对试验组的患者通过对胃管进行留置进而反复进行洗胃的方法进行洗胃护理,对照组的患者则接受传统方法进行洗胃护理。比较两组护理临床效果。结果试验组患者的护理总有效率高于对照组,且不良反应少于对照组。结论对急性有机磷中毒患者通过留置反复洗胃的方法可以起到良好的临床效果,值得在临床是进一步的研究和应用。%  Objective: To discuss the different methods and clinical effect of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods: Choosed 60 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning from Sep. 2005 to Dec. 2010 to analyze retrospectly. Divided these 30 patients into study group and controled group for 15 in each other. The study group were treated with gastric tuber detaining for repeating gastric lavage, while controled group were treated with routine methods. Compared the clinical effect of these two groups. Results:The total rate of nursing of study group was higher than controled group with less adverse effect. Conclusion: The clinical effect of using repeating organophosphate poisoning is good to extend in clinical.

  20. Short-and long-term outcomes of kidney transplants with kidneys lavaged by retrograde perfusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Wu Han; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Yong Wang; Xi-Quan Tian; Jian-Wen Wang; Bu-He Amin; Wei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of the retrograde perfusion technique in kidney transplantation.Methods: Between January 2001 and June 2011, 24 cases of kidney transplantation with kidneys perfused using the retrograde perfusion technique due to renal artery variations or injury were selected as the observation group (retrograde perfussion roup, RP group).Twenty-two cases of kidney transplantation via conventional perfusion were chosen as the control group (antegrade perfussion group, AP group).There were no statistically significant differences in donor data between the two groups.Cold ischemia time, warm ischemia time, renal perfusion time, amount of perfusion fluid, acute renal tubular necrosis, wound infection, urinary fistula, graft kidney function, and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney in both groups were observed and recorded.Results: The kidney perfusion time was shorter in the RP group than that in the AP group (3.14 ± 1.00 vs.5.02 ± 1.15 min, P =0.030).There were 10 cases of acute renal tubule necrosis in the RP group and 5 in the AP group.The length of hospital stay was 40 ± 14 d in the RP group and 25 ± 12 d in the AP group.The follow-up time was 3.5-8.5 years (mean 6.25 years).The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney were 95.8%, 75.5%, and 65.5% in the RP group and 97.1%, 82.5%, and 68.4% in the AP group, respectively (P>0.05).Conclusions: This study indicates that retrograde perfusion is safe and practicable for cadaveric kidney harvesting and can be regarded as a better alternative or remedial measure for a poorly perfused kidney due to vascular deformity or injury.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  1. Fluids in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new

  3. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  5. Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay in Induced Sputum and Gastric Lavage Samples from Young Children with Suspected Tuberculosis from the MVA85A TB Vaccine Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Wekesa Bunyasi

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is limited by the paucibacillary respiratory samples obtained from young children with pulmonary disease. We aimed to compare accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, an automated nucleic acid amplification test, between induced sputum and gastric lavage samples from young children in a tuberculosis endemic setting.We analyzed standardized diagnostic data from HIV negative children younger than four years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis disease near Cape Town, South Africa [2009-2012]. Two paired, consecutive induced sputa and early morning gastric lavage samples were obtained from children with suspected tuberculosis. Samples underwent Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube [MGIT] culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. We compared diagnostic yield across samples using the two-sample test of proportions and McNemar's χ2 test; and Wilson's score method to calculate sensitivity and specificity.1,020 children were evaluated for tuberculosis during 1,214 admission episodes. Not all children had 4 samples collected. 57 of 4,463[1.3%] and 26 of 4,606[0.6%] samples tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on MGIT culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay respectively. 27 of 2,198[1.2%] and 40 of 2,183[1.8%] samples tested positive [on either Xpert MTB/RIF assay or MGIT culture] on induced sputum and gastric lavage samples, respectively. 19/1,028[1.8%] and 33/1,017[3.2%] admission episodes yielded a positive MGIT culture or Xpert MTB/RIF assay from induced sputum and gastric lavage, respectively. Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8/30[26.7%; 95% CI: 14.2-44.4] for two induced sputum samples and 7/31[22.6%; 11.4-39.8] [p = 0.711] for two gastric lavage samples. Corresponding specificity was 893/893[100%;99.6-100] and 885/890[99.4%;98.7-99.8] respectively [p = 0.025].Sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was low, compared to MGIT culture, but diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF did not differ sufficiently between

  6. 胃癌患者术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1甲基化状态及其临床意义%Methylation status of CDH1 gene in preoperative abdominal lavage of patients with gastric cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗君; 王实; 凌志强; 王新保; 余齐鸣; 赵挺; 方仁桂; 王建军; 郑智国; 余江流; 方铣华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1基因的异常甲基化与胃癌进展的关系.方法 采用实时荧光甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应技术,检测92例胃癌患者术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1基因启动子区域5′-CpG岛的甲基化状态,并分析其与临床病理因素及预后之间的关系.结果 92例胃癌患者中,有45例(48.9%)检测到了CDH1基因异常甲基化现象,其中完全甲基化12例(13.0%),部分甲基化33例(35.9%).CDH1基因甲基化与肿瘤大小、生长方式、分化程度、淋巴管侵犯、浸润深度、淋巴结转移、远处转移及临床分期有关(均P<0.05),而与性别、年龄、肿瘤部位及幽门螺杆菌感染无关(均P>0.05).CDH1甲基化与非甲基化患者术后中位无进展生存期分别为20和38个月,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).经Cox模型分析证实,术前腹腔冲洗液DNA中的CDH1甲基化状态是影响胃癌患者术后生存的独立预后因素(P=0.000,RR=332.88, 95%CI:21.71~5105.07).结论 CDH1基因启动子区域5′-CpG岛的异常甲基化在胃癌中属于高频分子事件,术前腹腔冲洗液DNA中CDH1甲基化分析可反映胃癌进展状况.%Objective To explore the association between the progression of gastric cancer and the aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene in preoperative abdominal lavage fluid.Methods Real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction(qMSP) was used to investigate the methylation status of the CDH1 gene promoter 5′-CpG islands from preoperative abdominal lavage fluid in 92 patients with gastric cancer.The associations between methylation of CDH1 genes and clinicopathologic features and prognosis were investigated.Results Among the 92 patients with gastric cancer,aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene was detected in 45 (48.9%) patients,including total aberrant methylation in 12 (13.0%) cases and partly aberrant methylation in 33 (35.9%) cases.Significant associatons were found between CDH1 methylation status

  7. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  8. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  9. Proteomics of body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we present newly developed methods for biomarker discovery. We applied these methods to discover biomarkers of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from breast cancer patients and in serum from patients with prostate cancer. Early diagnos

  10. Fluid resuscitation in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate fluid replacement is an essential component of trauma fluid resuscitation. Once hemorrhage is controlled, restoration of normovolemia is a priority. In the presence of uncontrolled haemorrhage, aggressive fluid management may be harmful. The crystalloid-colloid debate continues but existing clinical practice is more likely to reflect local biases rather than evidence based medicine. Colloids vary substantially in their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics,and the experimental finding based on one colloid cannot be extrapolated reliably to another. In the initial stages of trauma resuscitation the precise fluid used is probably not important as long as an appropriate volume is given. Later, when the microcirculation is ′leaky′, there may be some advantages to high or medium weight colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch. Hypertonic saline solutions may have some benefit in patients with head injuries. A number of hemoglobin solutions are under development, but one of the most promising of these has been withdrawn recently. It is highly likely that at least one of these solutions will eventually become routine therapy for trauma patient resuscitation. In the meantime, contrary to traditional teaching, recent data suggest that restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion may improve outcome in some critically ill patients.

  11. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  12. CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROGNOSIS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE AND EARLY PERIODS OF SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated 50 cytological preparations after fibro-optic bronchoscopy of 10 patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. The dynamics of broncho-pulmonary complications of spinal cord injuries was estimated on the basis of cytological broncho-alveolar lavage fluid investigations. In the work there were used clinico-neurologic methods, radiological (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic (fibro-optic bronchoscopy and cytomorphological investigations. Cytomorphological investigations of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were carried out on the 3-4, 7, 14, 30th days. Cellular composition of the broncho-alveolar wash-out (endopulmonary cytogramme was estimated by calculation of more than 100 cells in 3 fields of the immersion microscope coverage. Quantitative changes of cellular elements were taken into account with respect to normal cell amount. The results were analyzed according to the average out method. Quantitative changes of inflammatory elements in endopulmonary cytogramme were determined by the degree of endobronchitic manifestations and were corresponding to clinico-radiological picture of development of broncho-pulmonary complications in different periods of spinal cord injury

  13. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  14. The interaction between rocuronium in lung lavage in recovery of tube drawing application experience%罗库溴铵在肺灌洗术中复苏拔管时的应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖旭; 李光才; 陆英

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the interaction between rocuronium applied in lung lavage in the feasibility of tracheal extubation as soon as possible.Methods:in this paper,our hospital lung lavage in 40 patients with lung lavage,randomly divided into two groups:the interaction between rocuronium group (group A) and vecuronium bromide group (group B) to observe the two groups of patients with postoperative muscle relaxant recovery time. Results:compared with control group,the recovery time is less than group B,group A difference compared with the control group with statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:the interaction between rocuronium is applied in the lung were muscle relaxant condition satisfied,fast recovery of muscle strength,wake up fast,can be used as lung lavage and muscle relaxants.%目的:探讨罗库溴铵应用于肺灌洗术中尽快气管拔管的可行性。方法:本文对某医院肺灌洗术中肺灌洗患者40例,随机分罗库溴铵组(A组)和维库溴铵组(B组),观察两组患者术后肌松恢复时间。结果:与对照组相比,A组的恢复时间小于B组,与对照组相比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:罗库溴铵应用于肺灌洗术肌松条件满意,术后肌力恢复迅速,苏醒快,可作为肺灌洗术的肌松药。

  15. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  16. Impact of ambroxol hydrochloride combined with bronchoscope lavage on level of lung function of patients with severe pulmonary infections%重症肺部感染患者盐酸氨溴索气管镜灌洗对肺功能水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚茜; 商伟娜; 翟琳; 刘淑娟; 李娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究盐酸氨溴索联合气管镜灌洗对重症肺部感染患者血氧分压(PaO2)、氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)及血液氧饱和度(SaO2)等水平的影响,为临床治疗提供参考依据。方法选取2012年10月-2013年10月收治的重症肺部感染行气管切开的患者92例,随机将其分为观察组及对照组,每组46例;对照组患者静脉滴入盐酸氨溴索治疗,观察组在对照组基础上联合纤维支气管镜对支气管肺泡进行灌洗以及吸痰治疗,对比两组患者PaO2、PaO2/FiO2及SaO2等水平变化,数据采用 SPSS 13.0软件进行统计分析。结果观察组患者治疗后 PaO2、PaO2/FiO2及SaO2等水平显著高于治疗前,及对照组治疗后,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患者有效率为93.48%,高于对照组的69.57%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论盐酸氨溴索联合气管镜可有效改善重症肺部感染患者PaO2、PaO2/FiO2及SaO2等水平,并缩短各项治疗时间,提高临床治疗效果。%OBJECTIVE To study the impact of ambroxol hydrochloride combined with bronchoscope lavage on the levels of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) ,the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the inspired frac‐tion of oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ) ,and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) of the patients with severe pulmonary infec‐tions so as to provide guidance for the clinical treatment .METHODS A total of 92 patients with severe pulmonary infections who underwent the tracheotomy from Oct 2012 to Oct 2013 were enrolled in the study and randomly di‐vided into the observation group and the control group ,with 46 cases in each .The control group was treated with ambroxol hydrochloride ,while the observation group was treated with ambroxol hydrochloride combined with bronchofibroscope for bronchoalveolar lavage and was treated with sputum suction ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the

  17. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  18. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  19. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  20. Zinc Determination in Pleural Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan DEMİR; DEMİR, Yaşar

    2000-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic zinc determination method was applied to pleural fluid, the basis of which was the regaining of the activity of apo carbonic anhydrase by the zinc present in the sample. The method was used for pleural fluid zinc determination in order to show the application to body fluids other than serum. For this purpose, pleural fluids were obtained from 20 patients and zinc concentrations were determined. Carbonic anhydrase was purified by affinity chromatography from bovine ...

  1. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  2. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Nayak; Sushma V

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left side...

  3. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Luton, J. A.; Ragab, Saad A.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of vortices passing near a solid surface has been examined using direct numerical simulation. The configuration studied is a counter-rotating vortex pair approaching a wall in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The focus of these simulations is on the three-dimensional effects, of which little is known. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first three-dimensional simulation that lends support to the short-wavelength instability of the secondary vortex. It has been shown how this ...

  4. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy ...

  5. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P; Bergese, Sergio D.; Thomas J Papadimos; Gracias, Vicente H.; Adolph, Michael D.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outline...

  7. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  8. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  9. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  10. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  11. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ván, P.

    2017-01-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  12. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  13. Fluid Dynamics and Viscosity in Strongly Correlated Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low energy, long wavelength theory of many body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the notion of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio $\\eta/s$ of shear viscosity to entropy density of order $\\hbar/k_B$ or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and review the current experimental situation with regard to measurements of $\\eta/s$ in strongly coupled quantum fluids.

  14. CT of retrorenal fluid collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, L.; Demos, T.C.; Posniak, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fluid collections dorsal to one or both kidneys are often observed on CT. Most of these collections are located in the posterior pararenal space, but occasionally fluid collections that do not originate in this space also occur. The authors review retrorenal fluid collections with explanations for their occurrence.

  15. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  16. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  18. 急诊洗胃中舒适护理的效果分析%Analysis on the effect of comfortable nursing in the emergency gastric lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of gastric lavage in poisoning patients with comfortable nursing in the emergency department. Methods 122 cases of patients with oral poisoning were selected from May 2010 to June 2012 in our hospital emergency department,they were divided into observation group and control group according to different nursing methods,there were 61 cases in each group, two groups of patients were given routine nursing care, routine care and comfort care. Satisfaction rate, degree of comfort and fit, pain. Of two groups were compared. Results Satisfaction rate and the cooperation degree of observation group were significantly higher than control group, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, restlessness were lower, there were significant differences between two groups(P < 0.05). The proportion of Mild pain patients in the observation group were significantly higher than control group , there were significant differences between two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with poisoning implement comfortable nursing to the psychological and physiological state in good emergency gastric lavage, to eliminate the fear of patients, reduce the discomfort and adverse reaction occurs has important clinical significance to reduce the rate of side effect.%目的探讨对急诊科中毒洗胃患者实施舒适护理后的临床效果。方法收集2010年5月~2012年6月来我院急诊科就诊的口服中毒患者122例,根据不同的护理方法分为观察组及对照组,每组各有61例,两组患者分别实施常规护理、常规护理及舒适护理。比较两组患者的满意率、舒适度及配合度、疼痛情况。结果观察组患者与对照组比较,满意率及配合度明显较高,恶心呕吐、烦躁不安的发生率明显较低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组中轻度疼痛患者所占的比例与对照组比较明显较高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中毒患者在

  19. Fluid-fluid versus fluid-solid demixing in mixtures of parallel hard hypercubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Luis; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that increase of the spatial dimensionality enhances the fluid-fluid demixing of a binary mixture of hard hyperspheres, i.e. the demixing occurs for lower mixture size asymmetry as compared to the three-dimensional case. However, according to simulations, in the latter dimension the fluid-fluid demixing is metastable with respect to the fluid-solid transition. According to the results obtained from approximations to the equation of state of hard hyperspheres in higher dimensions, the fluid-fluid demixing might become stable for high enough dimension. However, this conclusion is rather speculative since none of these works have taken into account the stability of the crystalline phase (by a minimization of a given density functional, by spinodal calculations or by MC simulations). Of course, the lack of results is justified by the difficulty of performing density functional calculations or simulations in high dimensions and, in particular, for highly asymmetric binary mixtures. In the present work, we will take advantage of a well tested theoretical tool, namely the fundamental measure density functional theory for parallel hard hypercubes (in the continuum and in the hypercubic lattice). With this, we have calculated the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid spinodals for different spatial dimensions. We have obtained, no matter what the dimensionality, the mixture size asymmetry or the polydispersity (included as a bimodal distribution function centered around the asymmetric edge lengths), that the fluid-fluid critical point is always located above the fluid-solid spinodal. In conclusion, these results point to the existence of demixing between at least one solid phase rich in large particles and one fluid phase rich in small ones, preempting a fluid-fluid demixing, independently of the spatial dimension or the polydispersity.

  20. Lavage with allicin in combination with vancomycin inhibits biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rabbit model of prosthetic joint infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohan Zhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate, an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. METHODS: A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32. Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL, allicin (4 mg/L, or allicin (4 mg/L plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL. Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. RESULTS: The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups. The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be

  1. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  2. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  3. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  4. Fluid viscosity under confined conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

  5. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  6. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  7. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced Th2-driven airway inflammation by β-sitosterol in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2011-01-10

    In the present study, the efficacy of β-sitosterol isolated from an n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) was examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. All animals (except group I) were sensitized subcutaneously and challenged with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. The test drugs, β-sitosterol (2.5mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2.5mg/kg), were administered to the animals (p.o.) prior to challenge with ovalbumin. During the experimental period (on days 18, 21, 24 and 29), a bronchoconstriction test (0.25% acetylcholine for 30s) was performed and lung function parameters (tidal volume and respiration rate) were measured for each animal. On day 30, blood and bronchoalveolar lavaged fluid were collected to assess cellular content, and serum was collected for cytokine assays. Lung tissue was utilized for a histamine assay and for histopathology. β-sitosterol significantly increased the tidal volume (V(t)) and decreased the respiration rate (f) of sensitized and challenged guinea pigs to the level of non-sensitized control guinea pigs and lowered both the total and differential cell counts, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils, in blood and bronchoalveolar lavaged fluid. Furthermore, β-sitosterol treatment suppressed the increase in cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-4 and IL-5), with the exception of IL-6, in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavaged fluid detected in model control animals. Moreover, treatment with β-sitosterol protected against airway inflammation in lung tissue histopathology. β-sitosterol possesses anti-asthmatic actions that might be mediated by inhibiting the cellular responses and subsequent release/synthesis of Th2 cytokines. This compound may have therapeutic potential in allergic asthma.

  8. Deficiency of phospholipase A2 receptor exacerbates ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Shun; Mishina, Hideto; Watanabe, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Fujioka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Soichiro; Suzuki, Koji; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Obata, Jun-Ei; Kawabata, Kenichi; Yokota, Yasunori; Murakami, Makoto; Hanasaki, Kohji; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2013-08-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) plays a critical role in the genesis of lung inflammation through proinflammatory eicosanoids. A previous in vitro experiment showed a possible role of cell surface receptor for sPLA2 (PLA2R) in the clearance of extracellular sPLA2. PLA2R and groups IB and X sPLA2 are expressed in the lung. This study examined a pathogenic role of PLA2R in airway inflammation using PLA2R-deficient (PLA2R(-/-)) mice. Airway inflammation was induced by immunosensitization with OVA. Compared with wild-type (PLA2R(+/+)) mice, PLA2R(-/-) mice had a significantly greater infiltration of inflammatory cells around the airways, higher levels of groups IB and X sPLA2, eicosanoids, and Th2 cytokines, and higher numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA treatment. In PLA2R(-/-) mice, intratracheally instilled [(125)I]-labeled sPLA2-IB was cleared much more slowly from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with PLA2R(+/+) mice. The degradation of the instilled [(125)I]-labeled sPLA2-IB, as assessed by trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after instillation, was lower in PLA2R(-/-) mice than in PLA2R(+/+) mice. In conclusion, PLA2R deficiency increased sPLA2-IB and -X levels in the lung through their impaired clearance from the lung, leading to exaggeration of lung inflammation induced by OVA treatment in a murine model.

  9. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  10. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs.

  11. Reliability of fluid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopáček Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  12. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  13. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  14. Conformal fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, P D

    2006-01-01

    We present a conformal theory of a dissipationless relativistic fluid in 2 space-time dimensions. The theory carries with it a representation of the algebra of 2-$D$ area-preserving diffeomorphisms in the target space of the complex scalar potentials. A complete canonical description is given, and the central charge of the current algebra is calculated. The passage to the quantum theory is discussed in some detail; as a result of operator ordering problems, full quantization at the level of the fields is as yet an open problem.

  15. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  16. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  17. Null fluids: A new viewpoint of Galilean fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study a Galilean fluid with a conserved U (1 ) current up to anomalies. We construct a relativistic system, which we call a null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in the derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce U (1 ) anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid.

  18. Null Fluids - A New Viewpoint of Galilean Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash

    2015-01-01

    This article is a detailed version of our short letter `On equilibrium partition function for non-relativistic fluid' [arXiv:1505.05677] extended to include an anomalous $U(1)$ symmetry. We construct a relativistic system, which we call null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincare symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce $U(1)$ anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean Fluid.

  19. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left sided headache since1 month. Clinically, a deviated nasal septum was diagnosed which needed a septal surgery. Since t he hematological parameters showed a pancytopenia, the surgery was postponed. The patient pr esented 3 weeks later with additional complaints of worsening headache and significant blu rring of vision in her left eye. The MRI scan revealed a midline, dural-based mass. A therape utic tap of the cerebrospinal fluid sent to the clinical laboratory for analysis which showed l arge abnormal cells (figure 1. The bone marrow also showed similar cells, with karyomegaly, dense chromatin, and coalescing vacuoles which were Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS negative. The biopsy from the mass was diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma (parameningeal type. Immunohistoc hemistry showed positivity for Myogenin and Myo-D1.

  20. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE. The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high.

  1. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...... infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were...

  2. Others

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950250 Rapid detection of mycoplasma pneumoniaein clinical samples by the polymerase chain reactiontechnique.LI Ziling(李子玲),et al.General Hosp,Nanjing Command,Nanjing,210002.Chin J Tuberc &Resspir Dis 1995;18(1):41—43.The polymerase chain reaction(PCR) technique wasused to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical sam-ples(bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and throat swabs).A specific DNA sequence for M.pneumoniae was se-lected form a genomic library.The amplification targetregion was partial DNA sequence of the 500-bp frag-

  3. Metformin Reduces Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sun Mi; Jang, An-Hee; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Kyu Hwa; Kim, Young Whan

    2016-01-01

    Metformin has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated whether metformin has an inhibitory effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. A total of 62 mice were divided into 5 groups: control, metformin (100 mg/kg), BLM, and BLM with metformin (50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). Metformin was administered to the mice orally once a day from day 1. We sacrificed half of the mice on day 10 and collected the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from their left lu...

  4. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  5. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  6. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as air-space consolidation on chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Haruta, Yoshinori; Yokoyama, Akihito; Nakashima, Taku; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman suffered from hepatic and bone metastases of breast cancer. Two months after starting combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab and docetaxel, air-space consolidation was observed in the right lower lung lobe on a chest computed tomography (CT) and a high serum KL-6 level was detected. Drug-induced pneumonitis with organizing pneumonia type was suspected, however, a transbronchial lung biopsy and cytological examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provided evidence of metastatic breast cancer. While the lung is a frequently affected site from metastasis of breast cancer, we report a rare case presenting as air-space consolidation on a chest CT.

  7. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930124 The effect of glycosaminoglycans inthe genesis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.LIBaoyu(李保玉),et al.Dept Pathol,Jilin MedColl,132001.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):204-205.The pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was causedby injecting Bleomycin into mouse trachea.Afterthe injection,the volume of glycosaminoglycans(GAG)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungtissues was increased.The observation underhistochemical stain and electron microscopeshowed that the distribution of GAG in lung tis-sues was varied at different time after the injec-tion,and related to the volume of collagen pro-teins and the formation of pulmonary interstitialfibrosis.

  8. Does cytomegalovirus predict a poor prognosis in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia treated with corticosteroids? A note for caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A M; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Benfield, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the importance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with HIV-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) treated with adjunctive corticosteroids (CS). DESIGN: Analysis of clinical data during a 5-year period. SETTING: Department...... of infectious diseases where clinical and paraclinical data on patients suspected of having PCP have been sampled prospectively. PATIENTS: 148 consecutive patients with a first episode of PCP in a 5-year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Vital status 3 months after diagnosis of PCP. RESULTS: Patients with PCP...

  9. Inflammatory reaction and alterations of pulmonary surfactant in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa pneumonia in immunocompromised rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿介明; 李倬哲; 何礼贤; 孙波; 陈雪华

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) compromises lipids and surfactant proteins (SP) and lines on the alveolar air-liquid interface. It can reduce surface tension, prevent alveoli from collapse and reduce alveoli edema by disaturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.1 It also modulates the pulmonary immunology by SP-A and SP-D.2 In this study, we established a rat model of immunocompromised host (ICH) with pulmonary infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), then studied its pulmonary inflammatory reaction and analyzed the concentration of lipids and SP-A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during infection.

  10. Protectin D1 promotes resolution of inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via enhancing neutrophil apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xingwang; Li Chunlai; Liang Wandong; Bi Yuntian; Chen Maohua; Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Protectin D1 (PD1),derived from docosahexaenoic acid,has been shown to control and resolve inflammation in some experimental models of inflammatory disorders.We investigated the protective roles of protectin D1 in pulmonary inflammation and lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods Mice were randomly assigned to six groups (n=6 per group):sham-vehicle group,sham-PD1 group,shamzVAD-fmk group,LPS-vehicle group,LPS-PD1 group,and LPS-PD1-zVAD-fmk group.Mice were injected intratracheally with 3 mg/kg LPS or saline,followed 24 hours later by intravenous injection of 200 μg/mouse PD1 or vehicle.At the same time,some mice were also injected intraperitoneally with the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk.Seventy-two hours after LPS challenge,samples of pulmonary tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected.Optical microscopy was used to examine pathological changes in lungs.Cellularity and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed.Lung wet/dry ratios and myeloperoxidase activity were measured.Apoptosis of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also evaluated by flow cytometry.Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS increased neutrophil counts,protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity,it induced lung histological injury and edema,and also suppressed apoptosis of neutrophils in BALF.Posttreatment with PD1 inhibited LPS-evoked changes in BALF neutrophil counts and protein concentration and lung myeloperoxidase activity,with the outcome of decreased pulmonary edema and histological injury.In addition,PD1 promoted apoptosis of neutrophils in BALF.The beneficial effects of PD1 were blocked by zVAD-fmk.Conclusion Posttreatment with PD1 enhances resolution of lung inflammation during LPS-induced acute lung injury by enhancing apoptosis in emigrated neutrophils,which is,at least in part,caspase-dependent.

  11. Suspected Pulmonary Infection with Trichoderma longibrachiatum after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tomoaki; Kawamura, Chizuko; Terasawa, Norio; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Kubo, Kohmei

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causative agents of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised human hosts. However, saprophytic fungi are now increasingly being recognized as serious pathogens. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has recently been described as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a case of isolated suspected invasive pulmonary infection with T. longibrachiatum in a 29-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A direct microscopic examination of sputum, bronchoaspiration, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples revealed the presence of fungal septate hyphae. The infection was successfully treated with 1 mg/kg/day liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:28090056

  12. A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman S Karanth; Hariharan Regunath; Kiran Chawla; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India.

  13. Pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius that shows the diagnostic importance of evaluating the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentarou; Nagata, Shuya; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections.

  14. Necrotizing Lung Infection Caused by the Protozoan Balantidium coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Sharma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan, is well known to cause intestinal infection in humans. Extraintestinal spread to the peritoneal cavity and genitourinary tract has rarely been reported. There have also been a few cases of lung involvement from this parasite. A case of B coli causing a thick-walled right upper lobe cavity in an organic farmer who had contact with aerosolized pig manure is reported. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid examined for ova and parasite revealed trophozoites of B coli in large numbers. Treatment with doxycycline hyclate led to marked improvement. Necrotizing lung infection caused by the protozoan B coli should be considered in individuals who report contact with pigs.

  15. Complete Remission of Minimal Change Disease Following an Improvement of Lung Mycobacterium avium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Aoi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ito, Seigo; Oshima, Naoki; Oda, Takashi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    A 46-year-old woman suddenly developed peripheral edema. Her massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and renal biopsy findings yielded the diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). In addition, lung Mycobacterium avium infection was diagnosed according to a positive culture of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung lesion was improved by anti-nontuberculous mycobacteria therapy. Surprisingly, her proteinuria also gradually decreased and she attained complete remission of MCD without any immunosuppressive therapy. She has subsequently remained in complete remission. We herein report an interesting case of MCD with lung Mycobacterium avium infection, suggesting a causal relationship among infection, immune system abnormality, and MCD/nephrotic syndrome.

  16. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Unusual Radiographic Findings that Developed 5 Years after Silicone Augmentation Mammoplasty Complicated by Miliary Tuberculosis during Corticosteroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Miyashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old woman with a past history of silicone augmentation mammoplasty was admitted with fever and dyspnea with diffuse interstitial shadows on computed tomography (CT. Although radiological findings were atypical, we diagnosed sarcoidosis by laboratory, microbiological, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. Corticosteroids ameliorated the condition, but she had recurrent of fever and CT revealed miliary nodules while interstitial shadows disappeared. Liver biopsy showed that noncaseating granuloma and Ziehl-Neelsen stain was positive. We diagnosed miliary tuberculosis which developed during corticosteroid therapy. Antituberculotic therapy resulted in favorable outcome. Possibility exists that onset of sarcoidosis was induced by mammoplasty, namely, human adjuvant disease.

  17. A rar