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Sample records for bronchiolar clara ciliated

  1. Novel method for isolation of murine clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells with traces of stemness.

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    Xiao-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Clara cells are non-ciliated, secretory bronchiolar epithelial cells that serve to detoxify harmful inhaled substances. Clara cells also function as stem/progenitor cells for repair in the bronchioles. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP is specifically expressed in pulmonary Clara cells and is widely used as a Clara cell marker. In addition CCSP promoter is commonly used to direct gene expression into the lung in transgenic models. The discovery of CCSP immunoreactivity in plasma membranes of airway lining cells prompted us to explore the possibility of enriching Clara cells by flow cytometry. We established a novel and simple method for the isolation of CCSP-expressing cell Clara cells using a combination of mechanical and enzymatic dissociation followed by flow cytometry sorting technology. We showed that ∼25% of dissociated cells from whole lung expressed CCSP. In the resulting preparation, up to 98% of cells expressed CCSP. Notably, we found that several common stem cell markers including CD44, CD133, Sca-1 and Sox2 were expressed in CCSP(+ cells. Moreover, CCSP(+ cells were able to form spheroid colonies in vitro with 0.97‰ efficiency. Parallel studies in vivo confirmed that a small population of CCSP(-expressing cells in mouse airways also demonstrates stem cell-like properties such as label retention and harboring rare bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs in terminal bronchioles (TBs. We conclude that CCSP(+ cells exhibit a number of stem cell-like features including stem cell marker expression, bronchosphere colony formation and self-renewal ability. Clara cell isolation by flow cytometry sorting is a useful method for investigating the function of primary Clara cells in stem cell research and mouse models.

  2. E-cadherin Controls Bronchiolar Progenitor Cells and Onset of Preneoplastic Lesions in Mice

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    Fatih Ceteci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although progenitor cells of the conducting airway have been spatially localized and some insights have been gained regarding their molecular phenotype, relatively little is known about the mechanisms regulating their maintenance, activation, and differentiation. This study investigates the potential roles of E-cadherin in mouse Clara cells, as these cells were shown to represent the progenitor/stem cells of the conducting airways and have been implicated as the cell of origin of human non-small cell lung cancer. Postnatal inactivation of E-cadherin affected Clara cell differentiation and compromised airway regeneration under injury conditions. In steady-state adult lung, overexpression of the dominant negative E-cadherin led to an expansion of the bronchiolar stem cells and decreased differentiation concomitant with canonical Wnt signaling activation. Expansion of the bronchiolar stem cell pool was associated with an incessant proliferation of neuroepithelial body.associated Clara cells that ultimately gave rise to bronchiolar hyperplasia. Despite progressive hyperplasia, only a minority of the mice developed pulmonary solid tumors, suggesting that the loss of E-cadherin function leads to tumor formation when additional mutations are sustained. The present study reveals that E-cadherin plays a critical role in the regulation of proliferation and homeostasis of the epithelial cells lining the conducting airways.

  3. The Clara cell: a "Third Reich eponym"?

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    Winkelmann, A; Noack, T

    2010-10-01

    German anatomist Max Clara (1899-1966) described the "Clara cell" of the bronchiolar epithelium in 1937. The present article investigates Clara's relationship with National Socialism, as well as his use of tissue from executed prisoners for research purposes, details about both of which are largely unknown to date. Our methodology for the present study focussed on analysis of material from historical archives and the publications of Clara and his co-workers. Clara was appointed as Chair of Anatomy at Leipzig University (Leipzig, Germany) in 1935. He owed his career, at least in part, to Nazi support. He was an active member of the Nazi party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)) and engaged in university politics; this included making anti-Semitic statements about other academics in appointment procedures. Nevertheless, he also supported prosecuted colleagues. Much of Clara's histological research in Leipzig, including his original description of the bronchial epithelium, was based on tissue taken from prisoners executed in nearby Dresden (Germany). Max Clara was an active and outspoken Nazi and his histological research exploited the rising number of executions during the Nazi period. Clara's discovery is thus linked to the Nazi system. The facts given in the present paper invite discussion about the eponym's neglected history and its continued and problematic use in medical terminology. PMID:20223917

  4. Ciliate protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruby and Delafond discovered the rumen protozoa in 1843 and suggested that their digestive activity was the primary means by which ruminants could survive on an all-plant diet. However, subsequent studies have clearly shown that bacteria actually play a prominent role in the fermentation of plant materials, and fungi are also involved. The rumen ciliates range in size from 18 to 500 μm and can be enumerated and identified microscopically at relatively low magnifications. On the basis of cell morphology, they have been classified into at least five families containing 24 different genera. Although new species are still being reported yearly, the last summary was compiled in 1992 by Williams and Coleman and listed 257 separate species. Ciliate protozoa belonging to different families are found in most other herbivorous mammals. This includes those animals in which fermentation occurs in the hindgut, such as the horse, elephant, rhinoceros and capybara, as well as in the non-ruminant foregut fomenters, i.e. camelids, hippopotamus and kangaroo. These ciliates can be enumerated and identified using the methods and techniques presented in this chapter, presuming appropriate procedures are used for obtaining representative samples from the animal

  5. Clara's birth.

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    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of Clara cell secretory protein expression in a transgenic model of mouse lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical methods have been widely used to determine the histogenesis of spontaneous and chemically-induced mouse lung tumors. Typically, antigens for either alveolar Type II cells or bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells are studied. In the present work, the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of a transgenic mouse designed to develop lung tumors arising from Clara cells was evaluated. In this model, Clara cell-specific transformation is accomplished by directed expression of the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the mouse Clara cell secretory protein (CC10) promoter. In heterozygous mice, early lesions at 1 month of age consisted of hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells. These progressed to adenoma by 2 months as proliferating epithelium extended into adjacent alveolar spaces. By 4 months, a large portion of the lung parenchyma was composed of tumor masses. Expression of constitutive CC10 was diminished in transgenic animals at all time points. Only the occasional cell or segment of the bronchiolar epithelium stained positively for CC10 by immunohistochemistry, and all tumors were found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results were corroborated by Western blotting, where CC10 was readily detectable in whole lung homogenate from nontransgenic animals, but not detected in lung from transgenic animals at any time point. Tumors were also examined for expression of surfactant apoprotein C (SPC), an alveolar Type II cell-specific marker, and found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results indicate that, in this transgenic model, expression of CC10, which is widely used to determine whether lung tumors arise from Clara cells, was reduced and subsequently lost during Clara cell tumor progression

  7. Biosynthesis and release of proteins by isolated pulmonary Clara cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major proteins synthesized and released by Clara cells were identified and compared with those synthesized and released by mixed lung cells. Highly purified Clara cells (85.9 +/- 2.4%) and mixed lung cells (Clara cells 4%, Type II cells 33%, granulocytes 18%, macrophages 2.7%, ciliated cells 1.2%) were isolated from rabbit lungs, incubated with Ham's F12 medium in collagen/fibronectin-coated plastic culture dishes in the presence of 35S-methionine for periods of 4 and 18 hrs. Radiolabelled proteins were isolated from the cells and from the culture medium, electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of SDS under reducing conditions, and then autoradiographed. After 4 and 18 hr of incubation of the Clara cells the major radiolabelled cell-associated proteins were those with molecular weights of 6, 48, and 180 Kd. The major radiolabelled proteins released by Clara cells into the medium after 4 hrs of incubation had molecular weights of 6, 48, and 180 Kd, accounting for 42, 16, and 10%, respectively, of the total extracellular protein-associated radioactivity. After 18 hr of incubation the 6 and 48 Kd proteins represented 30 and 18% of the total released radioactivity, and the relative amount of the 180 Kd protein had decreased to 3%. With the mixed lung cells, the major proteins released into the medium had molecular weights of 6 and 48 Kd. Under nonreducing conditions the 6 Kd protein released by Clara cells had an apparent molecular weight of 12 Kd. Labelling isolated Clara cells with a mixture of 14C-amino acids also identified this low molecular weight protein as the major secretory product of the Clara cell. The 6 Kd protein did not label when the cells were incubated with 14C-glucosamine indicating that it was not a glycoprotein. Data demonstrate the release of several proteins from isolated Clara cells but the major protein had a M.W. of 6 Kd

  8. The role of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells in the long-term maintenance and repair of lung airway, but not alveolar, epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Okubo, Tadashi; Xue, Yan; Brass, David M; Auten, Richard L.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Fan; Hogan, Brigid L.M.

    2009-01-01

    To directly test the contribution of Scgb1a1+ Clara cells to postnatal growth, homeostasis and repair of lung epithelium, we generated a Scgb1a1-CreERTM “knock-in” mouse line for lineage tracing these cells. Under all conditions tested the majority of Clara cells in the bronchioles both self-renew and generate ciliated cells. In the trachea, Clara cells give rise to ciliated cells but do not self-renew extensively. Nevertheless, they can contribute to tracheal repair. In the postnatal mouse l...

  9. Absence of p53 in Clara cells favours multinucleation and loss of cell cycle arrest

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    Clarke Alan R

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 oncosuppressor protein is a critical mediator of the response to injury in mammalian cells and is mutationally inactivated in the majority of lung malignancies. In this analysis, the effects of p53-deficiency were investigated in short-term primary cultures of murine bronchiolar Clara cells. Clara cells, isolated from gene-targeted p53-deficient mice, were compared to cells derived from wild type littermates. Results p53 null cultures displayed abnormal morphology; specifically, a high incidence of multinucleation, which increased with time in culture. Multinucleated cells were proficient in S phase DNA synthesis, as determined by BrdU incorporation. However, multinucleation did not reflect altered rates of S phase synthesis, which were similar between wild type and p53-/- cultures. Nucleation defects in p53-/- Clara cells associated with increased centrosome number, as determined by confocal microscopy of pericentrin-stained cultures, and may highlight a novel role of p53 in preserving genomic integrity in lung epithelial cells. Effects of p53-deficiency were also studied following exposure to DNA damage. A p53-dependent reduction in the BrdU index was observed in Clara cells following ionizing radiation. The reduction in BrdU index in wild type cells displayed serum-dependency, and occurred only in the absence of serum. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that in murine primary Clara cell culture, cell cycle arrest is a p53-mediated response to DNA damage, and that extracellular factors, such as serum, influence this response. Conclusion These findings highlight functions of wild type p53 protein in bipolar spindle formation, centrosome regulation, and growth control in bronchiolar Clara cells.

  10. Postnatal development of the bronchiolar club cells of distal airways in the mouse lung: stereological and molecular biological studies.

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    Karnati, Srikanth; Graulich, Tilman; Oruqaj, Gani; Pfreimer, Susanne; Seimetz, Michael; Stamme, Cordula; Mariani, Thomas J; Weissmann, Norbert; Mühlfeld, Christian; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    Club (Clara) cells are nonciliated secretory epithelial cells present in bronchioles of distal pulmonary airways. So far, no information is available on the postnatal differentiation of club cells by a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and stereological approaches in the murine lung. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in the club cell secretory proteins (CC10, surfactant proteins A, B and D) and club cell abundance within the epithelium of bronchioles of distal airways during the postnatal development of the mouse lung. Perfusion-fixed murine lungs of three developmental stages (newborn, 15-day-old and adult) were used. Frozen, unfixed lungs were used for cryosectioning and subsequent laser-assisted microdissection of bronchiolar epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses. High resolution analyses of the three-dimensional structures and composition of lung airways were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, using design-based stereology, the total and average club cell volume and the volume of secretory granules were quantified by light and transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that murine club cells are immature at birth and differentiate postnatally. Further, increase of the club cell volume and number of intracellular granules are closely correlated to the total lung volume enlargement. However, secretory granule density was only increased within the first 15 days of postnatal development. The differentiation is accompanied by a decrease in glycogen content, and a close positive relationship between CC10 expression and secretory granule abundance. Taken together, our data are consistent with the concept that the morphological and functional differentiation of club cells is a postnatal phenomenon. PMID:26796206

  11. Effect of adrenergic stimulation on clearance from small ciliated airways in healthy subjects.

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    Svartengren, K; Philipson, K; Svartengren, M; Camner, P

    1998-01-01

    Mucociliary transport is an important clearance mechanism of larger airways, but in the smallest ciliated airways (bronchioles) it may be less effective. The present study aimed at investigating whether clearance from the bronchioles in subjects with healthy airways was stimulated by an adrenergic agonist (terbutaline sulphate). Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 10 healthy subjects after inhalation of 6-micron (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labeled with 111In. At one exposure, oral treatment with terbutaline sulphate, known to stimulate clearance in large airways, began immediately after inhalation of the particles. The other exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 L/s, which gave deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Clearance was significant every 24 h for both exposures (p terbutaline sulphate, the subjects' pulse rates tended to be higher, but clearance rates did not increase. We found, as expected, no significant correlation between lung retention and lung function in either exposure. This study shows that an adrenergic agonist does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region in healthy subjects. This suggests that mucociliary transport does not significantly contribute to clearance from the smallest ciliated airways. Other mechanisms may be more important for the transportation of mucus from these airways. PMID:9555573

  12. Sex differences in bronchiolar epithelium response after the inhalation of lead acetate (Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify if there were sex differences in lead (Pb) lung concentrations and in bronchiolar response after its inhalation, a mice inhalation model was conducted. Sixty CD-1 adult mice from each sex inhaled separately, lead acetate 0.1 M for 1 h, thrice weekly during 15 days. Animals were evaluated for Pb-lung concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and for morphological evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher Pb-lung concentrations were determined in females, however, more cell damage was found in males, finding that correlated with an increased loss of the nonciliated bronchiolar cells (NCBC) more sloughing and necrosis. Differences in particle clearance, oxidative stress handling, cytokines pathway activation and cytochrome P450 enzymes activity, all influenced by sex hormones, might be a possible explanation for our findings. The relevance of further studies in this field is stressed, as well as its relation to the different development expected for each sex in disease evolution, possible complications and treatment response

  13. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

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    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  14. Relationship Between Expression of Interleukin-5 and Interleukin-13 by Epithelial Cells and Bronchiolar Changes in Pigs Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

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    Rodríguez, F; Batista, M; Hernández, J N; Afonso, A M; Poveda, J B

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is a bacterium that specifically infects the surface of bronchi and bronchioles of pigs without invading the host cells, and it is considered to be the primary agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEN). The present study investigates the morphological and immunohistological changes induced in bronchiolar epithelium by Mh infection. Lungs from 20 pigs with naturally occurring Mh pneumonia were compared with those from 10 uninfected controls. Bronchiolar epithelial height, inflammatory infiltration, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and mucin subtype MUC5AC-producing cells significantly increased in all infected animals. Mh antigen was detected in association with the cilia of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were expressed consistently by epithelial and mononuclear cells of the airways of infected animals. The expression of these cytokines in the bronchial and bronchiolar tissues is related to the histological changes of PEN. PMID:26922858

  15. EL EMBARAZO EN LA ADOLESCENCIA. ¿UN PROBLEMA SOCIAL EN SANTA CLARA, VILLA CLARA, CUBA?

    OpenAIRE

    Suleidy Contreras Rodríguez; Dayana Martín Cortes

    2011-01-01

    Se realiza un análisis del embarazo en la adolescencia en la ciudad de Santa Clara a partir de un proceso investigativo y como resultado del mismo se diseña una propuesta de sistemas de acciones educativas para adolescentes de Santa Clara. Se analizan las causas que lo originan, las consecuencias que lo implican, así como su impacto en la familia y en el medio social con el fin de establecer medidas que contribuyan a mejorar esta problemática en la ciudad de Santa Clara.

  16. Ciliates Expel Environmental Legionella-Laden Pellets To Stockpile Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bact...

  17. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O3). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined

  18. Optimal swimming of model ciliates

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    Michelin, Sebastien; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    In order to swim at low Reynolds numbers, microorganisms must undergo non-time-reversible shape changes. In ciliary locomotion, this symmetry breaking is achieved through the actuation of many flexible cilia distributed on the surface of the organism. Experimental studies have demonstrated the collective synchronization of neighboring cilia (metachronal waves), whose exact origin is still debated. Here we consider the hydrodynamic energetic cost of ciliary locomotion and consider an axisymmetric envelope model with prescribed tangential surface displacements. We show that the periodic strokes of this model ciliated swimmer that minimize the energy dissipation in the surrounding fluid achieve symmetry-breaking at the organism level through the propagation of wave patterns similar to metachronal waves. We analyze the properties of the optimal strokes, in particular the impact on the swimming performance introduced by a restriction on maximum cilia tip displacement due to the finite cilia length.

  19. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

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    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  20. Evaluation of Bronchiolar and Alveolar Cell Injuries Induced by Short- and Long-term Exposure to Sidestream Smoke

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    Kwon, Kun-Young; Jung, Hye-Ra; Hwang, Ilseon; Choi, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated effects of short- and long-term exposure to sidestream smoke on the bronchiolar and alveolar cells in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods Rats were divided into five experimental groups: groups 1, 2, and 3 (1-month exposure to 3, 5, and 7 cigarettes a day, respectively), groups 4 and 5 (3- and 6 month exposure to five cigarettes a day, respectively). We examined the morphologic changes, the expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), tumor growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), in...

  1. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

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    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  2. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine by epithelial and interstitial cells in bronchiolar-alveolar regions of asbestos-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled asbestos causes progressive interstitial lung disease. The authors have performed a series of studies to elucidate early pathogenetic events at sites of fiber deposition in asbestos-exposed rats. This study reports that a single 5-hour exposure to chrysotile asbestos induces significant increases in incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) into nuclei of epithelial and interstitial cells of bronchiolar-alveolar regions. No cell populations in air-exposed or carbonyl iron-exposed control animals exhibited more than 1% labeling at any point in time. Immediately after the 5-hour asbestos exposure, incorporation was normal. By 19 hours after exposure there was a significant increase in incorporation of 3HTdR, particularly by Type II epithelial cells of the first alveolar duct bifurcations. The greatest increase in degree of incorporation (up to 18-fold) was observed 24 hours after exposure, and increased percentages of 3HTdR-labeled cells were maintained through the 48 hours postexposure period. Normal labeling was present by 8 days after exposure, and this level remained through the 1-month period studied. This apparent mitogenic response correlates with increased numbers of bronchiolar-alveolar epithelial and interstitial cells demonstrated by ultrastructural morphometry in correlative studies. The authors speculate that the incorporation of 3HTdR could be induced by the direct effects of inhaled fibers or by mitogenic factors released from macrophages attracted to the inhaled asbestos

  3. Morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. I. Short-term exposure

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    Hiroshima, K.; Kohno, T.; Owada, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1987-12-01

    In order to determine the effects of ozone on lungs and the course of cell renewal after damage, young male rats were exposed to 3 ppm of ozone for 4 hr. They were killed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days after exposure. One hour before the killing, dividing cells were labeled with tritiated thymidine. Type 1 cells of centriacinar location and bronchiolar cells were severely damaged after exposure. Labeling indices of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells increased 1 day after exposure. Hyperplasia of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells was observed 2 and 3 days after exposure. Ciligenesis of bronchiolar ciliated cells occurred 4 days after exposure. Our study shows that injured type 1 cells are repaired by proliferation of type 2 cells and that injured bronchiolar ciliated and Clara cells are repaired by proliferation of bronchiolar nonciliated cells. These undifferentiated cells are probably progenitors of ciliated cells and Clara cells, and some nonciliated cells are in a transitional form between nonciliated and type 2 cells.

  4. Morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. I. Short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the effects of ozone on lungs and the course of cell renewal after damage, young male rats were exposed to 3 ppm of ozone for 4 hr. They were killed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days after exposure. One hour before the killing, dividing cells were labeled with tritiated thymidine. Type 1 cells of centriacinar location and bronchiolar cells were severely damaged after exposure. Labeling indices of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells increased 1 day after exposure. Hyperplasia of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells was observed 2 and 3 days after exposure. Ciligenesis of bronchiolar ciliated cells occurred 4 days after exposure. Our study shows that injured type 1 cells are repaired by proliferation of type 2 cells and that injured bronchiolar ciliated and Clara cells are repaired by proliferation of bronchiolar nonciliated cells. These undifferentiated cells are probably progenitors of ciliated cells and Clara cells, and some nonciliated cells are in a transitional form between nonciliated and type 2 cells

  5. Dispersal of the parasitic ciliate Lambornella clarki: implications for ciliates in the biological control of mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Egerter, D E; Anderson, J R; Washburn, J O

    1986-01-01

    Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae), an endoparasite of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae), is dispersed by infected adult mosquitoes. Invasion of the ovaries induces parasitically castrated females to exhibit oviposition behavior and thereby actively disperse ciliates through deposition into water. Oviposition behavior of infected females is prolonged and mimics that of normal gravid females in their first gonotropic cycle. Adults of both sexes also passively disperse ciliates...

  6. Are freshwater pelagic ciliates important bacterivores?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Macek, Miroslav; Nedoma, Jiří; Dolan, J. R.

    Innsbruck : Institute for Limnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2003. s. 36. [Assessing the Variability in Aquatic Microbial Populations: Facts and Fiction. 16.02.2003-20.02.2003, Mondsee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : flagellate and ciliate bacterivory * freshwater plankton Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

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    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5psu, 8.9psu, 29.5psu and 50.5psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils. PMID:26773903

  8. Quantitation and renewal of alveolar and bronchiolar cell populations of rat lungs. Changes during some pathological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various cells of alveolar and bronchiolar tissues of rat lungs were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. In physiological conditions, the renewal rate of the cell populations is low and the frequency of the various cell types is constant. This stability, especially at the level of the alveolar tissue, was also found during the latency period and the development of radiation-induced lung cancers. A particular cellular population was demonstrated: marginated leukocyte pool at the level of the pulmonary circulation. This pool was different both qualitatively and quantitatively from the leukocytes of the systemic circulation and, in physiological conditions, behaved as a cellular reservoir of monocytes chiefly re-distributed according to the body needs. In pathological conditions, its fast migration contributed to the defence of the alveolar medium. A quantitative study of the renewal of alveolar macrophages showed that under 1 p. cent of the marginated leukocyte pool is used daily to keep up this population. This fraction undergoes a maturation stage by cellular division within the endoalveolar medium. In some pathological conditions, this division can be completely inhibited

  9. Photoletter to the editor: Subcutaneous ciliated Mullerian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, Matthew; Marinovich, Adrian; Burkey, Brooke

    2015-12-31

    Cutaneous ciliated cysts are benign lesions occurring primarily on the lower extremity of girls and young women. We present a case of a cutaneous ciliated Mullerian cyst arising in the lower leg of a 14-year-old girl, with brief discussion of etiology and diagnosis. This is a rare entity with approximately 50 cases in the literature. PMID:26848322

  10. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  11. Plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, G.; Nie, Y.; Mete, O.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.; Pacey, T.; Li, Y.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.

    2016-09-01

    A plasma accelerator research station (PARS) has been proposed to study the key issues in electron driven plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the quasi-nonlinear regime of beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration is analysed. The wakefield excited by various CLARA beam settings are simulated by using a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code. For a single drive beam, an accelerating gradient up to 3 GV/m can be achieved. For a two bunch acceleration scenario, simulation shows that a witness bunch can achieve a significant energy gain in a 10-50 cm long plasma cell.

  12. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, Damien; Gobet, Angelique;

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy occur...

  13. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A; Chatterji, A

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  14. DNA rearrangements directed by non-coding RNAs in ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Extensive programmed rearrangement of DNA, including DNA elimination, chromosome fragmentation, and DNA descrambling, takes place in the newly developed macronucleus during the sexual reproduction of ciliated protozoa. Recent studies have revealed that two distant classes of ciliates use distinct types of non-coding RNAs to regulate such DNA rearrangement events. DNA elimination in Tetrahymena is regulated by small non-coding RNAs that are produced and utilized in an RNAi-related process. It ...

  15. Clara Schumann: 'A woman's love and life': a psychoanalytic interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt-Freud, H C

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate how psychoanalysis can shed new light on a much studied life history. Clara's emotional life knew a sequence of losses and "prohibited" intimate relationships that created grave loyalty, identity, and identificatory conflicts for her. Since her early childhood, when her father forced her to give up her mother, she had been forced into a choice between the love objects most dear to her and the one on whom she depended for her emotional survival. This resulted in her later repetition compulsion to maneuver herself into the same conflict of loyalty and in her hesitation to decide when choosing one object meant losing the other. Clara had never known a normal separation, only loss and abandonment. She strove to combine the incompatible and succeeded in remaining loyal not only to her mother and father, but also to Robert Schumann, and eventually to Johannes Brahms. Clara Schumann's ideals were conflicted not only because she was educated by two men who were fighting each other, but also because her father, as well as Robert, had internally inconsistent and ambiguous ideas about women. Clara not only had to be obedient and creative, but self-sufficient at the same time. She was partially able to satisfy her own and her partner's needs and solve her deficiencies by projective identification, choosing taciturn men, more maternal than she. PMID:11616291

  16. ["The piano trio" Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albretsen, C S

    1998-12-10

    The relationship between the pianist and composer Clara Schumann and the composers Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms has for a century been an interesting topic. Clara and Robert Schumann both suffered separation from their mothers during early childhood. Johannes Brahms was intensely spoiled by his mother. Robert Schumann needed a structuring wife in his adult life, while Johannes Brahms turned to be afraid of intrusive women. Robert Schumann's psychotic breakdown in February 1854 had a complex background: a hypomanic state, some marital problems, a stressful journey with musical appearances, and possibly a difficulty in differentiating between himself and his new friend Johannes Brahms. As for Clara Schumann, who lost her mother before the age of five, musical activities became her way of overcoming the difficulties of life. She was able to support Robert in his lunatic asylum and their seven children growing up in three separate towns. The chronic diseases of the sons: schizophrenia, polyarthritis and tuberculosis made a deep impression on her and her fingers and hands were periodically immobilised with severe pain. For four decades Johannes was her able "son" and Clara was his "mother", at a safe distance. PMID:9914757

  17. 78 FR 67210 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  18. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en el municipio de Santa Clara, Cuba - Prevalence of equine infectious anemia in the municipality of Santa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDada la naturaleza de contagiosidad y fatalidad de la anemia infecciosa equina nos propusimos realizar un estudio serológico con el objetivo de conocer la tasa de prevalencia de la enfermedad en el municipio de Santa Clara, provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba.SummaryGiven the nature of infectiousness and fatality of the equine infectious anemia we intended to carry out a serological study with the objective of knowing the prevalence rate of the disease in the municipality of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, Cuba.

  19. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Additional objectives of the project include the demonstration of specific advantages of the direct carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide design input for precommercial early production power plants.

  20. Pleistocene vertebrates of Silicon Valley (Santa Clara County, California)

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Kaitlin Clare; Holroyd, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on late Pleistocene fossil vertebrates from new and previously described localities in Santa Clara County, California. The three new localities and specimens include: a partial mammoth pelvis from UCMP V91128 (Lawrence Expressway E); a juvenile cranial specimen of Mammuthus columbi from UCMP V99597 (SCVWD “Lupe” Mammoth), now on display at the San Jose Children’s Discovery Center; and a relatively diverse assemblage of medium- to large-sized mammals, including a nearly complete...

  1. Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

    2009-11-14

    The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

  2. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Qingyu Liao; Mei Li; Jinhong Zhang; Nora Fungyee Tam; Runlin Xu

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate biodiversities followed Site B < Site A < Site C in both fresh and...

  3. The Effects of Oil Pollution on Free-living Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    ASADULLAYEVA, Esmira; ALEKPEROV, Ilham

    1999-01-01

    For the first time the effects of oil pollution on free-living ciliates at community level and also at cellular level were studied at the same time. The effects of various oil concentrations from two oil fields (Sangachal and Guneshli) on psammophile and periphyton ciliates were studied. As a result, the parameters using the oil pollution biotesting with the help of these test systems were determined. Oil from the Guneshli oil field was determined to be more toxic. The effects of oil pollutio...

  4. Act together - implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.;

    2012-01-01

    ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh, and nutrient-deficient habitats. It is therefore not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are......Mutual interactions in the form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new lifeforms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components...

  5. 2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid concentrations in some rumen ciliate protozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, F G; Bruce, L. A.; Eadie, J M; Shand, W J

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid has been measured in seven genera of rumen ciliate protozoa. Expressed as milligrams per gram of total nitrogen, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid concentrations ranged from 17.2 in Ophryoscolex spp. to 72.4 in Eremoplastron spp.

  6. Tipification of oligotrophic lakes using the ciliate assemblage structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Lugo-Vázquez, A.; Šimek, Karel

    Messina: Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L112 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : tipification * oligotrophic lakes * ciliate assemblage Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  7. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  8. On computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly in stichotrichous ciliates happening during sexual reproduction is one of the most involved DNA manipulation processes occurring in biology. This biological process is of high interest from the computational and mathematical points of view due to its close analogy with such concepts and notions in theoretical computer science as permutation and linked list sorting and string rewriting. Studies on computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates represent a good example of interdisciplinary research contributing to both computer science and biology. We review here a number of general results related both to the development of different computational methods enhancing our understanding on the nature of gene assembly, as well as to the development of new biologically motivated computational and mathematical models and paradigms. Those paradigms contribute in particular to combinatorics, formal languages and computability theories.

  9. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

  10. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult ...

  11. Ciliated epithelial cell lifespan in the mouse trachea and lung

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Brigid L M Hogan

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state turnover of epithelial cells in the lung and trachea is highly relevant to investigators who are studying endogenous stem cells, manipulating gene expression in vivo, or using viral vectors for gene therapy. However, the average lifetime of different airway epithelial cell types has not previously been assessed using currently available genetic techniques. Here, we use Cre/loxP genetic technology to indelibly label a random fraction of ciliated cells throughout the airways of...

  12. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kenta Watanabe; Ryo Nakao; Masahiro Fujishima; Masato Tachibana; Takashi Shimizu; Masahisa Watarai

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling...

  13. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is CLAS12 physics data processing (PDP) application development framework based on a service oriented architecture (SOA). This framework allows users to design and deploy data processing services as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. Services can be written in Java, C++, and Python languages. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation. This allows complex service composition and integration without writing a code. We believe that by deviating from the traditional self contained, monolithic PDP application models we can improve maintenance, scalability and quality of physics data analysis. The SOA approach also helps us to separate a specific service programmer from a PDP application designer. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design are presented.

  14. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l-1, LC5) and lead (0.12 mg l-1, LC5), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l-1, LC5). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  15. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  16. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  17. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  18. Numerical simulation for cyclic steam injection at Santa Clara field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the methodology used and the results obtained in the construction, match and prediction of the first thermal composition simulation model done in Colombia by employing advanced thermal process commercial software, globally recognized because of its effectiveness in modeling these types of processes (CMG-STARS, 2005). The Santa Clara and Palermo fields were modeled and an excellent history match was achieved. All in all 28 wells and 17 years of production were matched. Two production scenes were proposed. The first involved primary production from existing wells, in other words: primary production; and a second scene where all the wells in the field are converted into injectors and producers, to simulate cyclic steam injection. This injection process included a series of sensitivity studies for several of the parameters involved in this technology, such as: pressure and temperature injection, time and rate of injection, heat injected, soaking period, steam quality, and injection cycles. This sensitivity study was focused on optimizing the processes to obtain the maximum end recovery possible. The information entered into the simulator was validated by laboratory tests developed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP). Among the tests performed the following were assessed: rock compressibility, relative permeability curve behavior at different temperatures, formation sensitivity to injection fluids, DRX analysis and residual saturation of crude oil for steam injection. The aforementioned results are documented in this paper

  19. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Charles James Newbold; Gabriel ede la Fuente; Alejandro eBelanche; Eva eRamos-Morales; Neil eMcEwan

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult t...

  20. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  1. Community Structure and Biodiversity of Soil Ciliates at Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest in Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The abundance, biodiversity, and community similarity of ciliates in fresh and air-dried soil with different, physical/chemical properties were analyzed. Three Classes, 11 Orders, 34 Genera, and 70 species of ciliates were found with the first dominant group being Hypotrichida. Ciliate bio diversities followed Site B 42-), but negatively with ph and total potassium (TK). Site A and Site B and Site B and Site C showed the highest similarity in fresh and dried samples, respectively. The ubiquitous characteristics of ciliate distribution suggested their important role in food webs and nutrient cycling. The presence of Colpodida was linked with mangrove plants.

  2. Müllerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst in the gluteal cleft mimicking a pilonidal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sol; Bhalla, Varun K; Needham, Lance; Sharma, Suash; Pipkin, Walter L; Hatley, Robyn M; Howell, Charles G

    2014-05-01

    A cutaneous ciliated cyst is a rare entity found predominantly in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. Although initially described by Hess in 1890, the present day term, "cutaneous ciliated cyst," was proposed by Farmer in 1978 and includes a wide array of cyst types. Despite their typical female predominance and location, many have described cutaneous ciliated cysts in males and atypical locations. In addition, Mullerian cysts in the posterior mediastinum and the retroperitoneum have been reported. To date, only 40 cases have been reported in the literature of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. Here, we report a case of 13-year-old female with one in the gluteal cleft, initially presenting as a pilonidal cyst. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of pediatric sacrococcygeal lesions and pathogenesis of a Mullerian-type, cutaneous ciliated cyst. PMID:23913265

  3. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  4. Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr (1870–1915): Life, Work and Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the life, work, and legacy of Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr, who became the first woman to earn a doctorate from the University of Breslau, in 1900. In 1901 she married the chemist Fritz Haber. With no employment available for female scientists, Clara freelanced as an instructor in the continued education of women, mainly housewives, while struggling not to become a housewife herself. Her duties as a designated head of a posh household hardly brought fulfillment to her life. ...

  5. Estimation of carbon sequestration by tree species in three farms in Villa Clara province

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos García Hernández; Víctor D. Gil Díaz; Edilio Quintero Fernández

    2016-01-01

    The research took place in two farms of the Cifuentes municipality and in a farm of the Santa Clara municipality, province of Villa Clara. It was carried out from November 2008 to May 2009, with the objective of estimating the capture of Carbon by common arboreal species in these farms. The plant biomass analyses were made according to the methodology of Mercadet and Álvarez (2005). Several parameters were analyzed. Age, height and perimeter of the plants were the most influential...

  6. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA)

  7. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  8. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  9. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  10. REGISTRO HOSPITALARIO DE INFARTO AGUDO DE MIOCARDIO EN SANTA CLARA / Hospital registry of acute miocardial infarction in Santa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Morales Salinas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción y objetivos: En Cuba las estadísticas vitales de la morbi-mortalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio proceden de pequeñas áreas de salud. El objetivo fue identificar las principales características y conducta hospitalaria de los pacientes con infarto a través de un registro hospitalario de infarto. Métodos: Se monitorizaron los casos de infarto ocurridos en pacientes de 45 a 74 años de edad y residentes en Santa Clara, durante los años 2007 y 2008. Las fuentes de información fueron: listados de egresos hospitalarios, registros hospitalarios de infarto de miocardio, certificados de defunción y registros de autopsias nosocomiales. Se utilizó la metodología MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease Project. Resultados: Se registraron 297 pacientes con infarto. El 62,7 % de los varones y el 46,8 % de las mujeres recibieron tratamiento de reperfusión. Las letalidades hospitalarias en varones y mujeres fueron de 25,3 % y 45 %. Las variables que se relacionaron con una mayor mortalidad fueron la edad, el sexo femenino, la frecuencia cardíaca alta, el infarto de topografía anterior, la creatinina elevada, así como los antecedentes personales de cardiopatía isquémica previa y diabetes mellitus. Mientras que el tratamiento con fibrinolíticos y/o betabloqueadores se correlacionaron inversamente con la mortalidad. Conclusiones: Existió una elevada prevalencia de dislipidemia desconocida y letalidad hospitalaria a 28 días; así como una baja utilización de las estrategias cruentas. La hipertensión sistólica al ingreso se relacionó con un mejor pronóstico. / Abstract Introduction and objectives: In Cuba, the vital statistics of morbi-mortality due to acute myocardial infarction come from small health areas. The objective of this study was to identify the main characteristics and hospital management of patients with myocardial infarction, through a hospital registry of infarctions

  11. Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr (1870–1915): Life, Work and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the life, work, and legacy of Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr, who became the first woman to earn a doctorate from the University of Breslau, in 1900. In 1901 she married the chemist Fritz Haber. With no employment available for female scientists, Clara freelanced as an instructor in the continued education of women, mainly housewives, while struggling not to become a housewife herself. Her duties as a designated head of a posh household hardly brought fulfillment to her life. The outbreak of WWI further exacerbated the situation, as Fritz Haber applied himself in extraordinary ways to aid the German war effort. The night that he celebrated the “success” of the first chlorine cloud attack, Clara committed suicide. We found little evidence to support claims that Clara was an outspoken pacifist who took her life because of her disapproval of Fritz Haber's involvement in chemical warfare. We conclude by examining “the myth of Clara Immerwahr” that took root in the 1990s from the perspective offered by the available scholarly sources, including some untapped ones. PMID:27099403

  12. Metagabro sill zircon dating: Archean age confirmation from the Aguas Claras formation, Carajas, Para State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carajas region, situated at Para State, Brazil, presents a great diversity of the mafic rock occurrences, distributed between various units. The rocks have been described petrographically and its geochemical and geochronological data have been accumulated. However, these last data are relatively limited or inexact due to the difficulties to these rock dating using the Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) in zircons method. The Aguas Claras Formation age is another problem in the Carajas stratigraphy. The occurrence of metagabros sills in the Aguas Claras region and the fact of existing zircons in these metagabros, stimulated the authors to realize a geochronological study of these metagabros aiming to define its age and, consequently, the minimum age of the Aguas Claras Formation. The paper presents the geological context and the methodology to develop the geochronological studies of these rocks. (author)

  13. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated [methyl-3H]-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration

  14. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  15. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is a rare condition almost always found incidentally on a computerized tomography scan or at autopsy. Rarely, portal vein compression can be a presenting finding. The cysts are usually unilocular and occur with greater frequency in males. There is a predilection for the left lobe. The cysts average 3 cm in size. We present in this case report a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst found incidentally in the setting of renal carcinoma. The patient was a man known to have a large renal mass, assumed to be cancer, and a liver mass suspicious for metastatic disease. This liver mass was cystic and upon further analysis showed ciliated epithelial lining. We describe the gross and histological appearance, as well as a brief discussion of ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. We report the first case of a patient with coexisting renal cell carcinoma and a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst. While this may represent a coincidental finding, a possibility of a neoplastic or non-neoplastic disorder associated with ciliated hepatic foregut cysts can not be completely ruled out

  16. snRNA and Heterochromatin Formation Are Involved in DNA Excision during Macronuclear Development in Stichotrichous Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Juranek, Stefan A.; Rupprecht, Sina; Postberg, Jan; Lipps, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    Several models for specific excision of micronucleus-specific DNA sequences during macronuclear development in ciliates exist. While the template-guided recombination model suggests recombination events resulting in specific DNA excision and reordering of macronucleus-destined sequences (MDS) guided by a template, there is evidence that an RNA interference-related mechanism is involved in DNA elimination in holotrichous ciliates. We describe that in the stichotrichous ciliate Stylonychia, snR...

  17. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ..., feeding, spawning, migrating, rearing, and sheltering (64 FR 60727, November 8, 1999). Under section 10(a... Watershed, Ventura County, California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River...

  18. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments. PMID:27098881

  19. High cryptic soil ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) diversity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The diversity and distribution of soil ciliates from Australia is poorly known. Thus, we studied eight taxa, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, silver impregnation, detailed morphometrics, ontogenesis, and reinvestigation of type slides. At first glance, the Australian taxa looked very similar to described species, however, detailed investigations resulted in the identification of six cryptic species: Afroamphisiella multinucleata minima nov. subspec., Cladotricha similis nov. spec., Erimophrya similis nov. spec., Heterogonostomum salinarum nov. gen., nov. spec., Pseudohemisincirra arabica australiensis nov. subspec., and Pattersoniella (Pattersoniellides) australiensis nov. subgen., nov. spec. This new subgenus is unique among all described hypotrichs in having reduced some anterior paroral dikinetids the fibrillar associates of which are, however, still present. Only two of the eight taxa are possibly cosmopolitans: Apourosomoida halophilaFoissner et al., 2002 and Urosoma karinaeFoissner, 1987. This supports the moderate endemicity model, i.e., that a third of protists have a restricted distribution (Foissner, Chao and Katz 2008). PMID:26844781

  20. Tintinnid ciliates of Amundsen Sea (Antarctica plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea has been described as one of the most productive and dynamic pelagic systems in Antarctica and is one of the least studied. Based on samples from 15 stations in the Amundsen Sea, we describe for the first time the composition of the tintinnid ciliate assemblage of the microzooplankton. We compared the species compositions of coastal polynya sites, where the phytoplankton communities are dominated by Phaeocystis, to those of the offshore deep water sites, which are dominated by diatoms. We found a total of 15 species. Polynya sites were dominated by a few species of tintinnids, mostly those endemic to the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the deep-water sites contained many widespread tintinnid species, which are known from a wide variety of systems as well as other areas of the Southern Ocean. We examined polymorphism known to characterize the Antarctic tintinnid species Cymatocylis affinis/convallaria and Codonellopsis gaussi. We found that the types or forms found appeared unrelated to the type of microplankton community, defined by the identity of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. However, the number of different morphotypes found at a site appeared related to the overall concentration of the species, suggesting that different morphologies, previously considered distinct species, may simply be developmental stages.

  1. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  2. Origins of learned reciprocity in solitary ciliates searching grouped 'courting' assurances at quantum efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Learning to reciprocate socially valued actions, such as cheating and cooperation, marks evolutionary advances in animal intelligence thought unequalled by even colonial microbes known to secure respective individual or group fitness tradeoffs through genetic and epigenetic processes. However, solitary ciliates, unique among microbes for their emulation of simple Hebbian-like learning contingent upon feedback between behavioral output and vibration-activated mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels, might be the best candidates to learn to reciprocate necessary preconjugant touches perceived during complex 'courtship rituals'. Testing this hypothesis here with mock social trials involving an ambiguous vibration source, the large heterotrich ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum showed it can indeed learn to modify emitted signals about mating fitness to encourage paired reproduction. Ciliates, improving their signaling expertise with each felt vibration, grouped serial escape strategies gesturing opposite 'courting' assurances of playing 'harder to get' or 'easier to get' into separate, topologically invariant computational networks. Stored strategies formed patterns of action or heuristics with which ciliates performed fast, quantum-like distributed modular searches to guide future replies of specific fitness content. Heuristic-guided searches helped initial inferior repliers, ciliates with high initial reproductive costs, learn to sensitize their behavioral output and opportunistically compete with presumptive mating 'rivals' advertising higher quality fitness. Whereas, initial superior repliers, ciliates with low initial reproductive costs, learned with the aid of heuristics to habituate their behavioral output and sacrifice net reproductive payoffs to cooperate with presumptive 'suitors', a kind of learned altruism only before attributed to animal social intelligences. The present findings confirm that ciliates are highly competent decision makers capable of achieving paired

  3. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Minh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus. These ciliates are only distantly related to Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia, but more closely related to Nyctotherus ovalis, which possesses a hydrogenosomal (mitochondrial genome. Results The linear mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of several Tetrahymena species, Paramecium aurelia and the partially sequenced mitochondrial genome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. This study reports new features such as long 5'gene extensions of several mitochondrial genes, extremely long cox1 and cox2 open reading frames and a large repeat in the middle of the linear mitochondrial genome. The repeat separates the open reading frames into two blocks, each having a single direction of transcription, from the repeat towards the ends of the chromosome. Although the Euplotes mitochondrial gene content is almost identical to that of Paramecium and Tetrahymena, the order of the genes is completely different. In contrast, the 33273 bp (excluding the repeat region piece of the mitochondrial genome that has been sequenced in both Euplotes species exhibits no difference in gene order. Unexpectedly, many of the mitochondrial genes of E. minuta encoding ribosomal proteins possess N-terminal extensions that are similar to mitochondrial targeting signals. Conclusion The mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus are rather different from the previously studied genomes. Many genes are extended in size compared to mitochondrial

  4. First light measurements of the Total Solar Irradiance experiment CLARA on NORSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Werner

    2016-07-01

    NORSAT-1 is a Norwegian micro-satellite, which will be launched April 22, 2016. (In the future at the time of writing this abstract.) The satellite carries two scientific instruments and an AIS receiver for performing ship detection from space. One of the scientific instruments is a Compact Light-weight Absolute RAdiometer (CLARA) and the other is a Langmuir Probe instrument comprising four probes mounted on booms. The latter experiment will measure electron density and the platform's floating potential along the orbit. The University of Oslo provides the Langmuir probes. The radiometer experiment CLARA has been built by PMOD/WRC funded through the Swiss PRODEX program. It will measure Total Solar Irradiance with an instrument of novel design that is optimized for minimizing mass and size by still ensuring highest measuring accuracy and thermal stability. The radiometers of CLARA have been fully characterized as well as calibrated at the TRF facility. It is expected that the first light accuracy of the absolute measurement of Total Solar Irradiance will be better than pm0.3 W/m^{2, allowing to probe the current TSI composite for its absolute level. The presentation will give an overview of the CLARA instrument and its calibration. It is expected that at the time of the COSPAR conference the first light TSI value of CLARA/NORSAT-1 is ready for publication. Together with a previous absolute TSI measurements available for July 27, 2010 measured by PREMOS/PICARD the new absolute TSI measurement will be used to test the accuracy of long term TSI trend given by the relative TSI composite.

  5. Multiple genes of apparent algal origin suggest ciliates may once have been photosynthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-07-01

    Plantae (as defined by Cavalier-Smith, 1981) plastids evolved via primary endosymbiosis whereby a heterotrophic protist enslaved a photosynthetic cyanobacterium. This "primary" plastid spread into other eukaryotes via secondary endosymbiosis. An important but contentious theory in algal evolution is the chromalveolate hypothesis that posits chromists (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles) and alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common ancestor that contained a red-algal-derived "secondary" plastid. Under this view, the existence of several later-diverging plastid-lacking chromalveolates such as ciliates and oomycetes would be explained by plastid loss in these lineages. To test the idea of a photosynthetic ancestry for ciliates, we used the 27,446 predicted proteins from the macronuclear genome of Tetrahymena thermophila to query prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. We identified 16 proteins of possible algal origin in the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium tetraurelia. Fourteen of these are present in other chromalveolates. Here we compare and contrast the likely scenarios for algal-gene origin in ciliates either via multiple rounds of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from algal prey or symbionts, or through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) during a putative photosynthetic phase in their evolution. PMID:18595706

  6. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  7. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  8. Ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jihyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cyst of gallbladder is a very rare benign cystic lesion. A 39-year-old woman was referred to our hospital after abdominal ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion of gallbladder. On abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a unilocular cystic lesion was found at right upper quadrant with attachment to the gallbladder neck. The gallbladder with cystic lesion was resected through laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cystic lesion revealed a unilocular cyst with ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium and abundant goblet cells. Pathologic examination is essential to distinguish from other cystic lesions of the gallbladder and avoid unnecessary additional treatment. In the current case report, we presented the clinico-pathologic findings of the ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder and review of literature.

  9. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    population may be encysted. The factors governing the dynamics of active and encysted cells in the soil are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of active and encysted populations of ciliates during the decomposition of freshly added organic material. We monitored, in soil...... mathematical modeling. Following the addition of fresh organic material, bacterial numbers increased more than 1,400-fold. There was a temporary increase in the number of active ciliates, followed by a rapid decline, although the size of the bacterial prey populations remained high. During this initial burst...

  10. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Gallbladder: A Case Report with US and CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder is very rare with only a few reports to date. In our case, an ultrasonogram (US) showed a well-demarcated hypoechoic mass containing internal hyperechoic material in the fundus of the gallbladder. The CT scans showed a poorly enhancing round soft tissue mass in the gallbladder wall lined by an enhancing intact mucosal layer. We report here on a very rare form of the ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder including ultrasound and CT image results

  11. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Gallbladder: A Case Report with US and CT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Jeon, Yong Sun; Lee, Jung Il; Han, Jee Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder is very rare with only a few reports to date. In our case, an ultrasonogram (US) showed a well-demarcated hypoechoic mass containing internal hyperechoic material in the fundus of the gallbladder. The CT scans showed a poorly enhancing round soft tissue mass in the gallbladder wall lined by an enhancing intact mucosal layer. We report here on a very rare form of the ciliated foregut cyst arising from the gall bladder including ultrasound and CT image results.

  12. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980 taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 species of ciliated protozoans, which are the first records for the locality. The species are distri-buted in three classes, ten orders, eighteen families and twenty-six genera.

  13. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  14. Estimation of carbon sequestration by tree species in three farms in Villa Clara province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos García Hernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research took place in two farms of the Cifuentes municipality and in a farm of the Santa Clara municipality, province of Villa Clara. It was carried out from November 2008 to May 2009, with the objective of estimating the capture of Carbon by common arboreal species in these farms. The plant biomass analyses were made according to the methodology of Mercadet and Álvarez (2005. Several parameters were analyzed. Age, height and perimeter of the plants were the most influential parameters on the amount of carbon sequestered. In this regard, we performed a multivariate curve fitting, showing the age of the plants the highest percent of dependence (54.89%. Palma Real with values between 0.81 and 0.84 t / plant and the Mango between 0.60 and 0.81 t /plant of retained Carbon, were the most outstanding in the capture of Carbon.

  15. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  16. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in santa clara mountain, san juan, argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Imhof, Armando Luis; Sánchez, Manuel; Calvo, Carlos; Martín, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT) for mapping 'P' waves was carried out in Sierra Santa Clara, San Juan Province, Argentina in July 2009. The purpose of the geophysical survey was to determine the degree of fracturing and the rigidity of the rock mass through which it is planned to build a 290 m long road tunnel traversing the mountain almost perpendicular to the axis thereof, at around 100 m depth from the summit. Several difficulties arose from the operation...

  17. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Kass, Philip H.; Johnson, Karen L.; Hsin-Yi Weng

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently di...

  18. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  19. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo. However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005. The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes.

  20. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  1. Crescimento e desenvolvimento de frutos do tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e do seu mutante natural 'Firme' Growth and development of 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit and its mutant 'Firme'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lima Moura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na região produtora de hortaliças de Viçosa, MG, identificaram-se plantas de tomate da cv. Santa Clara (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., que apresentam senescência foliar precoce e estigmas amarelados, com frutos de coloração "amarelo-creme" quando imaturos e vermelho quando maduros, de maturação lenta, e mais firmes que o fenótipo normal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos frutos normais e mutantes. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os frutos mutantes apresentaram matéria fresca total e diâmetro transversal e longitudinal menores do que o normal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. A espessura do pericarpo foi significativamente menor nos frutos mutantes do que nos frutos normais, a partir dos 21 dias após a antese. Folhas medianas e basais de plantas mutantes apresentaram menores teores de clorofila do que o observado em plantas normais. O período de amadurecimento do fruto mutante foi de 14 dias, enquanto dos frutos normais foi de 7 dias, quando ligados à planta-mãe, demonstrando a maior longevidade dos frutos mutantes. Além disso, os frutos mutantes apresentaram atraso na elevação da produção de etileno durante o amadurecimento.'Santa Clara' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants showing earlier leaf senescence and yellowish stigma, fruits with pale yellow when immature and red when reach full ripe stage, associated to a lower rate of ripening and firmer than the wild type, were found in Viçosa, MG. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit growth and development of the mutant and wild type tomatoes. Mutant fruits showed smaller total fresh weight than wild type throughout development and thinner pericarp after 21 days after flowering. Basal and intermediate mutant plant leaves showed lower chlorophyll levels. 'Santa Clara' fruit took 7 days to reach full red ripe stage, while mutant fruits took 14 days. Furthermore

  2. Isolation and in vitro cultivation of the fibrolytic rumen ciliate Eremoplastron (Eudiplodinium) dilobum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Pietrzak, Marta; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2015-02-01

    The rumen ciliate Eremoplastron dilobum was isolated from sheep rumen fluid and cultivated in vitro as a species population. Four different salt solutions were used to prepare the culture media. However, only the "Artificial rumen fluid" composed of (g/L): K2HPO4-3.48, NaHCO3-2.1, NaCl-0.76, CaCl2×6H2O-0.33, CH3COONa-6.12, MgCl2×6H2O-0.3, Na2HPO4-1.71, NaHPO4×H2O-1.01 and distilled water enabled cultivation of this species for over 56 weeks. The protozoa were able to grow in a medium consisting of culture salt solution and powdered meadow hay (0.6mg/ml per d). The addition of wheat gluten did not increase the population density of E. dilobum whereas the supplemented crystalline cellulose and/or barley flour improved the growth of ciliates (Pdensity of the ciliate population. The recommended food consisted of meadow hay, wheat gluten, crystalline cellulose and barley flour when supplied in the proportions of 0.6, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.12mg/mL per day. We observed morphological variation of the ciliates, involving partial or complete reduction of the caudal lobes. PMID:25660229

  3. Ciliated Adenosquamous Carcinoma: Expanding the Phenotypic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkay-Gonzalez, Lisa; Faquin, William; McHugh, Jonathan B; Lewis, James S; Tuluc, Madalina; Seethala, Raja R

    2016-06-01

    This study describes a unique subset of ciliated, human papillomavirus (HPV) related, adenosquamous carcinomas (AsqCA) of the head and neck that in contrast to most AsqCA, often show areas with lower grade cytonuclear features. They are comprised of largely non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma components with cystic change, gland formation, mucin production, and cilia in tumor cells. Seven cases of ciliated AsqCA were retrieved. Site distribution was as follows: palatine tonsil-3/7, base of tongue-1/7, and neck (unknown primary site)-3/7. Despite the occasional resemblance to mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the tumors showed focal keratinizing morphology and atypia, and all tumors were negative for MAML2 rearrangements. Oropharyngeal and neck tumors were uniformly p16 positive and showed punctate staining by in situ hybridization for high risk HPV DNA. There were two distant metastases (lung), and one tumor related death. Thus, ciliated AsqCA are HPV-associated lesions that pose unique pitfalls, closely mimicking MEC and other salivary gland tumors. These tumors add to the list of those which defy the dogma that ciliated epithelium always equates to a benign process. PMID:26411881

  4. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematic

  5. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high altitude warm-monomictic saline lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peštová, D.; Macek, Miroslav; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-25. ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * autotrophic picoplankton * feeding rates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  6. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors of the lung: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tsugumasa; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kosuge, Tomoo; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are rare peripheral nodules of the lung first described in 2002. Because of their rarity and nonstandardized diagnostic terminology, CMPTs have been poorly recognized among pathologists. To better characterize these lesions, we undertook a detailed clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 archival cases. Ten CMPTs occurred in 7 men and 3 women with a median age of 62 years. All were small peripheral nonendobronchial nodules with a mean diameter of 1.0 cm. All but 1 tumor were incidentally detected by computed tomography-based screening, all of which were radiologically interpreted as adenocarcinomas. Although limited surgery treated all but 1 CMPT, they followed a benign course with no recurrence at a mean follow-up of 43 months (range: 2 to 88 mo). Histologically, CMPTs showed glandular and/or papillary architecture, comprising a vaguely organized mixture of nonatypical ciliated columnar cells, mucous cells, and basal cells, often enveloped by copious intra-alveolar mucin. Micropapillary tufts of ciliated cells and seemingly discontinuous growth along alveolar walls were occasionally present, mimicking adenocarcinomas. Ciliated cells and basal cells were immunopositive for TTF-1 and p40, respectively, whereas mucous cells lacked HNF4α expression. CMPTs are rare, likely benign, underrecognized processes of the lung that should be distinguished from adenocarcinomas. PMID:25803171

  7. Multiple genes of apparent algal origin suggest ciliates may once have been photosynthetic

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    Plantae (sensu Cavalier-Smith 1981) [1] plastids evolved via primary endosymbiosis whereby a heterotrophic protist enslaved a photosynthetic cyanobacterium. This 'primary' plastid spread into other eukaryotes via secondary endosymbiosis. An important but contentious theory in algal evolution is the chromalveolate hypothesis that posits chromists (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles) and alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common ancestor that contained a...

  8. Bottom-up versus top-down effects on ciliate community composition in four eutrophic lakes (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Feizhou; Liu, Zhengwen; Zhao, Xiuxia; Yang, Kun; Lu, Wenxuan; Cui, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that ciliate plankton is generally controlled by food resources (e.g., algae) and predators (e.g., metazooplankton). Among lakes with similar trophic levels but different distributions of phyto- and metazooplankton, the main forces acting on ciliate assemblages may be different. We investigated the relationship between ciliate communities and bottom-up versus top-down variables based on a survey of four subtropical eutrophic lakes (China). Two of the lakes (Chaohu, Taihu) are located on the Mid-lower Yangtze Plain near sea level, and the other two (Dianchi, Xingyunhu) on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau at 1700m above sea level. Blooms of cyanobacteria developed during summer in Lakes Chaohu and Taihu and throughout the year in Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu. Ciliate functional feeding groups differed significantly between lakes. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and variation partitioning showed that cyanobacteria significantly influence ciliate species, whereas 'edible' algae (cryptophytes, diatoms) and cladocerans were the important variables in explaining the ciliate community structure of Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu compared with Lakes Taihu and Chaohu. Our results highlight the importance of consistent cyanobacterial blooms in shaping the ciliate community in subtropical eutrophic shallow lakes by interacting with top-down and bottom-up factors. PMID:26773905

  9. Fisiologia do amadurecimento na planta do tomate 'Santa Clara' e do mutante 'Firme' Physiology of vine-ripened tomato 'Santa Clara' and its mutant 'Firme'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lima Moura

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O mutante natural de tomate 'Firme' da cv. Santa Clara tem frutos com coloração "amarelo-creme" quando imaturos, firmes e com amadurecimento lento. Estudou-se as alterações fisiológicas que ocorrem durante o processo de amadurecimento na planta de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara e do mutante 'Firme'. Os frutos normais e mutantes foram colhidos em 6 diferentes estádios de maturidade, e em cada um deles foram avaliados a produção de etileno e CO2, os teores de açúcares solúveis totais do pericarpo e do tecido locular, e as atividades das enzimas oxidase do ACC e poligalacturonase. Os frutos mutantes apresentaram menores taxas respiratórias e de produção de etileno em todos os estádios de maturidade. A atividade da oxidase do ACC apresentou padrão de comportamento distinto durante o amadurecimento na planta dos frutos mutantes e normais, porém com semelhante atividade final. Os frutos mutantes apresentaram atraso no aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase em relação aos frutos normais nas fases iniciais do amadurecimento. Frutos normais acumularam açúcares solúveis totais durante seu amadurecimento na planta, enquanto que nos frutos mutantes os teores foram inferiores nos estádios mais avançados do amadurecimento quando comparados com aqueles no início do climatério. O pericarpo dos frutos mutantes nos estádios mais avançados do amadurecimento teve teores de açúcares total inferiores.The natural tomato mutant 'Firme' from cv. Santa Clara presents a yellow-pale appearance when immature, firm texture and slow ripening. Some of the physiological changes throughout ripening of cv. Santa Clara and the natural mutant 'Firme' were evaluated on the vine. Fruit ethylene and CO2 production, locular and outer pericarp total soluble sugars content, ACC oxidase and poligalacturonase activities were evaluated in both genotypes at six maturity stages. Mutant fruits presented lower ethylene and CO2 production at all

  10. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  11. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock III, Clarence H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to examine underserved women’s perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study. Background: Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.  Methods: We assessed underserved women’s perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.  Conclusions: Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming

  12. Structural Validity of ‘Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire’ in Greek Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural validity and reliability of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ instrument in the Greek population. One hundred and three individuals (men n = 45, and women n = 58 participated in this study. Their age ranged from 17 to 86 years. More specifically, the study investigated the fit of both versions of SCSRFQ (10-item and 5-item. The results of the present study revealed that both versions have adequate fit and can be used by Greek researchers as a measure of strength of religious faith in the Greek population.

  13. Colonization of periphytic ciliated protozoa on an artificial substrate in mariculture waters with notes on responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqiu Li; Henglong Xu; Xiaofeng Lin; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of periphytic ciliates and their usefulness for monitoring water quality were evaluated using the glass slide method in two enclosed mariculture ponds used to culture crab larva and in a natural seawater reservoir. The results revealed that (1) the ciliate species composition and colonizing process differed between the culturing ponds and the natural reservoir and (2) the dominant ciliate species showed a greater distribution in terms of both the abundance and the occurrence frequency. This study also demonstrated that structural parameters were strongly related to water conditions. For example, the abundance was positively associated with NO-3-N and soluble reactive phosphate (P < 0.05), whereas the species number, species diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with nutrients (e.g. NO-3N and NH3-N) and temperature (P < 0.05). These findings support the evidence that periphytic ciliates are useful bioindicators of water quality in enclosed mariculture ecosystems.

  14. Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kuidong; CHOI Joong Ki; LEI Yanli; YANG Eun Jin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 μm. A total of 78 species were classified: 55 species at Station 2, 51 species each at Stations 1 and 4, and 47 species at Station 3. The mean number of species at each site was 29.2±2.0 (Station 1), 28.5±2.9 (Station 2), 27.8±1.7 (Station 3), and 24.5±2.3 (Station 4). The abundance was highly variable: 19 331±11 187 ind./L at Station 1, 7 960±5 639 ind./L at Station 2, 29 015± 12 999 ind./L at Station 3, and 8 190±4 658 ind./L at Station 4. Our results suggest that neither the simple chemical analysis (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate) nor the eutrophication/pollution index adequately described the water quality at the four stations. The same was true of the number of species and their abundance, both of which had no correlation with the chemical indices. In contrast, Margalef's diversity index values (3.12 at Station 2, 2.89 at Station 1, and 2.64 at Stations 3 and 4) generally discriminated the water quality status of the four stations. The difference in water quality among the stations was strongly supported by the pattern of species richness (i.e. the total number of species) of ciliates at each station. Our evaluation was consistent with the results of long-term water quality monitoring at the four stations. With increasing eutrophication, we observed also a compositional and functional shift in the ciliate assemblages from algivorous oligotrich/choreotrich to nonselective-omnivorous gymnostomatids to bacterivorous-detrivorous scuticociliatids. Thus, ciliates may be used to indicate the coastal water quality status of a given site.

  15. Pulmonary heat shock protein expression after exposure to a metabolically activated Clara cell toxicant: relationship to protein adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat shock proteins/stress proteins (Hsps) participate in regulation of protein synthesis and degradation and serve as general cytoprotectants, yet their role in lethal Clara cell injury is not clear. To define the pattern of Hsp expression in acute lethal Clara cell injury, mice were treated with the Clara cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA), and patterns of expression compared to electrophilic protein adduction and previously established organellar degradation and gluathione (GSH) depletion. In sites of lethal injury (distal bronchiole), prior to organellar degradation (1 h post-NA), protein adduction is detectable and ubiquitin, Hsp 25, Hsp 72, and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) are increased. Maximal Hsp expression, protein adduction, and GSH depletion occur simultaneous (by 2-3 h) with early organelle disruption. Hsp expression is higher later (6-24 h), only in exfoliating cells. In airway sites (proximal bronchiole) with nonlethal Clara cell injury elevation of Hsp 25, 72, and HO-1 expression follows significant GSH depletion (greater than 50% 2 h post-NA). This data build upon our previous studies and we conclude that (1) in lethal (terminal bronchiole) and nonlethal (proximal bronchiole) Clara cell injury, Hsp induction is associated with the loss of GSH and increased protein adduction, and (2) in these same sites, organelle disruption is not a prerequisite for Hsp induction

  16. Preferential Feeding by the Ciliates Chilodonella and Tetrahymena spp. and Effects of These Protozoa on Bacterial Biofilm Structure and Composition▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa are important components of microbial food webs, but protozoan feeding preferences and their effects in the context of bacterial biofilms are not well understood. The feeding interactions of two contrasting ciliates, the free-swimming filter feeder Tetrahymena sp. and the surface-associated predator Chilodonella sp., were investigated using biofilm-forming bacteria genetically modified to express fluorescent proteins. According to microscopy, both ciliates readily consumed cells from...

  17. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Sánchez Medina; Miroslav Macek; Fernando Bautista-Reyes; Andrea Perz; Patricia Bonilla Lemus; Mario Chávez Arteaga

    2016-01-01

    noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010); the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (...

  18. The coupling of oligotrich ciliate populations and hydrography in the East China Sea: spatial and temporal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Lin, Chiu-Yi; Lee, Chung-Hsien; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Chang, Jeng

    2003-03-01

    Variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of oligotrich ciliate populations in the East China Sea were investigated during four cruises of the R/V Ocean Researcher I between December 1997 and October 1998. Over the entire continental shelf, a seasonal cycle was found with a distinct 3-5-fold increase in the abundance of oligotrich ciliates in summer. This increase appeared to be induced by the tremendous summertime runoff from the Changjiang. A radial-type spatial distribution pattern also was observed in summer, with population densities higher toward the Changjiang plume but highest of all in the margins of the plume. In spring and fall, the spatial distribution of the oligotrich ciliates was closely correlated to the abundance of cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In summer in the plume region, mixotrophic ciliates accounted for over 50% of the total ciliate population, compared to less than 30% outside the plume or that in other seasons. We propose a model in which these ciliates constitute part of the pathway through which the particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water is incorporated into the oceanic food web.

  19. Sulfide assimilation by ectosymbionts of the sessile ciliate, Zoothamnium niveum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røy, Hans; Vopel, Kay; Huettel, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the constraints on sulfide uptake by bacterial ectosymbionts on the marine peritrich ciliate Zoothamnium niveum by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Protists with symbionts were collected on large blocks of mangrove-peat. The blocks were placed in a flow cell wi...... filtering organs. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00227-008-1117-6 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.......We investigated the constraints on sulfide uptake by bacterial ectosymbionts on the marine peritrich ciliate Zoothamnium niveum by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Protists with symbionts were collected on large blocks of mangrove-peat. The blocks were placed in a flow cell with...

  20. THE TELOMERES OF REPLICATING MACRONUCLEAR DNA-MOLECULES OF THE HYPOTRICHOUS CILIATE STYLONYCHIA LEMNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Juranek, Stefan; Jonsson, Franziska; Maercker, Christian; Lipps, Hans

    2000-01-01

    While the telomeres of higher eukaryotic cells show heterogenity in their length no such length heterogenity is observed in the macronuclear DNA of hypotrichous ciliates. Since the analysis of the telomere structure of replicating DNA molecules might give an insight in the mechanisms of telomere length regulation Stylonychia cell cultures were synchronized, the replicating DNA was labeled with BrdU and isolated by immuno-precipitation. The 3as well as the 5-end of these replicating DNA was la...

  1. Bioassay of genotoxic effects of environmental particles in a feeding ciliate.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Sonneborn, J; Palizzi, R A; McCann, E A; Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan, Paramecium, can be used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ingested complex environmental particles. Cytotoxicity is quantitated by the increased proportion of treated versus control cells which do not retain their capacity for normal cell replication. Genotoxic effects are assessed by the increased fraction of nonviable offspring from treated versus control parent cells after the self-fertilization process of autogamy. Since these cells ingest nonnutrien...

  2. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  3. A Rab-based view of membrane traffic in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    OpenAIRE

    Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Bright, Lydia J

    2011-01-01

    Biologists have long recognized that some single-celled organisms show striking morphological and behavioral complexity, and details of the genetic underpinnings can be mined from the trove of newly-sequenced genomes. Ciliates, among which Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia have received most attention, provide clear examples of a lineage in which, as in animal cells, the core pathways of membrane traffic have undergone dramatic expansion and elaboration to facilitate multiple...

  4. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to i...

  5. Taxonomic list of ciliated protist (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in Cojimar river, Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel de la Caridad Ymas González; Dania Prieto Trueba

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoan’s communities from Cojimar river (Havana city) was determinated, over the study period. Samples were collected from six stations located along the river. The samples were cultured in Petri dishes and were main-tained in environmental temperature and natural ilumination. Species identification was made taking into account morphological characters and Levine’s et al.(1980) taxonomic classification was used. It were identified 49 sp...

  6. Caballos de tracción de la ciudad de Santa Clara, Cuba. III Glicemia y electrolitros (Traction horses of Santa Clara city, Cuba. III Glycaemia electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Castillo Cuenca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de bioquímica sanguínea glicemia y electrolitos (Na, K, Ca, Mg en 100 caballos machos castrados seleccionados al azar utilizados en el transporte local de pasajeros en la ciudad de Santa Clara, Cuba. La sangre se extrajo directamente de la yugular determinándose la glicemia mediante la técnica de la glucosa oxidasa y los electrolitos por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El análisis estadístico reveló diferencias altamente significativas al comparar los valores medios obtenidos de la glucosa y los electrolitos con los correspondientes a la media referencial para la especie. Exceptuando el potasio, en el resto de los parámetros la media real fue inferior a la referencial, aunque en todos los casos, estos valores se encuentran dentro del rango planteado. Los equinos están sometidos a un trabajo exhaustivo y prolongado, que afecta el correcto funcionamiento de su organismo y el incremento de la concentración de iones potasio en el plasma es un buen indicador del esfuerzo físico a que son sometidos los animales.

  7. Analysis of the radioactivity in the 'Elguea' spa, Villa Clara, Cuba; Analisis de la radiactividad en el balneario 'Elguea' , Villa Clara, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E.; Rodriguez C, G. [CPHR, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The 'Elguea' spa, located in the north coast of the county of Villa Clara, Cuba, is considered one of those more important spas of Latin America. The waters of this spa are rich in salts of chlorine, sodium, bromine, sulfides and its contain radon. As a result of measurements of environmental gamma dose rates carried out in the area of the spa, its were considered levels of dose between 0.13 and 2.3 mSv. The obtained results motivated that it was carried out a characterization, from the radiological point of view, of the spa. This characterization is of supreme importance to be able to evaluate the impact that it has and the discharges of its waters on the environment, as well as, those dose that the population potentially affected can receive by these discharges. With this end its were carried out quantitative determinations of those existent natural more significant radionuclides in different environmental objects coming from the area of the spa and its surroundings, as well as one characterization gamma 'in situ' of the same one. The obtained results are present in this work. (Author)

  8. INCIDENCIA DE CARDIOPATÍAS DURANTE EL EMBARAZO EN LA PROVINCIA DE VILLA CLARA / Incidence of heart disease during pregnancy in Villa Clara province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilín C. Luna Alonso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenIntroducción y objetivos: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la cuarta causa de muerte durante el período gravídico-puerperal, y un indicador de morbilidad y mortalidad para el producto de la concepción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el comportamiento de la cardiopatía en la embarazada, su atención médica y evolución durante y al final del embarazo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, donde se analizaron 283 gestantes con diagnóstico de cardiopatía, atendidas en el Hospital Universitario Gineco-Obstétrico "Mariana Grajales" de Santa Clara, Villa Clara, en el período 2008-2010. La información se obtuvo mediante la revisión de las historias clínicas individuales, interrogatorio, examen físico completo, así como pruebas complementarias para establecer o confirmar el diagnóstico. Resultados: Se obtuvo una incidencia de 17,2 cardiopatías por cada mil gestantes y en el 59,7 % de ellas, la cardiopatía era adquirida; el prolapso valvular mitral fue la más frecuente (45 %. De las congénitas, el 36,8 % se trataba de una comunicación interauricular. Se utilizó antibioprofilaxis en el 96,8 % de las embarazadas y en el 96,1 % de ellas se mantuvo un seguimiento médico. El 92,6 % tenía clase funcional I y 4,6 % presentó complicación por su enfermedad. El 77,4 % parió entre las 37 y 42 semanas, y el 82,7 % tuvo parto eutócico. Conclusiones: Las gestantes cardiópatas fueron más frecuentes en edades entre 20 y 29 años, con predominio de las que no habían parido, captación entre las 13 y 24 semanas, y cardiopatías adquiridas. La atención médica que prevaleció fue la antibioprofilaxis y el seguimiento médico con evolución final del embarazo satisfactoria. / AbstractIntroduction and Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases are the fourth leading cause of death during the gravid-puerperal period, and an indicator of morbidity and mortality for the product of conception

  9. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  10. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. PMID:26684192

  11. Ciliated foregut cyst in the triangle of Calot: the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Beteddini, Osama S; Amra, Nasir K; Sherkawi, Emad

    2016-12-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are rare anomalies arising from remnants of aberrant embryological development. Around 100 reports on the presence of these congenital masses in the tracheobronchial tree, mediastinum, liver, pancreas and, rarely, the gallbladder have been described. In this article, the case of a 33-year-old woman, who was operated for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is presented. During the dissection of the triangle of Calot, a cystic mass, attached to the common hepatic duct, was discovered incidentally. This cyst was dissected off the hepatic duct, and no communication between both structures was found. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with a ciliated foregut cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful. After reviewing the literature on this pathological entity, we found that this is the first report of a ciliated foregut cyst that is located in the triangle of Calot and found separate from the biliary structures, the gallbladder and the liver. We present a review of the literature on this entity, discussing diagnostic measures and therapeutic options. PMID:26943696

  12. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-09-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  13. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cazzolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii and mesophilic (E. raikovi protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  14. The painful perils of a pair of pianists: the chronic pain of Clara Schumann and Sergei Rachmaninov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingtgen, C M

    1999-01-01

    Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896) and Sergei Vassilievich Rachmaninov (1873-1943) were two of the greatest pianists that ever lived. They had full lives composing and performing music. Each also had more than his or her fair share of hardships. In addition to all the pressures that are part of a performer's life, both Clara Schumann and Sergei Rachmaninov also suffered from chronic pain. This article discusses the pain syndromes that plagued these great musicians and the effect of chronic illness on their music. PMID:10718525

  15. W.A. Mozartin d-molli pianokonsertto ja Clara Schumannin kadenssi : kaksi taituria yhdessä

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Päätin valita opinnäytetyöni aiheeksi W.A. Mozartin D-molli pianokonserton no. 20 KV 466, joka minulla oli tilaisuus esittää orkesterin solistina Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulussa 15-16.3.2013. Vertailtuani eri kadenssivaihtoehtoja Clara Schumannin säveltämä kadenssi vaikutti mielenkiintoiselta sekä soittajan että kuuntelijan näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen minkälaisia kadensseja tähän Mozartin pianokonserttoon on sävelletty ja erityisesti Clara Schumannin kadenssia, jonka itse esi...

  16. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jesse L.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and

  17. Geología y registros magnéticos entre arroyo La Tapera y Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata Geology and magnetic records between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Bidegain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios paleomagnéticos se realizaron en secuencias del Pleistoceno-Holoceno del sector comprendido entre el arroyo La Tapera y Santa Clara del Mar, en Mar del Plata. Los sedimentos de la base de los perfiles en el arroyo La Tapera y en Camet, que se interpreta pertenecen a la Formación Ensenada, contienen direcciones de polaridad reversa y se asignan al cron Matuyama. Las capas sedimentarias de la base del perfil de Santa Clara del Mar, solo presentan direcciones de polaridad normal, por consiguiente toda la secuencia sedimentaria de esta localidad se asigna al cron Brunhes, (Paleomagnetic studies were carried out in Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentary sequences exposed between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar in Mar del Plata. The sediments exposed in the lower part of the La Tapera and Camet sections, which apparently belong to the Ensenada Formation, show reverse polarity directions and are assigned to the Matuyama Polarity Chron. The sedimentary layers exposed at the base in Santa Clara del Mar present normal directions of polarity, hence they were consequently assigned to the Brunhes Polarity Chron (< 0,78 Ma. Susceptibility values show a similar behaviour to those obtained in other localities of the Argentine loess plateau. Lowest values are always related to stronger pedogenesis and weathering. Consequently we envisage that the windblown titanomagnetites, having settled out during drier glacial periods, account for the natural magnetic remanence and the higher susceptibility values in less weathered layers.

  18. Caracterización de la mortalidad fetal tardía en Villa Clara. Characterization of Late Fetal Mortality in Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Suárez González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundamento: Eventos como la mortalidad fetal tardía agreden la evolución normal esperada en el embarazo, con una connotación en la mujer, la pareja y la comunidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la mortalidad fetal tardía según factores asociados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 74 muertes fetales registradas en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Santa Clara, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, antecedentes patológicos personales maternos, edad gestacional al momento de la muerte fetal, lugar y momento de ocurrencia y causas de la muerte. Resultados: El 67,6 % de las gestantes tenían entre 20 y 35 años. La hipertensión arterial crónica y el asma bronquial fueron los antecedentes patológicos personales de mayor incidencia entre las gestantes. Ocurrieron los óbitos fetales en una edad gestacional entre 28 y 36,6 semanas fundamentalmente. El 52,7 % de las muertes ocurrieron fuera del hospital y antes del parto en 55 casos (74,3 %. Resultaron las causas más frecuentes las idiopáticas y los trastornos hipertensivos de la gestación. Conclusiones: Es necesario intensificar el control del riesgo reproductivo preconcepcional y la atención prenatal, pues sin dudas, aunque mucho se ha logrado en este sentido, los resultados del estudio muestran que en alguna medida las causas de los óbitos fetales fueron prevenibles.

    Background: Events like late fetal mortality alter the regular, expected course of pregnancy. This carries a negative connotation for the woman, the couple and the community. Objective: To characterize late fetal mortality according to associated factors. Methods: A descriptive study of the 74 fetal deaths registered in the ’Mariana Grajales’ Gynecological and Obstetric University Hospital of Santa

  19. The role and importance of club cells (Clara cells) in the pathogenesis of some respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Wojciech; Rokicki, Marek; Wojtacha, Jacek; Dżeljijli, Agata

    2016-03-01

    The report presents the cellular structure of the respiratory system as well as the history of club cells (Clara cells), their ultrastructure, and location in the airways and human organs. The authors discuss the biochemical structure of proteins secreted by these cells and their importance for the integrity and regeneration of the airway epithelium. Their role as progenitor cells for the airway epithelium and their involvement in the biotransformation of toxic xenobiotics introduced into the lungs during breathing is emphasized. This is followed by a discussion of the clinical aspects associated with club cells, demonstrating that tracking the serum concentration of club cell-secreted proteins is helpful in the diagnosis of a number of lung tissue diseases. Finally, suggestions are provided regarding the possible use of proteins secreted by club cells in the treatment of serious respiratory conditions. PMID:27212975

  20. Migration, Memory and Hong Kong as a 'Space of Transit' in Clara Law's Autumn Moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Macau-born and Melbourne-based film maker Clara Law and her screenwriter-producer-director husband Eddie Fong have produced a transnational output of films which are beginning to receive critical recognition as major contributions to contemporary cinema. These ‘films of migration’ explore what Gina Marchetti has encapsulated as ‘the Chinese experience of dislocation, relocation, emigration, immigration, cultural hybridity, migrancy, exile, and nomadism—together termed the “Chinese diaspora”’. The self-imposed ‘relocation’ of Law and Fong to Australia in 1994 was the result of increasing frustration with the rampantly commercial imperatives of Hong Kong cinema and its lack of appreciation for the auteur cinema they wanted to pursue.

  1. Mosteiro de Santa Clara de Évora e seu enquadramento paisagístico

    OpenAIRE

    Tereno, Maria do Céu; Pereira, Marízia; Monteiro, Maria Filomena

    2011-01-01

    O objectivo do presente trabalho destina-se ao estudo do Mosteiro de Santa Clara implantado na cidade de Évora no século XVI. Procurará estudar-se a utilização inicial dos espaços do mosteiro e sua igreja ao longo do seu tempo de ocupação, para a finalidade com que foi fundado e construído, e após a extinção das ordens religiosas as diversas vicissitudes pelas quais foi passando no decurso do tempo. Procurará fazer-se uma avaliação do enquadramento paisagístico do mosteiro à data da sua impla...

  2. 76 FR 72972 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... appraised fair market value. The appraised value of the public land is $135,000. DATES: Comments regarding... described contains 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. Appraised fair market value... upon issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal Register of a termination of the segregation,...

  3. Mapping Typha Domingensis in the Cienega de Santa Clara Using Satellite Images, Global Positioning System, and Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Burnett, Earl E.; Croxen, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico, a brackish wetland area created near the delta of the Colorado River from drainage effluent flowing from the United States since 1977, may undergo changes owing to the operation of the Yuma Desalting Plant in the United States. This has become the largest wetland in the delta region containing rare and endangered species, yet little is known about the environmental impact of these changes. The water quality of the marsh is of growing concern to the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) which operates the Desalting Plant. Consequently, the BOR solicited the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the limits and usefulness of satellite, global positioning system (GPS), and spectra data to map the Typha domingensis (cattail) of the Cienega de Santa Clara. Typha domingensis was selected by the BOR as the Cienega de Santa Clara indicator species to best predict the environmental effects of effl uent from the Yuma Desalting Plant. The successful base mapping of Typha domingensis will provide a viable tool for long-term monitoring and stress detection in the Cienega de Santa Clara.

  4. Suffering for her art: the chronic pain syndrome of pianist Clara Wieck-Schumann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Clara Schumann was an outstanding pianist, systematically trained as a child prodigy by her father Friedrich Wieck. Married to the composer Robert Schumann she gave birth to 8 children, however, was able to continue performing regularly in public. After the mental breakdown of her husband, she had to increase her public performance activities due to the need to earn a living for her large family. In this time, the first pains in the right arm occurred, which at the beginning were of shorter duration, however increasingly required prolonged periods of rest. Later, when attempting to work on the highly demanding piano works of Johannes Brahms, especially on his first piano concerto, she developed chronic pain, which forced her to interrupt any concert activities for more than 1 year. Obviously, Brahms' modern treatment of the piano in an almost orchestral way imposed technical difficulties which Clara Schumann was not properly prepared to deal with. Finally, she underwent a multimodal pain therapy in the private sanatorium of Dr. Esmarch, which consisted of an integrated interdisciplinary approach comprising pain medication, psychotherapy, physiotherapy and modification of playing habits. She fully recovered and successfully continued her career as an internationally renowned concert pianist. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an outstanding female elite musician had to cope with in the 19th century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how the intuition and mere experience of a sensitive and understanding doctor lead to the right conclusions and to a modern multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury. Furthermore the case report demonstrates the important role of prevention, including physical exercises, self-awareness, and reasonable practice schedules. PMID:20375525

  5. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); O`Shea, T.P. [Santa Clara Demonstration Project, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  6. Effects of Seasonality and Dispersal on the Ciliate Community Inhabiting Bromeliad Phytotelmata in Riparian Vegetation of a Large Tropical River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buosi, Paulo R B; Cabral, Adalgisa F; Utz, Laura R P; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Velho, Luiz F M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of rainfall amount on the abundance, species richness, and species occurrence and abundance distribution of the ciliate community associated with the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha. The plants were collected from a rock wall of about 10-km long at the left bank of Paraná River. We assessed the effects of both spatial and temporal variables on the community attributes, as well as whether plants geographically closer have a similar abundance distribution and species composition. The ciliate community was substantially distinct between both hydrological periods, with greater values of species richness and abundance in the rainy period. No spatial structuring (differences in the species occurrence and abundance distribution among strata) or geographical similarity (similarity in ciliate species composition among the plants) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship only between the ciliate abundances and water volumes for both periods. Although few of the formulated predictions were confirmed, our study provides valuable information on the ecological aspects of the ciliate community inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata. PMID:25963550

  7. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  8. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  9. Natural variation in methane emission of sheep fed on a lucerne pellet diet is unrelated to rumen ciliate community type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Only limited information is available on the roles of different rumen ciliate community types, first described by Eadie in 1962, in enteric methane (CH4) formation by their ruminant hosts. If the different types were differentially associated with CH4 formation, then ciliate community typing could be used to identify naturally high and low CH4-emitting animals. Here we measured the CH4 yields [g CH4 (kg feed dry matter intake, DMI)- 1] of 118 sheep fed a standard pelleted lucerne diet at two different times, at least 2 weeks apart. There were significant differences (P sheep selected as high [16.7 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1] and low emitters [13.3 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1]. A rumen sample was collected after each of the two measurements, and ciliate composition was analysed using barcoded 454 Titanium pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes. The genera found, in order of mean relative abundance, were Epidinium, Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eudiplodinium, Polyplastron, Isotricha and Anoplodinium-Diplodinium, none of which was significantly correlated with the CH4 emissions ranking associated with the rumen sample. Ciliate communities naturally assembled into four types (A, AB, B and O), characterized by the presence and absence of key genera. There was no difference in CH4 yield between sheep that harboured different ciliate community types, suggesting that these did not underlie the natural variation in CH4 yields. Further research is needed to unravel the nature of interactions between ciliate protozoa and other rumen micro-organisms, which may ultimately lead to contrasting CH4 emission phenotypes. PMID:26813792

  10. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  11. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-01-01

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records. PMID:24870102

  12. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA, will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  13. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  14. Sputum and BAL Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein D levels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, P; Loukides, S; Kostikas, K; Papatheodorou, G; Papaporfyriou, A; Hillas, G; Vamvakaris, I; Triggidou, R; Katafigiotis, P; Kokkini, A; Papiris, S; Koulouris, N; Bakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is associated with Th2 modulation. Surfactant protein D (SPD) plays an important role in surfactant homeostasis and eosinophil chemotaxis. We measured CC16 and SPD in sputum supernatants of 84 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy controls. In 22 asthmatics, we additionally measured CC16 and SPD levels in BAL and assessed smooth muscle area (SMA), reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, and epithelial detachment (ED) in bronchial biopsies. Induced sputum CC16 and SPD were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma (SRA) compared to mild-moderate and healthy controls. BAL CC16 and SPD levels were also higher in SRA compared to mild-moderate asthma. CC16 BAL levels correlated with ED, while SPD BAL levels correlated with SMA and RBM. Severity represented a significant covariate for these associations. CC16 and SPD levels are upregulated in SRA and correlate with remodeling indices, suggesting a possible role of these biomarkers in the remodeling process. PMID:25728058

  15. Osmotic Effect of Conditioning on Seeds of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Santa Clara Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Liliana Moreno Medina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world, taking into account its nutritional potential and high economic value. In this crop the quality of seed depends on various factors, one of which is its physiology, which is determined by a germination and viability test. Osmotic seed conditioning is reported to be a technique for improving the physiological quality through the uniformity of the germination percentage. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the osmotic conditioning on tomato seeds of the Santa Clara variety. Using treatments of four doses of potassium nitrate (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 , the seeds were imbibitioned for 24 hours in solution and then washed with distilled water. They were placed in petri dishes in random order with three replications for a total of 12 experimental units, consisting of 35 seeds. The method seeks to hydrate the seeds with a solution of given concentration and for a period of time, in order to activate the seed metabolism. The best result was obtained with the treatment of 200 mg L-1 of potassium nitrate, followed by 400 mg L-1 , represented by a lower TMG , lower and higher PG VMG.

  16. Elastic stresses and plastic deformations in 'Santa Clara' tomato fruits caused by package dependent compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.

  17. Analysis of the radioactivity in the 'Elguea' spa, Villa Clara, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Elguea' spa, located in the north coast of the county of Villa Clara, Cuba, is considered one of those more important spas of Latin America. The waters of this spa are rich in salts of chlorine, sodium, bromine, sulfides and its contain radon. As a result of measurements of environmental gamma dose rates carried out in the area of the spa, its were considered levels of dose between 0.13 and 2.3 mSv. The obtained results motivated that it was carried out a characterization, from the radiological point of view, of the spa. This characterization is of supreme importance to be able to evaluate the impact that it has and the discharges of its waters on the environment, as well as, those dose that the population potentially affected can receive by these discharges. With this end its were carried out quantitative determinations of those existent natural more significant radionuclides in different environmental objects coming from the area of the spa and its surroundings, as well as one characterization gamma 'in situ' of the same one. The obtained results are present in this work. (Author)

  18. Testimonio de Clara Kriger sobre su libro Cine y peronismo: el estado en escena

    OpenAIRE

    Kriger, Clara; Toschi, Damián

    2009-01-01

    En el programa Derecho de autor, el periodista Damián Toschi entrevista a la docente, investigadora y escritora Clara Kriger sobre su libro Cine y peronismo: el Estado en escena (Siglo XXI, 2009). Se refiere a la producción cinematográfica entre 1945 y 1955, como producto de una política de estado para esa industria, sin que por ello hubiera un explícito uso político de los films.

  19. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of a ciliate assemblage in a warm-monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Peštová, D.; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-35. ISSN 0188-8897. [International Meeting Mex. Soc. Planktology /7./. Morelia, Michoacán, 30.05.2006-02.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * athalassohaline lake * anoxic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.132, year: 2008

  20. Factors involved in the distribution pattern of ciliates in the water column of a transparent alpine lake

    OpenAIRE

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recurrent depth preference of three ciliate species (two prostomatids and one haptorid) in a transparent alpine lake indicates the existence of niche partitioning among them involving potential factors such as avoidance of high UVR levels and zooplankton predation, as well as competition for food resources. (Sonntag, Bettina) (Summerer, Monika) (Sommaruga, Ruben) University...

  1. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate...

  2. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  3. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  4. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  5. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  6. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  7. Manejo de míldio no cultivo protegido de videira de mesa 'BRS Clara'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Genta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da cobertura de plástico e da tela antigranizo associadas, ou não, a programas de aplicação de fungicidas, no controle de míldio na cultivar de uva de mesa BRS Clara, sob condições de produção das safras normal e temporã do norte do Paraná, e analisar a influência de variáveis micrometeorológicas no progresso da doença. Foram conduzidos experimentos em duas safras normais (setembro a dezembro e duas safras temporãs (janeiro a maio nos anos 2008 e 2009. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições: cobertura com tela antigranizo sem uso de fungicidas para controle de míldio ou com uso de fungicidas (padrão do produtor; cobertura de plástico sem uso de fungicidas ou com fungicidas apenas para oídio; cobertura de plástico com 25 ou 50% das aplicações de fungicidas padrão; e cobertura de plástico com tratamento de fosfito e cobre. A cobertura de plástico permite reduzir o número de pulverizações de fungicidas em até 75% em relação à tela antigranizo. A severidade da doença apresenta alta correlação positiva com o número de horas diárias de molhamento foliar e com a umidade relativa do ar maior que 90%. Sob tela antigranizo, a severidade da doença também se correlaciona com a intensidade de chuva

  8. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561

  9. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  10. A case history study on causation of the landslide in Santa Clara, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liao; Sadek M. Derrega; Craig A. Hall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case history study on the geologic investigation and numerical modeling of a reactivated landslide in the County of Santa Clara, California to identify the failure mechanism. The landslide occurred on an approximately 18.3-m high, north-facing slope during March 2011. The land-slide measured about 33.5 m in width and about 51.8 m in length. Along the toe of the slope, a residential structure with a swimming pool was built on a cut and fill pad and there are several other structures present along the western side of the pad. The landslide occurred immediately to the south of the residential building and moved northward between the County Road A and the house’s side yard. The movement of the landslide resulted in damaging the west-bound traffic lane of County Road A and encroached onto the paved driveway for the residential property. An investigation was performed to identify the failure mechanism of the landslide to conclude whether Road A re-alignment by the County or prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope by the homeowner during 2000 through 2004 contributed to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit. The investigation included site reconnaissance, reviewing available published geologic information, reviewing site-specific geologic and geotechnical data developed by other consultants, and performing numerical modeling. The outcomes of the investigation indicate that the primary causation for the reactivation and failure of the subject pre-existing landslide is the prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope during 2000 through 2004 and water tank cut bench. The Road A re-alignment did not contribute to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit.

  11. Caracterización de la mortalidad fetal tardía en Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Suárez González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Eventos como la mortalidad fetal tardía agreden la evolución normal esperada en el embarazo, con una connotación en la mujer, la pareja y la comunidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la mortalidad fetal tardía según factores asociados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 74 muertes fetales registradas en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Santa Clara, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron las variables: edad materna, antecedentes patológicos personales maternos, edad gestacional al momento de la muerte fetal, lugar y momento de ocurrencia y causas de la muerte. Resultados: El 67,6 % de las gestantes tenían entre 20 y 35 años. La hipertensión arterial crónica y el asma bronquial fueron los antecedentes patológicos personales de mayor incidencia entre las gestantes. Ocurrieron los óbitos fetales en una edad gestacional entre 28 y 36,6 semanas fundamentalmente. El 52,7 % de las muertes ocurrieron fuera del hospital y antes del parto en 55 casos (74,3 %. Resultaron las causas más frecuentes las idiopáticas y los trastornos hipertensivos de la gestación. Conclusiones: Es necesario intensificar el control del riesgo reproductivo preconcepcional y la atención prenatal, pues sin dudas, aunque mucho se ha logrado en este sentido, los resultados del estudio muestran que en alguna medida las causas de los óbitos fetales fueron prevenibles.

  12. Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Wüthrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6 from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23 from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi, were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

  13. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  14. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  15. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a "heteromeric" macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into "gene-sized" chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a "gene bank" that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using "nonmodel" organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  16. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; ZHU Mingzhuang; JIANG Yong; GAO Shan; MIN Gi-Sik; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  17. Tetrahymena pyriformis in the ciliate mobility test. Validation and description of a testing procedure for the registration of harmful substances in the air as well as the effects of cigarette smoke on the human respiratory ciliated epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, W; Gräf, H; Wenz, M

    1999-02-01

    The damage of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium or its ciliar activity caused by mixtures of harmful substances in the air and cigarette smoke is a considerable parameter for the judgment of acute harmful influences on the human respiratory tract. As an immediate measuring or a quantitative statement about the influence on cilia in vivo at human beings is extremely difficult and problematic, a convenient model experimental system in form of the so called ciliate mobility test (CMT) has been used. In this connection the influence on cilia of the protozan single-celled organism Tetrahymena pyriformis, regarding its average speed of locomotion has been taken as standard. The proof, that the cilia are identical in morphological and functional respect at the human ciliated epithelium and at T. pyriformis has been reached by electron optical comparative representation and bibliographical known substances, influencing cilia (theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, and phenol). With regard to the comparability and applicability to the human respiratory ciliated epithelium we have been able to gain statements by means of the CMT. By constructing a special reaction vessel the influence of harmful gases at a thin layer of ciliate culture suspension (1 cm) for a standardised exposure time (1 hour) has been made possible and with that a model for the comparability with the conditions of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium has been created. A number of harmful gases, that are relevant in the air hygiene (CO, CO2, N2, N2O, NO2, O3, SO2) as well as cigarette smoke at active smokers (primary stream smoke) and the inhalation of the smoke of other people's cigarettes has been tested. It turned out, that especially NO2 (nitric oxide) shows a high ciliar toxicity, while the controversially discussed ozone (O3) has not resulted in detraction of cilia. CO, N2O and SO2 have

  18. Produção fora de época da videira 'BRS Clara' sob cultivo protegido Out of season production of 'BRS Clara' seedless grape under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Abgariani Colombo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available No norte do Paraná, a viticultura diferencia-se de outras regiões produtoras, pois são obtidas, nessa região, duas safras em um ano, uma regular e outra fora de época. Entretanto, o clima quente e úmido da região favorece a ocorrência do míldio (Plasmopara viticola e uma alternativa para minimizar esse problema é o emprego do sistema de produção de uvas sob cultivo protegido. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção fora de época da videira 'BRS Clara' sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 572 Jales' e 'IAC 766 Campinas', submetida à diferentes tipos de cultivo protegido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7x2 (sete tipos de cultivo protegido e dois porta-enxertos. Os tratamentos foram: a. sombrite sem fungicidas para míldio; b. sombrite com fungicidas para míldio (padrão de controle da região; c. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas para míldio; d. cobertura plástica e 50% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; e. cobertura plástica e 75% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; f. cobertura plástica com fosfito e cobre; e g. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas. Os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' são indicados para a produção da uva sem semente 'BRS Clara' na região norte do Paraná; o emprego da cobertura plástica permite a redução de até 75% do número de aplicações de fungicidas no cultivo da uva 'BRS Clara', mas essa cobertura, por si só, não é suficiente para prevenir a ocorrência de míldio nos cachos, em condições de umidade elevada.The viticulture of the north of Parana state differs from other regions, because in this area two crops are obtained a year, a regular and an out of season ones. However, the hot and humid climate of the region favors the occurrence of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, an alternative to minimize this problem is the use of grape production under protected cultivation. The

  19. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Imhof Armando Luis; Sánchez Manuel; Calvo Carlos; Martín Adriana

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT) for mapping 'P' waves was carried out in Sierra Santa Clara, San Juan Province, Argentina in July 2009. The purpose of the geophysical survey was to determine the degree of fracturing and the rigidity of the rock mass through which it is planned to build a 290 m long road tunnel traversing the mountain almost perpendicular to the axis thereof, at around 100 m depth from ...

  20. Consideraciones sobre el ciclo de Taenia saginata en humanos y bovinos de la provincia Villa Clara, Cuba (Considerations on the cycle of saginata Taenia in humans and bovines of the province Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. MV Pedro De la Fe Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el de conocer la situación del ciclo de Taenia saginata en la provincia Villa Clara. Se estudiaron los registros de matanza del matadero ¨Chichi Padrón¨ y se valoró la inspección postmortem a los bovinos faenados en este, además fueron analizadas las encuestas aplicadas a los humanos positivos a Taenia saginata desde 1998 hasta 2001. La mayor prevalencia de Cysticercus en bovinos y de casos humanos de Taenia saginata se detectaron en los municipios Manicaragua (0,60 % y 33, Placetas (0,53 % y 28 y Santa Clara (0,40 % y 26, resultados que difirieron estadísticamente (p<0.05 con los de los demás municipios de la provincia. El sistema de vigilancia postmortem en el matadero no garantiza la inocuidad de las carnes en cuanto a la cisticercosis. La teniosis es más prevalente en personas adultas y las ocupaciones más relacionadas fueron: amas de casa (56 %, gastronomía (8,3 %, matadero (2,3 % y campesinos (2,3 %, entre los síntomas más frecuentes estaban: dolor abdominal (70 %, nauseas (68 %, debilidad (36 %, descenso de peso (31 %, diarrea (28 %, nerviosismo (20 %, insomnio (18 % y anorexia (15 %. ABSTRACT.- The objective of the present work was the study of the general characteristics of the Taenia saginata life cycle in Villa Clara province. The slaughter registrations of the ¨Chichi Padrón¨ slaughterhouse was studied and was valued the postmortem inspection of bovines. Also, it was analyzed the humans positive to Taenia saginata from 1998 to 2001. The biggest Cysticercus prevalence in bovine and human cases number of Taenia saginata were detected in the municipalities Manicaragua (0,60% and 33, Placetas (0,53% and 28 and Santa Clara (0,40% and 26, results that differed statistically (p <0.05 with those of the other municipalities in the same province. The system of postmortem surveillance in the slaughterhouse doesn't guarantee the meats innocuousness from the Cysticercus viewpoint. The teniosis

  1. - Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara)

    OpenAIRE

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta; C. Omelio Cepero Rodríguez; Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos) existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvari...

  2. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor of the lung: a newly defined low-grade malignant tumor with CT findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yoshinobu; Yuasa, Rena; Sato, Fumitomo; Otsuka, Hajime; Goto, Hidenori; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Mitsuda, Aki; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    A ciliated muconodular papillary tumor has been reported to be a peripheral low-grade malignant tumor, consisting of ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells with basaloid cell proliferation. Although ciliated muconodular papillary tumors have not yet been classified according to the World Health Organization classification, they can pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Here we report a resected case of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor with computed tomography findings reminiscent of adenocarcinoma, showing a small irregular nodule adjacent to the intersegment pulmonary vein. There was no uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The patient underwent surgical resection, and a lobectomy was performed because intraoperative needle biopsy suggested neoplastic proliferation. No EGFR mutations were detected. No recurrence was noted during 24-month follow-up after lobectomy. PMID:23275641

  3. Notes on Soil Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from The Netherlands, with Description of Keronopsis schminkei nov. spec. and Apobryophyllum schmidingeri nov. spec.

    OpenAIRE

    Foissner, Wilhelm; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-six ciliate taxa, including three new species, were found in two soil samples from the Hoge Veluwe National Park in The Netherlands. A literature search showed that The Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark are terra incognita with respect to soil ciliates: only about 100 species have been recorded. Likely, a much greater number, including many undescribed species, can be found on more detailed investigations. Two of the three new species are described in detail. Keronopsis schminkei nov. sp...

  4. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  5. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  6. Clara Schumann und Heinrich Heine:eine Werkanalyse von den Liedern Ihr Bildnis und Sie liebten sich beide

    OpenAIRE

    Fiskaali, J. (Johanna)

    2015-01-01

    In dieser Pro Gradu Arbeit analysiere ich zwei Gedichte von Heinrich Heine, die von Clara Schumann vertont wurden. Die Stücke heißen Eine WERKANALYSE VON DEN LIEDERN IHR BILDNIS UND SIE LIEBTEN SICH BEIDE (sowohl als Gedicht als auch als Lied) Ihr Bildnis und Sie liebten sich beide. Als Lieder sind sie die zwei ersten Stücke im Zyklus Sechs Lieder, Op. 13 enthalten. Im frühen 19. Jahrhundert war die Romantik „Die goldene Zeit des Lieds“. In der romantischen Kunst standen Gefühle, persönli...

  7. Características físico-químicas e produtivas da videira 'BRS Clara' sob cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Abgariani Colombo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a preferência por uvas sem sementes vem aumentando nos mercados interno e externo, sendo uma alternativa a produção de uvas sob cultivo protegido. No entanto, o custo de produção de uvas finas para mesa tem sido afetado pela intensa necessidade de controle de doenças fúngicas, como o míldio (Plasmopara viticola. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção e as características físicoquímicas dos frutos da videira 'BRS Clara' sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 572 Jales' e 'IAC 766 Campinas', sob diferentes tipos de cultivo protegido. O experimento foi realizado no município de Marialva-PR, durante duas safras regulares (set.-dez.2007, ago-dez.2008. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 (sete tipos de cultivo protegido e dois porta-enxertos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes tipos de cultivo: a. tela plástica sem fungicidas para míldio; b. tela plástica com fungicidas para míldio (padrão de controle da região; c. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas para míldio; d. cobertura plástica e 50% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; e. cobertura plástica e 75% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; f. cobertura plástica com fosfito e cobre, e g. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas. Verificou-se que o cultivo protegido não alterou as características produtivas da videira 'BRS Clara', como número de cachos e produção por planta; os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' são indicados para a produção da uva 'BRS Clara', e a utilização da cobertura plástica permite a redução do número de aplicações de fungicidas para míldio no cultivo da uva 'BRS Clara'.

  8. Commentaries on Clara Rodriguez’ "Comparative Perspectives : Latinos, the Census and Race in the United States”

    OpenAIRE

    Véran, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    As I received the paper of Clara Rodriguez, I quickly went through the summary, leaving an in-depth reading for later. Right away, the question was raised: why do 40% of Latinos choose the SOR category? The answer not being in the summary itself, I went back to my activities with this enigma in mind and, with no knowledge of the situation whatsoever; I began to build up hypothesis. Then I did read the text and the reading rose a feeling of strangeness. The hypothesis I had spontaneously imagi...

  9. Clara Schumann, Teresa Carreño, Rosita Renard: la condición de mujer en sus carreras musicales Clara Schumann, Teresa Carreño, Rosita Renard: Their Female Condition in their Musical Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castillo Didier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Clara Wieck, después Schumann, alemana, Teresa Carreño, venezolana, Rosita Renard, chilena, se distinguen como algunas de las más destacadas pianistas a lo largo de un poco más de una centuria, desde algo antes de mediados del siglo XIX a la mitad del XX. Hay paralelismos y también contrastes en sus vidas y sus carreras. Pero tanto el transcurrir de sus existencias como el del quehacer musical al que se dedicaron están marcados por hechos ligados a su condición de mujeres. Tratamos de hacer un paralelo entre sus vidas y entre el desarrollo de sus carreras destacando las particularidades y dificultades que en ambos planos les impuso la condición de mujeres.Clara Wieck, later Schumann, Germán, Teresa Carreño, Venezuelan, Rosita Renard, Chilean, have all of them distinguished as some ofthe most outstandingpianists along a little more than a century, from befare the mid 19th century fo the mid 20th. There are parallelisms and contrasts in their Uves and careers. Rut their Uves as well as their musical development were strongly affected by facts linked to their condition as women. We have tried to establish these parálisis, higlighting particularities and difficulties arisingfrom their condition of women.

  10. Características físico-químicas e produtivas da videira 'BRS Clara' sob cultivo protegido Physical-chemical and productive characteristics of 'BRS Clara' under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Abgariani Colombo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a preferência por uvas sem sementes vem aumentando nos mercados interno e externo, sendo uma alternativa a produção de uvas sob cultivo protegido. No entanto, o custo de produção de uvas finas para mesa tem sido afetado pela intensa necessidade de controle de doenças fúngicas, como o míldio (Plasmopara viticola. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção e as características físicoquímicas dos frutos da videira 'BRS Clara' sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 572 Jales' e 'IAC 766 Campinas', sob diferentes tipos de cultivo protegido. O experimento foi realizado no município de Marialva-PR, durante duas safras regulares (set.-dez.2007, ago-dez.2008. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 (sete tipos de cultivo protegido e dois porta-enxertos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes tipos de cultivo: a. tela plástica sem fungicidas para míldio; b. tela plástica com fungicidas para míldio (padrão de controle da região; c. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas para míldio; d. cobertura plástica e 50% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; e. cobertura plástica e 75% de redução do padrão de fungicidas para míldio; f. cobertura plástica com fosfito e cobre, e g. cobertura plástica sem fungicidas. Verificou-se que o cultivo protegido não alterou as características produtivas da videira 'BRS Clara', como número de cachos e produção por planta; os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' são indicados para a produção da uva 'BRS Clara', e a utilização da cobertura plástica permite a redução do número de aplicações de fungicidas para míldio no cultivo da uva 'BRS Clara'.Currently the preference for seedless grapes is increasing in domestic and foreign markets and an alternative is to produce grapes under plastic cover. However, the increased costs of production of table grapes has been affected by the intense need to control fungal

  11. - Evaluación de los factores que inciden en la mortalidad por fasciolosis en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba (Evaluation of factors that impact in the mortality by fascioliasis in villa clara province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario León Beovides

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se analizó retrospectivamente el comportamiento de la mortalidad por fasciolosis en bovinos en la provincia de Villa Clara (Cuba correlacionándose la información estadística correspondiente a la mortalidad por sectores con los resultados de visitas realizadas a las direcciones municipales del Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria, con el fin de evaluar el cumplimiento de las medidas de Programa de Prevención de Enfermedades. Se demostró que el incremento en el índice de mortalidad por fasciolosis en la provincia se corresponde con los incumplimientos de las medidas establecidas para su control Abstract. It was retrospectively analyzed the behavior of mortality by fascioliasis in bovine in Villa Clara Province (Cuba, correlating the statistical information that corresponds to the mortality by sectors with the results of visits carried out to the municipal directions of the Institute of Veterinary Medicine, with the purpose of evaluating the execution of measures of Disease Prevention Program. It was demonstrated that the increase in mortality index by fascioliasis in the province corresponds with the non-fulfillments of established measures for its control.

  12. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. PMID:27318762

  13. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

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    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  14. The Condensin Complex Is Essential for Amitotic Segregation of Bulk Chromosomes, but Not Nucleoli, in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Coyne, Robert S.; Xi, Xiaohui; Yao, Meng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    The macronucleus of the binucleate ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila contains fragmented and amplified chromosomes that do not have centromeres, eliminating the possibility of mitotic nuclear division. Instead, the macronucleus divides by amitosis with random segregation of these chromosomes without detectable chromatin condensation. This amitotic division provides a special opportunity for studying the roles of mitotic proteins in segregating acentric chromatin. The Smc4 protein is a core component of the condensin complex that plays a role in chromatin condensation and has also been associated with nucleolar segregation, DNA repair, and maintenance of the chromatin scaffold. Mutants of Tetrahymena SMC4 have remarkable characteristics during amitosis. They do not form microtubules inside the macronucleus as normal cells do, and there is little or no bulk DNA segregation during cell division. Nevertheless, segregation of nucleoli to daughter cells still occurs, indicating the independence of this process and bulk DNA segregation in ciliate amitosis. PMID:16738332

  15. Prevalencia de antigenos fimbriales f4 y f18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba (Prevalence of f4 and f18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the province of Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de antígenos fimbriales F4 y F18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos de la Provincia de Villa Clara.SUMMARYThe present work was carried out with the objective of determining the prevalence of F4 and F18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the Province of Villa Clara.

  16. Prevalencia de antigenos fimbriales f4 y f18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba (Prevalence of f4 and f18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the province of Villa Clara).

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César; De la Fe Rodríguez.Pedro Yoelvis; Cruz Cruz. Eduardo; Ruiz González. Yanetsy; Gutiérrez Aguiar. Digna Ibis; Fernández Pérez. Julieta Zonia

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENEl presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de antígenos fimbriales F4 y F18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos de la Provincia de Villa Clara.SUMMARYThe present work was carried out with the objective of determining the prevalence of F4 and F18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the Province of Villa Clara.

  17. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  18. Associative behaviour and antagonism of bovine rumen ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at obtaining the community profile and verifying the occurrence of antagonism and association among ciliates, samples of rumen content were analysed in 100 bovines soon after their death. The animals were killed at the Juiz de Fora Municipal slaughter house (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil between August 1996 and May 1997. Ciliates occurred, respectively, in the following percents and samples number: Entodinium Stein, 1859 (50,48; 100, Diplodinium Schuberg, 1888 (5,59; 98, Eudiplodinium Dogiel, 1927 (6,91; 97, Ostracodinium Dogiel, 1927 (9,68; 95, hotricha Stein, 1859 (4,15; 93, Dasytricha Schuberg, 1888 (3,31; 93, Metadi nium Awerinzew & Mutafowa, 1914 (3,06; 90, Eremoplastron Kofoid & MacLennan. 1932 (7,39; 87, Epidinium Crawley, 1923 (5,31; 73, Charonina Strand, 1928 (1,33; 65, Eodinium Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (1,49; 59, Diploplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,88; 24, Elytroplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,36; 16, Polyplastron Dogiel, 1927 (0,04; 03 and Buetschlia Schuberg, 1888 (0,02; 01. When the antagonistic behaviour and the association were analyzed, it was observed that Eudiplodinium was detected in the absence of Polyplastron and in the presence of Epidinium in 94% and 73% of the samples, respectively. These data confirm the antagonism and the coexistence among particular populations of rumen ciliates and allowed the identification of 94% of the samples examined as being of profile type B, none of type A and 3% of mixed A-B community and of type O. It is suggested the use of the term community profile instead of population profile, as the respective types involve associations of various ciliate populations.

  19. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fadaee-Shohada, Mina J.; Hirst, Robert A; Andrew Rutman; Roberts, Ian S.; Chris O'Callaghan; Andrew, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle). CONCLUSION...

  20. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  1. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  2. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  3. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  4. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  5. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  6. De Palacio a Monasterio. Génesis y transformación del Real Monasterio de Santa Clara de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Muñoz, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The convent of Santa Clara is one of the largest religious buildings in Seville. Founded in 1289, it became the oldest second one in the city after that of San Clemente, which is located in the same northwestern area of the old Almohad wall. The comprehensive study of the building, as part of the rehabilitation project, has allowed knowing its evolution and the survival of structures previous to the granting of the land where it is sited.El convento de Santa Clara es uno de los edificios de carácter religioso más grandes de Sevilla. Fundado en 1289 se convierte en el segundo más antiguo de la ciudad tan sólo precedido por el de San Clemente que se ubica en el mismo sector del extremo Noroeste de la antigua cerca almohade. El estudio integral del edificio como parte del proyecto de rehabilitación nos ha permitido conocer su evolución y la pervivencia de estructuras heredadas previas a la concesión de los terrenos que ahora ocupa.

  7. 70 anos da guerreira: a mestiçagem brasileira na tradução musical de Clara Nunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito Leandro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clara Francisca Gonçalves Pinheiro. Stage Name: Clara Nunes. On August 12, 2012 this vigorous woman from Paraopeba in the state of Minas Gerais would have turned 70 years old. Her family life, in the context of culture and religion, contributed to her musical de- velopment from an early age broadening her contact with folk music. In this sense, her songs started dialoging with the world of samba and with the universe of African-Brazilian religions. Among the songs that best represent the artist portrayal are “Canto das Três Raças” and “Brasil Mestiço Santuário da Fé”, sang by her in the 1980s, the lyrics and interpretation showed the social Brazilian ethnological context in great detail. However, the cries of the people and the musical manifestation reproduced in the songs present an ideology of nationhood whose identity is the Brazilian miscegenation which means the cultures of the native Indians, the white and the black people.

  8. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  9. Molecular Characterization of a Copper Metallothionein Gene From a Ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muhammad Tariq; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Zulifqar, Soumble; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Mehboob, Shahid; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2016-08-01

    A new copper metallothionein (TfCuMT) gene has been identified from a locally isolated ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis. It contains 327 nucleotides encoding a peptide chain of 108 amino acids and belongs to class MTT2 and subfamily 7b. Amplification from both gDNA and mRNA confirmed the intronless nature of this gene. Like most of the metallohtioneins, cysteine residues contribute nearly 30% content with the specific CKC motifs. Structural repeats present in peptide sequence of TfCuMT indicate internal duplication of gene at some stage of gene evolution. The predicted model of copper metallothionein protein showed that copper ions are mainly chelated by thiol sulfur of cysteine residues and are embedded in the folds of polypeptide chain. For in vivo expression of TfCuMT in Escherichia coli host cells the classical stop codons, which coded for glutamine in the ciliate were mutated to CAA and CAG through site directed mutagenesis. The mutated gene showed higher expression in pET28a expression vector compared with pET21a. Optimum expression was obtained after 6-8 h of 0.1 mM IPTG induction. Stability of His tagged TfCuMT in 5% SDS was low, with half-life of about 104 min. Presence of 1.0 μM copper increased the expression level by 1.65-fold. Presence of 100 μM Cysteine in culture medium caused 2.4-fold increase in expression level. His tagged TfCuMT was purified through affinity chromatography using NTN-His binding resin in the presence of 0.1 M imidazole and NaCl. The modeled structure of the TfCuMT showed a cleft for Cu binding with correct orientation of Cys residues in the motif CKC. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1843-1854, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754785

  10. The trophic role and impact of plankton ciliates in the microbial web structure of a tropical polymictic lake dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the plankton structures and dynamics in tropical and subtropical lakes has revealed important trends that set these lakes apart from temperate lakes, and one of the main differences is the enhanced importance of the microbial food web with respect to net plankton. Ciliates are a key component of subtropical and tropical microbial webs because of their role as dominant picoplankton grazers and their ability to channel picoplankton production to the uppermost trophic levels. Plankton ciliates have been found to play a crucial role in the survival of fish larvae in lakes that share several features with Lake Catemaco, a eutrophic tropical Mexican lake. Therefore, the plankton ciliate composition, abundance, and biomass of Lake Catemaco were studied to assess their role in the microbial food web. The data were obtained from surface and bottom water samples collected at eleven points during three surveys in 2011 and an additional survey in 2013, with the surveys covering the local climatic seasons. The most abundant components of the plankton ciliate assemblages were small prostomatids (Urotricha spp., choreotrichs (Rimostrombidium spp., cyclotrichs (Mesodinium and Askenasia, and scuticociliates (Cyclidium, Cinetochilum, Pleuronema, and Uronema. Other important ciliates in terms of abundance and/or biomass were haptorids (Actinobolina, Belonophrya, Monodinium, Paradileptus, and Laginophrya, Halteria, oligotrichs (Limnostrombidium and Pelagostrombidium, Linostomella, Bursaridium, Cyrtolophosis, and Litonotus. The ciliate abundance averaged 57 cells mL-1 and ranged from 14 to 113 cells mL-1. The mean ciliate biomass was 71 µg C L-1 and ranged from 10 to 202 µg C L-1. Differences were not detected in ciliate abundance or biomass between the sampling points or sampling depths (surface to bottom; however, significant differences were observed between seasons for both variables. Nano-sized filamentous cyanobacteria were the most

  11. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladão, Gustavo Moraes Ramos; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Martins, Maurício Laterça; de Pádua, Santiago Benites

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae), from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided. PMID:26154956

  12. Morphology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of two brackish urostylid ciliates (Protist, Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Miao, Miao; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Xu, Kuidong; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of hypotrichous ciliates has encouraged numerous researchers to use a combination of morphological, morphogenetic, and phylogenetic data to provide a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this complex group. In this study, we investigate the morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudourostyla subtropica sp. nov., isolated from mangrove wetland. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the huge body size, many more adoral membranelles and marginal cirral rows, and numerous macronuclear nodules. In addition, we provide a morphological characterization of a population of Pseudourostyla nova Wiackowski 1988 from an estuarine habitat. The main events during binary fission of P. subtropica sp. nov. and the Chinese population of P. nova are also revealed to be conservative. The morphological, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences corroborate the monophyly of Pseudourostyla Borror, 1972, which corresponds well with previous research. The phylogenetic analyses also show that Pseudourostyla and Hemicycliostyla Stokes, 1886, both of which are assigned to the family Pseudourostylidae based on morphological and morphogenetic data, in fact fall into separated clades. The approximately unbiased tests, however, do not reject the possibility that the family Pseudourostylidae is a monophyletic lineage. PMID:25040093

  13. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  14. Electrochemical study of the interaction between Eu3+ and ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new species was formed when protein P23 (one segment of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin) was added to a solution of Eu3+. The interaction between P23 and Eu3+ was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) using a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The formal potential (Eo') of Eu3+ shifted from -0.61 to -0.84 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) after P23 was added to the Eu3+ solution. The diffusion coefficient (D), the charge-transfer coefficient (α) and the electron transfer standard rate constant (ks) were obtained in the absence and the presence of P23. The affinity constant of Eu3+ and P23 was determined to be (1.89 ± 0.51) x 104 M-1. The electrochemical investigation of europium bound to the protein provided useful data for the studies of calcium-binding proteins.

  15. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria+Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. PMID:22789763

  16. Novel Discovery of Two Heterotrichid Ciliates, Climacostomum virens and Fabrea salina (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea: Heterotrichida in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Ji Hye

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two heterotrichid ciliates, Climacostomum virens (Ehrenberg, 1838 Stein, 1859 from brackish water and freshwater, and Fabrea salina Henneguy, 1890 from a solar saltern, were collected in Korea. They are novelly investigated in Korea by means of live observation, protargol staining and nuclear small subunit (SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Climacostomum virens is characterized by pouch-like body shape, body length of $200-370{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, conspicuous cytopharyngeal tube, macronuclei ribbon-like shape, and one to four in number, with or without symbiont algae in cytoplasm, 34-66 somatic kineties, 67-113 adoral zone of membranelles, 8-42 peristomial kineties, 24-37 apical membranelles. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,591 bp and GC contents 48.52%. Fabrea salina is also characterized by scoop-like body shape with proboscis, body length of $190-240{\\mu}m$ 수식 이미지 in vivo, one to two rod-shaped macronuclei, oval micronuclei, grayish green cortical granules, 104-186 somatic kineties, 4-8 preoral kineties, 7-19 peristomial kineties and fragmented paroral membrane. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,598 bp and GC contents 47.50%.

  17. Purification and partial characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Errafiy; Abdelaziz Soukri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,we purified the glycolytic enzymeglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)which is involved in cellular energy production and has important housekeeping functions,from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila using a three-step procedure.The enzyme was purified ~68 folds by ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by two steps of column chromatography (DEAE-cellulose and Mono-S).The purified enzyme is a homotetramer with a molecular weight of ~120 kDa.Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one basic GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 8.8.Western blot analysis showed a single 32-kDa band corresponding to the enzyme subunit using a monospecific polyclonal antibody against the T.thermophila GAPDH.The maximum of enzyme activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 30-35℃.The apparent Km values for both NAD+ and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were 0.102±0.012 and 0.360 + 0.018 mM,respectively.The maximal velocity (Vmax) was 39.40 + 2.95 U/mg.The T.thermophila GAPDH is inhibited by oxidative and nitrosative stress reagents.

  18. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. (paper)

  19. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sánchez Medina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010; the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (APP and flagellates were analysed using epifluorescence microscopy. Ciliates were evaluated either in DAPI stained samples (looking for pigmented organelles and/or ingested phototrophs or in quantitative protargol stain (QPS permanent preparations, where they were identified at the genus or species level. The end of the stratification period in Lake Alchichica was characterized by almost uniform heterotrophic picoplankton (HPP numbers (106 cells mL-1 throughout the water column. Meanwhile, APP showed epilimnetic and/or metalimnetic maxima of 105 cells mL-1 followed by an order of magnitude drop in the hypolimnion. A very important peak (105 cells mL-1 of the autotrophic or mixotrophic flagellate Pyramimonas sp. was observed repeatedly above and within the oxycline of Lake Alchichica. Ciliate biomass maxima were found around the oxycline and in the above-bottom layer. The top of the oxycline was dominated by Euplotes spp. and Spirostomum teres fine- to coarse-filter feeders (feeding upon APP, nanodiatoms and algae. Raptorial haptorids (in particular, Phialina sp. were the second most important group, generally occupying the layer below euplotids, followed by Holophrya and Prorodon facultative anaerobic prostomes. Sometimes, strictly anaerobic Caenomorpha sp. was found to be important in the anoxic hypolimnion. Minute picoplankton feeding species (both APP and heterotrophic bacteria feeders were important throughout the water column: in the epilimnion

  20. El dinamismo transformador del agua y de la luz en Atisbos de luz de Bella Clara Ventura Transformative Dynamics of Water and Light in Atisbos de Luz by Bella Clara Ventura

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Chen Sham

    2011-01-01

    En Atisbos de luz (2007), la poeta colombomexicana Bella Clara Ventura nos invita a sopesar y a valorar el dinamismo transformador de la luz en su complemento con el agua fecunda y fluyente. Ésta es la clave no sólo para poder ingresar en el universo poético trazado como una aventura de iniciación hacia la luminosidad del cosmos, sino también para emprender el camino de una iniciación estética que se propone como indagación y reflexión, abierta a inquirir el cosmos y la escritura poética.In A...

  1. Ciliate Nassula sp. grazing on a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii): impact on cell growth and in the microcystin fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, Audrey; Dellinger, Marc [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadel-six, Sabrina [' Unite Caracterisation des Toxines' - Laboratoire de securite des aliments de Maisons-Alfort - ANSES, F-94701 Maisons Alfort Cedex (France); Amand, Severine [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comte, Katia, E-mail: kcomte@mnhn.fr [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-01-15

    The proliferation of microcystins (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria (MCs) can have detrimental effects on the food chain in aquatic environments. Until recently, few studies had focused on the fate of MCs in exposed organisms, such as primary consumers of cyanobacteria. In this study, we investigate the impact of an MC-producing strain of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii on the growth and physiology of a Nassula sp. ciliate isolated from a non-toxic cyanobacterial bloom. We show that this Nassula sp. strain was able to consume and grow while feeding exclusively on an MC-producing cyanobacterium over a prolonged period of time (8 months). In short-term exposure experiments (8 days), ciliates consuming an MC-producing cyanobacterial strain displayed slower growth rate and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes than ciliates feeding on two non-MC-producing strains. Three high-performance methods (LC/MS, LC/MS-MS and ELISA) were used to quantify the free and bound MCs in the culture medium and in the cells. We show that ciliate grazing led to a marked decrease in free MCs (methanol extractable) in cells, the MCs were therefore no longer found in the surrounding culture medium. These findings suggest that MCs may have undergone redistribution (free vs bound MCs) or chemical degradation within the ciliates.

  2. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium

  3. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, B., E-mail: benedicte.michel@irsn.fr

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium.

  4. Seroprevalencia de babesiosis bovina en la hacienda Vegas de la Clara, Gómez Plata (Antioquia, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina en el ganado bovino de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (Universidad de Antioquia, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, por medio de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo con análisis de corte transversal. Fue evaluada toda la población bovina de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (n = 118. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por inmunofluorescencia indirecta para la detección de anticuerpos tipo IgG específicos contra Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. La serorreactividad obtenida en los bovinos evaluados, para al menos una especie de Babesia fue del 89,8%, para Babesia bovis del 83,8%, mientras que para B. bigemina del 61%. Se obtuvo una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la serorreactividad para B. bigemina y la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida. La serorreactividad indica estabilidad enzoótica en el hato para B. bovis, mientras que para B. bigemina se encontró que la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida interrumpe su ciclo de transmisión.

  5. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  6. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  7. Effects of a radiosensitizer and radiation on the ciliated mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation (2 Gy/F, TD:2-20 Gy) in vivo on the ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea, caused measurable physiological alternations ten consecutive days after completion of irradiation with an initial heightening of the ciliary activity after 2 and 4 Gy, followed by a dose-dependent decrease. On scanning electron microscopy-pictures, knobs were observed on the cilia with the number being related to the dose. The addition of misonidazole potentiated the effects described above, with an enhancement ratio ( physiologically) of 1.2 and an enhancement ratio (morphologically) of 1.6. Furthermore, administration of misonidazole to the rabbits caused an increased vascularity in the subepithelial layer of the trachea, directly correlated to an oedema in the same region. Single doses (2,2.5,5,10,15,20,25, and 30 Gy) were given to the trachea in vivo and daily investigation of the ciliary beating and morphologic examinations of the tissue were made for ten days. The ciliary activity showed a dose-dependent reduction of about 50% after 30 Gy. A development of damage, in relation to the dose, was observed in the cilia. The changes were blebs, swollen tips, bent and curved tips, and broken cilia clustered together. During in vitro irradiation with 10 Gy Single Dose, an increase of the ciliary activity to about 25 % of its original value was observed without any morphological changes, while in vivo irradiation and examinations during 10 days thereafter, showed three different phases, day 1-3: Stimulation phase, day 4-8: Damage-phase, day 9-10: Repair-phase. The ciliary epithelium offers an exceptional system for the study of early radiobiological effects, since mutual comparisons can be made between physiology and morphology. (Author)

  8. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF5 using a TAM air microcalorimeter. ► QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF5 growth in a dose-dependent manner. ► The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF5 was investigated. ► QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF5. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF5 (T. thermophila BF5) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF5 growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd2+, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF5 was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF5 growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  9. Proteomic approach to reveal the proteins associated with encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwu Chen

    Full Text Available In order to identify and reveal the proteins related to encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus, we analyzed variation in the abundance of the proteins isolated from the resting cyst comparing with proteins in the vegetative cell. 2-D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS techniques and Bioinformatics were used for proteome separation, quantification and identification. The comparative proteomics studies revealed 26 proteins with changes on the expression in the resting cysts, including 12 specific proteins and 14 differential proteins. 12 specific proteins and 10 out of the 14 differential proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The identified specific proteins with known functions included type II cytoskeletal 1, keratin, Nop16 domain containing protein, protein arginine n-methyltransferase, epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase and calpain-like protein. The identified differential proteins with known functions included Lysozyme C, keratinocyte growth factor, lysozyme homolog AT-2, formate acetyltransferase, alpha S1 casein and cold-shock protein. We discussed the functions of these proteins as well as their contribution in the process of encystment. These identified proteins covered a wide range of molecular functions, including gene regulation, RNA regulation, proteins degradation and oxidation resistance, stress response, material transport and cytoskeleton organization. Therefore, differential expression of these proteins was essential for cell morphological and physiological changes during encystment. This suggested that the peculiar proteins and differential proteins might play important roles in the process of the vegetative cells transforming into the resting cysts. These observations may be novel findings that bring new insights into the detailed mechanisms of dormancy.

  10. 红椿育苗密度研究%Cultivation Density of Toona ciliate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴际友; 黄明军; 陈明皋; 程勇; 廖德志; 李艳; 刘球; 王旭军

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨2年生红椿苗最佳的育苗密度,开展了红椿育苗密度试验研究,结果表明:随着育苗密度增加,苗木的苗高和地径均减小,苗木的质量下降。因此,确定合理的育苗密度是培育优质红椿苗并取得最佳育苗效益的关键。研究表明:二年生的红椿苗木如只生产Ⅰ级苗,则合适的育苗密度为30株/m2;如Ⅰ、Ⅱ级苗均用于生产造林,则合适的育苗密度为40株/m2。%ln order to discuss the optimum seedling density of Toona ciliate, different seedling densities were studied. The results showed that seeding height and basal diameter decreased and quality of the seedlings declined with the increase of seedling density. The reasonable density of seedlings is key to cultivate high-quality seedlings and achieve the best seedling efficiency. The optimum density was 30 plants/m2 for the first class seedlings of biennial seedlings, and the optimum density of l and ll seedlings for production afforestation was 40 plants/m2.

  11. Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    The Nassophorea and Prostomatea are two of the key classes in understanding the morphological diversification and higher classification of the phylum Ciliophora. However, their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliate groups within the subphylum Intramacronucleata remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of these groups with sequences of additional taxa including several key species. The results show that: (1) the class Nassophorea remains polyphyletic, with the microthoracids clustering with the Phyllopharyngea, whereas the nassulids represent a basal group of the CONthreeP superclade in the SSU tree; (2) the Prostomatea is not depicted as a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees, and the monophyly of this class is marginally rejected by statistical tree topology tests; (3) the nassulid genus Parafurgasonia is more closely related to the family Colpodidiidae than to Furgasonia; (4) Paranassula, which was previously thought to be a nassulid, is phylogenetically related to the oligohymenophorean peniculids in both the SSU and LSU trees; (5) the microthoracid genus Discotricha does not group with the other microthoracids in either SSU or LSU trees; (6) the family Plagiocampidae is closely related to the prostome parasite Cryptocaryon irritans and to the family Urotrichidae in the order Prorodontida; and (7) the family Placidae, represented by Placus salinus, is sister to the family Holophryidae in the order Prorodontida. Based on the present data, we consider the genus Discotricha to be an unclassified taxon within the CONthreeP. We also propose resurrecting the order Paranassulida and classifying it within the subclass Peniculia, class Oligohymenophorea. Primary and secondary structure signatures for higher taxa within Phyllopharyngea and Nassophorea are supplied. PMID:24075983

  12. Improvement of silver impregnation technique (Protargol to obtain morphological features of protists ciliates, flagellates and opalinates

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    SILVA-NETO I. D. da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on ciliates, flagelates and opalinates have been widespread by the utilization of techniques employing silver impregnation (Protargol, modified by several authors. However, these are time consuming and its results are variable. The present work is a variant of the technique described by Tuffrau (1964, 1967 showing some adaptations made in our laboratory. The organisms can be preserved by different fixatives (alcoholic Bouin, Stieve's fluid, 2.5% glutaraldehyde and others and then rinsed in destilled water followed by a fast clarification by 3% sodium hypochloride. If the organism is very sensitive to hypochloride, 4% sodium lauryl sulfate may be used and then washed 3 times in distilled water. The protista can be adhered to the glass slides with Mayer's glycerinated-albumin (1 glycerin vol. to 1 or 2 albumin vol., diluted in water at a proportion of 1:10 Cv/v., or with 1% polylysine followed by fast washes with distilled water. After the slide preparation, they were covered with a layer of 0,8% Silver proteinate. Right after that, the slide has to be placed in a glass tray lined with moist tissue and covered to prevent the proteinate to dry. The tray was placed in a incubator at 40º-50ºC for 30 minutes. The slides are rinsed for 1 minute. with warm (35ºC distilled water. The development of the material should be done with 0.4% hydroquinone with a maximum incubation time of 1 minute. It should be developed gradually, controlling the silver impregnation intensity by observation under optical microscope. Next, rinse in distilled water for 1 minute, and then, fix in 2,5% Sodium thiosulfate. Rinse the slide for two minutes before dehydrating it in an alcoholic serial 50-100º. Finally rinse the slides in xylene. Mount the slides with Entellan MerckTM or Canada balsam.

  13. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

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    Kapusta Aurélie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD. These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes. Thanks to a low rate of large scale genome rearrangement in Paramecium, an unprecedented large number of gene duplicates of different ages have been identified, making this organism an outstanding model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization. The most recent WGD, with 51% of pre-duplication genes still in 2 copies, provides a snapshot of a phase of rapid gene loss that is not accessible in more ancient polyploids such as yeast. Results We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray platform for P. tetraurelia genome-wide expression profiling and used the platform to measure gene expression during 1 the sexual cycle of autogamy, 2 growth of new cilia in response to deciliation and 3 biogenesis of secretory granules after massive exocytosis. Genes that are differentially expressed during these time course experiments have expression patterns consistent with a very low rate of subfunctionalization (partition of ancestral functions between duplicated genes in particular since the most recent polyploidization event. Conclusions A public transcriptome resource is now available for Paramecium tetraurelia. The resource has been integrated into the ParameciumDB model organism database, providing searchable access to the data. The microarray platform, freely available through NimbleGen Systems, provides a robust, cost-effective approach for genome-wide expression profiling in P. tetraurelia. The expression data support previous studies showing that at short evolutionary times after a whole genome duplication, gene dosage balance constraints and not functional change are

  14. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

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    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  15. A mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Malpass, Mark C; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-07-01

    Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude-oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon-depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil-degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analyses, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large-scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy-based and several molecular techniques. PMID:20393846

  16. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  17. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  18. Cultivation-independent analysis reveals a shift in ciliate 18S rRNA gene diversity in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using cultivation-independent methods the ciliate communities of a clay-rich soil with a 90-year record of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (4.5 g kg−1 PAH) were compared with that of a nonpolluted soil collected in its vicinity and with similar properties. A ciliate-specific set of 18S rRNA gene targeting primers was designed and used to amplify DNA extracted from both soils (surface and 20 cm depth). Four clone libraries were generated with PCR products that covered an 18...

  19. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Sagar; Bethani Sagar; Patel, Adam F.; Shak, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also th...

  20. Qualidade de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara, mutante de fruto amarelo e seus híbridos F1 Quality of tomato red fruit, cv. Santa Clara, its yellow mutant and respective F1 hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizanilda R. do Rêgo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara, um mutante de fruto amarelo, e o híbrido F1 obtido do cruzamento entre eles, foi feita com base nos teores de b-caroteno, licopeno, vitamina C, pH, matéria fresca, matéria seca, diâmetro do fruto, diâmetro do pericarpo, acidez e sólidos solúveis totais dos tecidos loculares e do pericarpo. Os frutos maduros amarelos apresentaram teores reduzidos de b-caroteno, licopeno e vitamina C, enquanto o híbrido apresentou teores semelhantes ao genótipo normal. Tanto o fruto mutante quanto o F1 apresentaram teor de pH menor que o do fruto normal. Não houve diferença significativa quanto a matéria fresca e seca totais, diâmetro do fruto e do pericarpo e acidez. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais do pericarpo foram inferiores nos frutos do mutante amarelo e F1, em relação ao genótipo normal, enquanto os teores de sólidos solúveis totais da massa locular não diferiram, estatisticamente, entre os genótipos.The determination of some physical and chemical attributes of red fruits from tomato cv. Santa Clara, a yellow mutant and the F1 hybrid, were based on b-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, pH, fresh and dry weight matter, pericarp and fruit diameter, titrateable acidity and total soluble solids. Ripe fruits of the yellow mutant showed reduced levels of b-carotene, lycopene and vitamin C, while fruits of the F1 hybrid showed levels of carotenoid pigments and vitamin C similar to the red fruit. Both mutant and F1 ripe fruits showed lower pH levels than the red parentals. Total fresh fruit and dry weight matter, pericarp and fruit diameter, and acidity were similar in the three genotypes studied. The total soluble-solids content of the pericarp was lower in the mutant and F1 fruits, whereas their concentration in the locule tissues was similar in all genotypes.

  1. Distribution of ciliates in relation to environmental factors along the coastline of the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kchaou, Nouha; Elloumi, Jannet; Drira, Zaher; Hamza, Asma; Ayadi, Habib; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Aleya, Lotfi

    2009-08-01

    We studied the seasonal distribution of the ciliate community coupled with environmental factors along the coast at three stations sampled (from March 2006 to February 2007) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). A total of 56 species belonging to 11 orders, were identified. Harbor of Gabes station was more diversified (45 species) than both Tabia (26 species) and Karboub (31 species) stations. The ciliate assemblage was numerically dominated by Spirotrichea in Tabia (82% of the total abundance), in the Harbor of Gabes (86% of the total abundance), whereas, in Karboub, Spirotrichea represented only 40% of the total abundance. The unexpected lower quantitative importance of Spirotrichea in Karboub station was apparently the result of the high salt concentration found in water samples throughout the study, probably originating from the saline area surrounding Karboub station, known as Sabkha. The distribution of species in the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes seemed most likely influenced by the combined effects of temperature, salinity and hydrographic conditions.

  2. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment. PMID:26986089

  3. Non-invasive detection and quantification of the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousson, Olivier; Pretti, Carlo; Di Bello, Domenica; Cognetti-Varriale, Anna M

    2005-07-18

    The main parasitic threat to freshwater fish is the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. We developed a real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green intercalating fluorescent dye for rapid detection and quantification of I. multifiliis. This non-invasive assay was based on the quantification of I. multifiliis free-swimming stages from filtered water samples, and thus made it possible to preserve host individuals. An alignment of 18S rDNA sequences of I. multifiliis and related species of the ciliate order Hymenostomatida was used to design amplification primers specifically targeting the I. multifiliis 18S rDNA gene. Different standard curves consisting of 2-fold serial dilutions of DNA extracted from 20, 60, 100 and 1000 I. multifiliis cells were constructed. The assay was able to detect less than 0.5 cell equivalent and showed a strong linearity (R2 = 0.984). Water samples were collected from 2 tanks containing heavily infected and apparently uninfected Carassius auratus specimens and were used to test this technique. Positive signals were obtained from water samples collected from both tanks, with a deduced concentration ranging from 3 to 58 I. multifiliis cells l(-1). The assay can detect low concentrations of the parasite in water, presumably corresponding to an early phase of the disease. It may, thus, be a valuable tool in assisting in the monitoring and control of ichthyophthiriasis in aquaculture. PMID:16119894

  4. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  5. The CNA1 Histone of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila Is Essential for Chromosome Segregation in the Germline MicronucleusD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Xi, Xiaohui; Vermaak, Danielle; Yao, Meng-Chao; Malik, Harmit S.

    2006-01-01

    Ciliated protozoans present several features of chromosome segregation that are unique among eukaryotes, including their maintenance of two nuclei: a germline micronucleus, which undergoes conventional mitosis and meiosis, and a somatic macronucleus that divides by an amitotic process. To study ciliate chromosome segregation, we have identified the centromeric histone gene in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome (CNA1). CNA1p specifically localizes to peripheral centromeres in the micronucleus but is absent in the macronucleus during vegetative growth. During meiotic prophase of the micronucleus, when chromosomes are stretched to twice the length of the cell, CNA1p is found localized in punctate spots throughout the length of the chromosomes. As conjugation proceeds, CNA1p appears initially diffuse, but quickly reverts to discrete dots in those nuclei destined to become micronuclei, whereas it remains diffuse and is gradually lost in developing macronuclei. In progeny of germline CNA1 knockouts, we see no defects in macronuclear division or viability of the progeny cells immediately following the knockout. However, within a few divisions, progeny show abnormal mitotic segregation of their micronucleus, with most cells eventually losing their micronucleus entirely. This study reveals a strong dependence of the germline micronucleus on centromeric histones for proper chromosome segregation. PMID:16251352

  6. The response of the ciliated epithelium during and after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the ciliated tissues of the body gives undesirable sideefects. In vitro irradiation (10 Gy) of the rabbit's trachea shows that 1.5 Gy of indirectly ionizing radiation (50 kV and 6 MV X-ray 60Co-gamma 1.25 MeV) causes a 20 per cent increase of the ciliary beat frequency lasting 5-10 seconds, followed by a decline to normal ciliary activity during the ensuing course of irradiation. Electron radiation (4 MeV) proved to be three times more effective than photon radiation in regard to the physiological response of the cilia to ionizing radiation. This finding led to introduction of the concept Relative Physiological Efficiency (RPE) in this study, complementing the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) concept. This momentary increase in frequency can be caused by a radiation-induced increased hydrolysis of the ATP available in the cilia. The ciliary activity was 20 per cent lower than normal at 45 min following irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray), whereupon it increased to 12 per cent above normal activity at two hours after initial irradiation. At re-irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) administered two hours after initial irradiation, the cilia showed a constant rate of activity. In vivo irradiation (10 Gy, 160 kV X-ray) of the trachea of the rabbit caused a heightened activity (10%) during the first three days after irradiation, indicating a stimulation of the ATP-synthesis. During days 4 to 8 after irradiation, the ciliary epithelium's morphology was damaged resulting in reduced transport ability. Repair took place during days 9 and 10 after irradiation, i.e. the function of the ciliary epithelium appeared to be restored. The membrane potential of the ciliary cell, registered during irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) showed no changes, which supports the assumption that the increased ciliary beat frequency recorded during irradiation can be due to rapid radiation-induced biochemical changes that are connected to the motility of the cilia. (author)

  7. Structure of planktonic ciliates community (Protist, Ciliophora from an urban lake of southern Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Machado Velho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined temporal and spatial (vertical variations of composition, richness and abundance of the planktonic ciliates community in an urban and eutrophic lake, as well as identified the limnological factors involved in determining the patterns observed. To this end, samples of ciliates and measures of limnological variables were taken at different depths and hydrological periods. 35 ciliate species were identified, among which 14 species occurred in all periods and strata, being Prostomatida the most specious, followed by Gymnostomatida, Oligotrichida, Peritrichida, and Scuticociliatida. The patterns found for composition, abundance and species richness evidenced a vertical and temporal variation of these attributes. However, in general the composition and species richness have varied more along the vertical gradient than between periods, whereas for the abundance, only temporal differences could be detected. Results observed herein indicated that benthic species seem to be mainly influenced by the amount of organic matter, phosphorus and ammonia, while planktonic ones, abundant at the surface, were mainly associated with higher dissolved oxygen concentrations. In this way, seasonal and vertical variations of limnological characteristics were decisive for the patterns of occurrence and abundance of ciliate species.

  8. The effect of low- and high-fiber diets on the population of entodiniomorphid ciliates Troglodytella abrassarti in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Schovancová, Kateřina; Profousová, Ilona; Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pekár, S.; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2012), s. 669-675. ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : entodiniomorphid ciliate * chimpanzee * fiber * starch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.459, year: 2012

  9. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  10. A Review of Some Basic Parasite Diseases in Culture Fisheries Flagellids, Dinoflagellides and Ichthyophthriasis, Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Hirudinea Infestation, Crustacean Parsite and Ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; O.F. Briyai; S.E. Bassey

    2011-01-01

    A review some basic parasite diseases in fish: flagellids, dinoflagellides and ichthyophthriasis in African fish was carried out to educate fish culturist and the private sector on some challenges faced in culture fisheries. Some common parasite diseases: Ichtyobodiasis, Coccidiosis, Ichtyopthiariasis, Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Crustacean parasite, Hirudinea infestation, Flagellates and Ciliates, Taxonomy and diagnosis, Life cycle and biology, Epizootiology, pathology, control, Infections...

  11. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y).

  12. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y)

  13. Dynamic changes in expression of clara cell protein and surfactant protein-D expressions in lung tissues and bronchaoalveolar lavage fluid of silica-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes in the expression of clara cell protein(CC16)and surfactant protein D(SP-D)in the lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)of silicatreated rats.Methods Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group(n=42)and silica group(n=42).The silica group was subsequently divided into 3,7,14,21,28,

  14. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2005 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  15. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2006 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  16. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2004 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  17. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2007 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  18. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2008 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  19. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2009 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  20. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2010 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  1. Un peu de désordre n'est pas du tout désagréable Clara Gaspar se passionne pour son métier au CERN, sans jamais oublier son Portugal

    CERN Multimedia

    Imhof, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Clara Gaspar is passionately fond of her job at CERN and enjoys the enrichment of life being in an international community. She misses some things and will never forget Portugal but counts Geneva as her home (2 pagees)

  2. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhof Armando Luis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT for mapping 'P' waves was carried out in Sierra Santa Clara, San Juan Province, Argentina in July 2009. The purpose of the geophysical survey was to determine the degree of fracturing and the rigidity of the rock mass through which it is planned to build a 290 m long road tunnel traversing the mountain almost perpendicular to the axis thereof, at around 100 m depth from the summit.

    Several difficulties arose from the operational point of view which made it almost impossible to conduct fieldwork in normal circumstances. Firstly, the topography had almost 45° slopes and 100 m research depths which would have involved having had to use explosives to generate seismic waves reaching sensors which had sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for distinguishing them. Legal restrictions regarding the use of explosives on the one hand and insufficient power when using hammer blows on the other made it necessary to design and build a gas-powered gun to achieve the minimum energy (2 kJ required for detecting seismic signals.

    Secondly, using conventional interpretation methods involving layered models was inoperable in such geological structures; seismic tomography methods were thus used which make use of the velocity gradient concept (both lateral and in-depth. This allowed mapping subsurface velocity variations in the form of velocity contour lines.

    The methodology used with the new seismic waves' source generator, as well as SRT application in this type of geological structure, demonstrated that satisfactory results could be obtained for this kind of geophysical study for geotechnical purposes.

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT for mapping 'P' waves was

  3. [Physiological and biochemical activity of bacteria during germination of cucumber seeds and impact of ciliates Colpoda steinii on this process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotarova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis B-7023 IMV produce indole-3-acetic acid and amino acids in the liquid medium Knoop. Processing cucumber seed suspension containing 10(7) cfu/ml as bacilli, and Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076, resulted in a decrease in the length of the roots of plants. Reduction of bacterial load bacilli to 10(6) cfu/ml followed by reduction of indole-3-acetic acid in the medium, and to an increase in the length of roots, shoots and total plant mass. During the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 with ciliates Colpoda steinii reduced the amount of free forms of auxin in the medium to 5.5 times, and the related--to trace amounts. The content of histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and lysine significantly reduced. PMID:26036028

  4. Influence of Magnetic Field and Slip on Jeffrey Fluid in a Ciliated Symmetric Channel with Metachronal Wave Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The instinct system of cilia motion with magnetic field and slip for Jeffrey fluid model in a symmetric channel is examined. The problem of two-dimensional fluid motion in a symmetric channel with ciliated walls is considered. The structures of ciliary motion are stubborn by the sovereignty of viscid possessions above inertial properties by the long-wavelength and low Reynolds approximation. Exact solutions for the longitudinal pressure gradient, temperature and velocities are obtained. The pressure gradient and volume flow rate for different values of the flow parameters are also discussed. The flow property for the Jeffrey fluid is presented graphically as a function of the cilia and metachronal wave velocity.

  5. Complementary Notes on a‘Well-known' Marine Heterotrichous Ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859) Fraure-Fremiet,1936 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Daode; LIN Xiaofeng; SONG Weibo

    2004-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a heterotrichous ciliate, Folliculinopsis producta (Wright, 1859)Fraure-Fremiet, 1936, which was collected from the north coast of China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation techniques. As a new contribution, a redescription is presented: large Folliculinopsis of green to dark green in color, 800-1500μm in size; two peristomial lobes of approximately equal size, 300-400μm in length; adoral zone of membranelles containing about 1000 membranelles, lying along lobe margins and exhibiting two circles within buccal cavity;50-70 somatic kineties in mid-body; macronucleus miniliform, consisting of about 20 beads; lorica smooth, vase-shaped,(300 500)μm ×(90-130)μm in size, with 5-12 spiral ridges on neck tube; marine habitat.

  6. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass. PMID:25781253

  7. The behaviour of both Listeria monocytogenes and rat ciliated ependymal cells is altered during their co-culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina J Fadaee-Shohada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced the ciliary beat amplitude (the linear distance travelled by the tip of each cilium per beat cycle. CONCLUSION: The presence of the ependyma caused aggregation of some listeria strains and in some cases extracellular material also was seen in association with bacterial aggregates. These observations were dependent on the expression of genes required for invasion, intracellular survival and listerial cell to cell spread that are regulated by the transcriptional activator, positive regulatory factor A (PrfA.

  8. Studies on synergistic toxic effects of copper and dithiocarbamate pesticides with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum (Stokes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, H; Dive, D

    1990-06-01

    The toxicity of seven dithiocarbamates and interactions occurring with copper were studied with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum. No product was toxic at 0.1 mg liter-1. Thiram and mancozeb are the most toxic products (lethal at 1 mg liter-1) and ziram and propineb the least toxic. Concerning interactions with copper, no or slight interactions were observed with propineb and mancozeb, although a strong synergistic toxic effect was observed in a previous work with two structurally related products, maneb and zineb. On the contrary, the responses observed with alkyl-related dithiocarbamates (ferbam and ziram) and ethylene bis-related dithiocarbamates (nabam, thiram, and metiram) are in correlation with the results known in the literature. The synergistic toxic effect of copper and dithiocarbamates thus seems to be related mainly to the alkyl- or the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate structure, but is not constant for molecules associated with metals (propineb, mancozeb, maneb, and zineb). PMID:2114279

  9. First Record and Redefinition of the Qingdao Population of Marine Ciliate Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Corliss, 1960 (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of a marine ciliate, Cardiostomatella vermiformis isolated from a sand beach of the Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, were investigated by live observation, protargol and silver carbonate impregnation methods. Both the morphological and morphometric data largely agree with former records. Based on the data obtained, an improved diagnosis for Cardiostomatella vermiformis is supplied: Large marine Cardiostomatella with cylindrical body shape and several prolonged caudal cilia; cells in vivo about (90-500)μm × (30-120)μm; macronucleus beaded; single contractile vacuole caudally positioned; buccal apparatus conspicuously small, genus typical; three to six postoral kineties; 96-130 somatic kineties. This species is recorded for the first time in China.

  10. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  11. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity. PMID:26684730

  12. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Colin E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332 proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC. Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function.

  13. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  14. Interim report on streamflow, sediment discharge, and water quality in the Calabazas Creek Basin, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, J.M.; Pederson, G.L.; Middelburg, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment-discharge, and water-quality data are being collected in the Calabazas Creek basin, Santa Clara County, Calif., to determine annual water and sediment discharge at base-line conditions that are representative of a basin prior to urbanization. Results of the first 3 years of the study (1973-75) are given in this report. Climatic conditions during this period were representative of a very wet year (1973) and 2 years of above-average rainfall (1974 and 1975). Daily water and sediment discharge were monitored at three primary stations, and periodic measurements were made at five secondary stations during selected storms. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station was transported during a few days each year. Maximum daily sediment discharge in a given year ranged from 23 to 62 percent of the annual total. Daily water discharge at the gaging station Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive, near Cupertino, ranged from no flow to 3.31 cubic meters per second. Streamflow at this location was significantly augmented during low flow by diversion of water from the South Bay Aqueduct. Annual sediment discharge at Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive was 4,900 t in 1974 and 9,570 t in 1975. A large quantity of sediment was trapped in a debris basin at Comer Drive upstream from this station during both years. If this sediment had not been trapped, sediment discharge at the station would have been about 35 percent greater in 1974 and 30 percent greater in 1975. Most of the trapped sediment consists of sand and gravel that would probably have been deposited in the Calabazas Creek channel downstream from the station. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. ORTHOIMAGERY, Santa Clara, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  16. Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LAS format files, raw LiDAR data in its native format, classified bare-earth LiDAR DEM and photogrammetrically derived breaklines generated from LiDAR Intensity...

  17. Chamorro B., Clara E

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro B., Clara E; Villazon de Pinzón, Eucariz

    2011-01-01

    Andiodrilus bogotaensis, a native species to the paramos around Bogotá was observed, by means of morpho-histologic studies, to lack spermateca. It was also observed that the Seminal vesicules of the large majority of the specimens studied are inhabited by the parasite Monocystis lumbrici, which is reported for the first time in Colombia for A. bogotaensis

  18. Chamorro B., Clara H.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro B., Clara H.; Villazon de Pinzón, Eucariz

    2011-01-01

    Andiodrilus bogotaensis, a native species to the paramos around Bogotá was observed, by means of morpho-histologic studies, to lack spermateca. It was also observed that the Seminal vesicules of the large majority of the specimens studied are inhabited by the parasite Monocystis lumbrici, which is reported for the first time in Colombia for A. bogotaensis.

  19. - Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01 en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN. Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan This work was

  20. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  1. Clara cell protein in nasal lavage fluid and nasal nitric oxide - biomarkers with anti-inflammatory properties in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irander Kristina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clara cell protein (CC16 is ascribed a protective and anti-inflammatory role in airway inflammation. Lower levels have been observed in asthmatic subjects as well as in subjects with intermittent allergic rhinitis than in healthy controls. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO is present in high concentrations in the upper airways, and considered a biomarker with beneficial effects, due to inhibition of bacteria and viruses along with stimulation of ciliary motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presumed anti-inflammatory effects of nasal CC16 and nNO in subjects with allergic rhinitis. Methods The levels of CC16 in nasal lavage fluids, achieved from subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (n = 13, intermittent allergic rhinitis in an allergen free interval (n = 5 and healthy controls (n = 7, were analyzed by Western blot. The levels of nNO were measured by the subtraction method using NIOX®. The occurrences of effector cells in allergic inflammation, i.e. metachromatic cells (MC, mast cells and basophiles and eosinophils (Eos were analyzed by light microscopy in samples achieved by nasal brushing. Results The levels of CC16 correlated with nNO levels (r2 = 0.37; p = 0.02 in allergic subjects. The levels of both biomarkers showed inverse relationships with MC occurrence, as higher levels of CC16 (p = 0.03 and nNO (p = 0.05 were found in allergic subjects with no demonstrable MC compared to the levels in subjects with demonstrable MC. Similar relationships, but not reaching significance, were observed between the CC16 and nNO levels and Eos occurrence. The levels of CC16 and nNO did not differ between the allergic and the control groups. Conclusions The correlation between nasal CC16 and nNO levels in patients with allergic rhinitis, along with an inverse relationship between their levels and the occurrences of MC in allergic inflammation, may indicate that both biomarkers have anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of

  2. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-06-29

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of

  3. DESCRIPTION OF FIVE NEW SPECIES OF HYSTEROCINETIAN CILIATES (CILIOPHORA, HYSTEROCINETIDAE), ENDOCOMMENSAL IN A TERRESTRIAL OLIGOCHAETE OF THE GENUS ALMA FROM CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Nana, Paul; Fokam, Zephyrin; EBAGUE GUY MARTIAL NTOUNGWA; Ngassam, Pierre; Bricheux, Genevieve; Bouchard, Philippe; Ngando, Telesphore

    2012-01-01

    Studies on five new species of hysterocinetian ciliates, endocommensal within a terrestrial oligochaete from the genus Alma (Cameroon), reveal the existence of three distinct types of cytoskeletal topography within their adhesive apparatus. In the first topographical type, four superimposed antagonistic strata of skeletal fibres that correspond to the arrangement observed in the genus Ptychostomum, Stein 1860 are found. The second topographical type is characterized by the existence of an uno...

  4. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of ...

  5. Experimental study of neutron-rich nuclei near the N = 82 closed shell using the 4096Zr+50124Sn reaction with GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution an experimental study of the deep-inelastic reaction 4096Zr+50124Sn at 530 MeV, using the GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays, is presented. The experiments populate a wealth of projectile-like and target-like binary fragments, in a large neutron-rich region around N ≥ 50 and Z ≈ 40. Preliminary results on the study of the yrast and near-yrast states for 95Nb will be shown, along with a comparison of the experimental yields obtained in the experiments

  6. Estudio clínico, epidemiológico y etiopatogénico de las cardiopatías congénitas en Villa Clara

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Ruíz, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de caracterizar la prevalencia, el comportamiento clínico y la supervivencia de las cardiopatías congénitas así como variables epidemiológicas de riesgo asociadas, con un alcance preventivo, entre 2000 y 2008 en Villa Clara. La muestra para el estudio clínico fue de 371 productos nacidos vivos con una cardiopatía congénita diagnosticada antes de los 28 días, nacidos muertos, abortos espontáneos e interrupciones de la gestación de causa genética....

  7. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  8. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background

  9. Facoemulsificação por córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo Phacoemulsification using clear cornea incision in steepest meridian

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Pistarini Gonçalves; Antonio Carlos Lottelli Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da facoemulsificação com incisão em córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo sobre a magnitude do astigmatismo ceratométrico pré-operatório. Mapear a magnitude do astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido por incisões nas posições nasal (N), temporal (T), temporal superior (TS) e temporal inferior (TI). MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo ceratométrico prospectivo em 48 olhos de 48 pacientes, submetidos a facoemulsificação com incisão do meridiano mais curvo. As medidas ceratomét...

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA ACCIDENTALIDAD VEHICULAR Y ANÁLISIS DE LAS CAUSAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE VILLA CLARA, CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    RENÉ A. GARCÍA DEPESTRE; DELGADO MARTÍNEZ, DOMINGO E.; DÍAZ GARCÍA, EDUARDO E.; GARCÍA ARMENTEROS, RENÉ R.

    2012-01-01

    La investigación que se presenta tiene como objeto de estudio las carreteras rurales de interés nacional en la provincia de Villa Clara, localizada en la región central de Cuba, con el propósito de analizar la seguridad vial en los tramos que componen dicha red. Se realiza la caracterización de la accidentalidad vehicular, mediante un procedimiento que contempla cinco aspectos e incluye la determinación de un orden de peligrosidad. Además, se determina la influencia de cada uno de los element...

  11. Caracterización de la acidentalidad vehicular y análisis de las causas en la provincia de villa clara, cuba

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA DEPESTRE, RENÉ A. ANTONIO; DELGADO MARTÍNEZ, DOMINGO E.; DÍAZ GARCÍA, EDUARDO E.; GARCÍA ARMENTEROS, RENÉ R.

    2012-01-01

    La investigación que se presenta tiene como objeto de estudio las carreteras rurales de interés nacional en la provincia de Villa Clara, localizada en la región central de Cuba, con fines de analizar la seguridad vial en los tramos que componen la red de carreteras. Se realiza la caracterización de la accidentalidad vehicular, para lo que se propone un procedimiento que contempla cinco aspectos e incluye la determinación de un orden de peligrosidad. Además se determina la influencia de cada u...

  12. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  13. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  14. The use of multiple endpoints to assess cellular responses to environmental contaminants in the interstitial marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Sforzini, S; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of investigations on the suitability of Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, to be used as model organism in ecotoxicology and thereafter to evaluate the toxicity of estuarine and coastal sediments upon laboratory exposure. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have resulted in accumulation of metals and organic pollutants in the environment as well as in the food chain hence leading to serious ecological and human health problems. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial to discover toxicity tests that will identify adverse effects of sediment-associated chemicals on benthic organisms. Due to their nature as a eukaryotic cell/organism and their position in the food web, ciliated protozoa are suitable models for evaluating the effects of pollution on aquatic communities. Lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to inorganic and organic pollutants were tested on the cell mortality, replication rate, lysosomal membrane stability and endocytosis rate of E. crassus. Increasing nominal concentrations of individual and mixtures of mercury, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene were investigated in this study as they might be bioavailable in naturally occurring polluted sites. A significant decrease in the mean replication rate (ppollutants. At the same time, significant decreases of lysosomal membrane stability (ppollutants were performed showing both inorganic-organic and inorganic-inorganic additive and/or antagonist effects. Moreover, medium salinity was also varied to mimic estuarine-like environmental conditions linking biological response to ionic strengths. Under these conditions significant increases of both endocytosis rate and lysosomal membrane stability were observed and related to the increment of some Hg- and Cu-related toxic complexes. The studied biomarkers were always able to discriminate between the effects of organic and inorganic pollutants. Together with the short time and simplicity of

  15. Estudio de la resistencia a compresión simple del adobe elaborado con suelos procedentes de Crescencio Valdés, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso, I. J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the resistance to simple compression of the adobe bricks with building purposes. The study was carried out with various clay soils from Crescencio Valdés village, municipality of Camajuaní, Villa Clara, Cuba. In order to select the best soils to construction we have considered 1 MPa (10 kg/cm2 as minimum resistance to simple compression. So the soils that do not verify that requirement have been improved only by adding sand.En este artículo se estudia la resistencia a compresión simple que presenta el adobe elaborado con diferentes suelos procedentes del pueblo de Crescencio Valdés, situado en el municipio de Camajuaní, Villa Clara, Cuba. Se valora la idoneidad de la utilización de cada suelo estudiado bajo la premisa de alcanzar con el adobe elaborado una resistencia a compresión simple de 1 MPa (10 kg/cm2, ya que dicho adobe será utilizado posteriormente para edificación en dicho pueblo

  16. Geología y registros magnéticos entre arroyo La Tapera y Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Bidegain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios paleomagnéticos se realizaron en secuencias del Pleistoceno-Holoceno del sector comprendido entre el arroyo La Tapera y Santa Clara del Mar, en Mar del Plata. Los sedimentos de la base de los perfiles en el arroyo La Tapera y en Camet, que se interpreta pertenecen a la Formación Ensenada, contienen direcciones de polaridad reversa y se asignan al cron Matuyama. Las capas sedimentarias de la base del perfil de Santa Clara del Mar, solo presentan direcciones de polaridad normal, por consiguiente toda la secuencia sedimentaria de esta localidad se asigna al cron Brunhes, (< 0,78 Ma. Los registros de susceptibilidad magnética siguen el patrón de los perfiles realizados en el plateau de loess de Argentina. Los valores más bajos de susceptibilidad corresponden a mayor grado de pedogénesis y meteorización más intensa. Las titanomagnetitas acarreadas por el viento en los períodos glaciares (más secos, son las portadoras principales de la remanencia y responden por los registros magnéticos más elevados que se obtienen en las capas menos meteorizadas.

  17. Tem orixá no samba: Clara Nunes e a presença do candomblé e da umbanda na música popular brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Rua Baptista Bakke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas informações sobre as religiões afro-brasileiras (candomblé e umbanda nos chegam por meios como a indústria fonográfica, o rádio e a televisão. Nesse cenário, a música popular brasileira (MPB ocupa importante papel de divulgadora dessa religiosidade. Em vista disso, nesse trabalho procuro interpretar os modos pelos quais os valores dessas religiões aparecem na MPB tendo como campo empírico a produção artística de Clara Nunes (análise de letra de música, da performance em shows, clipes e apresentações em programas de TV, assim como dos símbolos escolhidos na divulgação de seu trabalho, presentes em encartes e capas de LPs.Information about Afro-Brazilian religions (candomblé and umbanda often reaches the general public through the phonographic industry, radio and television. Brazilian Popular Music (MPB is also an important source of information about these religions. For this reason this paper attempts to interpret the ways in which the values from these religions appear on MPB, having as an empirical field the artistic production of Clara Nunes (analyzes of lyrics, performances in concerts, video clips and appearances in TV shows, as well as the symbols chosen to disseminate her work, shown in LP covers and inner-sleeves.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA ACCIDENTALIDAD VEHICULAR Y ANÁLISIS DE LAS CAUSAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE VILLA CLARA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENÉ A. GARCÍA DEPESTRE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que se presenta tiene como objeto de estudio las carreteras rurales de interés nacional en la provincia de Villa Clara, localizada en la región central de Cuba, con el propósito de analizar la seguridad vial en los tramos que componen dicha red. Se realiza la caracterización de la accidentalidad vehicular, mediante un procedimiento que contempla cinco aspectos e incluye la determinación de un orden de peligrosidad. Además, se determina la influencia de cada uno de los elementos componentes del sistema de seguridad vial en la accidentalidad y su interrelación. El área de estudio es la provincia de Villa Clara, para la cual se particulariza en el aporte a la inseguridad vial, de los elementos relativos a la carretera, a partir del análisis de los modelos de reportes de accidentes de tránsito en tres momentos, contribuyendo de esta forma con la propuesta medidas, regulaciones o acciones de conservación a favor de la disminución de los accidentes de tránsito, como resultado de un mayor conocimiento de sus causas.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy and recording of the physiological activity of tracheal ciliated cells treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea was irradiated with daily fractions of 2 Gy to an accumulated dose of 20 Gy. The beat frequency of the cilia was recorded and specimens were taken for SEM-, TEM- and LM-investigations. Examination was made 1-10 days after each fractionation schedule. An increased ciliary beat frequency was recorded at 2 Gy and 4 Gy. With increasing dose, there was an inverted relationship to the frequency. Light-microscopy showed edema and an increased amount of goblet cells in relation to the increasing dose. With SEM an increased number of ciliary blebs could be seen. These could be classified according to size and number, and showed a positive correlation to the dose. TEM-investigations showed signs of increased intracellular activity at higher doses in the form of multilobulated nuclei and an increasing number of nuclear pores. At lower doses, an increased amount of mitochondria appeared in the apical part of the cell. It is at present difficult to evaluate any correlation between the physiological activity and the morphology. More biological data are needed to explain the early irradiation effects

  20. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes. PMID:26204556

  1. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean. PMID:27547525

  2. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  3. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  4. Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation within the ciliate genus Spirostomum (Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora, Heterotrichea), using the internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Vďačný, Peter; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2016-09-01

    Morphological and molecular delimitation of Spirostomum species is currently under debate. We addressed species boundaries within the genus Spirostomum, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the secondary structure of the ITS2 molecule, and 18S and 28S (D1D2) sequences additionally. The Spirostomum ITS region is among the shortest within the ciliates hitherto studied. The Spirostomum ITS2 molecule matches the "ring model", but exhibits only two helices radiating from a common loop. According to comparative analyses, they very likely correspond to helices II and III of other eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region revealed a complex genealogical structure within the genus Spirostomum. However, boundaries among Spirostomum species could not be unambiguously determined either by phylogenetic trees, networks or sequence divergence cutoffs, because ITS2 sequences transcended species boundaries of the following morphospecies: S. ambiguum, S. minus, S. subtilis and S. teres. According to molecular diversity analysis, this is very likely caused by polymorphism in S. minus and S. teres, and by the lack of variability in S. ambiguum and S. subtilis. No compensatory base changes (CBCs) were detected in helices of the ITS2 molecule between different Spirostomum species, documenting that CBC analysis per se is not able to effectively discriminate Spirostomum species. PMID:27261253

  5. Notes on Two Marine Ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dapeng; SONG Weibo; HU Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50 -60) μm × (30 -40)μm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28 -31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60) μm × (30-45) μm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15μm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  6. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety. Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

  7. Multigene-based analyses on evolutionary phylogeny of two controversial ciliate orders: Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A; Song, Weibo

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among members of the ciliate subclass Scuticociliatia (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) are largely unresolved. Phylogenetic studies of its orders Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida were initially based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU-rDNA) analyses of a limited number of taxa. Here we characterized 37 sequences (SSU-rDNA, ITS-5.8S and LSU-rDNA) from 21 taxonomically controversial members of these orders. Phylogenetic trees constructed to assess the inter- and intra-generic relationships of pleuronematids and loxocephalids reveal the following: (1) the order Loxocephalida and its two families Loxocephalidae and Cinetochilidae are not monophyletic when more taxa are added; (2) the core pleuronematids are divided into two fully supported clades, however, the order Pleuronematida is not monophyletic because Cyclidium glaucoma is closer to Thigmotrichida; (3) the family Pleuronematidae and the genus Schizocalyptra are monophyletic, though rDNA sequences of Pleuronema species are highly variable; (4) Pseudoplatynematum and Sathrophilus are closely related to the subclass Astomatia, while Cinetochilum forms a monophyletic group with the subclass Apostomatia; and (5) Hippocomos falls in the order Pleuronematida and is closely related to Eurystomatellidae and Cyclidium plouneouri. Further, in an effort to provide a better resolution of evolutionary relationships, the secondary structures of ITS2 transcripts and the variable region 4 (V4) of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) are predicted, revealing that ITS2 structures are conserved at the order level while V4 region structures are more variable than ITS2 structures. PMID:23541839

  8. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Yi, Zhenzhen; Xu, Dapeng; Clamp, John C; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence. PMID:26121340

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate class Heterotrichea (Protista, Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora) inferred from multiple molecular markers and multifaceted analysis strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Vd'ačný, Peter; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2014-09-01

    The ciliate class Heterotrichea is defined by somatic dikinetids bearing postciliodesmata, by an oral apparatus consisting of a paroral membrane and an adoral zone of membranelles, as well as by features of nuclear division involving extramacronuclear microtubules. Although phylogenetic interrelationships among heterotrichs have been analyzed several times, deeper nodes of the heterotrichean tree of life remain poorly resolved. To cast more light on the evolutionary history of heterotricheans, we performed phylogenetic analyses of multiple loci (18S rRNA gene, ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region, and 28S rRNA gene) using traditional tree-building phylogenetic methods and statistical tree topology tests as well as phylogenetic networks, split spectrum analysis and quartet likelihood mapping. This multifaceted approach has shown that (1) Peritromus is very likely an adelphotaxon of all other heterotrichs; (2) Spirostomum and Anigsteinia are sister taxa and their common monophyletic origin is strongly supported by a uniquely posteriorly-thickened paroral membrane; (3) the monotypic family Chattonidiidae should be suppressed because its type genus clusters within the family Condylostomatidae; and (4) new families are needed for Gruberia and Fabrea because their affiliation with Spirostomidae and Climacostomidae, respectively, is not supported by molecular phylogenies nor the fine structure of the paroral membrane. PMID:24859684

  10. Social information from immigrants: multiple immigrant-based sources of information for dispersal decisions in a ciliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Staffan; Chaine, Alexis S; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Huet, Michèle; Clobert, Jean

    2015-09-01

    1. Dispersal is increasingly recognized as being an informed process, based on information organisms obtain about the landscape. While local conditions are often found to drive dispersal decisions, local context is not always a reliable predictor of conditions in neighbouring patches, making the use of local information potentially useless or even maladaptive. In this case, using social information gathered by immigrants might allow adjusting dispersal decisions without paying the costs of prospecting. However, this hypothesis has been largely neglected despite its major importance for ecological and evolutionary processes. 2. We investigated three fundamental questions about immigrant-informed dispersal: Do immigrants convey information that influences dispersal, do organisms use multiple cues from immigrants, and is immigrant-informed dispersal genotype dependent? 33. Using Tetrahymena thermophila ciliates in microcosms, we manipulated the number of immigrants arriving, the density of congeners, the resource quality in neighbouring patches, matrix characteristics and the level of cooperation of individuals in the neighbouring populations. 4. We provide the first experimental evidence that immigrants convey a number of different cues about neighbouring patches and matrix (patch quality, matrix characteristics and cooperation in neighbouring populations) in this relatively simple organism. Furthermore, we demonstrate genotype-dependent immigrant-informed dispersal decisions about patch quality and matrix characteristics. 5. Multiple cues from immigrants and genotype-dependent use of cues have major implications for theoretical metapopulation dynamics and the potential for local adaptation. PMID:25902764

  11. Un monestir a la cruïlla. Els inventaris de sagristia del monestir de Sant Antoni i Santa Clara de Barcelona (1389-1461

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jornet Benito, Núria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of Santa Clara and San Antonio in Barcelona was the first community of the Order of St. Clare in Catalonia. The present article reveals the wealth of its sacristy inventories as first-class historical sources. The study illustrates the special characteristics of the series of documents in the monastery’s archives: its authorship (by female sacristans as well as the main types of items inventoried and described (liturgical clothing and ornaments, jewelry, works of art, books .... The ensemble provides a rich perspective on female monastic culture with regard to its involvement in liturgy, sacred imagery and written culture. One of the outstanding results is an appreciation of the careful and detailed functional design applied by the community of nuns to each item, to keep track of time and the liturgical calendar, as well as to manage and live their relationship with the outside world.[ca] En el present article es posa al descobert la riquesa com a font històrica de primer ordre dels inventaris de sagristia del monestir de Sant Antoni i Santa Clara de Barcelona, primera comunitat de l’orde de Santa Clara en terres catalanes. L’estudi ens acosta a les particularitats d’aquesta sèrie documental en el seu fons arxivístic, la seva autoria (el càrrec de sagristana, així com a les principals tipologies de béns inventariats i descrits (parament i vestimenta litúrgica, orfebreria, obres d’art, llibres.... El conjunt permet donar una imatge rica de la cultura monàstica femenina, en l’acompanyament de la litúrgia, en la imatgeria sagrada, en la cultura escrita. Entre els resultats, sobresurt, la concepció funcional, curosa i detallada que la comunitat de germanes féu de cada peça, a l’hora de marcar el temps i el calendari litúrgic, com també a l’hora de gestionar i viure el dins/fora, la relació amb l’exterior.

  12. Pequenas Parmelia S.L. (Líquens: Ascomycotina ciliadas dos cerrados brasileiros Little ciliate Parmeliae in the brazilian cerradoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi baseado em coletas realizadas em todos os tipos estruturais de cerrado, incluindo formações de altitude e rochosas. São apresentadas descrições detalhadas, chave de identificação e ilustrações das espécies de Bulboíhrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 e Hypotrachyna (3 encontradas. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli e B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli são descritas como novas. E feita a combinação nova Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale é nova para o Brasil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale e Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale são novas para o Continente Americano. Há um grande número de primeiras citações para vários estados e várias segundas referências para o Brasil.This work deals with species of the lichen genera Bulboihrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 and Hypotrachyna (3 (ciliate species growing in the brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. All types of cerradoes were investigated, since almost open fields to forestal formations and including altitude rock fields, gallery forests and others placed inside cerrado areas. Altogether 30 species were found and are described in detail. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli and B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli are new species. The new combination Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli is done. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale is new for Brazil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale and Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale are new for the American Continent.

  13. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  14. Mating of the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax induces production of a class of 27 nt small RNAs derived from the parental macronucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Zahler

    Full Text Available Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28-29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2'O-methylation at their 3' ends. We propose models for the role of these "27macRNAs" in macronuclear development.

  15. Identification of cAMP-dependent phosphorylated proteins involved in the formation of environment-resistant resting cysts by the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogame

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus, an elevation of the intracellular cAMP concentration was reported to be involved in environment-resistant resting cyst formation. In the present study, cAMP-dependently phosphorylated proteins of encystment-induced C. cucullus were isolated with Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads and subsequent SDS-PAGE. In a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these phosphoproteins, 27-, 37- and 43-kDa proteins (p27, p37 and p43 were identified as Rieske iron-sulfur protein, histone H4 (hyperacetylated form, and actin, respectively.

  16. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  17. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  18. Caballos de tracción de la Ciudad De Santa Clara, Cuba. II Algunos parámetros hematológicos (

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    Julio C. Castillo1, Omelio Cepero,1Reinaldo Quiñones,1

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio hematológico en100 caballos machos castradosseleccionados al azar utilizados en eltransporte local de pasajeros en laciudad de Santa Clara, Cuba. Lahemoglobina se determinó por latécnica de la ciano-metahemoglobinapor espectrofotometría, el volumenglobular agregado por la técnica delmicrohematocrito y el total de glóbulosblancos por recuento en la cámara deNeubauer. El 52% de los equinospresentaron valores de hemoglobinaentre 70 y 100 /L de sangre, lo que nospermite inferir que presentan un estadoanémico, lo que se corrobora por losvalores del hematocrito entre 0,25 y0,32 L/L en el 45% de los animales. Losvalores promedios de hemoglobina yhematocrito de 100 /L y 0.32 L/Lrespectivamente, coinciden con el límiteinferior de dichos valores reportados enla literatura para los equinos. Losequinos están sometidos a un trabajoexhaustivo y prolongado, que afecta elcorrecto funcionamiento de suorganismo.It was carried out a haematologicalstudy in 100 at random selectedcastrated male horses used in the localtransport of passengers in Santa ClaraCity, Cuba. The haemoglobin wasdetermined by cyanomethahaemoglobintechnique by meansof a spectrophotometer. The addedglobular volume and the total of whitecells were determined by the techniqueof micro haemathocrit and by countingin Neubauer’s chambers respectively.The 52% of the horses presentedhaemoglobin values between 70 and100 /L of blood, which allows us to inferthat they present an anemic state,which is corroborated by thehaemathocrit values between 0.25 and0.32 L/L in 45% of the animals. Theaverage values of haemoglobin andhaemathocrit of 100 g /L and 0.32 L/Lrespectively, coincides with the lowestlimit of these values reported in theliterature for horses. The horses aresubjected to an exhaustive and longwork that affects the correct of their

  19. PLANTAS UTILIZADAS EN ALIMENTACIÓN HUMANA POR AGRICULTORES MESTIZOS Y KICHWAS EN LOS CANTONES SANTA CLARA, MERA Y PASTAZA, PROVINCIA DE PASTAZA, ECUADOR

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    Ricardo V. Abril Saltos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en la provincia de Pastaza, Ecuador, su objetivo fue identificar las principales especies vegetales utilizadas en alimentación humana, en las explotaciones agropecuarias de los cantones Pastaza, Mera y Santa Clara, comparando su frecuencia de reporte en función del cantón y etnia del productor, para lo cual se elaboró una encuesta, que consta de aspectos de identificación de los agricultores, plantas utilizadas en alimentación humana y sus formas de usos, la cual fue aplicada a 214 productores en la provincia, correspondiente al 30 % de productores identificados. A nivel global, se reportaron 59 especies, teniendo por cantón 32 especies en Pastaza, 16 en Mera y 56 en Santa Clara, en función de la etnia del productor se reportaron 44 especies utilizadas por mestizos y 46 especies utilizadas por Kichwas. Se obtuvo 33 familias botánicas, siendo Solanaceae y Arecaceae las que mayor número de especies reportan. El análisis de frecuencia de reportes, a través de cuadros de contingencia, con respecto al cantón y etnia del productor, presentó diferencias significativas en el valor de P para los estadísticos Chi cuadrado de Pearson y Chi cuadrado MV-G2. El análisis de comparación de proporciones mostró nueve especies, siendo las más destacadas Musa spSchott, Manihot esculenta Crantz L. y Colocasia esculenta (L.. Se concluye que en la zona existe diversidad en el uso de plantas para la alimentación humana, en la cual su variabilidad está influenciada por los componentes cantón y etnia del productor.

  20. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts. PMID:27460894

  1. Efeitos de doses e formas de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento em uvas sem sementes, cv. BRS Clara, em região tropical Effects of plant growth regulators for growth in seedless grape, cv. BRS Clara, in tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Teodoro de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso dos reguladores vegetais, ácido giberélico e tidiazuron, no tamanho de bagas da cultivar BRS Clara em Região Tropical. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em 2006 e 2007, na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, em Jales-SP, região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, em plantas da cv. BRS Clara. Foram testadas diferentes concentrações de GA3 aplicadas isoladamente, combinadas com Crop Set ou tidiazuron, em aplicações únicas ou sequênciais (2 e 4 vezes. As avaliações foram feitas por ocasião da maturação das uvas, considerando-se a massa fresca dos cachos, dos engaços e das bagas, determinadas por meio de balança analítica; o comprimento e o diâmetro médio das bagas, utilizando-se de paquímetro; e o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, por meio de refratômetro manual. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, representados por uma planta, com 15 repetições, no ano de 2006, e 10 repetições, no ano de 2007. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para a comparação das médias dos tratamentos, foi utilizado o teste Skott Nott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Observou-se que o uso dos reguladores promoveu o crescimento das bagas na cultivar BRS Clara em todos os tratamentos, diferindo da testemunha.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and thidiazuron about the size of the berries BRS Clara in Tropical Region. The experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007, in the Experimental Station of Tropical Viticulture in Jales, SP, northwestern state of São Paulo. Were tested different concentrations of GA3 applied in isolation, combined with Crop set and thidiazuron, in single or sequential applications (2 and 4 times. The assessments were made during the ripening of the grapes, considering the masses of fresh bunch of rachis and berry, determined

  2. Programación del riego de la papa en el “Valle del Yabú”, Santa Clara, Cuba.

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    B. Job

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to study the applied irrigation scheduling of the potato during two crop cycles (2009 -2009/10 in Cooperative No. 2 in the Yabú Valley of Santa Clara. Also to carry out corrections required in order to establish a scientifically based irrigation program. In the first crop cycle it was proven that the timing of irrigation application and the amount of water applied did not meet the technical criteria but was dependant on the decisions taken by persons with practical experience in relation to this activity and the programming of irrigation characterized by the application of small depths of irrigation which did not moisten below 20 cm of soil depth in a way which the irrigation interfered with the cultural and chemical processes and left the soil with a hydric deficit. In both crops tension meter were placed at 20 and 40 soil depth, taking periodic measurement of humidity and daily measurements of soil and balance water, because of this the number of irrigation was reduce during the second crop cycle.El objetivo del presente trabajo, ejecutado durante dos cosechas 2009 y 2009-10 fue estudiar la programación del riego de la papa que se realiza en la Unidad Cooperativa No.2 del “Valle del Yabú” de Santa Clara y realizar correcciones para lograr el establecimiento de una programación de riego científicamente fundamentada. En la primera cosecha, se comprobó que el momento de aplicación del riego y el volumen de agua aportado no obedecían a criterios técnicos, sino que dependían de decisiones empíricas de las personas que se relacionaban con esta actividad y la programación del riego se caracterizaba por aplicar muy pequeñas láminas de agua que no lograban humedecer 20 cm de profundidad de suelo, de modo que, el riego obstaculizaba las labores fitosanitarias y culturales y dejaba el suelo con déficit hídrico. En ambas cosechas, se colocaron tensiómetros a 20 y 40 cm de profundidad del suelo

  3. Diagnóstico mediante técnicas de ultrasonidos del forjado de madera del refectorio del Convento de Santa Clara en Carmona (Sevilla

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    Pérez Gálvez, Filomena

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic tests are an effective technique of getting adiagnosis of timber structures in historical buildings. Thistechnique is quite valuable to undertake a restoration job. Anew methodology of analysis and diagnosis of timber roofsthrough this non destructive technique is presented.The aim of this article is to get the state of damage and thebending strenght capacity of the timber roof of the Monasteryof Santa Clara in Carmona (Seville dining´s room by usingthis technology.From the results obtained about the bending strenghtcapacity of the studied beams, it can be affirmed that thetimber roof is not able to support safely enough the new useproposed.Considering the historic and artistic importance of thistimber roof, we propose as a restoration methodology basedon hanging the roof through bolts from a reinforced concreteplatform built-in the perimeter walls. This solutionguarantees that the timber roof does not work, just adjustingthe distance between the bolts.Los métodos de ultrasonidos son una técnica eficaz para eldiagnóstico de elementos estructurales de madera enedificios antiguos. Esta técnica proporciona una gran ayudaa la hora de acometer una obra de rehabilitación. Sepresenta una metodología de análisis y diagnostico deforjados de madera mediante dicha técnica no destructiva.El objetivo de este artículo es obtener el grado de deterioro yla capacidad resistente de la madera del alfarje delrefectorio del Convento de Santa Clara en Carmona (Sevillautilizando la metodología propuesta.Por extrapolación de los resultados obtenidos sobre lacapacidad resistente de las vigas estudiadas se puedeconcluir que el conjunto del forjado no es capaz de soportarcon seguridad suficiente el nuevo uso propuesto.Teniendo en cuenta el valor histórico artístico del alfarje sepropone y aporta como solución de rehabilitación laconsistente en colgar el forjado existente mediante pernos deuna losa de hormigón armado empotrada en los

  4. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

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    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  5. Polydatin up-regulates clara cell secretory protein to suppress phospholipase A2 of lung induced by LPS in vivo and in vitro

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    Jie Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The damage to membrane phospholipids leads to the collapse of the bronchial alveolar epithelial barrier during acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, plays an important traumatic role in pulmonary inflammation, and Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP is an endogenous inhibitor of PLA2. Our previous study showed that polydatin (PD, a monocrystalline extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb (Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb, et Zucc, reduced PLA2 activity and sPLA2-IIA mRNA expression and mitigated LPS-induced lung injury. However, the potential mechanism for these effects has not been well defined. We have continued to investigate the effect of PD on LPS-induced expression of CCSP mRNA and protein in vivo and in vitro. Results Our results suggested that the CCSP mRNA level was consistent with its protein expression. CCSP expression was decreased in lung after LPS challenge. In contrast, PD markedly increased CCSP expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, CCSP expression in PD-pretreated rat lung was higher than in rats receiving only PD treatment. Conclusion These results indicated that up-regulation of CCSP expression causing inhibition of PLA2 activation may be one of the crucial protective mechanisms of PD in LPS-induced lung injury.

  6. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Punzo Díaz; Juan Morales; Avto Goguitchaichvili

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados de dataciones para objetos arqueológicos metálicos en Mesoamérica. A través del análisis arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente; pudiendo determinar la presencia de esta tecnología de fundición desde los últimos cien años antes de la llegada de los españoles, durante el esplendor del Señorío...

  7. Representasi Gaya Hidup Wanita Metropolis Dalam Novel (Analisis Wacana Teun A. Van Dijk Mengenai Representasi Gaya Hidup Wanita Metropolis Dalam Novel Indiana Chronicles “Blues” Karya Clara Ng)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatika, Khairia

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul “Representasi Gaya Hidup Wanita Dalam Novel” (Analisis Wacana Teun A. van Dijk Mengenai Representasi Gaya Hidup Wanita Metropolis Dalam Novel Indiana Cronicle Blues Karya Clara Ng). Gaya hidup adalah pola hidup seseorang di dunia yang merupakan ciri sebuah dunia modern, atau yang biasa juga disebut modernitas. Kebutuhan akan status dan terpaan budaya asing ini mengakibatkan merebaknya gaya hidup metropolis yang cenderung permisif dan mengedepankan kemewahan daripada ke...

  8. Qualidade da água durante a formação de lagos profundos em cavas de mineração: estudo de caso do lago de Águas Claras - MG Water quality during the filling of deep mining lakes: case study of Aguas Claras pit lake - MG

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    Eduardo von Sperling

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta os resultados do monitoramento de qualidade da água durante o processo inicial de formação do Lago de Águas Claras, cuja gênese é decorrente do enchimento da cava exaurida de uma mineração de ferro. Em sua configuração final o lago possuirá uma área de 0,7 km² e uma profundidade máxima de 234 m, o que o posicionaria atualmente como o ambiente hídrico mais profundo do país. Constata-se o predomínio de uma boa qualidade de água, com baixo grau de mineralização, excelentes condições de oxigenação e ausência de contaminação orgânica e mineral. No aspecto hidrobiológico destaca-se a frequente alternância no predomínio de grupos algais, indicando a instabilidade de ecossistemas que se encontram em processo de formação.The paper presents the results of a broad monitoring program carried out during the beginning of the filling process of Lake Aguas Claras, Brazil. This lake was created after the exhaustion of an iron ore mining activity. In its final conformation the lake will have a surface area of 0,7 km² and the maximum depth of 234 m, which will make it the deepest lake in the country. The results of a two years monitoring program show the prevalence of good water quality (well oxygenated, low degree of mineralization, absence of organic and mineral contamination, but also a quite interesting shift in the dominance of phytoplanktonic groups, indicating the high instability of lakes that are undergoing a process of formation.

  9. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Punzo Díaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados de dataciones para objetos arqueológicos metálicos en Mesoamérica. A través del análisis arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente; pudiendo determinar la presencia de esta tecnología de fundición desde los últimos cien años antes de la llegada de los españoles, durante el esplendor del Señorío Tarasco, hasta adentrado el siglo XVIII, cuando nuevas tecnologías y una producción masiva de cobre se desarrollaron en todos los territorios bajo el dominio español. ENGLISH: This paper presents the first magnetic dating of metal items in Mesoamerica. The archaeomagnetic analysis of the slags, the residual product of the copper smelting process from seven archaeological sites near the town of Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán State, made it possible to estimate their production time. The results obtained thus far suggest the presence of smelting technology in this area 100 years before the Spanish conquest, synchronous of apogee of the Tarascan Señorio, until the XVIII century when the development of new technologies and a massive production of copper occurred in whole territories under the Spanish dominance.

  10. Redescriptions of three trachelocercid ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with notes on their phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xu, Yuan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Warren, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Kovalevaia sulcata (Kovaleva, 1966) Foissner, 1997, Trachelocerca sagitta (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1840 and Trachelocerca ditis (Wright, 1982) Foissner, 1996, isolated from two coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Data on their infraciliature and morphology are supplied. The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes of K. sulcata and Trachelocerca sagitta were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that both organisms, and the previously sequenced Trachelocerca ditis, are located within the trachelocercid assemblage and that K. sulcata is sister to an unidentified taxon forming a clade that is basal to the core trachelocercids. PMID:23847285

  11. Incidencia de las cardiopatías congénitas en el menor de un año. Villa Clara, 1998 -2002

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    Eusebio del Mar Martín Delgado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se evaluó la incidencia de cardiopatías congénitas en 50.432 recién nacidos vivos en el período entre 1/1/1998 a 31/12/2002 en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba. Métodos: En todos los niños que se sospechó clínicamente la existencia de cardiopatía congénita se les realizó ecocardiograma. El cateterismo cardíaco y el tratamiento quirúrgico se realizó por determinación del cardiólogo pediatra del paciente. Se realizó necropsia a todos los fallecidos. Los niños con cardiopatía congénita fueron registrados en una base de datos computarizada y fueron seguidos durante su primer año de vida. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 466 niños con cardiopatía congénita de un total de 50.432 para una incidencia de 9.24/1.000 nacidos vivos cercano a lo estimado mundialmente. Conclusiones: Esta incidencia se debe a la estructura y funcionamiento de nuestra red cardiopediátrica donde son evaluados todos los pacientes sospechosos y enviados a la consulta provincial de cardiología pediátrica y seguidos por el mismo grupo, los servicios gratuitos de salud y el examen ecocardiográfico a todo niño con diagnóstico clínico de cardiopatía congénita. La persistencia del conducto arterioso y la comunicación interventricular tuvieron una elevada incidencia debido a su temprano diagnóstico antes de su cierre espontáneo.Background: We surveyed the incidence of congenital Heart disease en 50432 native live born children en the period between 1/1/98 to 31/12/2002 in Villa Clara, Cuba. Methods: Each child with clinically suspected congenital heart disease underwent echocardiographic examination. Cardiac cauterization and surgical intervention were carried out at the discretion of the patient's pediatric cardiologist. All postmortem examinations were performed. Children with congenital heart disease were registered in a computerized database and followed up for a year. Result: Congenital heart disease was diagnosed in 466 of the 50432

  12. Evolução da maturação da uva 'BRS Clara' sob cultivo protegido durante a safra fora de época

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    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas para mesa vem passando por alguns desafios que demandam alterações nas tecnologias de produção, devido, principalmente, à intensa necessidade de controle de doenças fúngicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento da evolução da maturação da uva 'BRS Clara' enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 766 'Campinas', sob cultivo protegido produzida em safra fora de época. Os experimentos foram realizados em Uraí e Marialva (PR. Foram avaliadas semanalmente as características químicas das bagas, como teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, índice de maturação e pH, a partir do início da maturação até a colheita, em dois sistemas de cultivo protegido: cobertura plástica e sombrite. O delineamento experimental adotado em ambas as áreas foi o inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. A evolução da maturação nos dois sistemas de cultivo protegido foi comparada por meio da análise de regressão. Em ambas as áreas experimentais, a cobertura plástica possibilitou a antecipação da colheita das uvas em seis dias em relação ao sombrite, considerando o teor de sólidos solúveis. Não houve influência da cobertura plástica sobre o índice de maturação das uvas.

  13. ¿Favoritas de la corona? Los amores del rey y la promoción de la orden de Santa Clara en Castilla (ss. XIII-XIV

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    Graña Cid, María del Mar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of female mendicant houses by the kings of Castile offers a typology of “partnering foundations” associated with women. Alfonso X and Pedro I collaborated with their lovers, Mayor Guillén and María de Padilla, and the latter also with his daughters, Beatriz and Isabel, in order to create monasteries of the Order of Saint Clare or its previous forms. These pages analyse the foundational processes that connect the familiar with the political and the personal, offer visible forms of interaction between sexes and reveal some of the physiognomies adopted by the nuns that constituted an exclusively female religious order in which women acted as its main historical agents.En la política de promoción de las monjas mendicantes que desarrollaron los reyes de Castilla se percibe una tipología de “fundaciones en relación” con mujeres. Alfonso X y Pedro I colaboraron con sus amantes, Mayor Guillén y María de Padilla, y el segundo también con sus hijas, Beatriz e Isabel, para dar origen a monasterios de la Orden de Santa Clara o de sus formas previas. Estas páginas analizan unos procesos de fundación que enlazan lo personal y lo familiar con lo político, visibilizan formas de interacción entre los sexos y desvelan algunas de las fisonomías adoptadas por las religiosas que constituyeron la institución clarisa, una orden religiosa exclusivamente femenina en la que tuvieron gran peso las mujeres como agentes históricos.

  14. CARCINOMA ODONTOGÉNICO DE CELULAS CLARAS. ESTUDIO CLÍNICO, RADIOLÓGICO Y PATOLÓGICO DE UN CASO.

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    Rosaura Rodríguez Flores

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores odontogénicos (TO son un grupo complejo y poco frecuente de neoplasias con características clínicas, radiológicas, histopatológicas y evolución muy variables. El Carcinoma odontogénico de células claras (COCC es una neoplasia maligna, de comportamiento agresivo variable que se presenta en maxilares. Histológicamente se constituye de nidos de células, frecuentemente de citoplasma claro, rico en glucógeno, rodeadas por bandas de colágena. Pertenece al grupo de los tumores odontogénicos epiteliales malignos. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 57 años con un tumor en hueso y seno maxilar izquierdo, sometido a hemimaxilectomía subtotal izquierda. Los estudios de imagen demostraron una lesión destructiva mixta en maxilar y seno maxilar izquierdo y la histología reveló la imagen clásica de COCC y la inmunohistoquímica mostró inmunoreactividad para Queratina AE1/AE3, EMA y S-100 (focal. Se demostró abudante glucógeno mediante la reacción de PAS en el citoplasma de las células neoplásicas. El paciente ha tenido seguimiento por 5 años y está asintomático después de la cirugía sin tratamiento complementario con radioterapia.

  15. ‘Long Trudges Through Whitechapel’: The East End of Beatrice Webb’s and Clara Collet’s Social Investigations

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    Gabrielle Mearns

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the uncertain relationship between the East End and the middle-class woman in the late nineteenth century via Beatrice Webb’s article for 'Nineteenth Century', ‘Pages from a Work Girl’s Diary’ (1888, which investigated the working conditions of female ‘trouser hands’ in East London, and the short story ‘Undercurrents’ (1891–94, which was written by Webb’s lesser known contemporary and sometime colleague Clara Collet, and explores a young female philanthropist’s attempts to care for an alcoholic factory girl from the East End. Both Webb’s and Collet’s texts fluctuate between a vision of middle-class women’s slum work rooted in earlier nineteenth-century ideas of feminine purity and ‘influence’, and an increasingly prevalent discourse of the fin de siècle that emphasised ‘scientific’, objective observation of working-class life over personal influence or involvement. Thus although Webb’s and Collet’s careers can be read in terms of a shift away from traditional female philanthropy to scientific social research, this essay argues that ‘Pages from a Work Girl’s Diary’ and ‘Undercurrents’ suggest a far more complex negotiation between the two roles by Webb and Collet when working and writing on the East End in the late 1880s and early 90s. They represent East London as simultaneously receptive to female influence, and yet also ‘doomed’ to degradation according to conventional social science theories of the time.

  16. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model org...

  17. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model orga...

  18. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Robert S; Hannick, Linda; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Jessica B Hostetler; Brami, Daniel; Joardar, Vinita S; Johnson, Justin; Radune, Diana; Singh, Irtisha; Jonathan H Badger; Kumar, Ujjwal; Saier, Milton; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely relat...

  19. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27-55 × 22-36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile "division chain" composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle, suggesting some

  20. HYDRAULICS, SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. Evaluación y modificación del Sistema de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Planta de Matanza del ITCR en Santa Clara, San Carlos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Deloya Martínez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La planta de matanza de ganado vacuno y porcino del ITCR, Sede San Carlos, en Santa Clara, procesa en promedio 23 reses y 11 cerdos por día. El caudal de aguas residuales promedio generado durante el proceso de matanza varió de un máximo de 72 m3/día hasta un mínimo de 12 m3/día. Las aguas residuales son tratadas en un sistema de tratamiento biológico anaerobio, para controlar la contaminación del agua, según el Reglamento de vertido y reúso de aguas residuales. El sistema original consistió en un tanque de aireación y un sedimentador integrado al tanque de aireación. La aireación se suministraba por rotores mecánicos. Durante el desarrollo del proyecto, se encontró que el principal problema en la operación y control del sistema eran los sólidos suspendidos totales y los sólidos sedimentables, no presentándose problemas de calidad del efluente en términos de DBO, DQO y otros parámetros. Para solucionar el problema de los sólidos, en el efluente del sistema de tratamiento se modificó el sistema aerobio existente a un sistema anaerobio (para reducir la producción de sólidos, usando como ayuda del tratamiento un compuesto biológico, que actúa como floculante y coagulante, lo que mejora la sedimentación de los sólidos. Con la modificación del sistema, se alcanzaron eficiencias de remoción de los sólidos sedimentables en un 95%, de la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno DBO en un 83% y la DQO en un 75%, cumpliéndose con la normativa para todos los parámetros exigidos por el Ministerio de Salud.

  2. Clara Schlichtenberger, Die Ordnung der Welt. Die Sammlungs-Grammatik Victor Goldschmidts, des Grunders der völkerkundlichen Sammlung der von Portheim-Stiftung in Heidelberg, und sie seiner Kuratoren

    OpenAIRE

    Langewiesche, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    Dans ce livre issu de sa thèse de doctorat, Clara Schlichtenberger décrit l’œuvre du collectionneur et chercheur Victor Goldschmidt (1853-1933) et l’évolution de la collection ethnographique constituée par ses soins. L’auteur situe son travail dans la lignée théorique de la new museology laquelle analyse, au travers des objets muséologiques, les représentations que nous nous faisons des autres, et partant de nous-mêmes. Elle montre, à travers l’exemple de la collection Goldschmidt, comment la...

  3. Influencia de las claras forestales en los restos leñosos de pino silvestre en un bosque mixto en Aspurz:un enfoque de volumen, biomasa y hábitat de invertebrados

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Álvarez, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    En esta investigación se pretende conocer si la gestión forestal con distintas intensidades de clara (0%, 20% y 40%) influyen en los restos leñosos de un pinar –hayedo de Aspurz (Navarra nor-oriental). Por esta razón se realizaron transectos en línea para conocer el volumen, biomasa y las clases de descomposición presentes de restos leñosos. Adicionalmente, se tomaron muestras de restos leñosos de las clases de descomposición más avanzadas para conocer la comunidad d...

  4. Relato de uma experiência utilizando-se a clara de ovo na dermatite amoniacal no centro de convivência infantil do Instituto "Dante Pazzanese" de cardiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindalva de Jesus da Silva

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available As autoras deste trabalho se propõem mostrar a atuação de clara de ovo nas dermatites amoniacais, em crianças que freqüentam o Centro de Convivência Infantil do Instituto "Dante Pazzanese" de Cardiologia, avaliando a eficácia de sua utilização. Para isso, apresentam 35 casos de assadura ocorridos no período de janeiro a junho de 1988, com resultados satisfatórios.

  5. Facoemulsificação por córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo Phacoemulsification using clear cornea incision in steepest meridian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pistarini Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da facoemulsificação com incisão em córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo sobre a magnitude do astigmatismo ceratométrico pré-operatório. Mapear a magnitude do astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido por incisões nas posições nasal (N, temporal (T, temporal superior (TS e temporal inferior (TI. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo ceratométrico prospectivo em 48 olhos de 48 pacientes, submetidos a facoemulsificação com incisão do meridiano mais curvo. As medidas ceratométricas foram realizadas no pré-operatório e um mês após a realização da cirurgia. O astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi determinado pelo método das coordenadas retangulares em 10 passos, modificado. RESULTADOS: Foram operados 21 olhos direitos e 27 olhos esquerdos e, de acordo com a posição das incisões em córnea clara, foram divididos em: 16 olhos N, 4 olhos T, 22 olhos TS, 6 olhos TI. A média da ametropia cilíndrica pré-operatória foi de 1,06D ± 0,65 e a pós-operatória de 0,89D ± 0,80. Houve diminuição estatisticamente significativa no astigmatismo corneal preexistente (p=0,016. A média total de astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 0,94D ± 0,56. Em relação aos grupos o astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 1,06D ± 0,66 em N, 0,87D ± 0,20 em T, 0,95D ± 0,55 em TS e 0,61D ± 0,25 em TI. Não houve diferença estatística com relação ao astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido nos grupos N, T, TS e TI (p=0,426. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica se mostrou efetiva na redução do astigmatismo ceratométrico pré-operatório. A média do astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 1,06D ± 0,66 em N, 0,95D ± 0,55 em TS, 0,61D ± 0,25 em T e 0,87D ± 0,20 em TI.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of phacoemulsification through clear cornea incision in the steepest meridian (ISM, on the magnitude of preoperative keratometric astigmatism. To map the magnitude of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA by clear cornea incision

  6. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of expression, suggesting different biological roles. In support of this, we show that expression of DRB2 is essential for vegetative growth while DRB1 expression is not. During conjugation, Drb1p and Drb2p localize to distinct nuclear foci. Cells lacking all DRB1 copies are able to produce viable progeny, although at a reduced rate relative to wild-type cells. In contrast, cells lacking germ line DRB2 copies, which thus cannot express Drb2p zygotically, fail to produce progeny, arresting late into conjugation. This arrest phenotype is accompanied by a failure to organize the essential DNA rearrangement protein Pdd1p into DNA elimination bodies and execute DNA elimination and chromosome breakage. These results implicate zygotically expressed Drb2p in the maturation of these nuclear structures, which are necessary for reorganization of the somatic genome. PMID:22021239

  7. 纤毛类原生动物中宿主-共生体系统的研究%Studies on the Host-Symbiont System in Ciliates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾福康; 孙军; 何远; 田沁

    2001-01-01

    目前已经在100多种纤毛虫中观察到细菌、藻类和其他微生物等共生体。对纤毛虫中宿主-共生体系统的研究表明,双小核草履虫中卡巴粒的遗传为细胞质遗传理论提供了例证;含细菌共生体的许多厌氧纤毛虫无线粒体,共生体对宿主代谢有重要作用;尾草履虫-钝状全孢螺菌共生作用中,共生菌感染形式的39kDa、15kDa周质蛋白可分别与IF-3-1、IF-3-2两种单抗反应,其共生体早期感染过程中两种抗原的量发生显著变化,并且共生体生殖 形式选择性地合成63kDa蛋白质,该蛋白质可能是与共生作用有联系的关键分子;绿草履虫-小球藻共生系统中,共生藻中存在葡糖胺硬性壁是其与草履虫发生共生关系的基本条件,其中,共生藻参与宿主代谢,与宿主形成相互受益的专一性关系,并且藻类共生体的作用可能影响了宿主草履虫基因组有关结构,改变了其基因表达。作者推测,探索共生体对宿主基因结构及其表达产物的影响可能是对纤毛虫中共生作用研究的主要趋势,这对于深入了 解真核细胞中宿主-共生体双方的相互作用、物质交流在分子水平上的调控机理、细胞结构与功能的关系等细胞生命活动规律是有意义的。%To date, bacterial,algal and other microbial symbionts have been found in more than 100 species of ciliates. The study of the host-symbiont system in ciliates shows that: ( 1 ) The inheritance of kappa particles in the cytoplasm of Paramecium aurelia is a classic example of the cytoplasmic inheritance theory. (2) Bacterial symbionts in some anerobic ciliates that lack mitochondria play the major role in the host's metabolism. (3) In the P. Caudatum-Holospora obtusa system, 39- and 15-kDa periplasmic pro teins of the infectious H. Obtusa reacted with IF-3-1 and IF-3-2 monoclonal antibodies respectively. The amounts of both antigens were reduced during

  8. Molecular phylogeny and species separation of five morphologically similar Holosticha-complex ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using ARDRA riboprinting and multigene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Jun; Al-Rasheid Khaled, A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    To separate and redefine the ambiguous Holosticha-complex, a confusing group of hypotrichous ciliates, six strains belonging to five morphospecies of three genera, Holosticha heterofoissneri, Anteholosticha sp. pop1, Anteholosticha sp. pop2, A. manca, A. gracilis and Nothoholosticha fasciola, were analyzed using 12 restriction enzymes on the basis of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Nine of the 12 enzymes could digest the DNA products, four ( Hinf I, Hind III, Msp I, Taq I) yielded species-specific restriction patterns, and Hind III and Taq I produced different patterns for two Anteholosticha sp. populations. Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices can be used to separate the species. The secondary structures of the five species were predicted based on the ITS2 transcripts and there were several minor differences among species, while two Anteholosticha sp. populations were identical. In addition, phylogenies based on the SSrRNA gene sequences were reconstructed using multiple algorithms, which grouped them generally into four clades, and exhibited that the genus Anteholosticha should be a convergent assemblage. The fact that Holosticha species clustered with the oligotrichs and choreotrichs, though with very low support values, indicated that the topology may be very divergent and unreliable when the number of sequence data used in the analyses is too low.

  9. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-05-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  10. Morphology and phylogeny of three karyorelictean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora), including two novel species, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. and Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yan, Ying; Li, Lifang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the morphology and infraciliature of three karyorelictean ciliates, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n., Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. and a rarely known form, Geleia acuta (Dragesco, 1960) Foissner, 1998, which were isolated from the intertidal zone of sandy beaches at Zhanjiang and Qingdao, China. Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. is distinguished from related forms by having 26-30 somatic kineties, a narrow glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of approximately four to six macronuclei and two micronuclei. Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. can be recognized through its 14-22 somatic kineties, wide glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of about four macronuclei. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences indicated that the genera Trachelocerca and Tracheloraphis are closely related but that neither of them appears to be a clearly monophyletic group. Nonetheless, the monophyly of Trachelocerca is not rejected by the approximately unbiased (AU) test (P = 0.143, >0.05), although that of Tracheloraphis is rejected (P = 0.011, <0.05). Geleia acuta, meanwhile, branched with Geleia fossata and falls in the Geleia clade. PMID:25238761

  11. Phylogenetic positions of four hypotrichous ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora) based on SSU rRNA gene, with notes on their morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiting; Liu, An; Xu, Yusen; Xu, Yuan; Fan, Xinpeng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Ni, Bing; Gu, Fukang

    2015-01-01

     The morphology and infraciliature of the four hypotrichous ciliates; Rigidohymena inquieta (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2011, Pattersoniella vitiphila Foissner, 1987, Notohymena australis Foissner & O' Donoghue, 1990, and Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) australis (Foissner, 1995) Foissner, 2004, collected from east China, were investigated by using live observation and protargol impregnation method. An improved diagnosis for R. inquieta was supplied based on descriptions of present and previous populations. New morphology and morphogenesis information based on Chinese populations of another three hypotrichids were also supplemented. The Small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of the four species were characterized and their phylogenetic positions were revealed by means of Bayesian inference and Maximum-likelihood analysis. The analyses shows that R. inquieta clusters with other members of the subfamily Stylonychinae, which confirms the monophyly of the subfamily and verified R. inquieta as a separated species from R. candens though it differs from others mainly by body size. C. (C.) australis occupying the basal position of the clade which contains cyrtohymenids and some other groups, declines the idea of separating Cyrtohymena into two subgenus. Notohymena australis and China population of Pattersoniella vitiphila respectively clustering with their congeners correspond well with the systematics revealed by morphological similarities. PMID:26623736

  12. Pulmonary Epithelial Integrity in Children: Relationship to Ambient Ozone Exposure and Swimming Pool Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerkvist, Birgitta Json; Bernard, Alfred; Blomberg, Anders; Bergstrom, Erik; Forsberg, Bertil; Holmstrom, Karin; Karp, Kjell; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Segerstedt, Bo; Svensson, Mona; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. The measurements were made on 57 ...

  13. Análisis de las variaciones morfológicas de la Isla Santa Clara en los últimos 30 años, con énfasis en el área de la Estación Científica CPFG Héctor Chiriboga

    OpenAIRE

    Martillo, C.; Moreira, L.; A. Pazmiño; Chunga, K.; Rosero, J.; Calderón, M; Romero, A

    2009-01-01

    La Isla Santa Clara se encuentra ubicada a la entrada de Guayaquil, es un Humedal de Importancia Internacional en el Marco de la Convención RAMSAR, habiendo sido declarada como sitio RAMSAR N° 1142, el 2 de febrero del 2002. En ella se encuentra construída la estación científica CPFG Héctor Chiriboga Guerra, donde se toman datos oceanográficos y meteorológicos. La Isla Santa Clara tiene un origen tectónico, pues es producto de un esfuerzo comprensivo del Pleistoceno Superior, ocasionado por e...

  14. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  15. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  16. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  17. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of two oxytrichid soil ciliates from China, Oxytricha paragranulifera n. sp. and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Lv, Zhao; Pan, Ying; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Yi, Zhenzhen

    2014-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two hypotrichous ciliates, Oxytricha paragranulifera n. sp. and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983, collected respectively from the surface of a sandy soil in the Huguang mangrove forest, Zhanjiang, China, and the surface of soil in a forest beside Ziwu Road, Xian, north-west China, were examined. O. paragranulifera n. sp. is characterized by an elongate body with slightly tapered anterior end, two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei, paroral and endoral in Stylonychia-pattern, colourless cortical granules distributed in clusters or irregular short rows, adoral zone occupying 37 % of the body length, marginal rows almost confluent posteriorly, six dorsal kineties and three caudal cirri, caudal cirri and dorsal bristles almost indistinguishable when viewed in vivo. The well-known O. granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 was also redescribed and can be separated from the novel species by having cortical granules arranged along dorsal kineties and marginal rows on both sides (vs grouped in clusters as well as in short irregular rows), paroral and endoral in Oxytricha-pattern (vs in Stylonychia-pattern), macronuclear nodules obviously detached (vs adjacent) and a non-saline terrestrial habitat (vs saline terrestrial). The separation of these two taxa is also firmly supported by the molecular data, which show a significant difference between the two in their SSU rRNA gene sequences (similarity 97.1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data suggest a close relationship within the Oxytrichidae assemblage between O. paragranulifera n. sp. and O. granulifera. PMID:24928427

  18. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    Full Text Available Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS, North Yellow Sea (NYS, and Bohai Sea (BS in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8 were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the

  19. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  20. Regulation on the expression of Clara cell secretory protein in the lungs of the rats with acute lung injury by growth hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Jia; LUO Fo-quan; ZHAO Wei-lu

    2012-01-01

    Background Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is an important lung derived protective factor and may play an important role on the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALl) induced by endotoxemia.Growth hormone (GH) is an important anabolism hormone secreted by GH cells of the hypophysis.Pravious research showed that GH would significantly exacerbate ALl induced by endotoxemia,but the mechanism is not very clear yet.Whether the effects are related to CC16 or not is undetermined.Methods One hundred and twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an ALl group and a GH group.The rats in the two groups were subdivided into seven subgroups,according to injection with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or not,then according to different intervals of time after LPS injection; 0 hour (pre-injection of LPS,acted as control group),0.5 hour,1 hour,2 hours,4 hours,6 hours and 24 hours for subgroups.Pulmonary alveolar septa area density (PASAD) and ploymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in the lungs were analyzed morphometrically.The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (1L-6) were determined by radioimmunoassay.To analyze the expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB),the numbers of NF-kB positive cells in lungs were counted after immunofluorescence staining.and the levels of NF-KB inhibitory protein-α (1KB-α) in lung homogenates of rats were detected by Western blotting.The expression levels of CC16 mRNA in lungs of the rats with ALl were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The levels of CC16 protein in lung homogenates were detected by Western blotting.Results Half an hour after LPS injury both the PASAD and PMN numbers in lungs of the rats with ALl began to increase significantly and peaked at 6-hour post-injury.They then began to recover and reached normal levels at 24-hour post-injury.Both the PASAD and PMN numbers in the GH group increased more significantly than those in the ALl group

  1. Análisis espacial del diagnóstico tardío vs. mortalidad: una herramienta para apoyar estudios epidemiológicos sobre el cáncer. Villa Clara. Cuba 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antón Fleites

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer en Villa Clara, al cierre del 2009, se mantuvo por encima de la media nacional, con ocurrencia significativa de mayor número de casos con diagnóstico tardío en fallecidos que en los sobrevivientes al período de estudio. Objetivo: mostrar las potencialidades del análisis espacio-temporal para identificar conglomerados espaciales y/o espacio-temporales que nos permitan el análisis del diagnóstico tardío como variable explicativa de la mortalidad, de las cinco localizaciones de cánceres bajo programa en la provincia. Métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo, focalizado en la detección de conglomerados espaciales y espacio-temporales del diagnostico tardío del cáncer en Villa Clara, utilizando una técnica estadística de exploración espacio-temporal (SaTScan v7.0.1., la muestra abarcó la totalidad de pacientes diagnosticados durante el año 2004, y de estos, los fallecidos hasta el cierre del año 2009. Resultados: reveló la presencia de conglomerados significativos tanto espaciales como espacio-temporales, de las áreas de mayor riesgo de diagnóstico indeterminado. Conclusiones: demostró ser una buena herramienta para el análisis del diagnóstico tardío del cáncer, y permitió la generación de hipótesis sobre posibles determinantes que ayuden a orientar nuevas investigaciones.

  2. Protocruzia,a highly ambiguous ciliate(Protozoa;Ciliophora):Very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea,Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thorsten; STOECK; Shin; Mann; Kyoon; Al-Rasheid; Khaled; A.; S.; Al-Khedhairy; Abdulaziz; A.

    2010-01-01

    The ciliate genus Protocruzia belongs to one of the most ambiguous taxa considering its systematic position,possibly as a member of the classes Heterotrichea,Spirotrichea or Karyorelictea,which is tentatively placed into Spirotrichea in Lynn’s 2008 system.To test these hypotheses,multigene trees(Bayesian inference,evolutionary distance,maximum parsimony,and maximum likelihood) were constructed using the small subunit rRNA(SSU rRNA) gene,internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) and a protein coding gene(histone H4).All analyses agree that:(1) four morphotypes of Protocruzia from different geographical origins group together and form a monophyletic clade,which cannot be assigned to any of the eleven described ciliate classes;(2) it is invariably positioned on an isolated branch separated from the class Spirotrichea suggesting that this clade should be clearly removed from Spirotrichea;(3) this leads us to hypothesize that this taxon may indeed represent a lineage on a class rank.Based on the fact that it is,both morphologically and in molecular features,closely related to the heterotrichs,Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea,Protocruziida might be an ancestral form for the subphylum Intramacronucleata in the evolutionary line from the class Heterotrichea(subphylum Postciliodesmatophora) to higher taxa.

  3. A Formação Água Clara na Região de Araçaíba - SP: Registro U-Pb de Uma Bacia Mesoproterozóica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Weber

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho fundamenta-se no estudo isotópico dos corpos metabasíticos associados à Formação ÁguaClara e as suas relações com as encaixantes. A Formação Água Clara é constituída predominantemente por uma seqüência derochas carbonáticas (mármores puros a impuros. Rochas cálcio-silicáticas, cálcio xistos, mica xistos, anfibólio xistos, quartzitos,granada-clorita-biotita xistos, metacherts, metatufos básicos e intermediários, metabasitos, anfibolitos e cornubianitos. Asrochas metabásicas estudadas normalmente têm dimensões longitudinais expressivas chegando a quilométricas, com dimensõestransversais de até centenas de metros. São de coloração cinza – esverdeada, apresentam granulometria fina a média etextura normalmente nematoblástica. Ocorrem termos mais isótropos que exibem textura granoblástica. São compostos porpiroxênios (diopsídio ou augita, anfibólios (actinolita e hornblenda e plagioclásios (andesina/oligoclásio. Os acessórios maiscomuns são apatita, magnetita, epidoto, titanita e raramente zircão. Em lâmina observa-se texturas ofíticas e subofíticaspreservadas o que indica uma provável origem ígnea para esses corpos. Os dados geoquímicos sugerem composições semelhantesa basaltos enriquecidos de cadeias mesoceânicas (E-MORB com tendências a basaltos de ilhas oceânicas (OIB. Ascaracterísticas de basaltos toleíticos, subalcalinos semelhantes a basaltos enriquecidos de cadeias mesoceânicas com tendênciaa basaltos de ilhas oceânicas (OIB, permitem sugerir como ambiente geotectônico gerador deste magmatismo básico, ambientesdistensivos ou em bacias de retroarco. Os dados analíticos U-Pb (convencional, EMF e SHRIMP obtidos para oslitotipos metabásicos indicam épocas de cristalização dos zircões e conseqüente formação dessas rochas durante omesoproterozóico, com idades do intervalo 1590 – 1470 Ma. Os valores neoproterozóicos obtidos (~600 Ma

  4. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives Viscosidade da clara de ovo proveniente de poedeiras de diferentes espécies com aditivos comerciais e naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.A coloração da gema, transparência e viscosidade da clara (albúmen são parâmetros importantes que os consumidores consideram na avaliação dos ovos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar as trocas que ocorrem na armazenagem por 36 dias em relação à viscosidade da clara de ovos produzidos por poedeiras de duas diferentes linhagens (Carijo Barbada eIsa Brown , as quais receberam dietas contendo urucum (1,5 e 2,0% ou aditivo sintético. Foram realizadas as análises de umidade, altura do albúmen, pH, viscosidade, formação e estabilidade da espuma. A linhagem Carijó Barbada apresentou menor quantidade de albúmen, menor umidade e maior viscosidade que a linhagem Isa Brown, entretanto, com a estocagem, a viscosidade diminuiu significativamente para ambas as linhagens. Inicialmente, a adição de 2,0% de urucum ou aditivo sintético foi suficiente para aumentar a viscosidade em ovos obtidos de ambas as linhagens, mas com a estocagem, somente o controle manteve maior viscosidade. A baixa viscosidade não interferiu na

  5. Bondat i literatura: el Machado de Xirau, a "Por una senda clara" Goodness and literature: Xirau’s Machado in ‘Por una senda clara’ Bondad y Literatura: el Machado de Xirau del texto ‘Por una senda clara’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misericòrdia Anglès Cervelló

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del text del filòsof Joaquim Xirau «Por una senda clara», considerat com a text literari, s’analitza l’ideal de bondat compartit per Xirau i Machado. El corriol clar (la senda clara, com el descriu Xirau, és camí d’educació moral, segons els ideals de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza i els valors de la fenomenologia; és la vida del mestre Giner de los Ríos, és el camí cap a l’exili i és la pròpia vida. El text literari no es limita a descriure una qüestió moral, fa una acció moral. _________________________________ À partir du texte du philosophe Joaquim Xirau, «Por una senda clara», considéré comme un texte littéraire, nous analysons l’idéal de sagesse partagé par Xirau et Machado. Le sentier clair (senda clara, comme le décrit Xirau, est le chemin de l’éducation morale, selon les idéaux de l’Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Institution Libre d’Enseignement et les valeurs de la phénoménologie; c’est la vie du maître Giner de los Ríos, c’est le chemin vers l’exil et c’est la vie même. Le texte littéraire ne se limite pas à décrire une question morale, il a aussi une action morale.On the basis of the literary text «Por una senda clara» by the philosopher Joaquim Xirau, we analyse the ideal of goodness shared by Xirau and Machado. The clear path (senda clara, as described by Xirau, is the way towards moral education, in accordance with the ideals of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza and the values of phenomenology; it is the life of master Giner de los Ríos, the way to exile, and one’s own life. Literary texts not only deal with moral issues, but are moral acts as well.A partir del texto del filósofo Joaquim Xirau «Por una senda clara», considerado como texto literario, se analiza el ideal de bondad compartido por Xirau y Machado. La senda clara, tal como la describe Xirau, es camino de educación moral, según los ideales de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y los

  6. Inherited igneous zircons in jadeitite predate high-pressure metamorphism and jadeitite formation in the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex (Dominican Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas; McClelland, William C.; Kitajima, Kouki; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.; Stanek, Klaus; Valley, John W.; Sergeev, Sergey A.

    2016-05-01

    This study utilizes zircon SIMS U-Pb dating, REE and trace-element analysis as well as oxygen isotope ratios of zircon to distinguish jadeite-rich rocks that formed by direct crystallization from a hydrous fluid from those that represent products of a metasomatic replacement process. Zircon was separated from a concordant jadeitite layer and its blueschist host, as well as from loose blocks of albite-jadeite rock and jadeitite that were all collected from the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange in the northern Dominican Republic. In the concordant jadeitite layer, three groups of zircon domains were distinguished based on both age as well as geochemical and oxygen isotope values: age groups old (117.1 ± 0.9 Ma), intermediate (three dates: 90.6, 97.3, 106.0 Ma) and young (77.6 ± 1.3 Ma). Zircon populations from the blueschist host as well as the other three jadeite-rich samples generally match zircon domains of the old age group in age as well as geochemistry and oxygen isotope ratios. Moreover, these older zircon populations are indistinguishable from zircon typical of igneous oceanic crust and hence are probably inherited from igneous protoliths of the jadeite-rich rocks. Therefore, the results suggest that all investigated jadeite-rich rocks were formed by a metasomatic replacement process. The younger domains might signal actual ages of jadeitite formation, but there is no unequivocal proof for coeval zircon-jadeite growth.

  7. Epithelial hyperplasia, alveoli —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary or multiple foci of increased cellularity distal to terminal bronchioles. The background of broncho-alveolar architecture remains detectable, and epithelial cells are usually single layered. Round to oval hypertrophic type II pneumocytes with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm line alveolar walls. In bronchiolar subvariant, also called bronchiolization of alveoli, alveolar walls are lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with features of bronchiolar differentiation, such as formation of cilia, Clara cell resemblance, and presence of mucous granules. Foci of consolidation may indicate early stages of adenoma formation. Macrophages may be present in the alveolar lumens.

  8. Produção e características físico-químicas dos cachos da videira 'BRS Clara' sob cobertura plástica e sombrite em safra fora de época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições climáticas favoráveis à ocorrência de doenças fúngicas em uvas de mesa, tem-se buscado a adoção de tecnologias que propiciem a redução nos custos de produção, sendo uma alternativa o cultivo de uvas sob cobertura plástica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e as características físico-químicas dos cachos da videira 'BRS Clara' enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto IAC-766 'Campinas', em cultivo protegido durante a safra fora de época, visando à redução da aplicação de fungicidas para o controle do míldio. Os experimentos foram realizados em pomares comerciais localizados em Uraí e Marialva-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas no sistema latada, em espaçamento de 4,0 x 4,0 m, em Uraí, e de 2,0 x 5,0 m, em Marialva. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois sistemas de cultivo protegido (sob cobertura plástica e sob sombrite e sete repetições. No experimento conduzido em Uraí, não foram verificadas diferenças entre os sistemas de cultivo protegido quanto às características produtivas e químicas das bagas, como o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, índice de maturação e pH. Verificou-se a ocorrência do míldio somente nas folhas, sendo a incidência e a severidade menor nas videiras sob cobertura plástica (0,5 e 0,02%, respectivamente. Em Marialva, também não houve influência das coberturas nas características produtivas das videiras. Entretanto, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais das bagas sob cobertura plástica foi superior em relação àquelas sob sombrite (19,6 e 17,2ºBrix, respectivamente. Não foi detectada a ocorrência de míldio em nenhum dos sistemas de cultivo protegido nessa localidade. Conclui-se que o uso da cobertura plástica permite a redução do número de aplicações de fungicidas para o controle do míldio, sem alterar as características produtivas da uva 'BRS Clara'.

  9. Improvement of silver impregnation technique (Protargol) to obtain morphological features of protists ciliates, flagellates and opalinates Aperfeiçoamento da técnica de impregnação pela prata (protargol) para obtenção de caracteres morfológicos de protistas ciliados, flagelados e opalinatas

    OpenAIRE

    I. D. da SILVA-NETO

    2000-01-01

    The research on ciliates, flagelates and opalinates have been widespread by the utilization of techniques employing silver impregnation (Protargol), modified by several authors. However, these are time consuming and its results are variable. The present work is a variant of the technique described by Tuffrau (1964, 1967) showing some adaptations made in our laboratory. The organisms can be preserved by different fixatives (alcoholic Bouin, Stieve's fluid, 2.5% glutaraldehyde and others) and t...

  10. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  11. CX3CR1 Is Expressed in Differentiated Human Ciliated Airway Cells and Co-Localizes with Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Cilia in a G Protein-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the principal cause of bronchiolitis in infants and a significant healthcare problem. The RSV Glycoprotein (G mediates attachment of the virus to the cell membrane, which facilitates interaction of the RSV Fusion (F protein with nucleolin, thereby triggering fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. However, a host protein ligand for G has not yet been identified. Here we show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the motile cilia of differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE cells, and that CX3CR1 co-localizes with RSV particles. Upon infection, the distribution of CX3CR1 in these cells is significantly altered. Complete or partial deletion of RSV G results in viruses binding at least 72-fold less efficiently to cells, and reduces virus replication. Moreover, an antibody targeting an epitope near the G protein's CX3CR1-binding motif significantly inhibits binding of the virus to airway cells. Given previously published evidence of the interaction of G with CX3CR1 in human lymphocytes, these findings suggest a role for G in the interaction of RSV with ciliated lung cells. This interpretation is consistent with past studies showing a protective benefit in immunizing against G in animal models of RSV infection, and would support targeting the CX3CR1-G protein interaction for prophylaxis or therapy. CX3CR1 expression in lung epithelial cells may also have implications for other respiratory diseases such as asthma.

  12. DCS Hydrology, Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. Floodplain Mapping, SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. La incorporación de la educación ambiental para el desarrollo sostenible a la didáctica de las ciencias de la naturaleza, en la educación primaria de Villa Clara, Cuba: alternativas para su evaluación

    OpenAIRE

    Moré, Mavel

    2013-01-01

    La incorporación de la educación ambiental para el desarrollo sostenible al proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje constituye un reto para los sistemas educativos del siglo XXI. Con el estudio/investigación que se presenta se persigue atender y evaluar este desafío, desde la didáctica de las Ciencias de la Naturaleza, en la Educación Primaria de Villa Clara, Cuba. Para ello, a partir de los fundamentos teórico-metodológicos que se asumen y con el empleo de la investigación acción participativa y la...

  15. The long terminal repeat of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is preferentially active in differentiated epithelial cells of the lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Palmarini, M; Datta, S; Omid, R.; Murgia, C.; Fan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the etiologic agent of a contagious bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of sheep known as sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA; ovine pulmonary carcinoma). JSRV is unique among retroviruses because it transforms the alveolar type II cells and the nonciliated bronchiolar cells (Clara cells) of the lungs; these cells are where JSRV is specifically expressed in both naturally and experimentally SPA-affected sheep. In this study, we investigated the cell specificity of...

  16. The Long Terminal Repeat of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Is Preferentially Active in Differentiated Epithelial Cells of the Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Palmarini, Massimo; Datta, Shoibal; Omid, Reza; Murgia, Claudio; Fan, Hung

    2000-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the etiologic agent of a contagious bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of sheep known as sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA; ovine pulmonary carcinoma). JSRV is unique among retroviruses because it transforms the alveolar type II cells and the nonciliated bronchiolar cells (Clara cells) of the lungs; these cells are where JSRV is specifically expressed in both naturally and experimentally SPA-affected sheep. In this study, we investigated the cell specificity of...

  17. Separation and electrophysiology of ciliated olfactory receptor neu-rons in Bostrychus sinensis%中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅神经元的分离及其电生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓健; 洪万树; 杨薇

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (cORNs) in the olfactory sac were dissociated from Bostrichthys sinensis by enzymatic and mechanical methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the resting potential, action potential and voltage-gated ion channel current. The results showed that the B. sinensis cORN was a bipolar neuron, containing cell body, axon and dendrites with olfactory knobs and cilia. The resting and action potential peaks of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons were (–57 ± 6.37) mV and (38.30 ± 0.95) mV, respec-tively. In response to depolarizing voltage steps pulse stimulation from –60 ~ +80 mV, the transient inward current was activated between –60 mV and –40 mV, and reached a peak averaging (–69.08 ± 44.15) pA at −20 to 0 mV; the outward current reached a peak averaging (267.55 ± 73.67) pA at +40 mV. The present study provides a base theory for research in the electrophysiological mechanisms of sex pheromones with their receptors and the application of sex pheromones.%  应用酶消化和机械吹打相结合的方法,快速分离出中华乌塘鳢(Bostrychys sinensis)嗅囊中纤毛嗅觉感受神经元.再应用全细胞膜片钳技术记录中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元的静息电位、动作电位及电压门控离子通道电流等电生理学特征.结果表明,中华乌塘鳢纤毛嗅觉感受神经元具有典型的双级神经元结构特征,包括细胞体,轴突,树突以及树突顶端的嗅结和纤毛.嗅觉感受神经元静息电位为(−57±6.37) mV,动作电位峰值为(38.30±0.95) mV.在−60~+80 mV 的阶梯去极化脉冲刺激中,内向电流在−60~−40 mV 激活,−20~0 mV 达到最大值,内向电流峰值为(−69.08±44.15) pA.外向电流在+40 mV 时达最大值,峰值为(267.55±73.67) pA.本研究结果为纤毛嗅觉感受神经元上性信息素受体感受性信息素的电生理机制以及性信息素的应用提供了方法和理论基础.

  18. Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb., a unique marine ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), with phylogenetic analysis of the ambiguous genus Caryotricha inferred from the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Miao; Shao, Chen; Jiang, Jiamei; Li, Liqiong; Stoeck, Thorsten; Song, Weibo

    2009-02-01

    A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008, a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha-Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia-Oligotrichia-Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha-Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs. PMID:19196791

  19. Acesso ao alimento artificial e enchimento do trato digestivo de juvenis do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae durante as fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae during light and dark phases in 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento alimentar do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 com relação ao alimento artificial ofertado em bandejas poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, resultando no desperdício da ração, no aporte desnecessário de nutrientes, e conseqüente aumento dos custos com a alimentação e da poluição ambiental potencial desta atividade. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram realizados estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01g, mantidos em densidade populacional de 33 m², submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, em ciclo invertido, para observação durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi ofertada em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se posteriormente através de método focal contínuo: a latência para chegada à bandeja, b latência para consumo do alimento e c Índice de Enchimento do Trato Digestivo. Os animais foram mais rápidos para chegar à bandeja e também para iniciar o consumo do alimento nos horários da fase clara. O enchimento do trato digestivo mostrou-se superior na meia hora subsequente à oferta do alimento, especialmente nos horários da fase clara.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal, feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input, increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was conducted, using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01g, one animal per 33 m². They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling after feed exposition: a latency to access the

  20. Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alick R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

  1. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-01

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes. PMID:25004369

  2. Fontes de lipídeos e monensina na alimentação de novilhos Nelore e sua relação com a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen Effects of feeding monensin and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa in Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Camilo Valinote

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos Nelore, fistulados e canulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, para avaliar o caroço de algodão e o sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos como fontes de gordura assim como o efeito da monensina em dietas com caroço de algodão, sobre a população de protozoários ciliados e o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos experimentais foram: dieta controle (CTRL, dieta com sal de cálcio de ácidos graxos (SC, dieta com caroço de algodão (CA e dieta com caroço de algodão sem monensina (CASM. Amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram colhidas às 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação. Foi utilizada câmara de contagem de Sedgwick-Rafter com capacidade de 1mL e microscópio ótico comum provido de retículo com área de 0,4362 mm², para identificação dos gêneros de ciliados. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o pH do rúmen. Os tratamentos com caroço de algodão reduziram todos os gêneros de protozoários ciliados, em especial de Entodinium, provavelmente pela gordura liberada. Os protozoários dos gêneros Diplodinium, Epidinium e Eudiplodinum e o número total de protozoários foram os únicos que sofreram influência do tempo de alimentação. Sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos foram suficientemente inertes no ambiente ruminal, não afetando o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore. A utilização de monensina em dietas contendo caroço de algodão e alto concentrado não influenciou o número de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos Nelore.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 4 x 4 latin square to study the effects of feeding monensin (M and different sources of fat on the ruminal population of ciliate protozoa and ruminal pH. The experimental diets contained (DM basis 19% of sugar cane and were supplemented with M [control (CTRL], M plus calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA, M plus whole cottonseed (MWCS, or only WCS

  3. Normobaric Hypoxia Induces Mild Damage to Epithelium of Terminal Bronchioles in Rabbits (Ultrastructural Study)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, J.; Konrádová, V.; Vajner, L.; Adášková, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 10 (2005), s. 432-438. ISSN 0375-8427 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : airways * Clara cells * ciliated cells * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005

  4. Comparison of Effect of Hypoxia on Epithelium of Trachea and Terminal Bronchioles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, J.; Konrádová, V.; Vajner, L.; Adášková, Jana; Herget, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Suppl. 3 (2003), s. 478-479. ISSN 1431-9276. [Microscopy Conference /31./. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : airway epithelium * Clara cells * ciliated cells * hypoxia * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003

  5. Comportamento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em função da oferta do alimento artificial nas fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 relacionado ao alimento artificial ofertado em comedouros poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, aumentando a relação custo/benefício e os impactos ambientais potenciais do seu cultivo. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram desenvolvidos estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de L. vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01 g, submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, metade deles em ciclo invertido, para observação das suas atividades durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi oferecida em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se antes e depois da oferta: exploração, natação, alimentação e inatividade (focal instantâneo. A natação ocorreu preferencialmente durante a fase escura. A alimentação foi mais elevada na primeira meia hora posterior à oferta, com ênfase nos horários da fase clara. O alimento artificial atuou, em ambas as fases, como um indutor da exploração do substrato, tornando os camarões mais ativos em todos os horários posteriores à sua oferta.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal, increasing the cost/benefit relation in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was developed, using 64 L. vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01 g. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. In established intervals, the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration, swimming, feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. Feeding time was higher in

  6. Effect of kaolinitic clays from the State of Rio de Janeiro in the composition of whiteware floor tile bodies Efeito de argilas cauliníticas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro na composição de massa de pavimento cerâmico de base clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation that was undertaken for three types of kaolinitic clays from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a potential use in whiteware floor tiles bodies. Different compositions prepared by mixing the three clays with other materials such as kaolin, quartz, philite, potash feldspar and talc, were investigated and compared with an industrial ceramic body for whiteware floor tiles (group BIIa. Physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength were evaluated in pressed specimens fired at temperatures varying from 1025 to 1225 ºC. The microstructure of the specimens was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry. The results indicated that the prepared compositions presented microstructural characteristics, specially the pore size distribution, and technological properties that are compatible with low-porosity ceramic tiles. However, they also display characteristics, such as an excessive plasticity and high loss on ignition, that could generate problems during the industrial processing.Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre três tipos de argilas cauliníticas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com potencial uso em massas de pavimentos cerâmicos de base clara. Diferentes composições, preparadas através da mistura das três argilas com outros materiais, tais como quartzo, filito, feldspato potássico e talco, foram investigadas e comparadas com uma massa cerâmica industrial de pavimento de base clara (grupo BIIa. Propriedades físicas e mecânicas tais como retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão foram avaliadas em corpos de prova prensados e queimados em temperaturas variando de 1025 a 1225 ºC. A microestrutura das amostras foi avaliada por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e porosimetria de mercúrio. Os resultados indicaram que as composi

  7. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  8. Níveis de proteína degradável para novilhas em crescimento sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados e outros parâmetros ruminais Levels of degradable protein given to heifers for the ciliate protozoa concentration and other ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Balcells

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Em um ensaio de controle de parâmetros ruminais (pH, ritmo de trânsito (%h, volume ruminal (l, e concentração de protozoários ciliados, foram utilizadas quatro novilhas Holstein, canuladas no rúmen e duodeno, recebendo dietas com 4 níveis de proteína degradável, sem suplementar ou suplementadas com 25, 50 e 75 gramos de proteína degradável por quilo de concentrado em forma de uréia e caseína (98,2 e 93,2% de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. As rações experimentais foram compostas por 25% de palha de cevada sem tratar e 75% de concentrado formulado em base a diferentes proporções (25/75 e 75/25 de milho/cevada, com 5% de resíduo de trigo e 5% de suplemento vitamínico mineral. Uma contínua infusão de marcador de fluxo de fase líquida (Cr-EDTA foi executada. Os oito tratamentos experimentais (2 dietas x 4 níveis de infusão foram administrados em 8 períodos de balanço em um delineamento cross-over, em esquema fatorial. O nível de infusão de N degradável afetou de forma significativa os valores médios ponderados de pH, que decresceram ao aumentar a suplementação (p 3/mL que de cevada (59,5 x 103/mL; p Entodinium alcançou 87,8% da população total. O gênero Epidinium apresentou menores valores com a dieta de cevada (3,73 vs. 1,89x103/mL, p 3/mL, p 5/mL, p In this experiment four Holstein heifers fitted with rumen and duodenum canulae were utilized to evaluate the rumen parameters as pH, passage rate (%/h, volume (L and ciliated protozoa concentration, when fed diets with four levels of rumen degradable protein. This was achieved supplementing 0, 25, 50 or 75 grams of degradable protein per kg of concentrate as a urea and casein (98.2% OM and 93.2% CP. The diets had 25% of barley straw without treatment and 75% concentrate formulated to contain different proportions (25/75 and 75/25 of corn and barley and also 5% of wheat residue and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement. A continuous infusion of

  9. Una nota sobre escultura castellana del siglo XIII: Juan González, el pintor de las imágenes de Burgos, y el sepulcro de doña Mayor Guillén de Guzmán en el convento de Santa Clara de Alcocer (Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Baños, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Christie’s London brought to light the contract for the tomb of doña Mayor Guillén de Guzmán († c. 1263, former mistress of king Alfonso X the Wise. The contract comes from the convent of Poor Clares of Alcocer (Guadalajara, where the tomb itself remained until completely destroyed in 1936 at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Dated in Burgos in 1276, the document provides a full description of the work to be carried out. This allows us to compare it with other contemporary tombs, underlining the highly innovative features of that created for doña Mayor. In addition, the document provides access to the personality of the artist responsible for this work: a certain until now unknown Juan González, who introduces himself as el pintor de las imágenes de Burgos (‘the painter of images of Burgos’.En 2009 Christie’s de Londres dio a conocer el contrato del sepulcro de doña Mayor Guillén de Guzmán († c. 1263, antigua amante del rey Alfonso X el Sabio. El contrato procede del convento de Santa Clara de Alcocer (Guadalajara, donde el propio sepulcro se conservó hasta su completa destrucción en 1936 al estallar la Guerra Civil. Datado en Burgos en 1276, el documento nos proporciona una completa descripción de la obra a realizar. Esto nos permitirá compararla con otros sepulcros contemporáneos, subrayando los rasgos altamente innovadores del sepulcro de doña Mayor. Por otra parte, el documento nos permitirá acceder a la personalidad del artista responsable de la obra: un cierto Juan González, desconocido hasta la fecha, que se presenta como el pintor de las imágenes de Burgos.

  10. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to 239PuO2 aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  11. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Yamada, Yutaka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  12. Crescere errando: minori immigrati non accompagnati" (Clara Silva - Giovanna Campani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Salimbeni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La presenza in Italia di minori immigrati non accompagnati è un fenomeno recente e tuttavia in forte crescita. Questo testo raccoglie i risultati di quella che potremmo definire la seconda di tre tappe di una ricerca europea incentrata sullo studio del fenomeno dei minori immigrati non accompagnati, avviata nel 2000 e da poco terminata. L’indagine è stata svolta nel quadro di finanziamento del 'Programma Daphne' della Commissione Europea e ha riguardato nelle prime due fasi tre realtà europee, Italia, Germania e Finlandia e nella terza altre realtà quali il Portogallo, la Spagna, la Francia e la Grecia.

  13. 77 FR 39726 - Land Acquisitions: Pueblo of Santa Clara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Ray, Realty Specialist, Southwest Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1001 Indian School Road..., in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Together With T. 20 N., R. 7 E., Sec. 17, lots 1 to 8, inclusive; Sec. 18, lots 5 to 12, inclusive; Sec. 19, lots 12 to 17, inclusive, lots 19, 21, 23, all that portion of...

  14. Santa Clara County Library Adult Bibliotherapy Discussion Group Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Clara, Comp.; Bettencourt, Bruce, Comp.

    Brief citations are given for over 300 items each of which has been used at least twice successfully with discussion groups at jails, halfway houses, convalescent hospitals, alcoholic and drug clinics, and psychiatric hospitals during 1974-75. The listings include poetry, films, biographies, essays, plays, short stories, and music. They are…

  15. Clara Barton National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Voltaire o el caos de las ideas claras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Oneca Agurruza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el pensamiento del célebre filósofo François-Marie Arouet, más conocido como Voltaire. En el contexto de la Ilustración francesa, emerge la figura de este autor apasionante que combatió en todos los frentes intelectuales y políticos.

  17. Efeito da monensina e do óleo de soja sobre os protozoários ciliados do rúmen e correlação dos protozoários com parâmetros da fermentação ruminal e digestivos Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-06-01

    lactating cows on the counting of ciliate protozoa beyond establishing correlations between number of protozoa with some parameters of digestion and ruminal fermentation. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 33 ppm of sodium monensin or soybean oil at 4% DM, as following: control diet, without oil or monensin - CT; diet with monensin - MN; diet with soybean oil - OL; diet with the combination of 33 ppm of monensin and 4% of soybean oil - OM. Occurrence of 11 ciliate genera was observed, being Entodinium the predominant in all treatments. No significant soybean oil × monensin interaction was observed on protozoa number and genera. The genera Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Isotricha reduced in the diets with oil, while monensin reduced the counting of Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Epidinium. The total number of ciliate protozoa and cellulolytics protozoa was reduced by soybean oil and monensin effects, showing a defaunatory additive effect when combined the oil and the monensin. The ciliate cellulolytics was reduced by linoleic acid intake and was related positively with NDF ruminal digestibility and ruminal ammonia. The total number of protozoa was correlated with the molar proportion of propionate in the ruminal liquid, suggesting that monensin and soybean oil, due their defaunatory effect, can reduce the loss of methane in the rumen.

  18. Expiratory CT scan in patients with normal inspiratory CT scan: a finding of obliterative bronchiolitis and other causes of bronchiolar obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaeta, Michele; Minutoli, Fabio; Girbino, Giuseppe; Murabito, Alessandra; Benedetto, Caterina; Contiguglia, Rosario; Ruggeri, Paolo; Privitera, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Expiratory CT scan is usually obtained as supplement to normal inspiratory CT scan to recognize air-trapping, which is expression of small airways obstruction. In some patients the air-trapping may be the only sign of an early-stage small airways disease in an otherwise normal lung. The purpose of this article is to illustrate pathologic conditions, namely obliterative bronchiolitis, in which expiratory CT scan can be abnormal despite normal inspiratory CT examination, and to highlight indica...

  19. Different Cell Types In the Lower Respiratory Tract of the Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. - A Transmission Electron Microscopical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo A.m. Saari

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the trachea and distal airways of 12 healthy adult reindeer were studied with transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the reindeer respiratory tract corresponded to the findings of previous investigators studying other mammalian species. The epithelium of the trachea and bronchi, down to the level of the distal bronchioli, was composed of three main types of cell: ciliated, goblet, and basal. In the distal brochioli, non-ciliated cells similar to those known as Clara cells were predominant. Numerous electron-dense granules and the cell organelle pattern resembled the Clara cell type observed in laboratory rodents, rabbit, sheep, pig, horse, and llama. Pneumocyte 1 and pneumocyte 2 cells were readily identified in the alveoli. The pneumocyte 2 cells possessed short microvilli and granules with lamellar content. Micropinocytotic vesicles were very numerous in the alveolar wall, and a small number of alveolar macrophages occasionally seen in the alveolar lumen.

  20. Chitinolytic activity of the rumen ciliates Diploplastron affine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belzecki, G.; Miltko, R.; Michalowski, T.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 201-203. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/2584 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology Poland(PL) 2 P06Z 052 30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Diploplastron affine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  1. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-03-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  2. A survey of entodiniomorphid ciliates in chimpanzees and bonobos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Modrý, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 1 (2010), s. 42-48. ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA AV ČR KJB600930615; GA MŠk MEB080890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Troglodytella abrassarti * entodiniomorphids * Pan troglodytes * Pan paniscus * captivity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2010

  3. Unsteady feeding and optimal strokes of model ciliates

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The flow field created by swimming microorganisms not only enables their locomotion but also leads to advective transport of nutrients. In this paper we address analytically and computationally the link between unsteady feeding and unsteady swimming on a model microorganism, the spherical squirmer, actuating the fluid in a time-periodic manner. We start by performing asymptotic calculations at low P\\'eclet number (Pe) on the advection-diffusion problem for the nutrients. We show that the mean rate of feeding as well as its fluctuations in time depend only on the swimming modes of the squirmer up to order Pe^(3/2), even when no swimming occurs on average, while the influence of non-swimming modes comes in only at order Pe^2. We also show that generically we expect a phase delay between feeding and swimming of 1/8th of a period. Numerical computations for illustrative strokes at finite Pe confirm quantitatively our analytical results linking swimming and feeding. We finally derive, and use, an adjoint-based opt...

  4. Preparation Of Ciliated Protozoa For Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Microscopy Laboratory General notes: The same procedures are used to fix and stain cells for SEM and for TEM. Cells can be fixed using conventional [glutaraldehyde-osmium fixation](http://www.ukans.edu/~bcmic/MEIL/techniques/tetrahy.html) described for transmission electron microscopy. To preserve ciliary orientation, use the "instant fixation" protocol described here. With this method, the cortex and ciliary beat form is well preserved but the cytoplasm is poorly preser...

  5. Imine-Functionalized Triazatriangulenium Platforms: Towards an Artificial Ciliated Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Melanie; Rusch, Talina; Krekiehn, Nicolai R; Bloedorn, Andreas; Magnussen, Olaf M; Herges, Rainer

    2016-06-17

    Triazatriangulenium (TATA) platforms have been used to prepare highly ordered, self-assembled monolayers of free- and vertically standing imines on Au(111) surfaces. Upon irradiation, the imines undergo trans-cis isomerization and a fast thermal reaction (t1/2 =0.58 s at 20 °C) back to the more stable trans form. It is known that the photochemical reaction proceeds through rotation of the C=N bond and the thermochemical reaction through inversion at the N atom. The imine motors, therefore, should be able to induce a net displacement of particles above the surface similar to cilia epithelia in nature. PMID:27016909

  6. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  7. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  8. INCIDENCIA DE CARDIOPATÍAS DURANTE EL EMBARAZO EN LA PROVINCIA DE VILLA CLARA / Incidence of heart disease during pregnancy in Villa Clara province

    OpenAIRE

    Marilín C. Luna Alonso; Marlén Fernández Pérez; Joel Alsina Vázquez; Regla Ocenes Reinoso

    2012-01-01

    ResumenIntroducción y objetivos: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la cuarta causa de muerte durante el período gravídico-puerperal, y un indicador de morbilidad y mortalidad para el producto de la concepción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el comportamiento de la cardiopatía en la embarazada, su atención médica y evolución durante y al final del embarazo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, donde se analizaron 283 gestantes con diagnóstico de...

  9. PROCEDIMIENTO PARA EL CONTROL DE GESTIÓN EN LA EMPRESA CAMPISMO POPULAR DE VILLA CLARA / PROCEDURE FOR CONTROLLING IN VILLA CLARA CAMPISMO POPULAR ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Espino-Valdés

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, el control de gestión tiene un papel decisivo como perspectiva de dirección en las empresas cubanas, ya que se optimiza el conocimiento de los trabajadores en función de los resultados de la organización. Se han introducido distintos enfoques en este sentido, pero en pocas empresas se han logrado conectar los objetivos estratégicos con las metas a alcanzar. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mostrar un procedimiento para implementar el control de gestión en las Empresas de Campismo Popular, que permita la utilización de los inductores de cambio para el alineamiento de la gestión de los procesos con la estrategia establecida, bajo un enfoque sistémico y proactivo, profundizando en el diagnóstico del clima organizacional. El trabajo muestra como resultado fundamental el diseño de un procedimiento de carácter integrador con enfoques modernos e indicadores de gestión que permitirán el análisis oportuno del cumplimiento de los objetivos.ABSTRACTAt present, the controlling plays an important role as directing philosophy in Cuban enterprises, optimizing the knowledge of employees in terms of results of the organization. Different approaches have been introduced on this direction but it has not been possible to link the strategic objectives with the goals to reach. The current investigation aims at developing a control system of management in Campismo Popular enterprises, with the purpose of using the inductors of change to align the management of processes with the established strategy, under a systemic and proactive approach, deepening in the organizational environment. This work shows important results like the design of a procedure with integrated character, with modern approaches and indicators of management, which will permit the opportune analysis of the fulfillment of objectives

  10. Histologic observations on the pathogenesis of lung cancer in hamsters following administration of polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serial sacrifice experiment was carried out to study the site of origin and the stages in development of lung cancer in hamsters induced by polonium-210 (210Po). 1 or 2 animals were sacrificed weekly during and after a course of 7 intratracheal instillations of 0.1 μCi of 210Po in saline. This exposure produced a transient radiation pneumonitis of moderate severity during, and for several weeks after, the instillation period. Subsequent pathological changes included hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelium, and focal proliferation of epithelial cells in peribronchiolar and more remote alveoli, termed epithelialization of alveoli. Hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelium frequently showed numerous Clara cells which exhibited pleomorphism of cells and nuclei, multinucleated cells, and striking changes in staining characteristics of secretory granules. Epithelialization of alveoli showed steady progression from well-circumscribed small foci to larger confluent lesions which were composed of various cell types and resembled tumors. Malignant tumors occurred in many animals surviving more than 24 weeks after the last instillation of 210Po

  11. Localizations of Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 in human kidney and of SGLT1 in human small intestine, liver, lung, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovac, Ivana; Balen Eror, Daniela; Klessen, Dirk; Burger, Christa; Breljak, Davorka; Kraus, Ognjen; Radović, Nikola; Jadrijević, Stipe; Aleksic, Ivan; Walles, Thorsten; Sauvant, Christoph; Sabolić, Ivan; Koepsell, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    Novel affinity-purified antibodies against human SGLT1 (hSGLT1) and SGLT2 (hSGLT2) were used to localize hSGLT2 in human kidney and hSGLT1 in human kidney, small intestine, liver, lung, and heart. The renal locations of both transporters largely resembled those in rats and mice; hSGLT2 and SGLT1 were localized to the brush border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule S1/S2 and S3 segments, respectively. Different to rodents, the renal expression of hSGLT1 was absent in thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and macula densa, and the expression of both hSGLTs was sex-independent. In small intestinal enterocytes, hSGLT1 was localized to the BBM and subapical vesicles. Performing double labeling with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), hSGLT1 was localized to GLP-1-secreting L cells and GIP-secreting K cells as has been shown in mice. In liver, hSGLT1 was localized to biliary duct cells as has been shown in rats. In lung, hSGLT1 was localized to alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and to bronchiolar Clara cells. Expression of hSGLT1 in Clara cells was verified by double labeling with the Clara cell secretory protein CC10. Double labeling of human heart with aquaporin 1 immunolocalized the hSGLT1 protein in heart capillaries rather than in previously assumed myocyte sarcolemma. The newly identified locations of hSGLT1 implicate several extra renal functions of this transporter, such as fluid absorption in the lung, energy supply to Clara cells, regulation of enteroendocrine cells secretion, and release of glucose from heart capillaries. These functions may be blocked by reversible SGLT1 inhibitors which are under development. PMID:25304002

  12. Beyond Clara Schumann: Integrating Women Composers and Performers into General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive and balanced curriculum, the accomplishments of women composers and performers must be included in general music classes. This article addresses obstacles that have challenged women musicians and provides an outline for a unit that highlights seven American women who have achieved significant "firsts" in the world of…

  13. Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom drill hole, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2003-01-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were obtained from cores taken during the drilling of a research well along Coyote Creek in San Jose, California, in order to use the geomagnetic field behavior recorded in those samples to provide age constraints for the sediment encountered. The well reached a depth of 308 meters and material apparently was deposited largely (entirely?) during the Brunhes Normal Polarity Chron, which lasted from 780 ka to the present time. Three episodes of anomalous magnetic inclinations were recorded in parts of the sedimentary sequence; the uppermost two we correlate to the Mono Lake (~30 ka) geomagnetic excursion and 6 cm lower, tentatively to the Laschamp (~45 ka) excursion. The lowermost anomalous interval occurs at 305 m and consists of less than 10 cm of fully reversed inclinations underlain by 1.5 m of normal polarity sediment. This lower anomalous interval may represent either the Big Lost excursion (~565 ka) or the polarity transition at the end of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron (780 ka). The average rates of deposition for the Pleistocene section in this well, based on these two alternatives, are approximately 52 or 37 cm/kyr, respectively.

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. The Princess Storyteller, Clara Clarifier, Quincy Questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal Teaching Adapted for Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Pamela Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…

  16. 77 FR 53221 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), Mount Hamilton... EIS for this project in the Federal Register on September 6, 2007 (72 FR 51247). The NOI announced a... published a notice of availability of the Draft Plan, EIS, and IA in the Federal Register (75 FR 79013)....

  17. GCompris: un software multinivelar con clara aplicación para las matemáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Real, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    En esta sección MatemásTIC de la revista Suma hemos estado analizando y haciendo un recorrido por aplicaciones de software libre o bien con licencia GPL de forma que el uso de estas aplicaciones no tenga un coste económico y se puedan disponer de las mismas en la red o bien a través de los repositorios de las diferentes distribuciones Linux. En ese recorrido que aún seguimos, hemos tratado aplicaciones recomendadas para el aula de matemáticas haciendo especial hincapié en aplicaciones indicad...

  18. “De las mujeres”: La obra de María Clara Echeverri

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverri, María Clara

    2002-01-01

    “Dentro de mi experiencia profesional he utilizado el Collage como forma de reflexionar sobre mi trabajo artístico y he podido comprobar satisfactoriamente la importancia que éste ha tenido en mi quehacer creativo. El Collage me ha dado la posibilidad de adentrarme a mundos plenos de imágenes, me ha abierto caminos hacia una creación propia, donde conjugo el recuerdo y la memoria trasladados a espacios oníricos que anuncian aproximaciones a mi universo personal.”

  19. Crystallization kinetic of clear burning kaolinitic clay; Cinetica de cristalizacao de argila caulinitica de queima clara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.; Medeiros, J.; Teixeira, S.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2009-07-01

    It was studied the crystallization kinetics of one caulinitic clay of clear burning, from Teodoro Sampaio (SP) region. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) had been used in the development of the work. Non-isothermal methods had been used for attainment of the kinetic data and in the determination of the crystallization mechanisms. The exothermic peak associate to the crystallization is located between 900 and 1000 deg C, varying in accordance with the heating rate of the sample. The activation energies were taken using the data of thermal analysis (DTA) and the methods of Kissinger (700 kJ/mol) and Ligero (721 kJ/mol). The Avrami constant n was calculated using Ligero and the m parameter was obtained using Matusita method and the n and E of Ligero. Both values (1.17) are close to 1, indicating growth in two dimensions with morphology of plates and nucleation of surface as dominant mechanism. (author)

  20. The relationship between poverty and inflation in Sharpeville / Tiyeselani Clara Maluleke

    OpenAIRE

    Maluleke, Tiyeselani Clara

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, the level of poverty is increasing. In South Africa it is mainly concentrated in rural areas and differs significantly from whether considering race, sex, provinces or community areas. This dissertation studies the relationship between poverty and inflation in Sharpeville by determining the impact of rising prices on the poor households in Sharpeville. The study focuses on three areas, namely the theoretical background of poverty and inflation, the impact of rising prices ...

  1. 75 FR 79013 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIR/ EIS in the Federal Register on September 6, 2007 (72 FR 51247). The NOI... representatives from each of the Applicants. The Applicants are requesting a permit to incidentally take 11 animal... listed fish or wildlife is defined under the Act as to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound,...

  2. Making Health Easier: Tobacco Free Living in Santa Clara, CA PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-21

    Instead of walking through clouds of smoke, students in a California community college can now breathe clean air. A college health nurse made it happen with the help of students, faculty, and partners.  Created: 5/21/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/21/2013.

  3. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) preharvest dry matter and soluble solids content with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed;

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6...

  4. Edificio para Memorex Corporation - Santa Clara – California (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland King y Asociados, Arquitectos

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available This building has the following features: — it makes future possible extensions; — uses space gradually, according to work arrangement; — reduces to a minimum distances between car parks and places of work; — centralizes dining-room installations for employees; — achieves great economy, thanks to the modulation of design; — takes maximum advantage of each space, for using easily removable partitions, and — increases productivity and personnel performance, due to the suitable conditioning of the atmosphere. The corporation is complemented by a carefully studied series of access roads, car parks and gardens, which at the same time as they intercommunicate the different areas, adapt the outer and indoor atmosphere, forming a harmonious whole.Este edificio reúne las siguientes características: — permite la posibilidad de futuras ampliaciones; — utiliza progresivamente los espacios, de acuerdo con la ordenación de los trabajos; — minimiza las distancias entre los aparcamientos y los puestos de trabajo; — centraliza las instalaciones de comedor para los empleados; — consigue una gran economía, gracias a la modulación del diseño; — potencial iza usos en cada espacio, por la utilización de particiones fácilmente desplazables, y — aumenta la productividad y rendimiento del personal, por el tratamiento adecuado del ambiente. La corporación está complementada por una estudiada serie de accesos, estacionamientos y espacios ajardinados, que al mismo tiempo que comunican entre sí las diferentes zonas, adecúan el ambiente exterior con el interior, formando un conjunto homogéneo.

  5. Una guía clara, aplicable, recomendable y que se cumple.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, M.J.; Del Castillo Arévalo, F.; Fernández Fernández, I.; Martinez González, C.; Pérez Miras, AR.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la utilización de la guía “Atención a las personas cuidadoras” por las enfermeras que han realizado intervenciones grupales con cuidadoras y averiguar su opinión sobre: - la idoneidad y estructura de las unidades didácticas - la necesidad de modificación del resto de contenidos: organización del Servicio, registro, encuesta inicial, cuestionario de calidad de vida, de evaluación del taller. - los temas no tratados que sería recomendable introducir. Metodolog...

  6. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    of Learning, I.S.M. Annexe, P.O. – I.S.M., Dhanbad-826004, Jharkhand, India. E-mail: drtchatterjee@yahoo.co.in 3 Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India. E-mail: baban@nio.org Abstract Scant... lived predominantly on halacarid adults and deutonymphs, and rarely on protonymphs and larvae because of short life span in protonymph and larva stages. Analysis of the literature and our own data have shown that only four suctorian species observed...

  7. Insights on short–term blooms of planktonic ciliates, provided by an easily recognised genus: Cyrtostrombidium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulit, C.; Macek, Miroslav; Montagnes, D. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-12. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bloom * conjugation * parasitism * patch * population dynamics * lagoon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2013

  8. The ciliate, Troglodytella abrassarti, contributes to polysaccharide hydrolytic activities in the chimpanzee colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profousová, Ilona; Mihaliková, K.; Laho, T.; Váradyová, Z.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Kišidayová, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2011), s. 339-343. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant ostatní: VFU(CZ) 245/2009/FVL Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : different protozoal populations * low-fiber diets * Eudiplodinium maggii * fibrolytic activity * degrading enzymes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.677, year: 2011

  9. Preliminary Insights into the Impact of Dietary Starch on the Ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in Captive Chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schovancová, K.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Procházka, Petr; Modrý, David; Bolechová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e81374. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0300 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Balantidium coli * nonstrach polysaccharides * lowland gorillas * resistant strach * evolution * infection * parasites * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  10. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming Ciliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pomajbíková, K.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Grim, J. N.; Levecke, B.; Todd, A.; Mulama, M.; Kiyang, J.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), e2140. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Troglodytella abrassarti * Intestinal parasites * Coli infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

  11. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  12. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels. - Highlights: • Tetrahymena thermophila internalized QDs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. • The egested QDs were not significantly biodegraded in the food vacuoles. • In addition to phagocytosis QDs entered protozoa by alternative uptake pathways. • The clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete after 20 h in fresh medium. • The prolonged retention time of nontoxic NPs in protozoa could increase their transfer in food chain. - In addition to phagocytosis, quantum dots (QDs) entered protozoans by alternative pathways which did not lead to complete clearance of the QDs from the cells

  13. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    expressed during vegetative growth or sexual reorganization. In order to get an overview of medium-sized (40-500¿nt) RNAs expressed from the Tetrahymena genome, we created a size-fractionated cDNA library from macronuclear RNA and analyzed 80 RNAs, most of which were previously unknown. The most abundant...... class was small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), many of which are formed by an unusual maturation pathway. The modifications guided by the snoRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically and experimentally and many Tetrahymena-specific modifications were found, including several in an essential, but not conserved...

  14. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  15. Primary structure of the mating pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffioni, S; Luporini, P; Chait, B T; Disper, S S; Bradshaw, R A

    1988-12-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mating pheromone Er-1 purified from Euplotes raikovi homozygous for mat-1 was determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and chymotrypsin. The proposed sequence is: Asp-Ala-Cys-Glu-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Gln-Cys-Val-Glu-Ser-Ala-Cys-Glu-Ser-Leu- Cys-Thr-Glu-Gly-Glu-Asp-Arg-Thr-Gly-Cys-Tyr-Met-Tyr-Ile-Tyr-Ser-Asn-Cys- Pro-Pro-Tyr-Val The calculated molecular weight is 4411.0, which is in agreement with the averaged mass of 4410.2 obtained by fission fragment ionization mass spectrometry. Previously reported values of the native molecular weight, determined by gel filtration, have ranged from 9,000 to 12,000. Thus, the native structure is likely a dimer (or larger aggregate) of identical subunits with the three disulfide bonds present occurring as intrachain links. Secondary structure predictions suggest a helical structure at the amino terminus. A comparison of the Er-1 amino acid sequence with known protein sequences did not reveal any significant similarities. PMID:3142868

  16. Identification and functional characterization of an uncharacterized antimicrobial peptide from a ciliate Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Dong, Yuan; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-07-01

    The global ever-growing concerns about multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes leads to urgent demands for exploration of new antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here we demonstrated that a cDNA from Ciliata Paramecium caudatum, designated Pcamp1, coded for a protein with features characteristic of AMPs, which is not homologous to any AMPs currently known. Both the C-terminal 91 amino acid residues of PcAMP1, cPcAMP1, expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal 26 amino acid residues (predicted mature AMP), cPcAMP1/26, synthesized, underwent a coil-to-helix transition in the presence of TFE, SDS or DPC. Functional assays revealed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were both able to kill Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. ELISA showed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to bind to microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules LPS and LTA, which was further corroborated by the observations that cPcAMP1 could deposit onto the bacterial membranes. Importantly, both cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to induce bacterial membrane permeabilization and depolarization, and to increase intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Taken together, our results show that PcAMP1 is a potential AMP with a membrane selectivity towards bacterial cells, which renders it a promising template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics against MDR microbes. It also shows that use of signal conserved sequence of AMPs can be an effective tool to identify potential AMPs across different animal classes. PMID:26883426

  17. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  18. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B.S.

    data about the macronucleus. C. nodosa has the lorica with one or more annular ridges, without data about macronucleus, external stalk slender, two zooids per lorica. C. triangula has an external stalk curved, and all the stalk was striated...

  19. Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Leendertz, F.; Hashimoto, C.; Simmons, N.; Babweteera, F.; Machanda, Z.; Piel, A.; Robbins, M. M.; Boesch, Ch.; Sanz, C.; Morgan, D.; Sommer, V.; Furuichi, T.; Fujita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.; Kaur, T.; Huffman, M. A.; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 4 (2012), s. 525-533. ISSN 0002-9483 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : SSU rDNA * ITS * entodiniomorphida * Troglodytellidae * Pan troglodytes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2012

  20. Immunostaining Phospho-epitopes in Ciliated Organs of Whole Mount Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Francescatto, Ludmila; Tombes, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of cells, the tissue-specific expression of genes and the emergence of signaling networks characterize early embryonic development of all vertebrates. The kinetics and location of signals - even within single cells - in the developing embryo complements the identification of important developmental genes. Immunostaining techniques are described that have been shown to define the kinetics of intracellular and whole animal signals in structures as small as primary cilia. The techniques for fixing, imaging and processing images using a laser-scanning confocal compound microscope can be completed in as few as 36 hr. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a desirable organism for investigators who seek to conduct studies in a vertebrate species that is affordable and relevant to human disease. Genetic knockouts or knockdowns must be confirmed by the loss of the actual protein product. Such confirmation of protein loss can be achieved using the techniques described here. Clues into signaling pathways can also be deciphered by using antibodies that are reactive with proteins that have been post-translationally modified by phosphorylation. Preserving and optimizing the phosphorylated state of an epitope is therefore critical to this determination and is accomplished by this protocol. This study describes techniques to fix embryos during the first 72 hr of development and co-localize a variety of relevant epitopes with cilia in the Kupffer's Vesicle (KV), the kidney and the inner ear. These techniques are straightforward, do not require dissection and can be completed in a relatively short period of time. Projecting confocal image stacks into a single image is a useful means of presenting these data. PMID:26967668

  1. Balance de la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en la UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba (Balance of Chlorella sp and Moina sp production in the UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López, Teresita de J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio fue implementado con la información histórica existente en los archivos de PISPAVÓN, cuantificándose la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en los años 2003, 2004 y 2005, las que fueron de 7 777, 5 174 y 1 988 m3 de algas y de 4 695, 3 075 y 1 557 kg del cladócero respectivamente. Esta disminución se debió al déficit de miel y cal, así como las excesivas lluvias que azotaron laregión. Mediante los estudios efectuados se determinó que la producciónde 1 kg de Moina requiere disponibilidades de Chlorella entre 1,5 y 2,0 m3.SummaryThe present study was implement with the existing historicalinformation in the PISPAVÓN archives, quantifying the production ofChlorella sp and Moina sp in 2003, 2004 and 2005, those that were of7 777, 5 174 and 1 988 m3 of microalgae and 4 695, 3 075 and 1 557kg of the cladocera respectively. This diminishing had to the deficit of honey and lime, as well as excessive rains that whipped the region. By means of the conducted studies was determined that the production of 1 kg of Moina requires availabilities of Chlorella between 1.5 and 2.0 m3.

  2. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.

  3. A Comparison of KL-6 and Clara Cell Protein as Markers for Predicting Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the predictive characteristics of KL-6 and CC16 for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in preterm infants, either independently or in combination. Study Design. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 with preterm neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 and 14 days after birth. Results. Seventy-three preterm infants were studied. BPD was identified in 24 of these infants. After adjusting for potential confounders, serum KL-6 concentrations were found to be elevated in BPD infants at both time points relative to non-BPD infants, while serum CC16 concentrations were lower at 14 days. At both 7 d and 14 d of life the predictive power of KL-6 levels exceeded that of CC16 (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: at 7 d, 0.91 cf. 0.73, P=0.02; at 14 d, 0.95 cf. 0.85, P=0.05. The combination of these markers enhanced the sensitivity further. Conclusions. Serum KL-6 levels higher than 79.26 ng/mL at 14 days postpartum in preterm infants predict the occurrence of BPD. CC16 was less predictive than KL-6 at this time point, but KL-6 and CC16 together enhanced the prediction.

  4. A Comparison of KL-6 and Clara Cell Protein as Markers for Predicting Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Keyi Wang; Xianmei Huang; Hui Lu; Zhiqun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the predictive characteristics of KL-6 and CC16 for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, either independently or in combination. Study Design. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 with preterm neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 and 14 days after birth. Results. Seventy-three preterm infants were studied. BPD was identified in 24 of these infants. After adj...

  5. Seroprevalencia de babesiosis bovina en la hacienda Vegas de la Clara, Gómez Plata (Antioquia), 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Zapata Salas; Natasha Lara Ramírez; Armando Baena Zapata; Julián Reyes Vélez; Leonardo Alberto Ríos Osorio

    2011-01-01

    La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG) frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de B...

  6. Una Sagrada Familia de Otto van Veen del antiguo convento de Santa Clara de Orduña en Vitoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Rodríguez, Ana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attributes to Otto van Veen the Holy Family in an interior from the former convent of St. Claire in Orduña, today in the church of San Antonio in the convent of St. Claire in Vitoria-Gasteiz. Until now considered to be anonymous, stylistic analysis and comparison with other works by Van Veen demonstrate that it is by his hand.Este estudio atribuye a Otto van Veen un lienzo de la Sagrada Familia en un interior que está en la iglesia de San Antonio del convento de clarisas de Vitoria-Gasteiz, procedente del antiguo convento de la misma orden de la ciudad de Orduña. Figura en todos los catálogos como anónimo, pero el análisis estilístico de la pintura y la comparación con otras obras de Van Veen son prueba para incluirlo dentro de su producción.

  7. PRODUCCIÓN PRIMARIA EN UN LAGO DE AGUAS CLARAS DE LA AMAZONÍA COLOMBIANA (LAGO BOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinilla Gabriel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Phytoplankton production is one of the most significant aspects in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper primary production of the phytoplankton community was measured (14C method in a clear water lake in the Colombian Amazon region in different periods of the hydrological cycle. Primary production varied between 0.6 and 2.3 g C m-2 d-1, the last recorded at low water phase. Results show that the phytoplankton community of Lake Boa fluctuates from very low capacity of carbon assimilation during high water but increased four times during low water. The strong change in productivity follows the variation in algal abundance, which in turn reflects changes in water quality conditions during the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the lake passes from oligotrophic conditions during the flooding period to eutrophic conditions when the lake is disconnected from the river at low water phase.

  8. Laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Bruns

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: This case report suggests that laparoscopy may be safe and effective for resection of CHFCs with favorable anatomy such as peripheral location and noninvolvement of key vascular and biliary structures.

  9. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conse...

  10. Pelagic ciliate assemblage of high-altitude lake Atexcac (Puebla, México): Comparison with similar lakes in other regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Lugo, V. A.; Vilaclara, F. G.

    Leiden 093 Backhuys Publishers, 2000 - (Munawar, M.; Lawrence, S.; Munawar, I.; Malley, D.), s. 45-59 Grant ostatní: CONACyT(MX) P220 CCOR880369; EU(XE) MOLAR ENV4-CT95-0007 Keywords : hydrology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-β and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huawei; Liu, Dan; Wan, Ma; Safari, Amin; Kim, Hyeung; Sun, Wen; O'Connor, Matthew S.; Songyang, Zhou

    2007-02-01

    Telomere dysfunction may result in chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. Early studies in lower organisms have helped to establish the crucial role of telomerase and telomeric proteins in maintaining telomere length and protecting telomere ends. In Oxytricha nova, telomere G-overhangs are protected by the TEBP-α/β heterodimer. Human telomeres contain duplex telomeric repeats with 3' single-stranded G-overhangs, and may fold into a t-loop structure that helps to shield them from being recognized as DNA breaks. Additionally, the TEBP-α homologue, POT1, which binds telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), associates with multiple telomeric proteins (for example, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1) to form the six-protein telosome/shelterin and other subcomplexes. These telomeric protein complexes in turn interact with diverse pathways to form the telomere interactome for telomere maintenance. However, the mechanisms by which the POT1-containing telosome communicates with telomerase to regulate telomeres remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that TPP1 is a putative mammalian homologue of TEBP-β and contains a predicted amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold. TPP1-POT1 association enhanced POT1 affinity for telomeric ssDNA. In addition, the TPP1 OB fold, as well as POT1-TPP1 binding, seemed critical for POT1-mediated telomere-length control and telomere-end protection in human cells. Disruption of POT1-TPP1 interaction by dominant negative TPP1 expression or RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in telomere-length alteration and DNA damage responses. Furthermore, we offer evidence that TPP1 associates with the telomerase in a TPP1-OB-fold-dependent manner, providing a physical link between telomerase and the telosome/shelterin complex. Our findings highlight the critical role of TPP1 in telomere maintenance, and support a yin-yang model in which TPP1 and POT1 function as a unit to protect human telomeres, by both positively and negatively regulating telomerase access to telomere DNA.

  12. Ciliate food vacuole content and bacterial community composition in the warm-monomictic crater Lake Alchichica, Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bautista-Reyes, F.; Macek, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2012), s. 85-97. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : CARD-FISH * selective predation * oxygen gradient Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.563, year: 2012

  13. Complete sequence of the extrachromosomal rDNA molecule from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila strain B1868VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of rDNA vectors for transformation of Tetrahymena combined with improved microinjection technology should lead to a renewed interest in this organism. In particular, the rDNA itself constitutes an attractive system for biochemical studies. The rDNA is amplified to a level of...

  14. ROLE OF CA2+ AND CAMP IN A CELL SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR RESTING CYST FORMATION OF CILIATED PROTOZOAN COLPODA CUCULLUS

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Tatsuomi; Kondoh, Asuka; Sabashi, Kunihisa; Nagano, Nobuaki; Akematsu, Takahiko; Kida, Akemi; Iino, Ryota

    2009-01-01

    Resting cyst formation (encystment) of Colpoda cucullus is caused by an increase in an external Ca2+ concentration or overpopulation of Colpoda vegetative cells. The Ca2+-mediated or overpopulation-mediated encystment was suppressed by Ca2+ channel blockers (Cd2+, La3+, Ni2+), Ca2+-chelating reagents (EGTA, BAPTA), calmodulin antagonists (W-7, trifluoperazine), Rp-cAMPS (an cAMP analog antagonist) and 2-deoxyadenosine (a P-site inhibitor of adenylate cyclase). On the other hand, by the additi...

  15. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    -quality Rhodomonas sp. diet. The specific mass of fatty acids in S. sulcatum was much lower than in the Dunaliella sp. diet, However, the fatty acid composition of the protozoan more or less resembled that of the food, lacking long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Sterols only occurred in Dunaliella sp...

  16. CEP164-null cells generated by genome editing show a ciliation defect with intact DNA repair capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Owen M; Gaboriau, David; Karakaya, Kadin; King, Sinéad; Dantas, Tiago J; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Krämer, Alwin; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2016-05-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule structures that extend from the distal end of the mature, mother centriole. CEP164 is a component of the distal appendages carried by the mother centriole that is required for primary cilium formation. Recent data have implicated CEP164 as a ciliopathy gene and suggest that CEP164 plays some roles in the DNA damage response (DDR). We used reverse genetics to test the role of CEP164 in the DDR. We found that conditional depletion of CEP164 in chicken DT40 cells using an auxin-inducible degron led to no increase in sensitivity to DNA damage induced by ionising or ultraviolet irradiation. Disruption of CEP164 in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells blocked primary cilium formation but did not affect cellular proliferation or cellular responses to ionising or ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, we observed no localisation of CEP164 to the nucleus using immunofluorescence microscopy and analysis of multiple tagged forms of CEP164. Our data suggest that CEP164 is not required in the DDR. PMID:26966185

  17. Seasonal dynamics, composition and feeding patterns of ciliate assemblages in oligotrophic lakes covering a wide pH range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Callieri, C.; Šimek, Karel; Vázquez, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 2 (2006), s. 261-287. ISSN 0003-9136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0072; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296; GA MŠk(CZ) OK 118 Grant ostatní: UNAM DGAPA/PAPIIT(MX) IN208502; EC(XE) ENV4-CT95-0007; EC(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00032; FES UNAM(MX) PAPCA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : mountain lakes * timberline * acidified lakes * tropical high altitude lake * mixotrophy * oligotrichs * prostomes * gymnosotmes * peritrichs * scuticociliates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2006

  18. Acute effects of heavy metals on the expression of glutathione-related antioxidant genes in the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Significant higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed after exposure to heavy metals. • Real-time PCR data showed expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to heavy metals. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. • E. crassus GPx and GR genes will be useful as potential molecular markers for monitoring heavy metal contamination. - Abstract: Euplotes crassus, a single-celled eukaryote, is directly affected by environmental contaminants. Here, exponentially cultured E. crassus were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc and then the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Subsequently, the transcriptional modulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. After an 8-h exposure, significantly higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed in exposed group, compared to the controls. Real-time PCR data revealed that the expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8 h of exposure to all heavy metals. These findings suggest that these genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms by modulating their gene expression against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. Thus, they may be useful as potential molecular biomarkers to assess sediment environments for contaminants

  19. Morphology and systematics of two freshwater urostylid ciliates, with description of a new species (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Fan, Yangbo; Gao, Feng; Qiu, Zijian; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Warren, Alan; Shao, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The morphology of two freshwater urostylid species, Neourostylopsis flava spec. nov. and Pseudourostyla subtropicaChen et al., 2014, isolated from freshwater ponds in northern and southern China, respectively, was investigated following examination of specimens in vivo and following protargol staining. Neourostylopsis flava spec. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the following characteristics: body size 150-220 × 50-75 μm in vivo; yellow in colour; bright yellow to yellow-brownish spherical cortical granules densely arranged along marginal cirral rows and in irregular short rows on dorsal side; adoral zone with 40-55 membranelles; six to eight frontal, three or four buccal, two pretransverse ventral and seven to nine transverse cirri; 27-40 midventral pairs extending to about anterior 55% of cell; four or five left and four right marginal rows; freshwater habitat. A redescription of a freshwater population of P. subtropica is also provided. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows that P. subtropica and N. flava spec. nov. group with their congeners and both Neourostylopsis and Pseudourostyla are monophyletic. PMID:26752607

  20. A new entodiniomorphid ciliate, Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp., from the wild eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokiwa, T.; Modrý, David; Ito, A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Imai, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 115-120. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Infraciliature * Kalinzu Forest * protozoa * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2010

  1. Cold-shock based method to induce the discharge of extrusomes in ciliated protists and its efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Federico; Ortenzi, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Extrusomes are ejectable organelles in protists, which are able to discharge their contents to the outside of the cell in response to external stimuli. It is known that a large number of extrusomes functions as organelles for offense or defense in predator-prey interactions among protists and/or microinvertebrates. To date, the main approach to study these interactions was to compare artificially-induced extrusome-deficient cells with normal cells as prey for predators. Commonly applied methods to obtain extrusome-deficient cells use external chemicals, which could alter the viability of cells and/or interfere with the subsequent analysis of the substances (secondary metabolites) contained in the extrusomes. The cold-shock based method here presented has proven to be effective to remove different kinds of extrusomes from several protist species without harming the treated cells and without adding external reagents. This method could be also useful to simplify the related analysis of the chemical nature of the secreted secondary metabolites. PMID:26375274

  2. The imaging manifestation of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the imaging manifestation in 8 cases of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung in children (CCAM) in order to improve the recognition. Methods: Seven males and 1 female were reported, and the mean age was 3 years 10 months. The complaints were cough, fever, and chest distress repeated for 4 days to 8 years. Chest films and CT scan were performed in all cases before operation and three of them were examined by high-resolution CT. All cases were confirmed by operation and pathology as CCAM. Results: (1) On chest films, 4 cases showed single or multiple large air cystic lesions (> 3 cm in diameter), one case only showed localized hazy and curl-like markings, and 3 cases showed honeycomb-like small cystic lesions (< 3 cm in diameter). All cases were complicated with emphysema on affected side. 6 cases showed pulmonary hernia of mediastinum. (2) On CT scan, each lung were involved in 4 cases, 2 cases showed large air cyst (almost 9 cm in diameter), 2 cases showed roundness thin-wall air cystic lesions (3.8-5.6 cm in diameter), and 4 cases showed multiple irregular small air cystic lesions (0.2-3.2 cm in diameter) and adenoid change. The cysts were filled with air but with small amount of liquid in only 3 cases. All lesions showed obvious space occupying sign. (3) The pathologic findings, the cyst was paraplasmic glandular or bronchiolar structures, cyst wall was lined with ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium in 3 cases and lined by cuboids to columnar epithelium in 5 cases. The cyst wall contained smooth muscle and elastic tissue. Cartilage plates were not present in all cases. Conclusion: Imaging examination is a reliable method in diagnosing CCAM. It can provide the diagnosis in location and quality. CT scan can improve the detection rate of CCAM

  3. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Contra Costa, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's...

  4. Estudios clínico-epidemiológicos de la presión arterial sistémica en adolescentes del municipio Santa Clara, 2001-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, Guillermo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de la hipertensión arterial (HTA) en la adolescencia presenta relevancia actualmente. Se tiene por objetivos: diseñar un nomograma para la estimación de los percentiles de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica por edad y rangos de talla de acuerdo al sexo. Determinar la prevalencia de las categorías tensionales de normotensión, prehipertensión e hipertensión arterial en la muestra de estudio. Establecer la relación entre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados en la m...

  5. Evaluación del manejo del riego de la papa en la Empresa de Cultivos Varios "Valle del Yabú", Santa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pacheco Seguí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la evaluación pluviométrica de la tecnología de riego y del régimen de riego que se aplicó al cultivo de la papa en el Campo 14 de la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC # 2 de la Empresa de Cultivos Varios (ECV "Valle del Yabú en la campaña papera 2008-2009. La tecnología de riego fue una máquina de pivote central eléctrica modelo Western, la cual, regó con buena uniformidad. Las láminas de agua aplicadas fueron en general muy pequeñas y con intervalos de riego muy cortos lo que provocó un exceso de vueltas de la máquina en el campo, con problemas de atascamientos y lavado de productos químicos. La humedad del suelo se midió mediante muestras gravimétricas y también se usaron tensiómetros. Se aplicaron 273 mm de agua, lo cual, es suficiente para el cultivo, pero deficientemente distribuido. A partir del balance hídrico realizado, se recomiendan las láminas y los intervalos de riego por fases fenológicas. El rendimiento de tubérculos fue de 30,37 t/ha con favorables indicadores económicos para la UBPC # 2.

  6. Lamb model of respiratory syncytial virus-associated lung disease: insights to pathogenesis and novel treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The pathogenesis underlying this is not fully understood, and in vivo studies are needed to better clarify essential cellular features and molecular mechanisms. Such studies include analysis of lung tissue from affected human infants and various animal models. The preterm and newborn lamb lung has developmental, structural, cellular, physiologic, and immunologic features similar to that of human infants. Also, the lamb lung is susceptible to various strains of RSV that infect infants and cause similar bronchiolar lesions. Studies in lambs suggest that viral replication in airways (especially bronchioles) is extensive by 4 days after infection, along with bronchiolitis characterized by degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells, syncytial cell formation, neutrophil infiltration, epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and innate and adaptive immune responses. RSV bronchiolitis greatly affects airflow and gaseous exchange. RSV disease severity is increased in preterm lambs compared with full-term lambs; similar to human infants. The lamb is conducive to experimental assessment of novel, mechanistic therapeutic interventions such as delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and enhancement of airway epithelial oxidative responses, Club (Clara) cell protein 10, and synthesized compounds such as nanobodies. In contrast, exposure of the fetal ovine lung in vivo to ethanol, a risk factor for preterm birth, reduces pulmonary alveolar development and surfactant protein A expression. Because the formalin-inactivated RSV vaccination enhances some inflammatory responses to RSV infection in lambs, this model has the potential to assess mechanisms of formalin-inactivated RSV enhanced disease as well as newly developed vaccines. PMID:24936027

  7. cAMP response element binding protein is required for differentiation of respiratory epithelium during murine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Daniel Bird

    Full Text Available The cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1 transcription factor regulates cellular gene expression in response to elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. Creb1(-/- fetal mice are phenotypically smaller than wildtype littermates, predominantly die in utero and do not survive after birth due to respiratory failure. We have further investigated the respiratory defect of Creb1(-/- fetal mice during development. Lungs of Creb1(-/- fetal mice were pale in colour and smaller than wildtype controls in proportion to their reduced body size. Creb1(-/- lungs also did not mature morphologically beyond E16.5 with little or no expansion of airway luminal spaces, a phenotype also observed with the Creb1(-/- lung on a Crem(-/- genetic background. Creb1 was highly expressed throughout the lung at all stages examined, however activation of Creb1 was detected primarily in distal lung epithelium. Cell differentiation of E17.5 Creb1(-/- lung distal epithelium was analysed by electron microscopy and showed markedly reduced numbers of type-I and type-II alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, immunomarkers for specific lineages of proximal epithelium including ciliated, non-ciliated (Clara, and neuroendocrine cells showed delayed onset of expression in the Creb1(-/- lung. Finally, gene expression analyses of the E17.5 Creb1(-/- lung using whole genome microarray and qPCR collectively identified respiratory marker gene profiles and provide potential novel Creb1-regulated genes. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial role for Creb1 activity for the development and differentiation of the conducting and distal lung epithelium.

  8. Association between occupational exposure to arsenic and neurological, respiratory and renal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure by inhalation in copper smelter is associated with several subclinical health phenomena. The respiratory tract is usually involved in the process of detoxication of inhaled noxious agents which, as arsenic, can act as inductors of oxidative stress (Lantz, R.C., Hays, A.M., 2006. Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity. Drug Metab. Rev. 38, 791-804). It is also known that irritating fumes affect distal bronchioles of non-ciliated, epithelial Clara cells, which secrete anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Clara cell protein (CC16) into the respiratory tract. The study group comprised 39 smelters employed at different workplaces in a copper foundry, matched for age and smoking habits with the control group (n = 16). Subjective neurological symptoms (SNS), visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroneurographic (EneG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) results were examined in the workers and the relationships between As concentration in the air (As-Air) and urine (As-U) were assessed. Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarkers: CC16 as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum and retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex immunoassay. The concentrations of arsenic exceeded about two times the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) (0.01 mg/m3). The contents of lead did not exceed the TLV (0.05 mg/m3). Low CC16 levels in serum (12.1 μg/l) of workers with SNS and VEP symptoms and highest level As-U (xa 39.0 μg/l) were noted earliest in relation to occupational time. Moreover, those effects were associated with increased levels of urinary and serum β2M and urinary RBP. Results of our study suggested the initiative key role of oxidative stress in triggering the processes that eventually lead to the subclinical effects of arsenic on the nervous system.

  9. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein Predominio de neutrófilos en esputo inducido de asmáticos: Implicancias terapéuticas y rol de la proteína 16-kD de la célula clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.El eosinófilo es considerado la célula protagonista principal en el asma; sin embargo, a menudo se observan discordancias entre las manifestaciones clínicas y la respuesta de los pacientes al tratamiento. Nos propusimos determinar la ocurrencia de predominio de neutrófilos en el asma e identificar las características clínico-funcionales, el patrón celular y las moléculas solubles del esputo inducido, para guiar el tratamiento apropiado anti-inflamatorio. Se incluyeron 41 pacientes: 21 a 40 años de edad, con asma estable leve a grave, no tratados con esteroides tópicos ni sistémicos y no fumadores. Se obtuvo una muestra de esputo inducido en condiciones basales, una segunda muestra después del tratamiento al azar con budesonida (400 µg dos veces al día o el montelukast (10 mg/d durante seis semanas, y una final después de un período de lavado de 4 semanas. En el frotis por citocentrifugado se evaluó el predominio de eosinófilos (EP o neutrófilos (NP, y en el sobrenadante se determinó LTE4, y CC16. Se midió la variabilidad del flujo espiratorio máximo (PEFV. Un total de 23/41 pacientes correspondieron al EP y 18/41 pacientes con NP. El PEFV fue mayor en el EP que en NP. LTE4 fue mayor en NP que en EP. No se encontraron diferencias de los niveles de CC16 en ambos grupos. Montelukast redujo la célula predominante en ambos subgrupos, mientras que budesonida sólo redujo los eosinófilos en EP. Tanto budesonida como montelukast redujeron PEFV en EP, pero no en NP. El nivel de CC16 aumentó significativamente en el EP luego del tratamiento antiinflamatorio. En conclusión: se identificó un subgrupo de asmáticos NP que presentan una menor labilidad bronquial, la vía de los leucotrienos parece estar involucrada y responde al tratamiento anti-leucotrienos. Este fenotipo muestra una escasa recuperación del nivel de CC16 posterior al tratamiento.

  10. Increased fucosyl glycoconjugate by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances adherences of Pasteurella multocida type A in the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; KANG, Ikjae; Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of how Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances secondary Pasteurella multocida type A infection which leads to porcine enzootic pneumonia in infected pigs. Sixteen pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and then euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post inoculation. In situ hybridization for M. hyopneumoniae DNA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin histochemistry for fucosyl glycoconjugate, w...

  11. Investigations of the effects of UV and X-ray radiation and the repair of radiation damage in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the example of Stylomychia mytilus, the effects of UV-radiation and ionizing X-ray radiation are compared. The effects on cell division and on the repair of radiation damage in DNA are compared. Sensitivity to UV radiation differs between the stages of the cell cycle while the effects of X-ray radiation are independent of phase. There is no difference in repair processes. (AJ) 891 AJ/AJ 892 MKO

  12. 纤毛虫与养殖刺参的"腐皮综合症"%Ciliates and “cankered cutis disease” of Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 范瑞青; 谭金山; 高澜

    2005-01-01

    @@ 近年伴随刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)养殖业的快速发展,病害问题日趋突出.2004年山东沿海多处养殖海参发病,有些地方海参的死亡率高达50%以上.许多专家对刺参的病因和病原进行了研究,将发生于2004年春季的养殖刺参爆发性疾病称之为"腐皮综合症"或"化皮病",并定性其为细菌性疾病.

  13. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration at greater doses to favorably alter rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:19038952

  14. 肺炎患者痰中检出纤毛虫1例%Ciliated protozoan in sputum of a pneumonia patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志敏

    2007-01-01

    患者,女性,56岁,初中文化,绍兴市越城区人,现已退休,养鸟史2年余,无疫水接触史。2006年12月17日,因不明原因发热,来院就诊。主诉:畏寒,少量咳嗽,无痰。查体:体温高达40℃;血常规检查:白细胞总数7.9×109/L,中性粒细胞78.9%。血液沉降率9mm/h;血压120/90mmHg,

  15. Morphology, ontogenetic features and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of a soil ciliate, Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Stichotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangbo; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Feng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov., isolated from the slightly saline soil of a mangrove wetland in Zhanjiang, southern China, were investigated. The novel species was characterized by having five to eight buccal cirri arranged in a row, three to five transverse cirri, four macronuclear nodules aligned, and 17-32 and 20-34 cirri in frontoventral rows V and VI, respectively, both extending to the transverse cirri. The main ontogenetic features of the novel species were as follows: (1) the parental adoral zone of the membranelles is completely inherited by the proter; (2) the frontoventral and transverse cirri are formed in a six-anlagen mode; (3) basically, the frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlagen II-V generate one transverse cirrus each at their posterior ends, while anlage VI provides no transverse cirrus; (4) both marginal rows and dorsal kineties develop intrakinetally, no dorsal kinety fragment is formed; and (5) the macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass at the middle stage. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species groups with the clade containing Bistichella variabilis, Parabistichella variabilis, Uroleptoides magnigranulosus and two species of the genus Orthoamphisiella. Given present knowledge, it was considered to be still too early to come to a final conclusion regarding the familial classification of the genus Bistichella; further investigations of key taxa with additional molecular markers are required. PMID:25242538

  16. Biodiversity and molecular phylogeny of Australian Clevelandella species (Class Armophorea, Order Clevelandellida, Family Clevelandellidae), intestinal endosymbiotic ciliates in the wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Wright, André-Denis G

    2013-01-01

    There are over 100 species in the Order Clevelandellida distributed in many hosts. The majority is assigned to one of the five families, the Nyctotheridae. Our knowledge of clevelandellid genetic diversity is limited to species of Nyctotherus and Nyctotheroides. To increase our understanding of clevelandellid genetic diversity, species were isolated from intestines of the Australian wood-feeding roach Panesthia cribrata Saussure, 1864 from August to October, 2008. Four morphospecies, similar to those reported in Java and Japan by Kidder [Parasitologica, 29:163-205], were identified: Clevelandella constricta, Clevelandella nipponensis, Clevelandella parapanesthiae, and Clevelandella panesthiae. Small subunit rRNA gene sequences assigned all species to a "family" clade that was sister to the clade of species assigned to the Family Nyctotheridae in the Order Clevelandellida. Genetics and morphology were consistent for the first three Clevelandella species, but isolates assigned to C. panesthiae were assignable to three different genotypes, suggesting that this may be a cryptic species complex. PMID:23590673

  17. Eficacia de un plan de cuidado de enfermería en la intensidad del dolor en pacientes posoperados de cirugía cardiovascular en el Hospital Santa Clara E. S. E.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Sánchez, Harvvy

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El dolor intenso es una de las principales quejas referidas por los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia de la aplicación de un plan de cuidado fundamentado en la “teoría del equilibrio entre la analgesia y los efectos secundarios”, en la disminución de la intensidad del dolor, en comparación al manejo habitual de enfermería en los pacientes en posoperatorio de cirugía cardiovascular en la unidad de cuidado intensivo del Hospital Santa ...

  18. Determination of the {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type; Determinacao da razao isotopica {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) de cerveja clara tipo pilsen nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Lopes, Fabio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia Isotopica; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2002-07-01

    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition {delta}{sup 13} C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, {delta}{sup 13} C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the {delta}{sup 13} C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  19. Clara Royer, Le Royaume littéraire. Quêtes d'identité d'une génération d'écrivains juifs de l'entre-deux guerres. Hongrie, Slovaquie, Transylvanie

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    « Mon sang est juif, ma peau hongroise, et je suis un homme » (Aladar Komlós, 1892-1982, critique littéraire, rescapé des camps de la mort). « Ma judéité : mon sang, mon esprit : le destin millénaire de mes aïeux. La magyarité : mon toit, ma langue. Mon écriture : le destin de mon œuvre » (Karoly Pap, 1897 ; Bergen-Belsen 1945, romancier). Parmi d'autres, ces témoignages d'écrivains juifs-hongrois, plongés, après la Grande Guerre, dans le vaste creuset d'une Europe centrale en pleine recompos...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, 2006 6" natural color orthoimagery geotiff format for santa clara county, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, US Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  1. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  2. A mechanism of transmission and factors affecting coral susceptibility to Halofolliculina sp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Cróquer, A.; Guzmán, H. M.; Bastidas, C.

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence collected since 2004 suggests that infections caused by ciliates in the genus Halofolliculina may be related to coral mortality in more than 25 scleractinian species in the Caribbean. However, the relationship between the presence of ciliates and coral mortality has not yet been firmly established. Field and laboratory manipulations were used to test if ciliate infections harm corals, if ciliates are able to infect healthy colonies, and if coral susceptibility to ciliate infection depends on temperature, depth, distance to an infected colony, and the presence of injuries. Ciliate infections were always characterized by a visually detectable front of ciliates located on recently exposed coral skeletons. These infections altered the normal structure of the colony by causing tissue mortality (0.8 ± 0.95 cm month-1, mean ± SD) and by delaying or preventing recovery from injuries. Under laboratory conditions, ciliates transmitted directly and horizontally from infected to healthy hosts, and coral susceptibility to ciliate infections increased with the presence of injuries. After invasion, the ciliate population grew, rapidly and after 8 d, produced tissue mortality on 32% of newly infected hosts. Thus, our results support the existence of a new Caribbean coral syndrome that is associated with tissue mortality, is infectious, and transmits directly and horizontally. Even though the role of ciliates in the development of lesions on coral tissues remains unclear, their presence is by far the most conspicuous sign of this syndrome; thus, we propose to name this condition Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI).

  3. Description of two marine amphisiellid ciliates, Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 and A. sinica sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with notes on their ontogenesis and SSU rDNA-based phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiong; Zhao, Xiaolu; Ji, Daode; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and taxonomy of two marine Amphisiella species, isolated from mariculture waters in northern China, were investigated using standard techniques. One species corresponds well with the original description of the poorly known Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 by remarkable characteristics, inter alia, (i) the additional cirri between the left frontal cirrus and the buccal cirrus, and (ii) ring-shaped structure in the anterior and posterior body portion (posterior one sometimes lacking). The detailed description of the cirral pattern and an informative ontogenetic stage first reveal that the additional cirri, which are uniformly absent in all congeners, originate from the frontal-ventral transverse cirral anlage I. The other species represents a new species of Amphisiella, A. sinica sp. nov. It is distinguished from its most closely related congener A. annulata (Kahl, 1928) Borror, 1972 by having numerous ring-shaped structures with a shallow brim more or less densely centralised at both ends of the body. Brief notes on the cell division and phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence for both organisms are also supplied in order to get further understanding of their systematic positions. The molecular information indicates that both organisms belong to two separate clades and confirms that the genus Amphisiella might be polyphyletic. PMID:27156119

  4. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic. PMID:23859947

  5. Tritiated thymidine-labeled bronchioloalveolar cells and radiation dose following inhalation of plutonium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to show the relationship of inhaled Pu particle distribution and alveolar-bronchiolar target-cell response with respect to the formation of pulmonary carcinoma. The proliferation of type 2 alveolar epithelium and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium appears critical in the induction of lung tumors associated from inhaled 239PuO2. Female, Wistar rats were either sham-exposed (40 rats) or given a single inhalation to 169Yb-239PuO2 (99 rats, ILB, 3.9 +/- 1.2 kBq) and examined at 20 time intervals from 1 day to 700 days postexposure for Pu particle distribution in airways by SEM quantitative autoradiography and for cell labeling with tritiated thymidine. Initially, deposited Pu particles were rapidly cleared from the surface of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles within a few days. Thereafter, about 5 times more alpha track exposure to the bronchiolar epithelium was delivered from Pu particles found in peribronchiolar alveoli than from Pu particles being cleared from bronchiolar surfaces. Exposure of bronchiolar epithelium at later times was due mostly to the formation of peribronchiolar Pu particle aggregates. A maximal increase in labeled alveolar wall cells was seen at 60 days after exposure, decreasing gradually to control levels by 400 days. Cell labeling in focal alveolar regions of Pu aggregation was about 5 fold higher. Increased bronchiolar epithelium labeling appeared in two phases. The first phase was seen 15 days after exposure, associated with initial deposition and clearance of Pu particles. The second phase slowly reached a maximum at 250 days and was associated with peribronchiolar Pu aggregate formation. The temporal-spatial dose-distribution pattern for inhaled Pu particles is an important aspect of Pu-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis

  6. Ultrastructural changes and Toll-like receptor mRNA expression in type 2 diabetic lung tissue%2型糖尿病肺脏超微结构变化及TLR2/4表达的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈兴平; 李娟; 陈守惠; 殷平

    2012-01-01

    in ciliated bronchial epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells 2 weeks after the onset of diabetes. And 8 weeks after the onset, TLR4 expression was detected in bronchiolar-alveolar epithelium, alveolar epithelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. Starting from 2ed week after the onset of diabetes, levels of TLR4 protein and mRNA were significantly higher in the lungs of affected rats than those in those of control rats (P < 0.05). Four weeks after the onset of diabetes, TLR2 expression was detected in bronchiolar-alveolar epithelium. Eight weeks after the onset, significant high expression of TLR2 was detected in vascular endothelial cells. Starting from 6th week, levels of TLR2 protein and mRNA level were significantly higher in the lungs of control rats than those of control rats (P < 0.05). From all the result, we get a conclusion that early changes in ultrastructure and abnormal expression of TLR2/4 are existed in the lungs of diabetic rats, which may contribute to the predisposition to respiratory tract infections.

  7. Exploiting Oxytricha trifallax nanochromosomes to screen for non-coding RNA genes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seolkyoung; Swart, Estienne C.; Minx, Patrick J.; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Landweber, Laura F.; Eddy, Sean R.

    2011-01-01

    We took advantage of the unusual genomic organization of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax to screen for eukaryotic non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Ciliates have two types of nuclei: a germ line micronucleus that is usually transcriptionally inactive, and a somatic macronucleus that contains a reduced, fragmented and rearranged genome that expresses all genes required for growth and asexual reproduction. In some ciliates including Oxytricha, the macronuclear genome is particularly extreme, consis...

  8. The influence of zooplankton enrichment on the microbial loop in a shallow, eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingel, Priit; Agasild, Helen; Karus, Katrit; Kangro, Kersti; Tammert, Helen; Tõnno, Ilmar; Feldmann, Tõnu; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-02-01

    With increasing primary productivity, ciliates may become the most important members of the microbial loop and form a central linkage in the transformation of microbial production to upper trophic levels. How metazooplankters, especially copepods, regulate ciliate community structure in shallow eutrophic waters is not completely clear. We carried out mesocosm experiments with different cyclopoid copepod enrichments in a shallow eutrophic lake to examine the responses of ciliate community structure and abundance to changes in cyclopoid copepod biomass and to detect any cascading effects on bacterioplankton and edible phytoplankton. Our results indicate that an increase in copepod zooplankton biomass favours the development of small-sized bacterivorous ciliates. This effect is unleashed by the decline of predaceous ciliate abundance, which would otherwise graze effectively on the small-sized ciliates. The inverse relationship between crustacean zooplankton and large predaceous ciliates is an important feature adjusting not only the structure of the ciliate community but also the energy transfer between meta- and protozooplankton. Still we could not detect any cascading effects on bacterio- or phytoplankton that would be caused by the structural changes in the ciliate community. PMID:26555735

  9. Biological and chemical data determined in mesocosm experiments by Dauphin Island Sea Lab in June and August of 2011 (NODC Accession 0118680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundances of viruses, prokaryotes, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were determined over time in mesocosm experiments measuring...

  10. Multiple secretoglobin 1A1 genes are differentially expressed in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretoglobin 1A1 (SCGB 1A1, also called Clara cell secretory protein, is the most abundantly secreted protein of the airway. The SCGB1A1 gene has been characterized in mammals as a single copy in the genome. However, analysis of the equine genome suggested that horses might have multiple SCGB1A1 gene copies. Non-ciliated lung epithelial cells produce SCGB 1A1 during inhalation of noxious substances to counter airway inflammation. Airway fluid and lung tissue of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, a chronic inflammatory lung disease affecting mature horses similar to environmentally induced asthma of humans, have reduced total SCGB 1A1 concentration. Herein, we investigated whether horses have distinct expressed SCGB1A1 genes; whether the transcripts are differentially expressed in tissues and in inflammatory lung disease; and whether there is cell specific protein expression in tissues. Results We identified three SCGB1A1 gene copies on equine chromosome 12, contained within a 512-kilobase region. Bioinformatic analysis showed that SCGB1A1 genes differ from each other by 8 to 10 nucleotides, and that they code for different proteins. Transcripts were detected for SCGB1A1 and SCGB1A1A, but not for SCGB1A1P. The SCGB1A1P gene had most inter-individual variability and contained a non-sense mutation in many animals, suggesting that SCGB1A1P has evolved into a pseudogene. Analysis of SCGB1A1 and SCGB1A1A sequences by endpoint-limiting dilution PCR identified a consistent difference affecting 3 bp within exon 2, which served as a gene-specific “signature”. Assessment of gene- and organ-specific expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR of 33 tissues showed strong expression of SCGB1A1 and SCGB1A1A in lung, uterus, Fallopian tube and mammary gland, which correlated with detection of SCGB 1A1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Significantly altered expression of the ratio of SCGB1A1A to SCGB1A1 was detected in RAO

  11. Crocidolite-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responses of alveolar and bronchial cells to asbestos exposure were studied to relate the cytokinetic changes of injury and repair to the inflammatory process and subsequent fibroblast activity. Lesions were induced by intratracheal instillation of 1 mg crocidolite asbestos to mice which were killed up to 20 weeks; 3H thymidine was injected 1 hr before death. A rapid inflammatory response with elevated PMN and lysosomal enzyme release was largely over by 2 wks though an increase in alveolar macrophages (AM) was maintained. Within 48 hrs there was multifocal necrosis of bronchiolar epithelium, maximal at bifurcations where longer fibers tend to adhere. Subsequently, intralumenal exudates were overgrown by proliferating epithelial cells and were incorporated, with long fibers, into bronchiolar connective tissue where granulomas formed. Alveolar lesions were located in peribronchiolar air sacs where focal injury of Type 1 cells by short fibers was rapidly repaired by division of Type 2 cells. Most short fibers were cleared by AMs, only a few fibers reached the interstitium. After 2 wks the increase in labeling index was due to labeled peribronchial fibroblasts. Biochemically, collagen increased after 4 wks when fibrosis was seen in bronchiolar lumens and in peribronchiolar connective tissue with lesser amounts in the centrilobular alveolar interstitium. The results suggest that long fibers induce bronchiolar injury and a more severe fibrotic pattern similar to human asbestosis

  12. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  13. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Rena Greenwald; Javan Esfandiari; Alexis Lecu; W. Ray Waters; Horst Posthaus; Thomas Bodmer; Jean-Paul Janssens; Fabio Aloisio; Claudia Graubner; Eléonore Grosclaude; Alessandra Piersigilli; Irene Schiller

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic respon...

  14. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W. Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic respon...

  15. Aspects of pulmonary emphysema on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emphysema is an entity characterized by enlargement of the air-space with bronchiolar walls destruction with-out evident fibrosis. It is classified according to anatomic distribution of the areas of lung destruction into these types: centrilobular, panlobular, paraseptal, and paracicatricial. TCAR is superior to chest radiographs and conventional CT is detecting these areas of pulmonary destruction. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  16. Aspects of pulmonary emphysema on high resolution computed tomography; Aspectos do enfisema pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Castro Lessa Angelo, M.T. de; Silva, F.M.D.; Costa, N.S.S.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R.; Cerri, G.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1995-03-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is an entity characterized by enlargement of the air-space with bronchiolar walls destruction with-out evident fibrosis. It is classified according to anatomic distribution of the areas of lung destruction into these types: centrilobular, panlobular, paraseptal, and paracicatricial. TCAR is superior to chest radiographs and conventional CT is detecting these areas of pulmonary destruction. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs.

  17. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of large organics, and then through Picarro's Micro-Combustion Cartridge that acts to oxidize interfering organics to CO2 and H2O. Using an open-split, the IM is interfaced directly with a CRDS system (in this case, an L2130-i) for the measurement of δ18O and δD. Based on replicate measurements of water introduced to the system using glass filter paper, the precision of the system is better than 0.35 and 1.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. We will present improvements in system operation that have reduced systematic errors associated with (i) variable backgrounds, and (ii) exchange between the sample and the local atmosphere during sample introduction. In addition, we will present calibration data, and data demonstrating the effectiveness of the Micro-Combustion Cartridge at removing organics, which can result in spectroscopic interference. Finally, we will compare localized leaf water data against integrated whole leaf water data to demonstrate the added value of being able to sample small (approximately 5 mm diameter) areas of a leaf, and compare the results of measuring samples with high TDS on an IM and a Picarro High Precision Vaporizer.

  18. Efeito das cores dos tanques, verde clara e marrom escura, na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae) Effect of light green and dark brown colored tanks on survival rates and development of tambaqui larvae, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Helena Sipauba-Tavares; Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito da cor dos aquários na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, num período de 20 dias. As larvas foram alimentadas “ad libitum” e diariamente foi realizada amostragem de quatro variáveis limnológicas. A temperatura da água oscilou de 24,0 a 27,8 oC no marrom- escuro e de 24,0 a 27,7oC no verde-claro; a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu acima de 6,5 mg/L; o pH manteve-se alcalino e a condutividade,...

  19. Efeito das cores dos tanques, verde clara e marrom escura, na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae Effect of light green and dark brown colored tanks on survival rates and development of tambaqui larvae, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Sipauba-Tavares

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito da cor dos aquários na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, num período de 20 dias. As larvas foram alimentadas “ad libitum” e diariamente foi realizada amostragem de quatro variáveis limnológicas. A temperatura da água oscilou de 24,0 a 27,8 oC no marrom- escuro e de 24,0 a 27,7oC no verde-claro; a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu acima de 6,5 mg/L; o pH manteve-se alcalino e a condutividade, acima de 30 µS/cm. O tratamento marrom-escuro apresentou sobrevivência média significativamente menor (P The color effect on survival rate and development of tambaqui larvae, Colossoma macropomum, in fish tanks, during a 20 day period, was analyzed. Larvae were fed “ad libitum” and measurements of four limnological variables were conducted daily. Water temperature varied between 24 to 27.8C and 24.0 to 27.7C in the dark brown and light green colored tanks, respectively. Dissolved oxygen level remained over 6.5 mg/L, pH was alkaline and water conductivity higher than 30 µS/cm. The dark brown treatment displayed significantly (P < 0.05 lower survival rate compared to treatment with light green. Identical effect, however, was not reported with average weight, biomass and larvae total length. Results showed that tank color influences larvae survival rates, where the light green color makes it easier for the larvae to visualize the prey

  20. Clara Elena Suárez Argüello, Brígida von Mentz, Epístolas y cuentas de la negociación minera de Vetagrande, Zacatecas 1791-1794    1806-1809, México, CIESAS, 2008, 938 p., paleografía e introducción.

    OpenAIRE

    Langue, Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    De los documentos archivísticos de la historia de México bien se sabe que, hasta que se adoptó una política mas directiva al respecto en el transcurso de los años 90, muchos se extraviaron y terminaron, en el mejor de los casos, en bibliotecas privadas o extranjeras. Fue el caso de Zacatecas cuya historia dispersa en varios repositorios nacionales y extranjeros se conserva hoy en día en no pocos acervos estadounidenses, siendo el último ejemplo dado a conocer por medio de esta publicación el ...