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Sample records for bronchial squamous metaplasia

  1. Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/: report of a preliminary randomized, double-blind intervention trial

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    Heimburger, D.C.; Alexander, C.B.; Birch, R.; Butterworth, C.E. Jr.; Bailey, W.C.; Krumdieck, C.L.

    1988-03-11

    To test whether changes in folate and vitamin B/sub 12/ nutrition modify the severity of potentially premalignant lesions identified by cytology in sputum samples of smokers, the authors conducted a randomized, controlled prospective intervention trial in smokers with bronchial squamous metaplasia. Seventy-three men with a history of 20 or more pack-years of cigarette smoking who had metaplasia on one or more sputum samples were stratified according to smoking level and randomly assigned to four months' treatment with either placebo or 10 mg of folate plus 500 ..mu..g of hydroxocobalamin. Direct cytological comparison of the two groups after four months showed significantly greater reduction of atypia in the supplemented group. This provides preliminary evidence that atypical bronchial squamous metaplasia may be reduced by supplementation with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/. However, the significance of these findings is tempered by substantial spontaneous variation in sputum cytologies, the small study population, the short duration of the trial, and the supraphysiological doses of folate and B/sub 12/ used. The results should not be construed as pointing to a potential way of preventing lung cancer in individuals who continue to smoke or as supporting self-medication with large doses of folate or B/sub 12/ by smokers.

  2. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Santos Renato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  3. Renal Pelviceal Keratinizing Squamous Metaplasia with Sparing of Pyramidal Zones

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    Richard H. Siderits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic changes in the urothelium of the upper urinary tract are relatively infrequent. Metaplasia may present as either squamous or less often glandular differentiation. The process may be associated with chronic inflammation or associated chronic infections. There may be malignant transformation to either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. The demarcation of the metaplastic process in the minor calyces has not been well documented to date. We report the case of a 74-year-old female patient who presented with a history of chronic renal disease and acute pyohydronephrosis. The patient underwent a nephroureterectomy which revealed keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia throughout the renal pelvis and upper urinary tract with abrupt termination of metaplasia at the junction of the renal pelvis and the minor calyx (pyramidal zone. Immunohistochemical evaluation documents metaplastic urothelium stained positive for CK5, before converting sharply to simple cuboidal epithelium in the minor calyx (pyramidal zones which stained positive CK7. At the junction of the metaplastic components and low cuboidal lined minor calyceal surfaces, the underlying stroma showed loss of ureteral muscularis mucosa with transition to renal parenchymal type stroma. We believe that this observation is unique and potentially relevant to the etiology and pathophysiology of pelviceal metaplasia.

  4. Correlation between precancerous bronchial metaplasia and cigarette consumption, and preliminary results of retinoid treatment.

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    Mathe, G; Gouveia, J; Hercend, T; Gros, F; Dorval, T; Hazon, J; Misset, J L; Schwarzenberg, L; Ribaud, P; Lemaigre, G; Santelli, G; Reizenstein, P; Homasson, J P; Gaillard, J P; Angebault, M; Bonniot, J P; Lededente, A; Marsac, J; Parrot, R; Pretet, S; Gaget, H

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives, so-called retinoids, can prevent squamous metaplasia induced not only by vitamin A deficiency but also by carcinogenic hydrocarbons. An aromatic retinoid, such as ET1, has been shown to prevent chemically induced papillomas in mice and to amplify certain immunologic reactions. Heavy smokers, 106 volunteers, were submitted to fibrobronchoscopy with bronchial biopsies. An index of metaplasia (IM) was calculated on the basis of microscopical examination of a total of 9,633 sections of 1,010 biopsies. Despite the subjectivity of the estimates of cigarette consumption, this was significantly (P less than 0.02) and positively correlated to the IM. Eighty-five percent of the women had a low IM as compared to only 42% of the men (P less than 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the reported cigarette consumption. Fifty-two subjects had an IM greater than 15% and were given 25 mg ET1 orally daily for 6 months. The bronchoscopy was repeated in 30 patients following completion of the 6-month treatment. The IM was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced after treatment.

  5. Clinical importance of squamous metaplasia in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

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    Martin, J.E.; Jenkins, B J; Zuk, R J; Blandy, J. P.; Baithun, S I

    1989-01-01

    One hundred cases of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were studied to determine whether squamous metaplasia and other histological features within the bladder can be of value in predicting outcome of treatment with radiotherapy. Sixty cases showed the changes of squamous metaplasia, and of this group 46 (78%) failed to respond to radiotherapy. A significant response rate of 90% was seen in the 40 tumours without squamous metaplasia. It is concluded that transitional cell carcinomas ...

  6. Minocycline Inhibits Inflammation and Squamous Metaplasia of Conjunctival Tissue Culture in Airlift Conditions.

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    Xiao, Qiguo; Tan, Yehui; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Zuguo; Tang, Luosheng

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation and squamous metaplasia is a common pathological process that occurs in many ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and chemical/thermal burns. At present, there is no ideal medicinal treatment for this abnormality. We report herein on an ex vivo conjunctival inflammation and squamous metaplasia model by culturing human conjunctival tissues at an air-liquid interface for up to 8 days to study the effects of minocycline on inflammation and squamous metaplasia. The levels of inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and metalloproteinase-9 in the cultured human conjunctival tissues were determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The total and phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB were detected by western blot. Differentiation markers K10, MUC5AC, and Pax6 and proliferation markers Ki67, p63, and K14 were determined by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that minocycline inhibited inflammation, decreased the expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and metalloproteinase -9, and squamous metaplasia features such as hyperproliferation and abnormal epidermal differentiation of conjunctival epithelium. These findings highlight the possibility that minocycline could be used to treat dry eye and other ocular surface diseases exhibiting epithelial cell inflammation and squamous metaplasia.

  7. Contact lens wear and the development of squamous metaplasia of the surface cells of the conjunctiva.

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    Doughty, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    To review the reported effects of contact lens wear on the surface epithelial cells of the human conjunctiva as assessed by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). A literature search was undertaken to identify reports on the conjunctival health after contact lens wear, principally as assessed using CIC. Of 26 reports identified, 22 examined the bulbar conjunctiva, and 2 examined the tarsal conjunctiva. Just 16 reports provided data from which mean squamous metaplasia grades could be calculated, with the overall grade being just 0.7 on a 0 to 3 scale. Only 13 of these studies provided unambiguous data on the duration of contact lens wear, and only an apparent trend was evident in that grades of squamous metaplasia increased over early years of lens wear. Such a trend was not statistically significant either up to 6 years of average lens wear (P>0.05) or over all studies (P>0.5). The estimated variability in squamous metaplasia was substantially greater when low grades were reported, an observation that either reflects the heterogeneity in the cell response or highlights the difficulty in assigning low grades to cell samples. Based on subjective grading, CIC studies reveal no clearly definable relationship between the duration of contact lens wear and the extent of development of conjunctival squamous metaplasia. Logically, therefore, objective methods to assess squamous metaplasia are needed. Various options for quantitative CIC are discussed, including the use of in vivo confocal microscopy.

  8. Clinical and pathological presentation of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Borges, Á.M.; Peixoto, D.G.M.; Paixão, T.A.; Santos, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous metaplasia of rete ovarii is characterized by replacement of the normal cuboidal epithelium of rete ovarii by a keratinized stratified scamous epithelium, leading to accumulation of keratinized material within the tubules and cystic dilatation of rete ovarii. The present study decribes a case of scamous metaplasia of rete ovarii in a 10 year old Zebu cow, including clinical, surgical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and hormonal findings. At first ultrasound examination the cow h...

  9. Extensive squamous metaplasia in a benign phyllodes tumor: A rare case report

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    Harsh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors (PTs with extensive squamous metaplasia is an uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising of <1% of all breast neoplasm′s. In this article, we report a case of a 55-year-old female patient admitted to the General Surgery Department with a rapidly enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed to be as benign PT with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are known, but infrequent in these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within PT is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malignant subtypes. There are only a few cases reported in the literature. We therefore, aimed to present this case in view of its extremely rare nature.

  10. Incidentally Discovered Extensive Squamous Metaplasia within Borderline Phyllodes Tumor: Presentation of a Rare Tumor.

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    Uğraş, Nesrin; Tolunay, Şahsine; Öz Atalay, Fatma; Gökgöz, Şehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. We therefore aimed to present the case with its microscopic findings. In this article, we report a 59-year-old female admitted to the general surgery department with a rapidly, enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as borderline phyllodes tumor with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are infrequent in the stromal and epithelial component of these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within phyllodes tumor is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malign subtypes.

  11. Barrett's metaplasia glands are clonal, contain multiple stem cells and share a common squamous progenitor.

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    Nicholson, Anna M; Graham, Trevor A; Simpson, Ashley; Humphries, Adam; Burch, Nicola; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Novelli, Marco; Harrison, Rebecca; Wright, Nicholas A; McDonald, Stuart A C; Jankowski, Janusz A

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the stem cell organisation of the normal oesophagus or Barrett's metaplastic oesophagus. Using non-pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations as clonal markers, the authors reveal the stem cell organisation of the human squamous oesophagus and of Barrett's metaplasia and determine the mechanism of clonal expansion of mutations. Mutated cells were identified using enzyme histochemistry to detect activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). CCO-deficient cells were laser-captured and mutations confirmed by PCR sequencing. Cell lineages were identified using immunohistochemistry. The normal squamous oesophagus contained CCO-deficient patches varying in size from around 30 μm up to about 1 mm. These patches were clonal as each area within a CCO-deficient patch contained an identical mitochondrial DNA mutation. In Barrett's metaplasia partially CCO-deficient glands indicate that glands are maintained by multiple stem cells. Wholly mutated Barrett's metaplasia glands containing all the expected differentiated cell lineages were seen, demonstrating multilineage differentiation from a clonal population of Barrett's metaplasia stem cells. Patches of clonally mutated Barrett's metaplasia glands were observed, indicating glands can divide to form patches. In one patient, both the regenerating squamous epithelium and the underlying glandular tissue shared a clonal mutation, indicating that they are derived from a common progenitor cell. In normal oesophageal squamous epithelium, a single stem cell clone can populate large areas of epithelium. Barrett's metaplasia glands are clonal units, contain multiple multipotential stem cells and most likely divide by fission. Furthermore, a single cell of origin can give rise to both squamous and glandular epithelium suggesting oesophageal plasticity.

  12. Clinical and pathological presentation of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Á.M. Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous metaplasia of rete ovarii is characterized by replacement of the normal cuboidal epithelium of rete ovarii by a keratinized stratified scamous epithelium, leading to accumulation of keratinized material within the tubules and cystic dilatation of rete ovarii. The present study decribes a case of scamous metaplasia of rete ovarii in a 10 year old Zebu cow, including clinical, surgical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and hormonal findings. At first ultrasound examination the cow had lightly asymmetric ovaries with follicles presenting echogenicity similar to luteinized follicular cysts. After transvaginal follicular aspiration creamy yellowish sanguineous-purulent content was recovered. After unilateral ovariectomy the ovary was sectioned and brownish viscous material drained from cystic cavity. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosid of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii. Progesterone concentrations assessed by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay within different time periods after ovariectomy showed that pathology did not compromise normal luteal ovarian activity in a contralateral reminiscent ovary.

  13. APR-246/PRIMA-1Met Inhibits and Reverses Squamous Metaplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium.

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    Li, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Pei; Yang, Qichen; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, APR-246/PRIMA-1(Met), on squamous metaplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation were assessed by Cytokeratin 10 (K10), K14, K19, Pax6, MUC5AC, and p63 immunostaining patterns. β-catenin and TCF-4 immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR characterized Wnt signaling pathway involvement. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR-246 for 4 days. p63, K10, β-catenin, and TCF-4 expression in pterygial epithelium was determined by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. On the other hand, APR-246 reversed all of these declines in K10, K14, and p63 expression. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR-246 were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR-246 also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR-246 suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

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    Maria Carolina Vaz Goulart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA, the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-flled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation.

  15. Barrett's metaplasia develops from cellular reprograming of esophageal squamous epithelium due to gastroesophageal reflux.

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    Minacapelli, Carlos D; Bajpai, Manisha; Geng, Xin; Cheng, Christina L; Chouthai, Abhishek A; Souza, Rhonda; Spechler, Stuart J; Das, Kiron M

    2017-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting the cellular origin of BM from reprograming or transcommitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile (A + B) exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line NES-B10T was exposed 5 min/day to an A + B mixture for 30 wk. Morphological changes, mRNA, and protein expression levels for the inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2; the lineage-determining transcription factors TAp63 (squamous), CDX2, and SOX9 (both columnar); and the columnar lineage markers Villin, Muc-2, CK8, and mAb Das-1 (incomplete phenotype of intestinal metaplasia) were assessed every 10 wk. Markers of columnar lineage and inflammation increased progressively, while squamous lineage-determining transcriptional factors were significantly decreased both at the mRNA and/or protein level in the NES-B10T cells at/after A + B treatment for 30 wk. Distinct modifications in morphological features were only observed at/after 30 wk of A + B exposure. These changes acquired by the NES-B10T 30-wk cells were retained even after cessation of A + B exposure for at least 3 wk. This study provides evidence that chronic exposure to the physiological components of gastric refluxate leads to repression of the discernable squamous transcriptional factors and activation of latent columnar transcriptional factors. This reflects the alteration in lineage commitment of the precursor-like biphenotypic, NES-B10T cells in response to A + B exposure as the possible origin of BM from the resident NES cells.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides evidence of the origins of Barrett's metaplasia from lineage transcommitment of resident esophageal cells after chronic exposure to gastroesophageal refluxate. The preterminal progenitor-like squamous cells alter their differentiation and develop

  16. Smoking is an independent association of squamous metaplasia in Chinese nasal polyps.

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    Gao, Tian; Ng, Chew Lip; Li, Chunwei; Li, Ying Ying; Duan, Chen; Shen, Liang; Jiao, Yu Fei; Liu, Ming; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Nasal polyposis demonstrates histological features of epithelial remodeling and variable inflammatory cellular infiltration. We studied a large series of Chinese nasal polyp (NP) samples to characterize these histological features and their associations with clinical characteristics. A detailed histological study of nasal polyposis was performed employing various histopathological techniques. A total of 153 intraoperative NP biopsies were analyzed histologically. Sections were examined under microscopy to determine the percentages of different types of inflammatory cells, and types of epithelial remodeling. Two systems of subtyping NPs based on inflammatory cell infiltration were assessed. These were correlated with patient characteristics. Epithelial remodeling patterns include epithelial hyperplasia (87.8% of specimens), goblet cell hyperplasia (53.2%), and squamous metaplasia (44.6%). Smoking was a strong independent association of squamous metaplasia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 9.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2 to 22.9; p cells were neutrophils (median of 12.8%) and CD8+ T cells (12.8%), followed by macrophages (11.0%), CD4+ T cells (9.7%), eosinophils (8.6%), and mast cells (7.6%). We defined 2 systems to classify NPs based on proportions of eosinophils and neutrophils. The majority of NP samples were neutrophilic. The first classification system has greater histological correlation. Based on the first classification, eosinophilic nasal polyposis was associated with epithelial hyperplasia (OR 3.7, p = 0.019) and goblet cell hyperplasia (OR 3.4, p metaplasia in nasal polyposis. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. Tracheal dysplasia precedes bronchial dysplasia in mouse model of N-nitroso trischloroethylurea induced squamous cell lung cancer.

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    Moumita Ghosh

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC is the second leading cause of lung cancer death in the US and has a 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Histological changes in the bronchial epithelium termed dysplasia are precursors to invasive SCC. However, the cellular mechanisms that cause dysplasia are unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we used topical application of N-nitroso-tris chloroethylurea (NTCU for 32 weeks to induce squamous dysplasia and SCC in mice. At 32 weeks the predominant cell type in the dysplastic airways was Keratin (K 5 and K14 expressing basal cells. Notably, basal cells are extremely rare in the normal mouse bronchial epithelium but are abundant in the trachea. We therefore evaluated time-dependent changes in tracheal and bronchial histopathology after NTCU exposure (4, 8, 12, 16, 25 and 32 weeks. We show that tracheal dysplasia occurs significantly earlier than that of the bronchial epithelium (12 weeks vs. 25 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of K5+/K14+ tracheal basal cells and a complete loss of secretory (Club cell secretory protein expressing CCSP+ and ciliated cells. TUNEL staining of NTCU treated tissues confirmed that the loss of CCSP+ and ciliated cells was not due to apoptosis. However, mitotic index (measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed that NTCU treatment increased proliferation of K5+ basal cells in the trachea, and altered bronchial mitotic population from CCSP+ to K5+ basal cells. Thus, we demonstrate that NTCU-induced lung epithelial dysplasia starts in the tracheal epithelium, and is followed by basal cell metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium. This analysis extends our knowledge of the NTCU-SCC model by defining the early changes in epithelial cell phenotypes in distinct airway locations, and this may assist in identifying new targets for future chemoprevention studies.

  18. Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma.

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    De Paiva, Cintia S; Villarreal, Arturo L; Corrales, Rosa M; Rahman, Hassan T; Chang, Victor Y; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael E; Niederkorn, Jerry Y; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in the pathogenesis of conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye. Experimental dry eye was created by subjecting C57BL/6 and IFN-gamma-knockout mice to desiccating environmental stress for 5 or 10 days. T-cell antigens and IFN-gamma were detected by immunohistochemistry. Goblet cells were counted in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained sections. Expression of small, proline-rich protein (SPRR)-2 was evaluated by confocal microscopy. Tear IFN-gamma was measured by immunobead assay. Dry eye promoted migration of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma+ cells into goblet cell zones of the conjunctiva and increased the concentration of IFN-gamma in tears. This migration was accompanied by progressive goblet cell loss and an increase in SPRR-2 expression in the conjunctival epithelium. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the density of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and goblet cells. Dry eye had no effect on conjunctival goblet cell density in IFN-gamma-knockout mice; however, exogenous administration of IFN-gamma significantly decreased goblet cell density after 5 days. Conjunctival epithelial response to experimental dryness is related to the degree of CD4+ T-cell infiltration and the level of IFN-gamma production. These findings suggest that IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in promoting conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye, and they provide insight into the immune pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  19. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD : a cross-sectional study

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    Lapperre, Therese S.; Sont, Jacob K.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Gosman, Margot; Postma, Dirkje S.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Timens, Wim; Mauad, Thais; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Kauffman, H. F.; Boezen, H. M.; Jansen, D. F.; Vonk, J.; Barentsen, M. D. W.; Timens, W.; Zeinstra-Smit, M.; Luteijn, A. J.; van der Molen, T.; ter Veen, G.; Gosman, Margot ME; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; van Maaren, M. S.; Postma, D. S.; Veltman, C. A.; Verbokkem, A.; Verhage, I.; Vink-Kloosters, H. K.; Snoeck-Stroband, J. B.; Thiadens, H.; Sont, J. K.; Bajema, I.; Gast-Strookman, J.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Janssen, K.; Lapperre, T. S.; Rabe, K. F.; van Schadewijk, A.; Schrumpf, J. A.; Smit-Bakker, J.; Stolk, J.; Tire, A. C. J. A.; van der Veen, H.; Wijffels, M. M. E.; Willems, L. N. A.; Sterk, P. J.; Mauad, T.; de Reus, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD) is associated with bronchial epithelial changes, including squamous cell metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are partially attributed to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR). Whereas smoking cessation

  20. Th2-type cytokine-induced mucus metaplasia decreases susceptibility of human bronchial epithelium to rhinovirus infection.

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    Jakiela, Bogdan; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Mastalerz, Lucyna; Bochenek, Grazyna; Soja, Jerzy; Januszek, Rafal; Aab, Alar; Musial, Jacek; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A; Sanak, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of exacerbations in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. A characteristic feature of asthmatic epithelium is goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. Bronchial epithelium is also an important source of lipid mediators, including pro- and antiinflammatory eicosanoids. By using air-liquid interface cultures of airway epithelium from patients with asthma and nonasthmatic control subjects, we compared RV16 replication-induced changes in mRNA expression of asthma candidate genes and eicosanoid production in the epithelium with or without IL-13-induced mucus metaplasia. Mucus metaplastic epithelium was characterized by a 20-fold less effective replication of RV16 and blunted changes in gene expression; this effect was seen to the same extent in patients with asthma and control subjects. We identified ciliary cells as the main target for RV16 by immunofluorescence imaging and demonstrated that the numbers of ciliary cells decreased in RV16-infected epithelium. RV16 infection of mucociliary epithelium resulted in overexpression of genes associated with bronchial remodeling (e.g., MUC5AC, FGF2, and HBEGF), induction of cyclooxygenase-2, and increased secretion of prostaglandins. These responses were similar in both studied groups. These data indicate that structural changes associated with mucus metaplasia renders airway epithelium less susceptible to RV infection. Thus, exacerbations of the lung disease caused by RV may result from severe impairment in mucociliary clearance or activation of immune defense rather than from preferential infection of mucus metaplastic epithelium. Repeated rhinoviral infections of compromised epithelium may contribute to the remodeling of the airways.

  1. Characterisation of the proximal airway squamous metaplasia induced by chronic tobacco smoke exposure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Foster Martyn

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to tobacco smoke (TS is a key cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a complex multifactorial disease that is difficult to model in rodents. The spontaneously hypertensive (SH rat exhibits several COPD-associated co-morbidities such as hypertension and increased coagulation. We have investigated whether SH rats are a more appropriate animal paradigm of COPD. Methods SH rats were exposed to TS for 6 hours/day, 3 days/week for 14 weeks, and the lung tissues examined by immunohistochemistry. Results TS induced a CK13-positive squamous metaplasia in proximal airways, which also stained for Ki67 and p63. We hypothesise that this lesion arises by basal cell proliferation, which differentiates to a squamous cell phenotype. Differences in staining profiles for the functional markers CC10 and surfactant D, but not phospho-p38, indicated loss of ability to function appropriately as secretory cells. Within the parenchyma, there were also differences in the staining profiles for CC10 and surfactant D, indicating a possible attempt to compensate for losses in proximal airways. In human COPD sections, areas of CK13-positive squamous metaplasia showed sporadic p63 staining, suggesting that unlike the rat, this is not a basal cell-driven lesion. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although proximal airway metaplasia in rat and human are both CK13+ and therefore squamous, they potentially arise by different mechanisms.

  2. Human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in squamous metaplastic epithelium of bronchial airways.

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    Aarbiou, J.; Schadewijk, A. van; Stolk, J.; Sont, J.K.; Boer, W.I.; Rabe, K.F.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze a possible contribution of human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) to the induction of airway epithelial changes such as squamous cell metaplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence of these molecules and the

  3. Squamous Metaplasia and Its Management in Non-malignant Bladder Diseases

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    Şenol Tonyalı

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal possible associations between non-malignant bladder disease and malignancy by evaluating the pathologic examination results of patients who underwent cystectomy for non-malignant diseases and to suggest a point of view for disease management. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients, who underwent cystectomy in our clinic between January 2005 and January 2015 for non-malignant diseases, were examined retrospectively. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 58.7±9.3 years. Of the patients eight of them were followed up with interstitial cystitis (IC, five with neurogenic bladder and one with hemorrhagic cystitis. Time from diagnosis to cystectomy was 6.1±5.8 years on average in IC patients, 13.8±9.8 years in neurogenic bladder patients and 10 years in hemorrhagic cystitis patients. No malignancy finding was observed according to the pathologic examination results of the cystectomy specimens. However, either chronic or active inflammation was observed in all the patients. In addition to other pathologies non-keratinized squamous metaplasia was detected in five patients. Conclusion: Patients with non-malignant diseases should be followed-up with cystoscopy and bladder biopsy as a pre-malign lesion caution. Although cystectomy and urinary diversion are surgery methods with high complication rates, they could be suggested to well-informed patients as treatment alternatives.

  4. Inhibition of Notch signaling enhances transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium towards a Barrett's-like metaplasia via KLF4.

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    Vega, Maria E; Giroux, Véronique; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Liu, Mingen; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Stairs, Douglas B; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE.

  5. Assessment of Consistency in Assignment of Severe (Grade 3) Squamous Metaplasia to Human Bulbar Conjunctiva Impression Cytology Cell Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Nucleus-to-cytoplasm (N:C) characteristics of published images of human bulbar conjunctival cells designated as showing severe (grade 3) squamous metaplasia were retrospectively assessed. From publications over a 40-year period, measurements were made from images of cell and nucleus size (based on areas and dimensions) and four different calculations were made for nucleo-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratios. From 54 published images, the mean nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NU/CYT AREA ratio) was 0.145 +/- 0.077 (range 0.052 to 0.346), compared to two different reference set values of 0.069 +/- 0.017 and 0.080 +/- 0.021. Similarly, a nucleus-to-cytoplasm length ratio (as LNLONG) was 0.308 +/- 0.080 (range 0.191 to 0.475) compared to reference values of 0.226 +/- 0.032 and 0.236 +/- 0.034. Similar differences in reference values were obtained using two other N:C ratio calculations. A wide range of values was found for morphometric N:C indices from published images, especially those without a scale bar, indicating a high incidence of inconsistent grading assignments. Overall, only about 30% of the published images showed morphological features consistent with severe squamous metaplasia (i.e., with the rest neither enlarged nor showing substantially changed N:C ratios) with no substantial pictorial evidence indicating that cells from the human bulbar conjunctiva have pyknotic nuclei. Current evidence indicates that grade 3 squamous metaplasia cells should be substantially enlarged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare coexistence of keratinizing squamous metaplasia with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Report of a case with the role of immunocytochemistry in the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Kajal Kiran; Singal, Sukrati; Jain, Shyama

    2007-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN), a rare form ofchronicpyelonephritis, is commonly associated with lithiasis and rarely leads to keratinizing squamous metaplasia. Its manifestations closely mimic those of a renal neoplasm, leading to misdiagnosis of malignancy, often resulting in radical nephrectomy. The role of immunocytochemistry in the preoperative cytologic diagnosis is assessed in the present case report. A 20-year-old male presented with fever and an enlarging mass in the right renal angle. Ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the renal pelvis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was advised to rule out malignancy. Aspiration smears from the mass showed many dissociated cells and clusters of them with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli in some cells. Many desquamated metaplastic squamous cells were also seen. The background was predominantly necrotic, with inflammatory cells. The cytologic possibility of XPN with squamous metaplasia vs. renal cell carcinoma was considered. Immunocytochemical markers, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and CD68 (histiocytic marker) were used to determine the nature of the suspicious vacuolated cells; these cells were immunoreactive for CD68 and negative for EMA, thus confirming the cytologic diagnosis of XPN with keratinizing squamous metaplasia. The case highlights the presence of metaplastic squamous cells in XPN in smears for the first time. Immunocytochemistry is an essential tool in the preoperative cytologic diagnosis of XPN. The patient can be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

  7. Objective assessment of squamous metaplasia of conjunctival epithelial cells as associated with soft contact lens wear versus non-lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    To objectively assess the morphology of superficial conjunctival surface cells showing squamous metaplasia as seen in contact lens wearers. Impression cytology samples were taken from interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva from 23 young adult white European women with an average of 6 years of successful daily soft contact lens wear and 23 non-contact-lens-wearing women of the same age. Cell images were graded, and cell and nuclear dimensions and areas were measured by planimetry. The contact lens wearers had a mean squamous metaplasia grade (Nelson) of 2.74 versus 0.35 for the non-lens wearers, with the cell longest dimension (LONG) being 54.4 ± 5.6 μm versus 22.4 ± 2.9 μm, respectively (P cell shortest dimension (SHORT) and cell area values (P cell nuclei in the contact lens wearers, based on measures of cell nuclear length (NUCLONG), were 12.7 ± 1.7 μm versus 10.0 ± 1.1 μm (P metaplasia develops, at least in long-term soft contact lens wearers, the conjunctival surface cells become considerably enlarged, but the nuclear size of these cells also increases, rather than showing signs of pyknosis.

  8. Morules in endometrial carcinoma and benign endometrial lesions differ from squamous differentiation tissue and are not infected with human papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Chinen, K; Kamiyama, K; Kinjo, T; Arasaki, A; Ihama, Y; Hamada, T; Iwamasa, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Squamous differentiation/squamous metaplasia is often associated with endometrial adenocarcinoma and benign lesions, such as endometrial hyperplasia and chronic endometritis. Morules have distinct histological characteristics, and are referred to as squamous metaplasia or squamoid metaplasia.

  9. Objective assessment of contact lens wear-associated conjunctival squamous metaplasia by linear measures of cell size, shape and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    To objectively assess the cell and nucleus dimensions of human bulbar conjunctival cells in female soft contact lens wearers to illustrate a method for assessment of the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio based on simple linear measures. Impression cytology samples were taken from the nasal side exposed bulbar conjunctiva surface from 12 young adult, white European females with a history of successful daily soft contact lens wear. A Millcell(®)-CM filter was used after topical anesthesia, which was stained with Giemsa. Color images of portions of the cells, in a monolayer at 200× magnification by light microscopy, were graded by the Nelson scale and then a projection overlay method was used to outline the cell and nucleus borders. The cell longest dimension (LONG), shorter dimension (SHORT), and the longest dimension of the nucleus (NUCLONG) were measured. A nucleus-to-cytoplasm N:C ratio was calculated from (LONG-NUCLONG)/NUCLONG. Cells had appearances consistent with a grade 2 or 3 squamous metaplasia and were moderately enlarged (mean LONG ± SD of 46.0 ± 3.8 microm), only slightly elongated (mean LONG:SHORT ratio of 1.397 ± 0.101) and the nucleus size was consistently greater than normal (man 12.8 ± 1.3 microm). A calculation of N:C showed a relatively wide range of values with average values from 1:2.143 to 1:3.317 (for an overall mean of 2.675 ± 0.371). These studies further indicate that grade 2 to 3 squamous metaplasia of the exposed bulbar conjunctival cells is an expected consequence of soft contact lens wear. The cell enlargement is not associated with a significant change in cell shape (i.e., the LONG:SHORT ratio is little different from grade 0 cells) but is associated in a slight increase in nucleus size. The calculated N:C ratio based on linear measures is no higher than 1:5 and more likely closer to 1:2.5.

  10. Tubal metaplasia of the endocervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplasia is a reversible reprogramming of stem cells of the epithelium. Usually, squamous metaplasia is observed in the endocervix. However, less frequently, tubal metaplasia may develop, replacing nonciliated columnar cells by ciliated columnar cells, similar to fallopian tube epithelium. Here we present a case of tubal metaplasia of the endocervical canal. A 40 year-old female presented with postcoital bleeding; her uterus was retroverted, normal-sized and the fornices were free. Erosion was seen around the external os with ulceration. The clinical diagnosis was chronic cervicitis. Cytobrush sampling showed abundant endocervical columnar cells. A distinct morphological variation showing apical ciliary plates with distinct cilia were noticed in many columnar cells. Mucoid, neutrophil-rich secretions were seen in the background but no malignant cells were seen, resulting in a diagnosis of tubal metaplasia of the endocervical epithelium. There was no Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Tubal metaplasia should be identified as a unique benign identity and should not be confused with early endocervical glandular neoplasia of the cervix. Cytobrush technique for endocervical smears helps detect such uncommon metaplastic changes.

  11. Interleukin-1 receptor mediates the interplay between CD4+ T cells and ocular resident cells to promote keratinizing squamous metaplasia in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ting; Lazarev, Stanislav; Bahrami, Ahmad F; Noble, Lisa B; Chen, Feeling Y T; Zhou, Delu; Gallup, Marianne; Yadav, Mahesh; McNamara, Nancy A

    2012-04-01

    Keratinizing squamous metaplasia (SQM) of the ocular mucosal epithelium is a blinding corneal disease characterized by the loss of conjunctival goblet cells (GCs), pathological ocular surface keratinization and tissue recruitment of immune cells. Using the autoimmune regulator (Aire)-deficient mouse as a model for Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-associated SQM, we identified CD4(+) T lymphocytes as the main immune effectors driving SQM and uncovered a pathogenic role for interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1, a pleiotropic cytokine family enriched in ocular epithelia, governs tissue homeostasis and mucosal immunity. Here, we used adoptive transfer of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells to dissect the mechanism whereby IL-1 promotes SQM. CD4(+) T cells adoptively transferred from both Aire knockout (KO) and Aire/IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) double KO donors conferred SQM to severe-combined immunodeficiency (scid) recipients with functional IL-1R1, but not scid recipients lacking IL-1R1. In the lacrimal gland, IL-1R1 was primarily immunolocalized to ductal epithelium surrounded by CD4(+) T cells. In the eye, IL-1R1 was expressed on local mucosal epithelial and stromal cells, but not on resident antigen-presenting cells or infiltrating immune cells. In both tissues, autoreactive CD4(+) T-cell infiltration was only observed in the presence of IL-1R1-postive resident cells. Moreover, persistent activation of IL-1R1 signaling led to chronic immune-mediated inflammation by retaining CD4(+) T cells in the local microenvironment. Following IL-1R1-dependent infiltration of CD4(+) T cells, we observed SQM hallmarks in local tissues-corneal keratinization, conjunctival GC mucin acidification and epithelial cell hyperplasia throughout the ocular surface mucosa. Proinflammatory IL-1 expression in ocular epithelial cells significantly correlated with reduced tear secretion, while CD4(+) T-cell infiltration of the lacrimal gland predicted the development of ocular SQM. Collectively, data in this study

  12. BCG plus levamisole following irradiation of advanced squamous bronchial carcinoma. [Hard X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, A.

    1980-08-01

    Fifty patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with radical radiotherapy. Afterwards, 16 patients received levamisole on 2 days per week and bacillus calmette guerin (B.C.G.) skin innoculations every two weeks;another 16 received the same dosage of levamisole but B.C.G. every 4 weeks; 18 patients were controls. Survival was better in the first group of patients only during the first two years of study (P = 0.02) but not later: metastases were fewer. Both B.C.G. and levamisole gave little discomfort when the dose was adjusted for each patient.

  13. Metaplasia: tissue injury adaptation and a precursor to the dysplasia-cancer sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Veronique; Rustgi, Anil K

    2017-10-01

    Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another differentiated somatic cell type in the same tissue. Typically, metaplasia is triggered by environmental stimuli, which may act in concert with the deleterious effects of microorganisms and inflammation. The cell of origin for intestinal metaplasia in the oesophagus and stomach and for pancreatic acinar-ductal metaplasia has been posited through genetic mouse models and lineage tracing but has not been identified in other types of metaplasia, such as squamous metaplasia. A hallmark of metaplasia is a change in cellular identity, and this process can be regulated by transcription factors that initiate and/or maintain cellular identity, perhaps in concert with epigenetic reprogramming. Universally, metaplasia is a precursor to low-grade dysplasia, which can culminate in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. Improved clinical screening for and surveillance of metaplasia might lead to better prevention or early detection of dysplasia and cancer.

  14. C4.4A as a biomarker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence and mortality of lung cancer, together with a poor 5-year survival of only approximately 15%, emphasize the need for prognostic and predictive factors to improve patient treatment. C4.4A, a member of the Ly6/uPAR family of membrane proteins, qualifies as such a potential...... informative biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. Under normal physiological conditions, it is primarily expressed in suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia. Consequently, it is absent from healthy bronchial and alveolar tissue, but nevertheless appears at early stages in the progression...... to invasive carcinomas of the lung, i.e., in bronchial hyperplasia/metaplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. In the stages leading to pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, expression is sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas, and this pertains to the normal presence of C4.4A...

  15. Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 μm, 11.7 μm, 13.9 μm, 13.0 μm, 10.7 μm, and 17.7 μm, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

  16. Endometrial metaplasia: correlation of histological and cytological specimens obtained from 103 cases undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomine, Y; Watanabe, S; Ohishi, Y; Tamiya, S; Sugishima, S; Kobayashi, H; Oda, Y; Kaku, T

    2014-04-01

    To assess the frequency of endometrial metaplasia in histological and cytological specimens from the same cases, and to determine the relationship between various types of metaplasia and clinicopathological findings. We reviewed 103 histological specimens diagnosed as endometrioid adenocarcinoma, in which endometrial smears had been obtained before surgery. We examined the correlation between the frequency of endometrial metaplasia occurring in association with carcinoma in both histological and cytological specimens. The categories of metaplasia were eosinophilic metaplasia, squamous metaplasia, mucinous metaplasia, ciliated cell metaplasia and others. We compared the incidence of endometrial metaplasia with the clinicopathological findings for each case. Endometrial metaplasia was recognized in 90 (87.4%) of the histological and 80 (77.7%) of the cytological specimens of 103 specimens, with the respective frequency of subtypes as follows: eosinophilic metaplasia (36.0% and 43.7%), squamous metaplasia (70.9% and 68.0%), mucinous metaplasia (38.8% and 19.4%), ciliated cell metaplasia (22.3% and 2.9%) and others (11.7% and 0%). Mixed subtypes were seen in 58.3% and 41.7% of histological and cytological specimens, respectively. In histology, mucinous metaplasia was significantly more frequent in G1-G2 than G3 carcinomas (P = 0.0089). Ciliated cell metaplasia was significantly related to endometrial hyperplasia (P = 0.0068). In cytology, eosinophilic and mucinous metaplasia were significantly associated with G1-G2 cases (P = 0.0061 and P = 0.0385). Endometrial metaplasia was seen in 87.4% of the histological and 77.7% of the cytological specimens. Where routine endometrial cytopathology is practiced, it is important to understand the detailed histological and cytological features of these changes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epidermoid Metaplasia with Keratin Cyst Formation in Fibrocystic Disease of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUYA, Takashi; TASAKA, Yoshikazu; NASU, Yoshikatsu; MANABE, Toshiaki

    1983-01-01

    A case of fibrocystic disease of the breast with massive epidermoid metaplasia is reported here. Squamous or epidermoid metaplasia is extremely rare in benign lesions of the breast and review of literature disclosed no other case reports of identical lesions in fibrocystic disease.

  18. Hedgehog signaling regulates FOXA2 in esophageal embryogenesis and Barrett’s metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H.; Tiwari, Anjana; Kim, Monica E.; Clemons, Nicholas J.; Regmi, Nanda L.; Hodges, William A.; Berman, David M.; Montgomery, Elizabeth A.; Watkins, D. Neil; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Qiuyang; Jie, Chunfa; Spechler, Stuart J.; Souza, Rhonda F.

    2014-01-01

    Metaplasia can result when injury reactivates latent developmental signaling pathways that determine cell phenotype. Barrett’s esophagus is a squamous-to-columnar epithelial metaplasia caused by reflux esophagitis. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is active in columnar-lined, embryonic esophagus and inactive in squamous-lined, adult esophagus. We showed previously that Hh signaling is reactivated in Barrett’s metaplasia and overexpression of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in mouse esophageal squamous epithelium leads to a columnar phenotype. Here, our objective was to identify Hh target genes involved in Barrett’s pathogenesis. By microarray analysis, we found that the transcription factor Foxa2 is more highly expressed in murine embryonic esophagus compared with postnatal esophagus. Conditional activation of Shh in mouse esophageal epithelium induced FOXA2, while FOXA2 expression was reduced in Shh knockout embryos, establishing Foxa2 as an esophageal Hh target gene. Evaluation of patient samples revealed FOXA2 expression in Barrett’s metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma but not in esophageal squamous epithelium or squamous cell carcinoma. In esophageal squamous cell lines, Hh signaling upregulated FOXA2, which induced expression of MUC2, an intestinal mucin found in Barrett’s esophagus, and the MUC2-processing protein AGR2. Together, these data indicate that Hh signaling induces expression of genes that determine an intestinal phenotype in esophageal squamous epithelial cells and may contribute to the development of Barrett’s metaplasia. PMID:25083987

  19. Novel findings in the pathogenesis of esophageal columnar metaplasia or Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In esophageal metaplasia the transdifferentiation of the epithelium is the result of longstanding gastroesophageal reflux disease that causes inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, and occasionally is followed by replacement of the squamous epithelium by a columnar type

  20. Endometrial metaplasias and reactive changes: a spectrum of altered differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Alina; Preda, Ovidiu; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-02-01

    Endometrial metaplasias and changes (EMCs) are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to update current issues and provide a classification with a practical clinicopathological approach. Hormonal or irritative stimuli are the main inducing factors of EMCs, although some metaplasias have a mutational origin. EMCs vary from reactive, degenerative lesions to those able to associate with malignancy or those having a preneoplastic potential. The most common types of EMCs are ciliated tubal metaplasia (CTM) and mucinous metaplasia (MM), which occur in simple and complex glands, and possibly these architectural changes hold the same prognostic significance as they do in hyperplastic endometrioid lesions. Immunohistochemically, CTM is positive for LhS28, bcl-2, PAX2 and p16(INK4A). Complex CTM is likely to be a precursor of ciliated endometrioid-type carcinomas. MMs should be evaluated architecturally, taking into account that their atypicality is minimal. The differentiation between complex MM and mucinous carcinoma may be extremely difficult. Surface complex, papillary MM in endometrial polyps can be considered as benign. Intestinal-type endometrial MM is rare and its presence should prompt further investigation of associated lesions in the endocervix. Endometrial squamous metaplasia (ESS) is often linked to chronic irritative situations. It should be differentiated from secondary involvement by a human papilomavirus-related cervical lesion. Morular metaplasia is a mutational phenomenon with a distinct phenotype that helps to differentiate it from ESS. Morules are benign, hormonally inert structures that are often markers of complex endometrioid glandular architecture, and they are associated with an attenuated malignancy. Endometrial reactive changes are commonly associated with desquamation or hormonal imbalance. The frequent, p16(INK4A) positive, benign surface papillary syncytial change may be misdiagnosed, in some cases, as

  1. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Michael T.; Yeung, Ka Yee; Ruzzo, Walter L.; Hsu, Li; Blount, Patricia L.; Sullivan, Robert; Zarbl, Helmut; Delrow, Jeffrey; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Brian J Reid

    2002-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE) tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been sys...

  2. Malignant squamous cells: A panoramic view | Emmanuel | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The squamous epithelium is the most widely distributed epithelium in the human body. Malignant transformation does occur in these cells leading to squamous cell carcinoma. This cancer can arise in a site native to the epithelium or where squamous metaplasia has occurred. This malignancy therefore has ...

  3. Residual embryonic cells as precursors of a Barrett's-like metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Ouyang, Hong; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Kumar, Pooja Ashok; Wei, Tay Seok; Dagher, Rania; Vincent, Matthew; Lu, Xin; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Ho, Khek Yu; Crum, Christopher P; Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank

    2011-06-24

    Barrett's esophagus is an intestine-like metaplasia and precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Triggered by gastroesophageal reflux disease, the origin of this metaplasia remains unknown. p63-deficient mice, which lack squamous epithelia, may model acid-reflux damage. We show here that p63 null embryos rapidly develop intestine-like metaplasia with gene expression profiles similar to Barrett's metaplasia. We track its source to a unique embryonic epithelium that is normally undermined and replaced by p63-expressing cells. Significantly, we show that a discrete population of these embryonic cells persists in adult mice and humans at the squamocolumnar junction, the source of Barrett's metaplasia. We show that upon programmed damage to the squamous epithelium, these embryonic cells migrate toward adjacent, specialized squamous cells in a process that may recapitulate early Barrett's. Our findings suggest that certain precancerous lesions, such as Barrett's, initiate not from genetic alterations but from competitive interactions between cell lineages driven by opportunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipomatous metaplasia of superficial dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googe, Paul B; Tidwell, W James; Rosenberg, Andrew E

    2016-02-01

    Lipomatous metaplasia is an uncommon phenomenon. After identifying the presence of a band of adipocytes in the superficial reticular dermis underlying two excisions for basal cell carcinoma, we prospectively reviewed all skin specimens accessioned in our laboratory over a 6-month period and identified eight additional cases. In each example there was a band of adipocytes in the upper dermis, at the level of solar elastosis that was widely separated from the subcutaneous fat by a normal appearing reticular dermis. The cells were positive for S100 and negative for CD163. No connection between the superficial band of adipocytes and the subcutaneous or periappendageal fat was seen. The alterations were flat in configuration without polypoid changes. Eyerich et al. reported lipomatous metaplasia in the dermis of a patient with acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis and psoriasis, and postulated this to be a postinflammatory phenomenon. Fatty metaplasia occurs within a variety of cutaneous neoplasms including nevi, adnexal tumors and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. However, superficial dermal fatty metaplasia beneath cutaneous neoplasms is a newly described phenomenon and we suspect this process represents fatty metaplasia within solar elastosis and that it may occur more frequently than recognized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  6. Osseous metaplasia in a kidney allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Stanislas; Daniel, Laurent; Legris, Tristan; Vacher-Coponat, Henri; Purgus, Raj; Berland, Yvon; Moal, Valerie

    2010-11-01

    Osseous metaplasia is defined by the presence of heterotopic normal bone tissue in a soft tissue. The bone matrix is associated with osteoblasts, osteoclasts, adipocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osseous metaplasia pathophysiology is not well known, but many factors have been incriminated including chronic inflammation and chronic ischaemia. We describe the second case of osseous metaplasia in a kidney allograft. Numerous factors might favour its development including factors linked to transplantation failure environment.

  7. Barrett's metaplasia as a paradigm for understanding the development of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Zoë D; Tosh, David

    2012-10-01

    The conversion of one cell type to another is defined as metaplasia (or sometimes it is referred to as transdifferentiation or cellular reprogramming). Metaplasia is important clinically and may predispose to the development of cancer. Barrett's metaplasia is one such example and is the focus of the present review. Barrett's is a pathological condition in which the normal oesophageal stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by intestinal-type columnar epithelium and is associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The appearance of columnar epithelium in the oesophagus predisposes to the development of adenocarcinoma. Herein we review the latest evidence on the cellular origin of Barrett's metaplasia. Until recently it was thought that the cellular origin of the columnar epithelium was from a pre-existing cell within the oesophagus. However, recent evidence suggests that this may not be the case. Instead two recent publications indicate that the columnar cells may migrate from a site distal to the oesophagus. These new data contravene our current understanding of metaplasia and raise important questions about the cellular origin of cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-13–Induced Mucous Metaplasia Increases Susceptibility of Human Airway Epithelium to Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Boushey, Homer A.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of airway epithelium by rhinovirus is the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. Even in mild asthma, airway epithelium exhibits mucous metaplasia, which increases with increasing severity of the disease. We previously showed that squamous cultures of human airway epithelium manifest rhinoviral infection at levels many times higher than in well-differentiated cultures of a mucociliary phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that mucous metaplasia is also associated with increased levels of rhinoviral infection. Mucous metaplasia was induced with IL-13, which doubled the numbers of goblet cells. In both control (mucociliary) and IL-13– treated (mucous metaplastic) cultures, goblet cells were preferentially infected by rhinovirus. IL-13 doubled the numbers of infected cells by increasing the numbers of infected goblet cells. Furthermore, IL-13 increased both the maturity of goblet cells and the probability that a goblet cell would be infected. The infection of cells other than goblet cells was unaltered by IL-13. Treatment with IL-13 did not alter the levels of rhinovirus receptor ICAM-1, nor did the proliferative effects of IL-13 enhance infection, because rhinovirus did not colocalize with dividing cells. However, the induction of mucous metaplasia caused changes in the apical membrane structure, notably a marked decrease in overall ciliation, and an increase in the overall flatness of the apical surface. We conclude that mucous metaplasia in asthma increases the susceptibility of airway epithelium to infection by rhinovirus because of changes in the overall architecture of the apical surface. PMID:20081054

  9. Bronchial stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Emad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial stents are mostly used as a Palliative relief of symptoms often caused by airway obstruction, It is also used for sealing of stump fistulas after pneumonectomy and dehiscence after bronchoplastic operations. Advances in airway prosthetics have provided a variety of silicone stents, expandable metal stents, and pneumatic dilators, enabling the correction of increasingly complex anatomical problems. Several series have been published describing the application and results of these techniques. This manuscript reviews the historical development of stents, types, indication, outcome, and complications. Alternative therapies for tracheobronchial stenting were also reviewed

  10. Foxa3 induces goblet cell metaplasia and inhibits innate antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Karp, Christopher L; Impey, Soren; Xu, Yan; Randell, Scott H; Kitzmiller, Joseph; Maeda, Yutaka; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Sridharan, Anusha; Senft, Albert P; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Goblet cell metaplasia accompanies common pulmonary disorders that are prone to recurrent viral infections. Mechanisms regulating both goblet cell metaplasia and susceptibility to viral infection associated with chronic lung diseases are incompletely understood. We sought to identify the role of the transcription factor FOXA3 in regulation of goblet cell metaplasia and pulmonary innate immunity. FOXA3 was identified in airways from patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We produced transgenic mice conditionally expressing Foxa3 in airway epithelial cells and developed human bronchial epithelial cells expressing Foxa3. Foxa3-regulated genes were identified by immunostaining, Western blotting, and RNA analysis. Direct binding of FOXA3 to target genes was identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing correlated with RNA sequencing. FOXA3 was highly expressed in airway goblet cells from patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. FOXA3 was induced by either IL-13 or rhinovirus. Foxa3 induced goblet cell metaplasia and enhanced expression of a network of genes mediating mucus production. Paradoxically, FOXA3 inhibited rhinovirus-induced IFN production, IRF-3 phosphorylation, and IKKε expression and inhibited viral clearance and expression of genes required for antiviral defenses, including MDA5, RIG-I, TLR3, IRF7/9, and nuclear factor-κB. FOXA3 induces goblet cell metaplasia in response to infection or Th2 stimulation. Suppression of IFN signaling by FOXA3 provides a plausible mechanism that may serve to limit ongoing Th1 inflammation during the resolution of acute viral infection; however, inhibition of innate immunity by FOXA3 may contribute to susceptibility to viral infections associated with chronic lung disorders accompanied by chronic goblet cell metaplasia.

  11. SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Tarumi, Shintaro; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Wang, Dennis; Virtanen, Carl; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Pham, Nhu An; Lee, Sharon; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate into mucociliary epithelia. Smoking triggers a hyperproliferative response resulting in progressive premalignant epithelial changes ranging from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia. These changes can regress naturally, even with chronic smoking. However, for unknown reasons, dysplasias have higher progression rates than earlier stages. We used primary human tracheobronchial basal cells to investigate how copy number gains in SOX2 and PIK3CA at 3q26-28, which co-occur in dysplasia and are observed in 94% of SQCCs, may promote progression. We find that SOX2 cooperates with PI3K signaling, which is activated by smoking, to initiate the squamous injury response in basal cells. This response involves SOX9 repression, and, accordingly, SOX2 and PI3K signaling levels are high during dysplasia, while SOX9 is not expressed. By contrast, during regeneration of mucociliary epithelia, PI3K signaling is low and basal cells transiently enter a SOX2LoSOX9Hi state, with SOX9 promoting proliferation and preventing squamous differentiation. Transient reduction in SOX2 is necessary for ciliogenesis, although SOX2 expression later rises and drives mucinous differentiation, as SOX9 levels decline. Frequent coamplification of SOX2 and PIK3CA in dysplasia may, thus, promote progression by locking basal cells in a SOX2HiSOX9Lo state with active PI3K signaling, which sustains the squamous injury response while precluding normal mucociliary differentiation. Surprisingly, we find that, although later in invasive carcinoma SOX9 is generally expressed at low levels, its expression is higher in a subset of SQCCs with less squamous identity and

  12. SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate into mucociliary epithelia. Smoking triggers a hyperproliferative response resulting in progressive premalignant epithelial changes ranging from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia. These changes can regress naturally, even with chronic smoking. However, for unknown reasons, dysplasias have higher progression rates than earlier stages. We used primary human tracheobronchial basal cells to investigate how copy number gains in SOX2 and PIK3CA at 3q26-28, which co-occur in dysplasia and are observed in 94% of SQCCs, may promote progression. We find that SOX2 cooperates with PI3K signaling, which is activated by smoking, to initiate the squamous injury response in basal cells. This response involves SOX9 repression, and, accordingly, SOX2 and PI3K signaling levels are high during dysplasia, while SOX9 is not expressed. By contrast, during regeneration of mucociliary epithelia, PI3K signaling is low and basal cells transiently enter a SOX2LoSOX9Hi state, with SOX9 promoting proliferation and preventing squamous differentiation. Transient reduction in SOX2 is necessary for ciliogenesis, although SOX2 expression later rises and drives mucinous differentiation, as SOX9 levels decline. Frequent coamplification of SOX2 and PIK3CA in dysplasia may, thus, promote progression by locking basal cells in a SOX2HiSOX9Lo state with active PI3K signaling, which sustains the squamous injury response while precluding normal mucociliary differentiation. Surprisingly, we find that, although later in invasive carcinoma SOX9 is generally expressed at low levels, its expression is higher in a subset of SQCCs with less

  13. Esophageal leukoplakia or epidermoid metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A; Crowder, Clinton D; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common, painless disorder of the oral mucosa. It predominantly affects middle-aged to elderly men and has a strong association with tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Concomitant histological findings of hyperorthokeratosis and a well-developed granular cell layer, termed orthokeratotic dysplasia, are often associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, analogous lesions within the esophagus, termed esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, are rarely encountered and poorly described in the literature. To better characterize the clinicopathological features of this entity, we have collected 25 cases from 18 patients. Patients ranged in age from 37 to 81 years (mean, 61.5 years), with a slight female predominance (10/18, 56%). On presentation, a majority of patients complained of dysphagia (10/18, 56%). Past medical history was significant for tobacco smoking or long history of second-hand smoke in 11 (61%) patients and alcohol intake in 7 (39%) patients. Seventeen (94%) patients with esophageal epidermoid metaplasia were located within the middle-to-distal esophagus. Histologically, all cases were sharply demarcated and characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, a thickened basal layer, acanthotic midzone, a prominent granular cell layer, and superficial hyperorthokeratosis. Adjacent high-grade squamous dysplasia and/or squamous cell carcinoma were seen in 3 out of 18 (17%) patients. Follow-up information was available for 13 out of 18 (72%) patients and ranged from 2 to 8.3 years (mean, 2.3 years). Seven of the 13 (54%) patients had persistent disease; however, none of them developed squamous dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. In an effort to assess the incidence of esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, 198 consecutive esophageal biopsies were prospectively surveyed over a 6-month period at three academic institutions. No cases were identified within this time frame. In summary, esophageal epidermoid metaplasia is a rare

  14. Oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia and gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, James R.; Nam, Ki Taek

    2015-01-01

    The process of gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric lineages with metaplastic lineages. In humans, two metaplastic lineages develop as sequelae of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection: intestinal metaplasia and Spasmolytic Polypeptide-expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Mouse models of both chronic Helicobacter infection and acute pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the recognition that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The presence of inflammation promotes the expansion of SPEM in mice. Furthermore, studies in Mongolian gerbils as well as increasing evidence from human studies indicates that SPEM likely represents a precursor for development of intestinal metaplasia. These findings indicate that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade of metaplastic events. Identification of specific biomarkers for SPEM and intestinal metaplasia hold promise for providing both early detection of pre-neoplasia as well as information on prognostic outcome following curative resection. PMID:21075342

  15. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Distal airways are protected from goblet cell metaplasia by diminished expression of IL-13 signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, C; Yildirim, A Ö; Wagner, C; Schlick, S; Lunding, L P; Lee, C G; Elias, J A; Fehrenbach, H; Wegmann, M

    2015-09-01

    Increased mucus production is a critical factor impairing lung function in patients suffering from bronchial asthma, the most common chronic inflammatory lung disease worldwide. This study aimed at investigating whether goblet cell (GC) metaplasia and mucus production are differentially regulated in proximal and distal airways. Female Balb/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged with an OVA-aerosol on two consecutive days for 1 week (acute) or 12 weeks (chronic). Real-time RT-PCR analysis was applied on microdissected airways. In acutely and chronically OVA-challenged mice, GC metaplasia and mucus production were observed in proximal but not in distal airways. In contrast, inflammation reflected by the infiltration of eosinophils and expression of the TH2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 was increased in both proximal and distal airways. Abundance of IL-13Rα1 was lower in distal airways of healthy control mice. Under acute and chronic OVA-exposure, activation of IL-13Rα1-dependent signalling cascade, reflected by Spdef and Foxo3A transcription factors, was attenuated in distal compared to proximal airways. These data indicate that distal airways might be less sensitive to IL-13-induced GC metaplasia and mucus production through lower expression of IL-13Rα1 and attenuated activation of downstream signalling. This might represent a protective strategy to prevent mucus plugging of distal airways and thus impaired ventilation of attached alveoli. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Absence of proteinase-activated receptor-1 signaling in mice confers protection from fMLP-induced goblet cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Luigi; Lucattelli, Monica; Scotton, Chris J; Laurent, Geoffrey J; Bartalesi, Barbara; De Cunto, Giovanna; Lunghi, Benedetta; Chambers, Rachel C; Lungarella, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    The morphological features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in man include emphysema and chronic bronchitis associated with mucus hypersecretion. These alterations can be induced in mice by a single intratracheal instillation of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), a chemoattractant and degranulating agent for neutrophils. The mechanisms underlying excessive mucus production and, in particular, goblet cell hyperplasia/metaplasia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain poorly understood. The proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are widely recognized for their modulatory properties during inflammation. In this study, we examined whether PAR-1 contributes to inflammation and lung damage induced by fMLP by comparing the response of PAR-1-deficient (PAR-1(-/-)) mice with that of wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were killed at various time points after fMLP instillation (200 microg/50 microl). WT mice developed emphysema and goblet cell metaplasia. The onset of pulmonary lesions was preceded by an increase in thrombin immunoreactivity in bronchial airways and alveolar tissue. This was followed by a decrease in PAR-1 immunoreactivity, and by an increase in IL-13 immunostaining on the luminal surface of airway epithelial cells. In PAR-1(-/-) mice, fMLP administration induced similar responses in terms of inflammation and emphysema, but these mice were protected from the development of goblet cell metaplasia. The involvement of PAR-1 in airway epithelial cell transdifferentiation was confirmed by demonstrating that intratracheal instillation of the selective PAR-1 agonist (TFLLR) induced goblet cell metaplasia in the airways of WT mice only. These data suggest that emphysema and goblet cell metaplasia occur independently, and that PAR-1 signaling through IL-13 stimulation may play an important role in inducing goblet cell metaplasia.

  18. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non‑epithelial metaplastic and related changes. • Smooth muscle metaplasia. • Osseous metaplasia. • Cartilaginous metaplasia. • Fatty change. • Glial tissue. • Foam cell change. Clinically, the symptoms range from a casual finding in an otherwise asymptomatic woman to menstrual irregularities.[1,2]. Endometrial Osseous ...

  19. p16 gene mutations in Barrett's esophagus in gastric metaplasia - intestinal metaplasia - dysplasia - adenocarcinoma sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mokrowiecka, A; Wierzchniewska-Ławska, A; Smolarz, B; Romanowicz-Makowska, H; Małecka-Panas, E

    2012-01-01

    ...: In the present study two p16 gene mutations (A148T and I49S) analysis with PCR- RFLP method have been performed in oesophageal biopsy specimen in 33 patients with Barrett's gastric metaplasia (GM...

  20. Adrenal myelolipoma with osseous metaplasia and hypercortisolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Ujwal; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay; Vohra, RishiRaj

    2017-01-01

    ... myelolipoma with osseous metaplasia and hypercortisolism, not reported in English literature. Case Report A 42-year-old female reported to our outpatient department with complaints of left flank pain for 10 days. There was no documented history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or any other significant illness in the past. She had no complaints o...

  1. [Detection of acid mucins in gastric metaplasia of the gallbladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Salassa, Carolina; Javier Lespi, Pablo

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we present a histological and histochemical study about the metaplastic changes in the gallbladder, and discussed the participation of the antral metaplasia in the genesis of gallbladder cancer. We collected 43 pieces of colecistectomy whit antral metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia and displasia. Presence of mucins were demonstrated by the alcian blue stain to ph 3 and ph 0.5 ph. We found sulphated and not sulphated acid mucins. In all of the forms of antral metaplasia. The not freguent finding coas an intense staining of intracitoplasmie mucins in metaplastic cells. We alsa detected small globular deposits in isolated cells of surface epithelium. This finding seems to associate antral metaplasia with intestinal metaplasia, at least in the mucins production. Antral metaplasia could be one of the first steps involved in the sequence displasia-cancer in the gallbladder.

  2. Aural carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia at metastatic sites in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Malatesta, Daniela; Marinelli, Alessia; Di Lorenzo, Pierluigi; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    A case of aural carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia at metastatic foci in an 8-year-old male pug is described. Multiple metastases in both lungs and the right submandibular, parotid, retropharyngeal, cervical and prescapular lymph nodes were detected. Histologically, the skin of the right ear canal appeared to be diffusely infiltrated by cords and nests of neoplastic epithelial cells, showing multifocal contiguity with the overlying hyperplastic squamous epithelium. Most of the carcinomatous cells were arranged in a glandular-like pattern, with formation of lumens containing epithelial cells attached to the peripheral cell layer by elongated intercellular bridges. Scattered foci of keratinization with central accumulations of compact, laminated keratin were also observed, and histochemical stains failed to detect mucinous secretory material. Even though histological and histochemical findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, CAM5.2 immunostaining was detectable in the majority, although not all, neoplastic cells, confirming a diagnosis of poorly differentiated ceruminous gland carcinoma. Pulmonary metastatic nodules revealed multifocal areas of cartilaginous metaplasia with apparent transition of carcinomatous cells to chondroid cells, showing nuclear atypia and focal cytokeratin immunostaining. Carcinomatous cells surrounding chondroid areas also revealed focal vimentin and S100 immunoreactivity. Histological evidence of transition between the two components, as well as the presence of intermediate cells displaying both epithelial and mesenchymal immunohistochemical features, strongly indicated a final diagnosis of carcinosarcoma, in which chondrosarcomatous elements were derived from carcinoma cells. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Dedifferentiated Paratesticular Liposarcoma with Osseous Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Chondros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratesticular liposarcoma is a rare tumour of the genitourinary track but the most common of all sarcomas in adults. The dedifferentiated variation occurs only in 10% of liposarcoma cases. The typical clinical presentation is similar to an inguinal hernia or a benign lipoma. We present the case of a dedifferentiated paratesticular liposarcoma with osseous metaplasia of the spermatic cord, in a male presented with acute scrotum.

  4. Dedifferentiated Paratesticular Liposarcoma with Osseous Metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondros, Kostas; Heretis, Ioannis; Papadakis, Michael; Bozionelou, Vasiliki; Mavromanolakis, Emmanouil; Chondros, Nikolaos; Mamoulakis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Paratesticular liposarcoma is a rare tumour of the genitourinary track but the most common of all sarcomas in adults. The dedifferentiated variation occurs only in 10% of liposarcoma cases. The typical clinical presentation is similar to an inguinal hernia or a benign lipoma. We present the case of a dedifferentiated paratesticular liposarcoma with osseous metaplasia of the spermatic cord, in a male presented with acute scrotum. PMID:25960913

  5. Osseous Metaplasia in mitral valve in an elderly case

    OpenAIRE

    Sezen Koçarslan; Aydemir Koçarslan; Muhammet Emin Güldür; Emine Zeynep Tarini; Hasan İlyas Özardalı

    2013-01-01

    Metaplasia is a reversible replacement of one cell typewith another mature differentiated cell type. Osseousmetaplasia refers to the formation of mature bone elementsin extraskeletal tissues. It can occur anywhere inbody. It is encountered very rarely. This rare finding hasbeen reported in some tissues and neoplasia of variousorgans. Osseous metaplasia in cardiac valves appearsinfrequently in literature. The exact pathophysiologicmechanisms of osseous metaplasia and the origin ofbone cells in...

  6. Cigarette smoke suppresses Bik to cause epithelial cell hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebratu, Yohannes A; Schwalm, Kurt; Smith, Kevin R; Schuyler, Mark; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant regulation of airway epithelial cell numbers in airways leads to increased mucous secretions in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Because the Bcl-2 family of proteins is crucial for airway epithelial homeostasis, identifying the players that reduce cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucous cell metaplasia can help to develop effective therapies. To identify the Bcl-2 family of proteins that play a role in reducing CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia. We screened for dysregulated expression of the Bcl-2 family members. We identified Bik to be significantly reduced in bronchial brushings of patients with chronic epithelial cell hyperplasia compared with nondiseased control subjects. Reduced Bik but increased MUC5AC mRNA levels were also detected when normal human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to CS or when autopsy tissues from former smokers with and without chronic bronchitis were compared. Similarly, exposure of C57Bl/6 mice to CS resulted in increased numbers of epithelial and mucous cells per millimeter of basal lamina, along with reduced Bik but increased Muc5ac expression, and this change was sustained even when mice were allowed to recover in filtered air for 8 weeks. Restoring Bik expression significantly suppressed CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia in differentiated primary HAEC cultures and in airways of mice in vivo. Bik blocked nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK1/2 to induce apoptosis of HAECs. The conserved Leu61 within Bik and ERK1/2 activation were essential to induce cell death in hyperplastic mucous cells. These studies show that CS suppresses Bik expression to block airway epithelia cell death and thereby increases epithelial cell hyperplasia in chronic bronchitis.

  7. Scoliosis and Bronchial Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Qiabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe scoliosis may have a significant effect on respiratory function. The effect is most often restrictive due to severe anatomical distortion of the chest, leading to reduced lung volumes, limited diaphragmatic excursion and chest wall muscle inefficiency. Bronchial compression by the deformed spine may also occur but is more unusual. Management options include a conservative approach using bracing and physiotherapy in mild cases, as well as surgical correction of the scoliosis in more severe cases. Bronchial stenting has also been used successfully as an alternative to surgical correction, and in cases in which spinal surgery was either unsuccessful or not feasible. The authors present a case involving a 52-year-old woman who exhibited symptomatic compression of the bronchus intermedius by severe residual scoliosis despite previous corrective surgery. She was treated with an indwelling bronchial stent.

  8. Association of TMEM16A chloride channel overexpression with airway goblet cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudieri, Paolo; Caci, Emanuela; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrera, Loretta; Schiavon, Marco; Sondo, Elvira; Tomati, Valeria; Gianotti, Ambra; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Rea, Federico; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Galietta, Luis J V

    2012-12-01

    The TMEM16A protein has a potential role as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) in airway epithelia where it may be important in the homeostasis of the airway surface fluid. We investigated the function and expression of TMEM16A in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and in a bronchial cell line (CFBE41o-). Under resting conditions, TMEM16A protein expression was relatively low. However, TMEM16A silencing with short-interfering RNAs caused a marked inhibition of CaCC activity, thus demonstrating that a low TMEM16A expression is sufficient to support Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) transport. Following treatment for 24-72 h with interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine that induces mucous cell metaplasia, TMEM16A protein expression was strongly increased in approximately 50% of primary bronchial epithelial cells, with a specific localization in the apical membrane. IL-4 treatment also increased the percentage of cells expressing MUC5AC, a marker of goblet cells. Interestingly, MUC5AC was detected specifically in cells expressing TMEM16A. In particular, MUC5AC was found in 15 and 60% of TMEM16A-positive cells when epithelia were treated with IL-4 for 24 or 72 h, respectively. In contrast, ciliated cells showed expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel but not of TMEM16A. Our results indicate that TMEM16A protein is responsible for CaCC activity in airway epithelial cells, particularly in cells treated with IL-4, and that TMEM16A upregulation by IL-4 appears as an early event of goblet cell differentiation. These findings suggest that TMEM16A expression is particularly required under conditions of mucus hypersecretion to ensure adequate secretion of electrolytes and water.

  9. Current perspective in agnogenic myeloid metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, A; Silverstein, M N

    1996-09-01

    Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) carries the worst prognosis among the chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Substantial bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly are the characteristic features of the disease. AMM is currently incurable and the available treatment agents are mostly palliative and do not prolong life. Two pathogenetic processes are responsible for the impaired hematopoiesis and the clinical manifestations. The primary disease process is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder which results in chronic myeloproliferation and atypical megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The secondary process of bone marrow fibrosis is the result of non-clonal fibroblastic proliferation and hyperactivity induced by growth factors abnormally shed from clonal megakaryocytes. Therefore, experimental treatment strategies may be directed towards either one or both of these disease processes. This report summarizes the current management options and new therapeutic endeavours.

  10. Osseous and chondromatous metaplasia in calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Matthew; Hwang, David H; Padera, Robert F; Mitchell, Richard N; VanderLaan, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement for calcific aortic valve stenosis is one of the more common cardiac surgical procedures. However, the underlying pathophysiology of calcific aortic valve stenosis is poorly understood. We therefore investigated the histologic findings of aortic valves excised for calcific aortic valve stenosis and correlated these findings with their associated clinical features. We performed a retrospective analysis on 6685 native aortic valves excised for calcific stenosis and 312 prosthetic tissue aortic valves with calcific degeneration at a single institution between 1987 and 2013. Patient demographics were correlated with valvular histologic features diagnosed on formalin-fixed, decalcified, and paraffin embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Of the analyzed aortic valves, 5200 (77.8%) were tricuspid, 1473 (22%) were bicuspid, 11 (0.2%) were unicuspid, and 1 was quadricuspid. The overall prevalence of osseous and/or chondromatous metaplasia was 15.6%. Compared to tricuspid valves, bicuspid valves had a higher prevalence of metaplasia (30.1% vs. 11.5%) and had an earlier mean age of excision (60.2 vs. 75.1 years old). In addition, the frequency of osseous metaplasia and/or chondromatous metaplasia increased with age at time of excision of bicuspid aortic valves, while tricuspid aortic valves showed the same incidence regardless of patient age. Males had a higher prevalence of metaplasia in both bicuspid (33.5% vs. 22.3%) and tricuspid (13.8% vs. 8.6%) aortic valves compared to females. Osseous metaplasia and/or chondromatous metaplasia was also more common in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and concurrent chronic kidney disease or atherosclerosis than in those without (33.6% vs. 28.3%). No osseous or chondromatous metaplasia was observed within the cusps of any of the prosthetic tissue valves. Osseous and chondromatous metaplasia are common findings in native aortic valves but do not occur in prosthetic tissue aortic valves. Bicuspid

  11. Polypoidal Intestinal Metaplasia and Dysplasia of the External Urethral Meatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral mucosa with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia is a rare occurrence. To date only a single case has been reported in a male with long-standing urethral stricture. We present a 33-year-old female with polypoid intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the external urethral meatus in the absence of an inciting factor. Intestinal metaplasia of the urethral mucosa may undergo dysplasia, emphasizing the necessity of a high degree of clinical suspicion and vigilant pathological examination of these lesions.

  12. Urethral dysontogenic metaplasia in cat with bilateral renal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Fonseca Sapin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper to describe a case of dysontogenic urethral metaplasia in a one month old mongrel feline who also had bilateral renal dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in cats are scarce and this change may be associated with renal dysplasia and/or lower urinary tract. The animal had history of abdominal enlargement since birth and dysuria, eliminating urine only dropwise. Due to the poor prognosis we opted for euthanasia. At necropsy was observed enlarged and distended bladder, reduced kidneys and dilated and tortuous ureters. The urethra was thickened, hard to cut, and histologically, was replacing the connective tissue, cartilage and endochondral ossification areas, which features dysontogenic metaplasia. Both kidneys presented primitive appearance featuring dysplasia. Dysontogenic metaplasia in urinary tract feline with renal dysplasia, has not been described.

  13. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieken, van N.C.T.; Meijer, G.A.; Hausen, A zur; Meuwissen, SG; Baak, J.P.A.; Kuipers, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the

  14. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [8]. Roth and Taylor (1966) demonstrated the presence of acid mucopolysaccharides, thereby supporting the capability of mature endometrial stromal cells to undergo cartilaginous metaplasia in response to chronic inflammation or trauma. The.

  15. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Manoukian Forones; Ana Paula Souza Carvalho; Oswaldo Giannotti-Filho; Laércio Gomes Lourenço; Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher proliferation is commonly observed in cancer cells. Apoptosis can be a useful measure of a tumor cell kinetic. Alteration of the balance between proliferation and apoptosis is associated with cancer. AIM: To study proliferation and apoptosis on gastric cancer and in intestinal metaplasia. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two samples from gastric adenocarcinomas and 22 biopsies from intestinal metaplasia were studied. The apoptotic bodies in hematoxylin-eosin slides and the expression of...

  16. Postoperative Chondroid Metaplasia in First Metacarpocarpal Joint: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hye; Kim, Jae Kyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Min Jin; Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Han Bee [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Pathology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Intra-articular chondroid metaplasia is a rare disease; especially in the first metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint after surgery. In this report, we present a chondroid metaplasia in the left first MCP joint as a soft tissue mass following the repair of the radial collateral ligament and ulnar collateral ligament. A hypointense signal on T2-weighted images and isointense signal on T1-weighted images without enhancement on MR and accompanied adjacent bone erosion were observed.

  17. Intradermal Melanocytic Nevus Containing Bone Metaplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bedir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic nevi in the bone metaplasia is not a common case. The majority of these lesions tend to be located in the upper part of the body, as in our case. There is a higher incidence of females. In the pathogenesis usually is thought to develop seconder damage of the hair follicles. We report a 46-year-old woman who presented a case of osseous metaplasia within a benign intradermal melanocytic nevus was excised from the face.

  18. Fyzioterapie u astma bronchiale

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajberková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This thessis deals with the treatment of Asthma Bronchiale by using various physioterapeutic methods, especially respiratory physiotherapy. In Theoretical part there is given information about symptomatology of the disease, prevention, methods of examination, respiratory physiotherapy and devices like inhalers. The Empirical parts includes two case reports where the knowledge from theoretical part is applied. The main goal of this thessis is getting to know other methods of treatment than pha...

  19. Hidradenoma Papilliferum With Oncocytic Metaplasia: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Amira; Cochran, Eric; Xie, Qiang; Kabigting, Filamer; Pereira, Leanne; Elston, Dirk M; Heilman, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm, commonly occurring in the vulva and perianal region of adult women. It has characteristic histopathological features composed of anastomosing and branching tubules, lined by columnar cells, and a basal layer of myoepithelial cells. A 39-year-old woman was evaluated for 2 asymptomatic labial masses. The histopathological examination revealed a Bartholin's cyst and a hidradenoma papilliferum. The latter contains a distinct area of oncocytic/oxyphilic metaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains revealed positive staining for gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15 and androgen receptor. GATA-3, a protein expressed in sweat glands, highlights a similar positive staining pattern with weaker staining in areas of oncocytic metaplasia. P63 highlighted the myoepithelial differentiation. In situ hybridization for Human Papilloma Virus 6, 11, 16, and 18 was negative. P53 was negative and Ki-67 was low, confirming its benign nature. Oncocytes are enlarged epithelial cells with voluminous eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resulting from staining of nonribosomal cytoplasmic components. Few reports documented it in hidradenoma papilliferum. Our case demonstrated a florid distinct appearance of this metaplasia. The immunoprofiles of this oncocytic metaplasia such as p53 negativity and positivity for androgen receptor and GCDFP-15 demonstrates similarity to apocrine metaplasia in the breast. The authors' case demonstrates the benign nature of oncocytic metaplasia and supports the common origin of oncocytic cells and columnar cells in hidradenoma papilliferum.

  20. Successful Treatment of Bronchial Fistula after Pulmonary Lobectomy by Endobronchial Embolization Using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Machida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bronchial fistula is one of the most serious complications that can occur following pulmonary lobectomy. We herein report a case of bronchial fistula that was successfully treated by endobronchial embolization using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS. A 72-year-old male underwent right lower lobectomy of the lung with nodal dissection for a pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. A bronchial fistula developed 53 days after surgery. Tube drainage was performed, and air leakage was apparent. Under endoscopic observation, intrathoracic injection of indigo carmine revealed that a fistula existed at the peripheral site of the B2ai bronchus. After one EWS (small was inserted into the B2a bronchus tightly using a bronchoscope, the air leakage was stopped. Pleurodesis was further carried out, the thoracostomy tube was subsequently removed, and the patient was discharged. Endobronchial embolization using an EWS is an option for the treatment of a bronchial fistula after pulmonary resection.

  1. MANIFEST ANXIETY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedhar, Krishna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a vernacular adaptation of MAS 50 bronchial asthma patients were compared with 102 normals, 60 hospital general out-patients and 50 neurotics to determine the level of anxiety in asthma. The manifest anxiety scores of the bronchial asthma patients were found to be significantly high showing that their level of anxiety was abnormally higher in comparison with that of the normals and the hospital general out-patients. The bronchial asthmatics and the neurotics did not differ in an...

  2. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible.

  3. Keratin metaplasia in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Maheswaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the prevalence of keratin metaplasia and its relation with clinico-pathological profile of the odontogenic cyst. Materials and Methods: Odontogenic cysts were studied histologically with special stains to identify the presence of keratin and compared with various parameters such as underlying connective tissue inflammation, average epithelial thickness, and site of the cyst, type of the cyst, age and the sex of the patient. Results: Of 71 cases of various odontogenic cysts, 26 (36.6% cases exhibited keratinization in the epithelial lining. In cysts with severe inflammation there is absence of keratinization. Conclusions: This study reveals higher prevalence of keratin metaplasia in the odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, inflammation is found to be one of factor influencing keratin metaplasia.

  4. Cell lineage dynamics in the process leading to intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Sashikawa, Miho; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-05-01

    Gene expression in the early stage of the transition to intestinal metaplasia in human gastric mucosa has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between cell lineage changes and intestine-specific gene expression in the process leading to intestinal metaplasia, using Cdx2-transgenic mice. Cellular phenotypes were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and were compared with the gene expression profiles of cell lineage markers by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Up to postnatal day (PD) 20, the gastric mucosae of Cdx2-transgenic mice were histologically similar to those of their normal littermates. However, at approximately PD 20, we observed the sporadic appearance of glands in which all the epithelial cells expressed Cdx2 (Cdx2-diffuse positive glands). In the Cdx2-diffuse positive glands, parietal cells had disappeared, the proliferating zone had moved from the isthmus to the base, and absorptive cells and goblet cells were recognized. In contrast, the surrounding mucosa retained the phenotype of the gastric gland in which only some of the epithelial cells expressed Cdx2. During PDs 30 and 40, the entire fundic mucosa changed to transdifferentiated mucosa that was a composite of intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia. An increase in the expression of intestine-specific genes, with a reciprocal decrease in gastric-specific gene expression, began much earlier than the emergence of Cdx2-diffuse positive glands. A dramatic increase in intestine-specific gene expression precedes the morphological appearance of intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia.

  5. Cholesterol granuloma of the anterior mediastinum with osseous metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Frederick Ezzat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granuloma is a well-characterized entity comprised of a foreign-body giant cell-reaction that forms in response to the presence of cholesterol crystals. It is usually found in the middle-ear or mastoid process in patients with diseases associated with chronic inflammation such as cholesteatoma and otitis media. They are rarely seen in the mediastinum. Osseous metaplasia is an exceedingly rare feature of cholesterol granulomas only reported twice in the literature. We report a case of a cholesterol granuloma of the anterior mediastinum with osseous metaplasia in a 75 year-old man that was found incidentally during urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  6. Identification and manipulation of biliary metaplasia in pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgiorno, Kathleen E; Hall, Jason C; Takeuchi, Kenneth K; Pan, Fong Cheng; Halbrook, Christopher J; Washington, M Kay; Olive, Kenneth P; Spence, Jason R; Sipos, Bence; Wright, Christopher V E; Wells, James M; Crawford, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    Metaplasias often have characteristics of developmentally related tissues. Pancreatic metaplastic ducts are usually associated with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The tuft cell is a chemosensory cell that responds to signals in the extracellular environment via effector molecules. Commonly found in the biliary tract, tuft cells are absent from normal murine pancreas. Using the aberrant appearance of tuft cells as an indicator, we tested if pancreatic metaplasia represents transdifferentiation to a biliary phenotype and what effect this has on pancreatic tumorigenesis. We analyzed pancreatic tissue and tumors that developed in mice that express an activated form of Kras (Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Ptf1a(Cre/+) mice). Normal bile duct, pancreatic duct, and tumor-associated metaplasias from the mice were analyzed for tuft cell and biliary progenitor markers, including SOX17, a transcription factor that regulates biliary development. We also analyzed pancreatic tissues from mice expressing transgenic SOX17 alone (ROSA(tTa/+);Ptf1(CreERTM/+);tetO-SOX17) or along with activated Kras (ROSAtT(a/+);Ptf1a(CreERTM/+);tetO-SOX17;Kras(LSL-G12D;+)). Tuft cells were frequently found in areas of pancreatic metaplasia, decreased throughout tumor progression, and absent from invasive tumors. Analysis of the pancreatobiliary ductal systems of mice revealed tuft cells in the biliary tract but not the normal pancreatic duct. Analysis for biliary markers revealed expression of SOX17 in pancreatic metaplasia and tumors. Pancreas-specific overexpression of SOX17 led to ductal metaplasia along with inflammation and collagen deposition. Mice that overexpressed SOX17 along with Kras(G12D) had a greater degree of transformed tissue compared with mice expressing only Kras(G12D). Immunofluorescence analysis of human pancreatic tissue arrays revealed the presence of tuft cells in metaplasia and early-stage tumors, along with SOX17 expression, consistent with a biliary phenotype

  7. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  8. Respiratory impairment in coke oven workers: relationship to work exposure and bronchial inflammation detected by sputum cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, R; Afifi, A A; Mittman, C

    1984-01-01

    Coke oven workers are at excess risk of developing lung cancer and may be at risk for chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). We have studied 3799 male workers to assess the relationship between the two diseases. Repeated lung function and sputum cytology tests were obtained over a 3-year period. Sputum samples were assessed using standardized methods; in addition to metaplastic and neoplastic changes, we reproducibly assessed the presence and extent of acute and chronic inflammatory changes. Spirometric flow rates (FEV1) were significantly reduced in workers most exposed to coke oven emissions, particularly in those with excessive inflammatory cells and regular metaplasia in sputum. The presence of reactive bronchial epithelial cells and metaplasia were potent predictors of an abnormal FEV1/FVC. Studies like these may offer a means to investigate the relationship between COLD and lung cancer. Such changes in sputum may identify individuals at risk of developing both diseases.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in the submandibular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Byung Mo; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    A 66-year-old man visited author's institute complaining of the swelling on the submandibular gland area. Clinically, the exophytic mass penetrated the skin of the submandibular area. On MRI, the lesion occupied the left submandibular space and extended downward, protruding exterior to the subcutaneous fat layer, but the center of the lesion was located on the side of the skin and the growth exterior to the skin was prominent. Demarcation of the lesion and the submandibular gland was unclear. Histopathologically the epithelial nests and keratin production were seen, then the biopsy result was squamous cell carcinoma. The stroma of lesion showed a myxoid characteristic and some ducts showed metaplasia of the ductal cells, which suggested the gland-origin carcinoma. However, lots of keratin production and carcinomatous change of cells continuous to the normal epithelium of the skin, the skin-origin carcinoma invading into the submandibular gland area could not be excluded.

  10. The chemopreventive agent myoinositol inhibits Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in bronchial lesions from heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gills, Joell J; Memmott, Regan M; Lam, Stephen; Dennis, Phillip A

    2009-04-01

    Myoinositol is an isomer of glucose that has chemopreventive activity in animal models of cancer. In a recent phase I clinical trial, myoinositol administration correlated with a statistically significant regression of preexisting bronchial dysplastic lesions in heavy smokers. To shed light on the potential mechanisms involved, activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), two kinases that control cellular proliferation and survival, was assessed in 206 paired bronchial biopsies from 21 patients who participated in this clinical trial. Before myoinositol treatment, strongly positive staining for activation of Akt was detected in 27% of hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions and 58% of dysplastic lesions (P = 0.05, chi(2) test). There was also a trend toward increased activation of ERK (28% in regions of hyperplasia/metaplasia to 42% of dysplastic lesions). Following myoinositol treatment, significant decreases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation were observed in dysplastic (P 0.05). In vitro, myoinositol decreased endogenous and tobacco carcinogen-induced activation of Akt and ERK in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, which decreased cell proliferation and induced a G(1)-S cell cycle arrest. These results show that the phenotypic progression of premalignant bronchial lesions from smokers correlates with increased activation of Akt and ERK and that these kinases are targets of myoinositol. Moreover, they suggest that myoinositol might cause regression of bronchial dysplastic lesions through inhibition of active Akt and ERK.

  11. Mucin production and mucous cell metaplasia in otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental ...

  12. Sonographic appearance of renal transplant osseous metaplasia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, R.; Common, A.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sugar, L. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of pathologically proven osseous metaplasia occurring in renal allograft 7 years after transplantation, appearing as multiple, echogenic, band-like lesions with acoustic shadowing on ultra-sonography (US). To our knowledge, such a case has not yet been described in the literature. (author)

  13. METAPLASIA ADRENAL FAT IN CHINCHILLA LANIGERA - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. P. Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A domestic chinchilla Chinchilla lanígera came to death at the Veterinary Hospital of University of Santo Amaro and was referred to Patology Animal service, which conducted the necropsy and was visualized adrenal bilateral hyperplasia. On histopathologic examination, it was found metaplasia of fat cells.

  14. Endometrial osseous metaplasia: case report with literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28‑year‑old woman presenting with ...

  15. Aldose reductase inhibition prevents metaplasia of airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C S Yadav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Goblet cell metaplasia that causes mucus hypersecretion and obstruction in the airway lumen could be life threatening in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-13 mediate the transformation of airway ciliary epithelial cells to mucin-secreting goblet cells in acute as well as chronic airway inflammatory diseases. However, no effective and specific pharmacologic treatment is currently available. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which aldose reductase (AR regulates the mucus cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Metaplasia in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC was induced by a Th2 cytokine, IL-13, without or with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. After 48 h of incubation with IL-13 a large number of SAEC were transformed into goblet cells as determined by periodic acid-schiff (PAS-staining and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Mucin5AC. Further, IL-13 significantly increased the expression of Mucin5AC at mRNA and protein levels. These changes were significantly prevented by treatment of the SAEC with AR inhibitor. AR inhibition also decreased IL-13-induced expression of Muc5AC, Muc5B, and SPDEF, and phosphorylation of JAK-1, ERK1/2 and STAT-6. In a mouse model of ragweed pollen extract (RWE-induced allergic asthma treatment with fidarestat prevented the expression of IL-13, phosphorylation of STAT-6 and transformation of epithelial cells to goblet cells in the lung. Additionally, while the AR-null mice were resistant, wild-type mice showed goblet cell metaplasia after challenge with RWE. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that exposure of SAEC to IL-13 caused goblet cell metaplasia, which was significantly prevented by AR inhibition. Administration of fidarestat to mice prevented RWE-induced goblet cell metaplasia and AR null mice were largely resistant to allergen induced changes in the lung. Thus our results indicate that AR inhibitors

  16. Aldose reductase inhibition prevents metaplasia of airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Ramana, Kota V; Boldogh, Istvan; Srivastava, Satish K

    2010-12-28

    Goblet cell metaplasia that causes mucus hypersecretion and obstruction in the airway lumen could be life threatening in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-13 mediate the transformation of airway ciliary epithelial cells to mucin-secreting goblet cells in acute as well as chronic airway inflammatory diseases. However, no effective and specific pharmacologic treatment is currently available. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which aldose reductase (AR) regulates the mucus cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. Metaplasia in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) was induced by a Th2 cytokine, IL-13, without or with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. After 48 h of incubation with IL-13 a large number of SAEC were transformed into goblet cells as determined by periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-staining and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Mucin5AC. Further, IL-13 significantly increased the expression of Mucin5AC at mRNA and protein levels. These changes were significantly prevented by treatment of the SAEC with AR inhibitor. AR inhibition also decreased IL-13-induced expression of Muc5AC, Muc5B, and SPDEF, and phosphorylation of JAK-1, ERK1/2 and STAT-6. In a mouse model of ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced allergic asthma treatment with fidarestat prevented the expression of IL-13, phosphorylation of STAT-6 and transformation of epithelial cells to goblet cells in the lung. Additionally, while the AR-null mice were resistant, wild-type mice showed goblet cell metaplasia after challenge with RWE. The results show that exposure of SAEC to IL-13 caused goblet cell metaplasia, which was significantly prevented by AR inhibition. Administration of fidarestat to mice prevented RWE-induced goblet cell metaplasia and AR null mice were largely resistant to allergen induced changes in the lung. Thus our results indicate that AR inhibitors such as fidarestat could be developed as therapeutic agents to

  17. The function and significance of SELENBP1 downregulation in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our quantitative proteomic study showed that selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1 was progressively decreased in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. However, there is little information on expression and function of SELENBP1 during human lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC carcinogenesis. METHODS: iTRAQ-tagging combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. SELENBP1, member of selenoproteins family and progressively downregulated in this process, was selected to further study. Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect SELENBP1 expression in independent sets of tissues of bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis, and ability of SELENBP1 for discriminating NBE (normal bronchial epithelium from preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC was evaluated. The effects of SELENBP1 downregulation on the susceptibility of benzo(apyrene (B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation were determined. RESULTS: 102 differentially expressed proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics, and SELENBP1 was found and confirmed being progressively decreased in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. The sensitivity and specificity of SELENBP1 were 80% and 79% in discriminating NBE from preneoplastic lesions, 79% and 82% in discriminating NBE from invasive LSCC, and 77% and 71% in discriminating preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of SELENBP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells significantly increased the efficiency of B[a]P-induced cell transformation. CONCLUSIONS: The present data shows for the first time that decreased SELENBP1 is an early event in LSCC, increases B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation, and might serve as a novel potential biomarker for early detection of LSCC.

  18. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  19. The Incidence and Extent of Mullerian Metaplasias in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ozcan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most ovarian surface epithelial tumors emerge from a background of Mullerian metaplasias. The incidence and extent of Mullerian metaplasias were examined in ovarian surface epithelial tumors. Methods: The incidence of Mullerian metaplasias was evaluated according to the presence of the metaplasias in all cases. The extent of these metaplastic changes was scored from (1+ to (4+ according to the extended area in all tumoral slide sections. Results: Ciliated cell metaplasia was found in 80.4 % of benign tumors, 100 % of borderline tumors and 93.3 % of malignant tumors. Eosinophilic cell metaplasia was present in 13 % of benign tumors, 70 % of borderline tumors and 93.3 % of malignant tumors. Clear cell metaplasia was observed in 17.4 % of benign tumors, 20 % of borderline tumors and 40 % of malignant tumors. While ciliated cell metaplasia was more frequent and extensive in benign tumors, eosinophilic and clear cell metaplasias were more frequent and extensive in borderline and malignant tumors (p<0.05. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the incidence and extent of Mullerian metaplasias in ovarian surface epithelial tumors may not be homogeneous. This should be taken into account when their biological significances and relation with tumorigenesis are investigated. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 16-22

  20. Metaplasia intestinal especializada de esôfago distal na doença do refluxo gastroesofágico: prevalência e aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos Specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease: prevalence and clinical-demographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiber C. Caum

    2003-12-01

    , esofagite mais intensa e sem associação com tabaco ou álcool.BACKGROUND: Specialized intestinal metaplasia can be categorized according endoscopic and histological findings in long segment Barrett, short segment Barrett and specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Barrett's esophagus is an acquired disease that is found in about 10%-13% of patients undergoing endoscopy for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and it is well established as predisposing to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The columnar epithelium with goblet cells replaces the normal squamous epithelium. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: From April to October 2002, 402 patients referred to upper endoscopy due gastroesophageal reflux disease were evaluated through of a symptom questionnaire about clinical and demographic features and submitted to upper endoscopy with four-quadrant biopsies 1 cm below escamocolumnar junction. RESULTS: Eighteen point four percent of patients had specialized intestinal metaplasia, 0.5% long segment Barrett esophagus, 3.2% short segment Barrett's esophagus and 14.7% specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to be male and specialized metaplasia of cardia to be female. All patients with Barrett's esophagus were white. There was not association between symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and specialized intestinal metaplasia, but patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to have symptoms over 5 years and had more hiatal hernia and esophagitis. The use of alcohol and tobacco was not related to the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Barrett's esophagus was more related to the male gender, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms for 5 years or longer, more intense esophagitis and hiatal hernia, but was not related to the use of

  1. Osseous metaplasia in gliosarcoma: an unusual histologic finding. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliosarcoma (GS is a malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system that has coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. GSs are rarely related to osseous metaplasia. The authors report a case of GS in a male patient presenting apathy and catatonia. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive process affecting the left frontal lobe. At microscopy, a malignant glioma constituted by highly atypical glial cells intermingled with spindle-shaped cells was identified. The lesion showed areas of necrosis with pseudopalisading formation, focus of osseous metaplasia, and positive immunoexpression of S100, CD99 and vimentin in both elements. Only the sarcomatous component exhibited negative immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. The diagnosis of GS was then established.

  2. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  3. Sonographic and Mammographic Features of Breast Apocrine Metaplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Youn; Kang, Seok Seon; Ji, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Tae Hee; Park, Hae Lin; Shim, Jeong Yun [CHA Hospital, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    To evaluate the sonographic and mammographic features of apocrine metaplasia of the breast. We retrospectively evaluated the sonographic and mammographic findings of 16 lesions that were diagnosed with only apocrine metaplasia after mammotome excision. The age ranged from 27 years old to 57 years old (mean age: 40 years old). The sonographic features were interpreted by the ACR BI-RADS(American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) for shape, orientation, margin, boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature, calcification and special cases. The mammographic features were interpreted by the ACR BI-RADS (American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) for breast composition, shape, margin, density and calcification. Sonographic features were that the shapes were oval (n = 16) in 100%. The orientation was parallel (n =15) in 94%. The margins were circumscribed (n = 8) in 50% and microlobulated (n = 8) in 50%. The echo patterns were hypoechoic (n = 8) in 50%, complex (n = 5) in 31% and anechoic (n = 3) in 19%. Posterior acoustic enhancement was seen in 69% (n = 11). There was internal microcyst (n = 4) in 25%. There was no calcification. Mammography performed for 12 cases demonstrated negative findings (n = 10) for 83%, obscured hypodense mass (n = 1) for 8% in 11 cases of breast composition 3 and 4, and circumscribed isodense mass (n = 1)for 8% in one case of breast composition 2. There was no calcification. The final assessment was category 4a (n= 7) in 44%, category 3 (n = 6) in 38% and category 2 (n = 3) in 19%. Although sonographic and mammographic features of apocrine metaplasia are occasionally suspicious malignancy such as microlobulation and complex echo. We consider the possibility of apocrine metaplasia if masses show internal microcyst and abrupt boundary

  4. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important...

  5. TPO/Mpl Studies in Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Novetsky Allan D; Hashmi Gazala; Suppiah Kathir; Hemavathy Kirugaval C; Wang Jen C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is one of the Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorder and is diagnosed by hyperplasia of atypical megakaryocytes, hepatosplenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis and bone marrow fibrosis. Fibrosis is considered to be a secondary consequence of enhanced levels of fibrogenic growth factors such as TGF β1, bFGF and PDGF produced by enhanced numbers of megakaryocytes, while the primary cause is considered to be the enhan...

  6. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  7. The Progression of Nephrogenic Metaplasia of the Urinary Bladder to Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Catharine A.; Fineron, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Nephrogenic metaplasia (or nephrogenic adenoma) and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder are uncommon lesions that cause diagnostic dilemmas for pathologists due to their similar morphologic features. Nephrogenic metaplasia describes a lesion in the lower urinary tract that is composed of small tubules resembling renal medullary tubules. It has been suggested that nephrogenic metaplasia may progress to clear cell adenocarcinoma but this possibility is not widely accepted. We present a cas...

  8. Preoperative brush and impression cytology in ocular surface squamous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Canan; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, T Reha; Yalaz, Müslime

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative cytologic diagnoses of ocular surface squamous neoplasms were evaluated and compared with histologic diagnoses. Impression cytology (Millipore filter paper) and brush cytology were applied to 32 patients who had conjunctival neoplasms. Papanicolaou-stained cytologic preparations and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections were examined by light microscopy. The brush technique was used on 27 patients; impression cytology was applied in 5 cases. Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were concordant in 26 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in 18 and dysplasia in 4 cases. Squamous metaplasia and normal-appearing conjunctival epithelial cells were diagnosed cytologically in four cases; of those histologic diagnoses, one was pterygium and three, conjunctival nevus. Four cases revealed discrepancies between the cytologic and histologic preparations. There was one false positive result, and one case was subconjunctival invasion of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Impression and brush cytology are fast, cost-effective, reliable and noninvasive diagnostic tools for ocular surface squamous neoplasms. However, the brush technique has several advantages over impression cytology.

  9. CHALLENGES IN BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TESTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge test, AMP is usually administered according to dosing protocols developed for histamine/methacholine. It has never been thoroughly investigated whether these protocols are suitable for AMP as well. Methods: The setup of the

  10. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  11. Targeted Apoptosis of Parietal Cells Is Insufficient to Induce Metaplasia in Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burclaff, Joseph; Osaki, Luciana H; Liu, Dengqun; Goldenring, James R; Mills, Jason C

    2017-03-01

    Parietal cell atrophy is considered to cause metaplasia in the stomach. We developed mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor specifically in parietal cells to induce their death, and found this to increase proliferation in the normal stem cell zone and neck but not to cause metaplastic reprogramming of chief cells. Furthermore, the metaplasia-inducing agents tamoxifen or DMP-777 still induced metaplasia even after previous destruction of parietal cells by diphtheria toxin. Atrophy of parietal cells alone therefore is not sufficient to induce metaplasia: completion of metaplastic reprogramming of chief cells requires mechanisms beyond parietal cell injury or death. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metaplasia osea endometrial: reporte de casos y revision de la literatura

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mondragon-Cedeno, Alba Lucia; Miranda-Cruz, Angel David; Parra-Duarte, Sergio Augusto; Paredes-Becerra, Eliana; Zuniga- Chavez, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    .... La segunda mujer inicio dos embarazos que terminaron en abortos tempranos completos. Palabras clave: metaplasia osea, osificacion endometrial, ectopia osea, infertilidad, histeroscopia, dolor pelvico cronico, hemorragia uterina anormal...

  13. Bronchial Brushing Increases the Diagnostic Yield of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bedir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of rapid and accurate cytopathological diagnosis in bronchial cancers is increasing due to advances in treatment modalities. Aims: We evaluated the diagnostic methods and cytologic subtypes of bronchial cancers to determine the diagnostic reliability of different bronchoscopic techniques. Material and methods: Retrospective data were obtained from the hospital files and pathological specimens of the patients with diagnosis of primary lung cancer from a period of 36 months. Cytological tumor typing was determined using histopathology of bronchoscopic forceps biopsy (FB, bronchial-bronchoalveolar lavage (BL, bronchial brushing (BB, transbronchial fine-needle biopsy. Computed tomography or ultrasonography guided transthoracic biopsy and surgical biopsies were used where the other interventional methods were inadequate for diagnosis. Results: A total of 124 patients were diagnosed during study period. 119 (96% of them were male. The median age was 68, ranging between 36 and 88 years. Histopathologic subtypes were determined as non-small cell carcinoma (NSCC in 104 (83.9%, squamous cell carcinoma in 64 (51.6%, adenocarcinoma in 16 (12.9%, NSCC not otherwise specified in 24 (19.3% and small cell carcinoma in 20 (16.1% patients. The combination of FB, BL and BB established the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma in most of the cases (92.6%. Conclusions: Lung cancer is seen commonly in elderly male patients with smoking history and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cytologic type. High diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by a combination of bronchoscopic FB, BB and BL procedures.   Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Lung cancer; Bronchial brushing

  14. Metaplasia mieloide do baço na Ancilostomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquizamos, no figado e baço de dez casos puros de ancilostomose, elementos hemocitopoieticos; verificamos o peso do baço em 23 casos de individuos com idades compreendidas entre 3 e 60 anos; não encontramos, em nenhum caso, celulas hemoformadoras no figado. Em sete casos, encontramos, no baço, elementos da série vermelha em adiantado estado de evolução (eritroblastos ortocromaticos de nucleo picnotico. Em alguns destes casos observamos megacariocitos e numerosos mielocitos eosinofilos. Os tres casos que não apresentavam metaplasia mieloide no baço, eram os de individuos acima de 50 anos de idade. Entretanto, em outro caso de um individuo com 59 anos esta metaplasia foi verificada. Em individuos acima de 20 anos, o peso médio do baço, em nove casos, mostrou-se igual ao peso normal. Em 14 casos, compreendidos entre 3 e 14 anos, o peso deste orgão foi sempre sensivelmente mais elevado que nos normais de idade correspondente. Estes resultados sugerem a possibilidade de ser a metaplasia mieloide responsavel pelos aumentos de pezo nos baços de individuos jovens, vitimados pela anemia ancilostomica. A notavel proliferação dos eritroblastos ortocromaticos mostra que o grão e a rapidez da regeneração sanguinea, após a administração de ferro, são devidos, essencialmente, á grande quantidade de hemoglobina já preformada no baço e na medula ossea dos organismos ancilostomados.

  15. Cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis in bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, Ana Maria; Roşca, Elena; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The classification of squamous cell carcinomas, based on cellular differentiation features, includes the poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas. The histogenetic cytologic data clarify conventional cytodiagnosis of poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and also eliminate other categories such as large cell carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma. We conducted a study for evaluating the degree of differentiation of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma in 620 patients - 551 men (88.8%) and 69 women (11.1%) who had lung cancer confirmed by cytologic, histologic and bronchoscopic examination. The cytologic examination was performed on slides with samples obtained by bronchial brushing and prints of bronchial biopsy stained with the Giemsa method. Histopathologic examination was performed on samples obtained by bronchial biopsy and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. At cytologic examination we found: poorly differentiated epidermiod carcinomas in 66 cases (33.8%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 22 cases (11.2%) and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 107 cases (54.8%). Histological examination revealed: poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 133 cases (45.7%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 32 cases (10.9%), and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 126 cases (43.2%). Our results suggested the importance of the association between cytologic and histopatologic examinations in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  16. [Anesthetic management in bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In daily practice, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases are common issues presenting to the anesthetist. Respiratory physiology in general is affected by both general and regional anesthesia, which results in an increased number of perioperative complications in pulmonary risk patients. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with bronchial asthma needs to address different clinical topics: the physical appearance of pulmonary disease, type and extent of surgical intervention as well as effects of therapeutic drugs, anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory function. The present work describes important precautions in preoperative scheduling of the asthmatic patient. In the operative course, airway manipulation and a number of anesthetics are able to trigger intraoperative bronchial spasm with possibly fatal outcome. It is essential to avoid these substances to prevent asthma attack. If asthmatic status occurs, appropriate procedures according to therapeutic standards have to be applied to the patient. Postoperatively, sufficient pain therapy avoids pulmonary complications and improves outcome. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallbohmer Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is known to have a unique 28 bp tandemly repeated sequence in the promoter region, and the majorities of subjects have a heterozygous double repeat/triple repeat genotype in their non-cancerous tissue. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the TS locus is known to occur in cancer patients, but there is no evidence that it is present in precancerous tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM and dysplasia. Methods One hundred twenty-three samples (including 37 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, 29 with IM, 13 with dysplasia, and 44 with BA were obtained from 100 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the lower esophageal mucosa/IM/dysplasia/BA, when available. Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control. All tissues were analyzed for the TS genotype and TS mRNA expression using the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method after laser-capture microdissection. Results Among the patients with informative heterozygous genotype in their control samples, no sample with LOH at the TS locus was observed in the lower esophageal mucosa in GERD patients (0/22 samples. However, 6 out of 21 samples (28.6% had LOH in IM, 2 of 7 (28.6% in dysplasia, and 10 of 25 (40.0% in BA. No significant difference in TS mRNA expression levels was observed between TS genotypes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that LOH is a relatively frequent and early event in the IM-BA sequence.

  18. Oncocytic metaplasia of the nasopharynx or extra-parotid Warthin's tumour?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, A P; Dekker, P

    1991-01-01

    A case of oncocytic metaplasia obstructing the Eustachian tube in an elderly patient is described. Histologically, it was similar to Warthin's tumour of the parotid gland. The lymphocytes were predominantly T cell, unlike those of Warthin's tumour which are predominantly B cell. It is proposed that oncocytic metaplasia represents an early stage in the evolution of Warthin's tumour.

  19. Does CDX2 expression predict Barrett's metaplasia in oesophageal columnar epithelium without goblet cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerkhof (Marjon); D.A. Bax (Dorine); L.M.G. Moons (Leon); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); H. van Dekken (Herman); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); P.D. Siersema (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Intestinal metaplasia (Barrett's oesophagus), but not cardiac-type mucosa in columnar-lined oesophagus, is regarded as premalignant. As intestinal metaplasia and cardiac-type mucosa are endoscopically indiscernible, it is difficult to take targeted samples from columnar-lined

  20. Intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori: an endoscopic bioptic study of the gastric antrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Dekker, W.; Blok, P.; Ferwerda, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    To study the relationship between intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori infection, 2274 gastroscopic antral biopsies taken from 533 patients were examined. Overall, intestinal metaplasia was found in 135 patients (25.3%) and H pylori in 289 patients (54.2%). The prevalence of intestinal

  1. Social networks and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Maria; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    To focus on both positive and negative aspects of the interaction between asthmatic patients and the social networks, and to highlight the need of a psychological approach in some individuals to integrate pharmacological treatment is the purpose of review. There is evidence that in some asthmatic patients, the excessive use of social networks can induce depression and stress triggering bronchial obstruction, whereas in others their rational use can induce beneficial effects in terms of asthma management. The increasing asthma prevalence in developed countries seen at the end of last century has raised concern for the considerable burden of this disease on society as well as individuals. Bronchial asthma is a disease in which psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing the severity of bronchial obstruction. Internet and, in particular, social media are increasingly a part of daily life of both young and adult people, thus allowing virtual relationships with peers sharing similar interests and goals. Although social network users often disclose more about themselves online than they do in person, there might be a risk for adolescents and for sensitive individuals, who can be negatively influenced by an incorrect use. However, although some studies show an increased risk of depression, other observations suggest beneficial effects of social networks by enhancing communication, social connection and self-esteem.

  2. A pSMAD/CDX2 Complex Is Essential for the Intestinalization of Epithelial Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial metaplasias are poorly understood. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic change of the esophageal epithelium into columnar epithelium, occurring in patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mechanisms behind the development of the intestinal subtype, which is associated with the highest cancer risk, are unclear. In humans, it has been suggested that a nonspecialized columnar metaplasia precedes the development of intestinal metaplasia. Here, we propose that a complex made up of at least two factors needs to be activated simultaneously to drive the expression of intestinal type of genes. Using unique animal models and robust in vitro assays, we show that the nonspecialized columnar metaplasia is a precursor of intestinal metaplasia and that pSMAD/CDX2 interaction is essential for the switch toward an intestinal phenotype.

  3. Physiotherapy in patients with bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pichová, Jiřina

    2014-01-01

    Author: Jiřina Pichová Institution: Department of rehabilitation medicine of teaching hospital in Hradec Králové Topic of the thesis: Physiotherapy in patients with bronchial asthma Supervisor: Mgr. Zuzana Hamarová Number of pages: 69 Year of defences: 2014 Keywords: bronchial asthma, respiratory physiotherapy, risk factors Topic of this bachelor thesis is Physiotherapy of patients with bronchial asthma and it is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part deals with dan...

  4. Alimentary factors in the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia in functional dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gamarra Taborda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is a lesion in which metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells occurs for an intestinal phenotype. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a lesion associated with an increase in the risk of gastric carcinoma development. Epidemiologic studies indicate a relation between dietary habits and stomach cancer development, some habits increasing the risk for it, and others have a protective effect, suggesting that antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E, decrease the risk of this type of cancer. The relationship of these alimentary factors and intestinal metaplasia is unknown. METHODS: It is a case-control, observational study in which 320 patients with functional dyspepsia, divided in two groups, were assessed. The case I group (individuals with intestinal metaplasia had their dietary pattern compared to that of the control group, constituted of individuals similar to those in the case group but without intestinal metaplasia, through a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The analysis of the dietary pattern of functional dyspeptic patients with intestinal metaplasia, and its comparison with those without intestinal metaplasia, showed a higher frequency of canned and smoked foods consumption in the first group and, on the other hand, a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in patients without intestinal metaplasia. No effect of salt consumption was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest changes in the diet, with a decrease in the consumption of smoked and canned foods, and an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can lead to a diminution of gastric intestinal metaplasia cases.

  5. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in bronchial asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Detoraki, A; Granata, F; Staibano, S; Rossi, F. W; Marone, G; Genovese, A

    2010-01-01

    ... A. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in bronchial asthma. Allergy 2010; 65: 946-958. Neovascularization plays a prominent role in inflammation and tissue remodeling in several chronic inflammatory disorders...

  6. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  7. [Bronchoplastic surgery in bronchial cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baros, B; Djuric, B

    1990-02-01

    Conservative resection is applied in cases with central localisation of the tumour in the surrounding lymph nodes are not affected by the malignant process. This surgery is of great importance for patients with restricted respiratory function if pneumonectomy is contraindicated or is performed under enhanced risk. A total of 29 surgeries were performed on the bronchial system. Blood vessel resection was simultaneously done in two of the cases. Frozen section biopsy was obligatorily performed. In one case atelectasis was an early complication that was resolved by bronchoaspiration. In a thirty-day long postoperative period one (3.4%) of the patients died because of profound intrathoracic bleeding.

  8. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  9. Bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and cholecystectomy: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial asthma or allergic ...

  10. Airway epithelial transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 inhibits mucous cell metaplasia and Th2 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yutaka; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yan; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Du, Lingling; Keiser, Angela R; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E; Holgate, Stephen T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2011-08-15

    Airway mucous cell metaplasia and chronic inflammation are pathophysiological features that influence morbidity and mortality associated with asthma and other chronic pulmonary disorders. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating mucous metaplasia and hypersecretion provides the scientific basis for diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to improve the care of chronic pulmonary diseases. To determine the role of the airway epithelial–specific transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1, also known as thyroid transcription factor-1 [TTF-1]) in mucous cell metaplasia and lung inflammation. Expression of NKX2-1 in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma was analyzed. NKX2-1 +/-gene targeted or transgenic mice expressing NKX2-1 in conducting airway epithelial cells were sensitized to the aeroallergen ovalbumin. In vitro studies were used to identify mechanisms by which NKX2-1 regulates mucous cell metaplasia and inflammation. NKX2-1 was suppressed in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma. Reduced expression of NKX2-1 in heterozygous NKX2-1 +/- gene targeted mice increased mucous metaplasia in the small airways after pulmonary sensitization to ovalbumin. Conversely, mucous cell metaplasia induced by aeroallergen was inhibited by expression of NKX2-1 in the respiratory epithelium in vivo. Genome-wide mRNA analysis of lung tissue from ovalbumin-treated mice demonstrated that NKX2-1 inhibited mRNAs associated with mucous metaplasia and Th2-regulated inflammation,including Spdef, Ccl17, and Il13. In vitro, NKX2-1 inhibited SPDEF, a critical regulator of airway mucous cell metaplasia,and the Th2 chemokine CCL26. The present data demonstrate a novel function for NKX2-1 in a gene network regulating mucous cell metaplasia and allergic inflammation in the respiratory epithelium.

  11. Demographics and cell types of bronchial carcinoma of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, T K; Shahidullah, M; Debnath, C R; Hasan, I; Alam, N A; Paul, G K; Pandit, H

    2013-01-01

    Geographical and socio-economic factors such as climate, culture, ethnic origin, diet and life style such as smoking have been noted to influence the occurrence of bronchial carcinoma. We conducted this study to document the frequency of various histological types of bronchial carcinoma and correlated it with their demographic characteristics. This descriptive study was carried out among admitted patient with the suspicion of Bronchial carcinoma from January 2010 to January 2011 in medicine units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Among those only 30 consecutive histopathologically &/or cytological confirmed cases of Bronchial carcinoma were included in the study. No age, gender, environmental or occupational limits were applied for the selection of patients. Patients already diagnosed by some other hospital presenting to our unit with complications were not included in the study. Age rang were 26-70 years. Majority of patients i.e. 63.33% (n=19) were found to be in their fourth and sixth decade of life. Males were 86.66% (n=26) as compared to females 13.44% (n=4) and male to female ratio were 6.5:1. The majority of the patients were belonged to urban areas 63.34% (n=19), while 36.66% (n=11) came from the Rural population. In this study smokers were 86.66% (n=26) and nonsmokers were 13.33% (n=4). In Occupational distribution farmers were 33.33% (n=10), service holders were 20% (n=6), businessman were 16.66% (n=5), all the female were house wife 13.33% (n=4). Specimens for histopathological study were collected by trans-thoracic needle aspiration under CT or ultrasono-guided. The results of cell types in histopathologically proven 30 Bronchial carcinoma patients were; 10(33.36%) adenocarcinoma, 7(23.33%) squamous cell carcinoma, 6(20%) small cell carcinoma, 4(13.33%) large cell carcinoma and 3(10%) non-small cell carcinoma.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma and the pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee; Hwang, Asiry; Choi, Hye Young; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Lee, Sun Hwa [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma with the pathologic correlation. During an 8-year period, the US appearances of 10 patients with metaplastic squamous breast carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) - US lexicon. These 10 patients included 9 patients having invasive adenocarcinomas of the breast with more than 30% squamous metaplasia, and one patient had pure primary squamous cell carcinoma. We correlated the US findings with the pathologic findings. On US, the majority of the tumors showed ovaI shapes (70%), indistinct margins (50%), parallel orientation (80%), echogenic halos (60%), complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components (60%), and posterior enhancement (70%). The findings of calcifications (20%) and metastatic axillary lymph nodes (10%) were rare. On pathologic examination, half of the tumors showed infiltrative microscopic margins. All six cases showing complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components on US were pathologically related to the cystic or necrotic portion, and three of these cases had hemorrhage. On US, metapIastic squamous breast carcinoma mainly manifested as oval, complex, echoic masses with indistinct margins and posterior enhancement that was pathologically related to the cystic or necrotic portions.

  13. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: Chief cells emerge from the Mist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenring, James R., E-mail: jim.goldenring@vanderbilt.edu [Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Departments of Surgery and Cell and Developmental Biology, Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Nam, Ki Taek [Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Departments of Surgery and Cell and Developmental Biology, Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Mills, Jason C. [Divison of Gastroenterology, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  14. Osseous Metaplasia and Bone Marrow Elements in a Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seyma Ozkanli; Asif Yildirim; Ebru Zemheri; Sarp Korcan Keskin; Erem Kaan Basok

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia and bone marrow elements is a relatively rare event in these tumors. We discuss pathological differential diagnosis for this tumor with a review of the literature on this unusual case.

  15. Epithelial metaplasia: adult stem cell reprogramming and (pre)neoplastic transformation mediated by inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Michael; Hubert, Pascale; Delvenne, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    Throughout adult life, new developmental commitment of adult stem cells causes metaplastic conversions to occur frequently in some organs. These reversible epithelial replacements are almost always observed in association with chronic inflammation and persistent irritation. Although metaplasia is not synonymous with dysplasia, clinical surveillance has demonstrated that these adaptive processes have an increased susceptibility to evolve into cancer. We propose that cytokines and other soluble factors released by both epithelial and inflammatory cells might alter the transcription-factor expression profile of stem cells and lead to the development of metaplasia. Furthermore, inflammatory mediators might also promote the malignant transformation of epithelial metaplasia by inducing genetic and epigenetic changes and by preventing the immune system from mounting an efficient anti-tumour immune response. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to metaplasia might help in the design of new therapies for neoplastic and degenerative diseases.

  16. Schlafen 4-expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified...

  17. A pSMAD/CDX2 complex is essential for the intestinalization of epithelial metaplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mari, Luigi; Milano, Francesca; Parikh, Kaushal; Straub, Danielle; Everts, Vincent; Hoeben, Kees K.; Fockens, Paul; Buttar, Navtej S.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial metaplasias are poorly understood. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic change of the esophageal epithelium into columnar epithelium, occurring in patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mechanisms behind the development of

  18. Concentrations of ceftibuten in bronchial secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F; Triscari, F; Demartini, G; Arcidiacono, M; Cocuzza, C; Fraschini, F

    1995-01-01

    Ceftibuten is a broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin exhibiting antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and some gram-positive pathogens. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that the molecule has an oral bioavailability higher than 90% of the administered dose (reaching peak serum concentrations of 5-19 mg/l after a single dose of 200 and 400 mg). Moreover, ceftibuten has been shown to be useful in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. This study was performed to determine the distribution of ceftibuten in bronchial secretions from patients affected by the exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Patients were treated with a single 400-mg oral dose of ceftibuten. Blood and bronchial-secretion samples were obtained just before, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h after dosing. Cells were separated from bronchial secretions by centrifugation. Ceftibuten in duplicate samples of both serum and bronchial secretion was quantified by HPLC. Ceftibuten reached peak levels 2 and 4 h after oral administration in serum and in bronchial secretions, respectively (18.12 +/- 2.13 and 9.19 +/- 3.1 mg/l, respectively). Falling curves after the peaks showed a monoexponential decay. The absorption was very rapid both in serum and bronchial secretions, but elimination was slower in bronchial secretions than in serum.

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think Sebaceous carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Skin reactions from targeted cancer therapy Squamous cell carcinoma What is Mohs surgery? Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail ...

  20. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase-induced goblet cell metaplasia by tiotropium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, N; Kondo, M; Izumo, T; Tamaoki, J; Nagai, A

    2010-05-01

    Airway occlusion by mucus in chronic obstructive disease (COPD) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesised that tiotropium has the ability to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE)-induced goblet cell metaplasia in mice and mucin production in vitro. On days 1, 4, and 7, tiotropium or vehicle was administered to C57BL/6 mice by inhalation and they were allowed to intranasally aspirate human NE. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung sections were analysed on days 8, 11 and 14. The effect of late administration of tiotropium on the goblet cell metaplasia by NE aspiration was also assessed. NE-induced MUC5AC production by NCI-H292 cells was measured with ELISA. Repeated NE aspiration induced marked goblet cell metaplasia. The grading of goblet cell metaplasia, neutrophil count and eosinophil count in BALF, keratinocyte-derived chemokine level and leukotriene B(4) level in BALF, and M(3) receptor expression by immunohistochemistry, were lower in the tiotropium group than in the vehicle group. Late administration of tiotropium inhibited the established goblet cell metaplasia. Tiotropium inhibited NE-induced MUC5AC production. Tiotropium inhibited NE-induced goblet cell metaplasia and mucin production, probably mediated by suppression of inflammation and a direct action on epithelial cells. This result suggests that tiotropium may be useful for the treatment of mucus overproduction in COPD.

  1. Intestinal metaplasia in X-ray-irradiated rats as a model of differentiation of digestive tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This review described the relationship between experimental intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer and the importance of stem cell present in the digestive tracts. Rat stomach was externally irradiated by X-ray generated by Shimadzu Shin-aigou with 200 kVp and the filter of 0.5 mm Cu+1.0 Al at the dose rate of 80 R/min. Total dose of 30 Gy, e.g., irradiation of 5 Gy/day every day and of 10 Gy/day every 3rd day, resulted in the formation of metaplasia and stomach cancer was observed in 10% animals after 1.5 years. The incidence of metaplasia and cancer varied with the irradiation conditions. There were strain difference in rats and species difference between rats and mice in the susceptibility in induction of the X-ray-metaplasia in the stomach. Stomach cancer from the metaplasia was not seen with the gastric carcinogen like methyl-nitrosourea but was seen with the large intestinal carcinogen like dimethylhydrazine, indicating that the stem cell in the metaplasia, since which having the character of intestinal cells and not of gastric cells, differentiated to cancer cells. Thus the importance of the stem cell in the stomach carcinogenesis was suggested. (K.H.)

  2. Human neutrophil elastase-mediated goblet cell metaplasia is attenuated in TACE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ah; Sharif, Asma S; Shiomi, Tetsuya; Kobzik, Lester; Kasahara, David I; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Voynow, Judith; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2013-05-15

    Neutrophilic inflammation is associated with chronic airway diseases. It has been observed that human neutrophil elastase (HNE), which is secreted by active neutrophils during inflammation, induces both mucin overproduction and goblet cell metaplasia. Several in vitro studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) regulates the signaling axis that mediates HNE-induced mucin overproduction; however, it is unknown whether TACE performs a similar function in HNE-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vivo. We conducted this study to determine whether the inactivation of Tace gene expression attenuates HNE-induced goblet cell metaplasia in mice. Deletion of Tace is lethal shortly after birth in mice; therefore, we utilized Tace(flox/flox)R26CreER(+/-) mice and induced conditional deletion of Tace using a tamoxifen injection. Wild-type mice were given tamoxifen to control for its effect. Tace conditional deletion mice and wild-type mice were exposed to HNE via nasal instillation three times at 3-day intervals, and the lungs were harvested on day 11 after initial HNE exposure. Using periodic acid-Schiff staining and MUC5AC immunohistochemical staining to visualize goblet cells in the lungs, we found that HNE induced goblet cell metaplasia in the wild-type mice and that HNE-induced goblet cell metaplasia was significantly attenuated in the Tace conditional deletion mice. These findings suggest that TACE could be a potential target in the treatment of goblet cell metaplasia in patients with chronic airway diseases.

  3. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  4. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients...

  5. Radiation therapy for symptomatic hepatomegaly in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tefferi, A.; Jimenez, T.; Gray, L.A.; Mesa, R.A. [Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, M.G. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, MN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective: To describe the experience with liver irradiation in advanced cases of myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM). Methods: Over a 20-yr period, 14 patients with MMM were treated with a total of 25 courses of liver, abdominal, or abdominal and pelvic irradiation for symptomatic hepatomegaly with (5 patients) or without (9 patients) ascites. All 14 patients had advanced disease and 11 (79%) had previous splenectomy. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose per course was 150 cGy (range 50-1000) administered at a median of six fractions. Four patients received two to six courses. Results. Twelve of the 14 patients (86%) had a transient (median 3 months) subjective response from RT. However, in only 35% of these was there a transient (median 3 months) decrease in palpable liver size. Four of the five patients with ascites experienced a short-term response from RT. Eight of the 13 patients suitable for evaluation (62%) had treatment-associated cytopenia, often in the form of anemia and/or thrombocytopenia. At last follow-up, 10 patients (71%) had died after a median of 7 months (range 0.1-23) and 4 were alive at 3, 20, 33, and 57 months after RT. Conclusions: Low-dose abdominal RT for symptomatic hepatomegaly or ascites associated with advanced-stage MMM is myelosuppressive and provides only temporary and mainly subjective and short-lived relief. (au)

  6. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  7. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Relationship between congenital heart disease and bronchial dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ting; Tan, Li-Hua; Mei, Xi-Long; Sun, Jian-Ning

    2011-11-01

    To study the relationship of the incidence of bronchial dysplasia (bronchial anomalous origin and bronchial stenosis) with congenital heart disease. A total of 185 children with congenital heart disease or bronchial dysplasia were enrolled. Bronchial dysplasia was identified by the 64-MSCT conventional scanning or thin slice scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction. Forty-five children (25.3%) had coexisting bronchial dysplasia and congenital heart disease. The incidence rate of bronchial dysplasia in children with congenital heart disease associated with ventricular septal defect was higher than in those without ventricular septal defect (33.7% vs 15.0%; Pincidence rate of bronchial dysplasia between the children with congenital heart disease who had a large vascular malformation and who did not. Bronchial dysplasia often occurs in children with congenital heart disease. It is necessary to perform a tracheobronchial CT scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction to identify tracheobronchial dysplasia in children with congenital heart disease, especially associated with ventricular septal defect.

  9. Aggravation of bronchial eosinophilia in mice by nasal and bronchial exposure to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Hens, G.; Meyts, I.; Bullens, D.; Vanoirbeek, J.; Gevaert, P.; Jorissen, M.; Ceuppens, J. L.; Bachert, C.

    2006-01-01

    The role of bacterial enterotoxins like Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) in allergic asthma remains unknown. We used a mouse model of airway allergy to study the effects of nasal or bronchial contact with SEB on bronchial allergic inflammation. The features of allergic asthma were induced

  10. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  11. Isthmus Stem Cells Are the Origins of Metaplasia in the Gastric Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G; Wang, Timothy C

    2017-07-01

    The acquisition of genetic/epigenetic mutations in long-lived gastrointestinal stem cells leads to the development of cancer, as well as precancerous lesions such as metaplasia and dysplasia. In the proximal stomach corpus, this model of progression from stem cells has been supported by studies in mice and human beings, showing abundant proliferation in the isthmus and clonal expansion of mutated cells from the stem cell region. An alternative theory proposes that gastric metaplasia arises from mature differentiated chief cells. Despite reports of low levels of proliferation in chief cells in acute injury models, there is little evidence for reprogramming of chief cells into long-lived stem cells that continuously supply progeny over time. Critical flaws in the chief cell transdifferentiation theory include the definition of acute SPEM, the chief cell-damaging effect of chemical reagents, and the specificity of chief cell lineage tracing. In contrast, there is now strong evidence regarding the stem cell origins of gastric metaplasia that refutes the transdifferentiation theory. Here, we briefly review the history and definition of gastric metaplasia, and outline in detail the evidence that supports the stem cell origin of metaplasia.

  12. Heterogeneity in mouse spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia lineages identifies markers of metaplastic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Victoria G; Sousa, Josane F; LaFleur, Bonnie J; Nam, Ki Taek; Weis, Jared A; Finke, Paul E; Ameen, Nadia A; Fox, James G; Goldenring, James R

    2013-09-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) develops as a preneoplastic lesion in the stomachs of mice and humans after parietal cell loss. To identify the commonalities and differences between phenotypic SPEM lineages, SPEM were studied from three different mouse models of parietal cell loss: with chronic inflammation with Helicobacter felis infection; with acute inflammation with L635 treatment; and without inflammation following DMP-777 treatment. RNA transcripts from laser capture microdissected normal chief cells and SPEM lineages were compared using gene microarray. Alterations in transcripts were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Clusterin and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were selected for immunohistochemical analysis in all mouse models as well as in human SPEM, intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Transcript expression patterns demonstrated differences among the phenotypic SPEM models. Clusterin expression was significantly upregulated in all three mouse SPEM models as well as in human SPEM. The highest clusterin expression in human gastric cancers correlated with poor survival. Conversely, CFTR expression was upregulated only in SPEM with inflammation in mice. In humans, intestinal metaplasia, but not SPEM, expressed CFTR. While markers such as clusterin are expressed in all phenotypic SPEM lineages, distinct patterns of upregulated genes including CFTR are present in murine metaplasia associated with inflammation, indicative of progression of metaplasia towards a more intestinalised metaplastic phenotype.

  13. TPO/Mpl Studies in Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemavathy, Kirugaval C; Suppiah, Kathir; Hashmi, Gazala; Novetsky, Allan D; Wang, Jen C

    2005-01-01

    Background Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is one of the Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorder and is diagnosed by hyperplasia of atypical megakaryocytes, hepatosplenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis and bone marrow fibrosis. Fibrosis is considered to be a secondary consequence of enhanced levels of fibrogenic growth factors such as TGF β1, bFGF and PDGF produced by enhanced numbers of megakaryocytes, while the primary cause is considered to be the enhanced proliferation of a defective stem cell. We have previously reported that thrombopoietin (TPO) is elevated in patients with AMM. Others have reported that Mpl protein is decreased in these patients. Since TPO is essential for the development of megakaryocytes, and Mpl protein is the receptor for TPO, we extended the study of TPO/Mpl to in vitro and in vivo cell culture systems to better understand the mechanism that leads to reduced Mpl protein in AMM patients. Results Plasma TPO levels were significantly elevated and Mpl protein levels were significantly reduced in AMM patients in concordance with previous studies. Platelet Mpl transcripts in AMM were however similar to those in controls. We also cloned Mpl cDNA from AMM patients and tested for their ability to make functional proteins in vitro and in the in vivo system of 293 T human embryonic kidney cells. Their expression including the glycosylated forms was similar to those from the controls. We also measured the level of translation initiation factor, eIF4E and found it to be increased in patients with AMM demonstrating that the reduced Mpl protein may not be due to translation defects. Conclusions Our studies using the in vitro and in vivo systems further confirm that reduced Mpl protein levels are not due to defects in its transcription/translation. Reduced Mpl protein could be due to its increased internalisation owing to enhanced plasma TPO or in vivo intrinsic defects in patients with AMM. PMID:15691382

  14. TPO/Mpl Studies in Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novetsky Allan D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM is one of the Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative disorder and is diagnosed by hyperplasia of atypical megakaryocytes, hepatosplenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis and bone marrow fibrosis. Fibrosis is considered to be a secondary consequence of enhanced levels of fibrogenic growth factors such as TGF β1, bFGF and PDGF produced by enhanced numbers of megakaryocytes, while the primary cause is considered to be the enhanced proliferation of a defective stem cell. We have previously reported that thrombopoietin (TPO is elevated in patients with AMM. Others have reported that Mpl protein is decreased in these patients. Since TPO is essential for the development of megakaryocytes, and Mpl protein is the receptor for TPO, we extended the study of TPO/Mpl to in vitro and in vivo cell culture systems to better understand the mechanism that leads to reduced Mpl protein in AMM patients. Results Plasma TPO levels were significantly elevated and Mpl protein levels were significantly reduced in AMM patients in concordance with previous studies. Platelet Mpl transcripts in AMM were however similar to those in controls. We also cloned Mpl cDNA from AMM patients and tested for their ability to make functional proteins in vitro and in the in vivo system of 293 T human embryonic kidney cells. Their expression including the glycosylated forms was similar to those from the controls. We also measured the level of translation initiation factor, eIF4E and found it to be increased in patients with AMM demonstrating that the reduced Mpl protein may not be due to translation defects. Conclusions Our studies using the in vitro and in vivo systems further confirm that reduced Mpl protein levels are not due to defects in its transcription/translation. Reduced Mpl protein could be due to its increased internalisation owing to enhanced plasma TPO or in vivo intrinsic defects in patients with AMM.

  15. p16 is Consistently Expressed in Endometrial Tubal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Horree

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell cycle proteins and HIF-1α with downstream factors are often abberrantly expressed in (preneoplastic tissue. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens of inactive endometrium with TM (n=15, ovarian inclusion cysts (n=6, cervix with TM (tubal metaplasia (n=3, Fallopian tubes (n=7, cycling endometrium (n=9 and a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary were stained for p16 and LhS28. 39 Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas and 5 serous endometrial carcinomas were stained for p16. Additionally, inactive endometrium (n=15 was immunohistochemically stained for p21, p27, p53, cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, HIF-1α, CAIX, Glut-1 and MIB-1. Results: A mosaic pattern of expression of p16 was seen throughout in all cases of endometrial TM (15/15, in 2/6 of the ovarian inclusion cysts with TM, in all (3/3 cervical TM and focal in 5/7 of Fallopian tube cases. Mosaic expression was also seen in a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary and in 18/39 of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, and diffuse p16 expression was seen in 5/5 serous carcinomas. In comparison with normal endometrium, TM areas in the endometrium showed significantly increased expression of HIF-1α, cyclin E, p21 and cyclin A, and decreased expression of p27. Membranous expression of CAIX and Glut-1 was only seen in TM areas, pointing to functional HIF-1α. Conclusion: As p16 is consistently expressed in TM, less and only patchy expressed in the normal Fallopian tube, is paralleled by aberrant expression of cell cycle proteins, HIF-1α, CAIX and Glut-1 and resembles the pattern of p16 expression frequently seen in endometrial carcinomas, we propose endometrial TM to be a potential premalignant endometrial lesion.

  16. [Bronchial asthma pathogenesis and genetic prognosis development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmasova, I P; Sepiashvili, R I; Sepiashvili, Ia R; Malova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review is dedicated to an actual problem--genetic prognosis of risk of bronchial asthma development that is quite a complex aspect of studies from a methodological viewpoint. Bronchial asthma--heterogeneous disease by both etiology and clinical characteristics. At the same time genetic prognosis is based on the unity of pathogenetic mechanisms of development, though in immunological reactions that are the base of this disease, alternative variants are possible. The aim of this review is carrying out parallels between modern achievements in the field of deciphering trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma pathogenesis and object of genetic studies based on these mechanisms. Among the examined conceptions--role of epithelial tissue in trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma, variants of key role of immune system cells, first of all, T-helpers of various types for further development of inflammatory-effector reactions with damage characteristic for this disease. Compliance of contemporary approaches of genetic studies and novel concepts of bronchial asthma pathogenesis is shown.

  17. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  18. Hacking cell differentiation: transcriptional rerouting in reprogramming, lineage infidelity and metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalo, Gonçalo; Leutz, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Initiating neoplastic cell transformation events are of paramount importance for the comprehension of regeneration and vanguard oncogenic processes but are difficult to characterize and frequently clinically overlooked. In epithelia, pre-neoplastic transformation stages are often distinguished by the appearance of phenotypic features of another differentiated tissue, termed metaplasia. In haemato/lymphopoietic malignancies, cell lineage ambiguity is increasingly recorded. Both, metaplasia and biphenotypic leukaemia/lymphoma represent examples of dysregulated cell differentiation that reflect a history of trans-differentiation and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Here we compare the similarity between molecular events of experimental cell trans-differentiation as an emerging therapeutic concept, with lineage confusion, as in metaplasia and dysplasia forecasting tumour development. PMID:23828660

  19. Notch2 Is Required for Inflammatory Cytokine-Driven Goblet Cell Metaplasia in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Danahay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases.

  20. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia: Rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Swapnil; Bohara, Sangita; Jha, Ruchi; Khurana, Nita; Agarwal, P N

    2015-01-01

    Osseous metaplasia with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is exceedingly rare. There are less than 20 reported cases of osseous metaplasia in association with RCC. We present a case of 39-year-old male patient presented to outpatient department with complaints of pain in the left lumbar region since 4 years. Computed tomography scan revealed a heterogeneous enhanced mass lesion having areas of necrosis and specks of calcification involving the left kidney. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of RCC was made and left radical nephrectomy was performed. Histological sections from the growth revealed features of clear cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade-2 with a focal area of metaplastic bone formation. The prognostic implications of calcification per se are not very clearly mentioned in the literature. Patients with osseous metaplasia generally present with early stage disease and a favorable prognosis. However, few of them were of high grade and poorer prognosis.

  1. Hacking cell differentiation: transcriptional rerouting in reprogramming, lineage infidelity and metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalo, Gonçalo; Leutz, Achim

    2013-08-01

    Initiating neoplastic cell transformation events are of paramount importance for the comprehension of regeneration and vanguard oncogenic processes but are difficult to characterize and frequently clinically overlooked. In epithelia, pre-neoplastic transformation stages are often distinguished by the appearance of phenotypic features of another differentiated tissue, termed metaplasia. In haemato/lymphopoietic malignancies, cell lineage ambiguity is increasingly recorded. Both, metaplasia and biphenotypic leukaemia/lymphoma represent examples of dysregulated cell differentiation that reflect a history of trans-differentiation and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Here we compare the similarity between molecular events of experimental cell trans-differentiation as an emerging therapeutic concept, with lineage confusion, as in metaplasia and dysplasia forecasting tumour development. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  2. Bronchial epithelium: morphology, function and pathophysiology in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der V.H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Versnel, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Summary : Human bronchial epithelium has a number of mechanical functions, including mucociliary clearance and protection against noxious agents. Bronchial epithelial cells are also able to release a variety of mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and arachidonic acid

  3. Elimination of IL-13 Reverses Established Goblet Cell Metaplasia into Ciliated Epithelia in Airway Epithelial Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko Kondo

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Elimination of IL-13 reverses goblet cell metaplasia into ciliated epithelia in vitro, and transition of goblet cells to other phenotypes, especially ciliated cells, may be involved in this phenomenon. IL-13 inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy of established goblet cell metaplasia in asthma.

  4. CDX2 protein expression compared to alcian blue staining in the evaluation of esophageal intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dennis R; Abdelbaqui, Maisoun; Tahmasbi, Maryam; Mayer, Zoltan; Lee, Hung-Wei; Malafa, Mokenge P; Coppola, Domenico

    2015-03-07

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of CDX2 and alcian blue (AB) pH 2.5 staining in identifying esophageal intestinal metaplasia. One hundred and ninty-nine biopsies from 186 patients were retrospectively reviewed and categorized as Barrett's esophagus (BE) (n = 108); non-Barrett's esophagus (NBE) (n = 48); columnar blue cells (CB) and esophageal glands (EG) (n = 43). The biopsies were stained with AB and immunostained for CDX2 using a mouse monoclonal antibody from Biogenex (clone CDX2-88) and the Ventana Discovery X automated immunostainer. The positive and negative predictive value of each group was used to determine the predictive power of CDX2 and AB in diagnosing intestinal metaplasia. All of the 108 BE biopsies (100%) were positive for AB and 102 of them (94.4%) were positive for CDX2. The six BE patients (5.6%) who failed to stain with CDX2 were found to have lost the focus of intestinal metaplasia upon deeper sectioning for immunostaining. Both AB and CDX2 were negative in 43 out of 48 (89.6%) NBE cases. Five NBE patients (10.4%) were falsely positive for AB due to the presence of EG and CB in these biopsies. These cases were all CDX2 negative. In addition, 5 AB negative NBE were found to be CDX2 positive. Based on these results the CDX2 immunostain had similar sensitivity but higher specificity (100% vs about 91%) than AB in detecting intestinal type metaplasia in these samples. Our data shows that CDX2 has a better PPV in detecting intestinal metaplasia as compared to AB (95.6% vs 71.5%, respectively). CDX2 has a better positive predictive value than AB in detecting intestinal metaplasia. CDX2 may be useful when challenged by gastro-esophageal biopsies containing mimikers of BE.

  5. A molecular signature of gastric metaplasia arising in response to acute parietal cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Koji; Ogawa, Masako; Williams, Janice A; Lafleur, Bonnie J; Ng, Vivian; Drapkin, Ronny I; Mills, Jason C; Konieczny, Stephen F; Nomura, Sachiyo; Goldenring, James R

    2008-02-01

    Loss of gastric parietal cells is a critical precursor to gastric metaplasia and neoplasia. However, the origin of metaplasia remains obscure. Acute parietal cell loss in gastrin-deficient mice treated with DMP-777 leads to the rapid emergence of spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2)-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) from the bases of fundic glands. We now sought to characterize more definitively the pathway for emergence of SPEM. Emerging SPEM lineages in gastrin-deficient mice treated with DMP-777 were examined for immunolocalization of TFF2, intrinsic factor, and Mist1, and morphologically with electron microscopy. Emerging SPEM was isolated with laser-capture microdissection and RNA was analyzed using gene microarrays. Immunohistochemistry in mouse and human samples was used to confirm up-regulated transcripts. DMP-777-induced SPEM was immunoreactive for TFF2 and the differentiated chief cell markers, Mist1 and intrinsic factor, suggesting that SPEM derived from transdifferentiation of chief cells. Microarray analysis of microdissected SPEM lineages induced by DMP-777 showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with G1/S cell-cycle transition including minichromosome maintenance deficient proteins, as well as a number of secreted factors, including human epididymis 4 (HE4). HE4, which was absent in the normal stomach, was expressed in SPEM of human and mouse and in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer in human beings. Although traditionally metaplasia was thought to originate from normal mucosal progenitor cells, these studies indicate that SPEM evolves through either transdifferentiation of chief cells or activation of a basal cryptic progenitor. In addition, induction of metaplasia elicits the expression of secreted factors, such as HE4, relevant to gastric preneoplasia.

  6. Immature myeloid progenitors promote disease progression in a mouse model of Barrett's-like metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jianping; Sai, Hong; Crissey, Mary Ann S; Jhala, Nirag; Falk, Gary W; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Abrams, Julian A; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth; Rustgi, Anil K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P

    2015-10-20

    Cdx2, an intestine specific transcription factor, is expressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE). We sought to determine if esophageal Cdx2 expression would accelerate the onset of metaplasia in the L2-IL-1β transgenic mouse model for Barrett's-like metaplasia. The K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β double transgenic mice had half as many metaplastic nodules as control L2-IL-1β mice. This effect was not due to a reduction in esophageal IL-1β mRNA levels nor diminished systemic inflammation. The diminished metaplasia was due to an increase in apoptosis in the K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of immune cells infiltrating the metaplasia identified a population of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells that are significantly reduced in K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice. These cells have features of immature granulocytes and have immune-suppressing capacity. We demonstrate that the apoptosis in K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice is CD8+ T cell dependent, which CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are known to inhibit. Lastly, we show that key regulators of CD11b+Gr-1+ cell development, IL-17 and S100A9, are significantly diminished in the esophagus of K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β double transgenic mice. We conclude that metaplasia development in this mouse model for Barrett's-like metaplasia requires suppression of CD8+ cell dependent apoptosis, likely mediated by immune-suppressing CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells.

  7. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  8. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uropygial gland squamous cell carcinoma in chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Newton, Alisa L; Calle, Paul P

    2015-03-01

    Uropygial, or preen, glands are found in a variety of avian species including penguins. These glands have a multitude of functions and can develop a variety of conditions including impaction, rupture, adenitis, squamous metaplasia, and neoplasia of various types, with squamous cell carcinoma the most commonly reported. A case series of uropygial gland squamous cell carcinoma in five penguins at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park Zoo is described. Most birds were aged (>10 yr) with a history of chronic, recurrent uropygial gland problems including impaction, rupture, abscess formation, or a combination of conditions. Before and after neoplasia diagnosis, these cases were managed conservatively, and palliative care was provided. Because many of these cases were preceded by chronic inflammation, it is possible this inflammation predisposed the uropygial gland to neoplastic transformation, and more aggressive treatment early in the disease process may therefore be warranted.

  10. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  11. Combined alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of carotene,...

  12. Features of Bronchial Asthma in Children with Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.P. Volosovets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of comorbi­dity of bronchial asthma in children with overweight and obesity. The basic pathogenetic mechanisms of correlation between bronchial asthma and overweight and obesity are described. The attention is focused on the role of neutrophilic inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in these patients.

  13. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Calabro, Elisa; Pastorino, Ugo [National Cancer Institute, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Randi, Giorgia; La Vecchia, Carlo [Mario Negri Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano, Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry ' ' G. A. Maccacaro' ' , Milan (Italy); Marchiano, Alfonso [National Cancer Institute, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Zompatori, Maurizio [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  14. Modern druh treatment of bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitterová, Terezie

    2011-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Farmacology and Toxicology Candidate: Terezie Schnitterová Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Modern Pharmacotherapy of Asthma Bronchiale The purpose of this search thesis is to analyse the most common chronic in- flammatory disorder of the airways - asthma bronchiale. The issues are discussed comprehensively and the focus of this thesis is on the current view of treatment, its p...

  15. Hepatocyte metaplasia in experimental chagasic pancreatitis: preliminary report Metaplasia hepatocítica em pancreatite chagásica experimental: nota prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning the study of chronic pathologic changes in pancreas of hamsters experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Vic strain, hepatocyte metaplasia was observed in one animal from infected group. This is the first report of oncocytes in Chagas' disease, which could be due to aberrant regenerative response to pancreas inflammatory process.Iniciando estudo de alterações patológicas crônicas no pâncreas de hamsters experimentalmente infectados com a cepa Vic de Trypanosoma cruzi, metaplasia oncocítica foi observada em um dos animais infectados. Este é o primeiro relato de oncocitos na doença de Chagas, que poderiam decorrer de resposta regenerativa aberrante ao processo inflamatório pancreático.

  16. Educational needs and causes of false diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Moloo, Zahir

    2011-03-01

    The entity of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in The Bethesda System 2001 for reporting cervical cytology is characterized by equivocal diagnosis, poor reproducibility and debatable management. This retrospective study was done to analyse the causes of false ASCUS if any and identify the educational needs as part of quality assurance programme. Cervical smears of all ASCUS cases reported over the one-year period were reviewed by the Cytopathologist. Relevant clinical data was retrieved. ASCUS was the most common type of abnormality representing 43.0 % cases among 294 abnormal smears reported during study period. 16.0% cases were found to be non ASCUS on review. The main four causes of over use of ASCUS diagnosis were poor quality smears and cellular atypia associated with Candida infection, atrophy and squamous metaplasia. Educational measures are being undertaken to avoid over diagnosis and improve the patient management.

  17. Associations between asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine asthma and allergy phenotypes in unselected urban black teenagers and to associate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) with asthma, other atopic diseases and allergen sensitisation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 211 urban highschool black children of Xhosa ethnicity. Modified ...

  18. BRONCHIAL FRACTURE FOLLOWING BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... BRONCHIAL FRACTURE FOLLOWING BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA*. J. F. HITCHCOCK, M.B., CH.B., M.MED. (SURG.), Department of Cardiolhoracic SlIrger.\\", Croote Schllllr Hospilal,. Cape Town. Fractures of the trachea or major bronchi are becoming increasingly common. in particu:ar fractures of one or.

  19. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  20. Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro G. Fois

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Low grade type of Bronchial MEC, as our case, is often characterized by an optimal clinical management and prognosis. The lack of EGFR sensitizing mutations does not preclude the use of TKIs, which may be extremely useful in patients non responsive to other therapies.

  1. Determinants and regulating processes in bronchial hyperreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Neijens (Herman)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractBronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) can be considered as a feature of asthma, although only a loose relationship is present with symptoms and severity of the disease. Epidemiology of BHR may inform about determining factors in BHR and its role as a risk factor. BHR is found already at a

  2. Clavicular osteoma associated with bronchial osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglik, Yener; Yiliz, H. Yusuf; Erakar, Aziz [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Kendi, Tuba Karaguelle [Integra MR Imaging Center, Ankara (Turkey); CMRR, University of Minnesota, 2021 6th Street SE, MN 55455, Minneapolis (United States); Guengoer, Adem [Department of Chest Surgery, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Erekul, Selim [Department of Pathology, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-04-01

    Osteoma is a rare benign tumor, composed of bony tissues. It predominantly involves the skull but rarely the long bones. In this report we present a case of clavicular osteoma associated with bronchial osteomas. This association has not previously been reported. There was no evidence of Gardner's syndrome. (orig.)

  3. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: chief cells emerge from the Mist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, James R; Nam, Ki Taek; Mills, Jason C

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  5. The loss of Hoxa5 function promotes Notch-dependent goblet cell metaplasia in lung airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chakir, Jamila; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5−/− mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5−/− embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling. PMID:23213461

  6. FOXM1 promotes allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia and pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Shah, Tushar A; Ustiyan, Vladimir; Zhang, Yufang; Shinn, John; Chen, Gang; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Kalin, Tanya V; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic airway disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, and asthma, are associated with persistent pulmonary inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders is actively studied, little is known regarding the transcriptional control of goblet cell differentiation and mucus hyperproduction. Herein, we demonstrated that pulmonary allergen sensitization induces expression of FOXM1 transcription factor in airway epithelial and inflammatory cells. Conditional deletion of the Foxm1 gene from either airway epithelium or myeloid inflammatory cells decreased goblet cell metaplasia, reduced lung inflammation, and decreased airway resistance in response to house dust mite allergen (HDM). FOXM1 induced goblet cell metaplasia and Muc5AC expression through the transcriptional activation of Spdef. FOXM1 deletion reduced expression of CCL11, CCL24, and the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1, resulting in decreased recruitment of eosinophils and macrophages to the lung. Deletion of FOXM1 from dendritic cells impaired the uptake of HDM antigens and decreased cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) and costimulatory molecule CD86, decreasing production of Th2 cytokines by activated T cells. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of FOXM1 by ARF peptide prevented HDM-mediated pulmonary responses. FOXM1 regulates genes critical for allergen-induced lung inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia.

  7. Intra-articular lipoma with osteochondroid metaplasia in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.I. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Orthopaedic Oncology Unit and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Keel, S.B. [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gebhardt, M.C. [Orthopaedic Oncology Unit and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenthal, D.I. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We describe a case of lipoma with osteochondroid metaplasia in the knee joint. Although the location of the lesion and radiographic findings were unusual, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were useful in characterizing adipose, cartilaginous and osseous tissue components within the lesion. (orig.)

  8. Prolonged measurement of lower oesophageal sphincter function in patients with intestinal metaplasia at the oesophagogastric junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, C; Timmer, R; Breumelhof, R; Seldenrijk, CA; Smout, AJPM

    Background and aims-It has been shown that gastro-oesophageal reflux plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) limited to the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ), similar to the pathogenesis of IM in long segments of columnar lined oesophagus. The aim of this study was to examine

  9. The loss of Hoxa5 function promotes Notch-dependent goblet cell metaplasia in lung airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Boucherat

    2012-05-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5−/− mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5−/− embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling.

  10. Capsular synovial metaplasia mimicking silicone leak of a breast prosthesis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnanandan Sarah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Synovial metaplasia around a prosthesis and in particular around silicone breast implants has been noted by various investigators, but has unknown clinical significance. We report on a patient where a large amount of synovial fluid mimicked rupture of an implant. We believe this to be an unusual clinical presentation of this phenomenon. Review of the English language literature failed to identify a comparable case. Case presentation A 25-year-old woman had undergone bilateral breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons. One implant was subsequently subjected to two attempts at expansion to correct asymmetry. The patient was later found to have a large quantity of viscous fluid around the port of that same prosthesis. Histological assessment of the implant had consequently confirmed capsular synovial metaplasia. This had initially caused the suspicion of a silicone 'bleed' from the implant and had resulted in an unnecessary explantation. Conclusion Capsular synovial metaplasia should be ruled out before the removal of breast implants where a leak is suspected. Manipulation and expansion of an implant may be risk factors for the development of synovial metaplasia.

  11. Embryological signaling pathways in Barrett's metaplasia development and malignant transformation; mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, K; Meijer, C; van den Berg, A; Peters, F T M; Kruyt, F A E; Kleibeuker, J H

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's metaplasia of the esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a deadly disease with a 5-year overall survival of less than 20%. The molecular mechanisms of BE development and its transformation to EAC are poorly understood and current surveillance and

  12. [Bronchial hypersensitivity in children with the neutrophilic phenotype of bronchial asthma and GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukov, L A; Koloskova, E K; Galushchinskaia, A V

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between bronchial hypersensitivity as the key phenomenon ofbronchial asthma and detoxication GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene polymorphism in children with neutrophilic phenotype of this disease remains unclear 33 children with bronchial asthma of neutrophile phenotype were examined in histamine and dosed physical exercise (running) tests. In addition GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping was performed. Histamine test revealed bronchial hypersensitivity (HTC bronchial asthma having deletions in the GSTT1/GSTM1 system are characterized by bronchial hypersensitivity to histamine and dosed physical exercises.

  13. Proteomic Profiling of Paraffin-Embedded Samples Identifies Metaplasia-Specific and Early-Stage Gastric Cancer Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Josane F.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Whitwell, Corbin; Nam, Ki Taek; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Zhang, Bing; Li, Ming; LaFleur, Bonnie; Liebler, Daniel C.; Goldenring, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis and curative resection are the predominant factors associated with increased survival in patients with gastric cancer. However, most gastric cancer cases are still diagnosed at later stages. Since most pathologic specimens are archived as FFPE samples, the ability to use them to generate expression profiles can greatly improve cancer biomarker discovery. We sought to uncover new biomarkers for stomach preneoplastic metaplasias and neoplastic lesions by generating proteome profiles using FFPE samples. We combined peptide isoelectric focusing and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis to generate proteomic profiles from FFPE samples of intestinal-type gastric cancer, metaplasia, and normal mucosa. The expression patterns of selected proteins were analyzed by immunostaining first in single tissue sections from normal stomach, metaplasia, and gastric cancer and later in larger tissue array cohorts. We detected 60 proteins up-regulated and 87 proteins down-regulated during the progression from normal mucosa to metaplasia to gastric cancer. Two of the up-regulated proteins, LTF and DMBT1, were validated as specific markers for spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. In cancers, significantly lower levels of DMBT1 or LTF correlated with more advanced disease and worse prognosis. Thus, proteomic profiling using FFPE samples has led to the identification of two novel markers for stomach metaplasias and gastric cancer prognosis. PMID:22944598

  14. Gli1 deletion prevents Helicobacter-induced gastric metaplasia and expansion of myeloid cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y; Tessier, Art; Bai, Longchuan; Hayes, Michael M; Fontaine, Clinton; Eaton, Kathryn A; Merchant, Juanita L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the stomach induces metaplasia, the pre-cancerous lesion that precedes inflammation-driven neoplastic transformation. While Hedgehog signaling contributes to the initiation of some cancers, its role in gastric transformation remains poorly defined. We found that Helicobacter-infected C57BL/6 mice develop extensive mucous cell metaplasia at 6 month but not at 2 months post-infection. Gastric metaplasia coincided with the appearance of CD45(+)MHCII(+)CD11b(+)CD11c(+) myeloid cells that were normally not present in the chronic gastritis at 2 months. The myeloid regulatory gene Schlafen-4 was identified in a microarray analysis comparing infected WT versus Gli1 null mice and was expressed in the CD11b(+)CD11c(+) myeloid population. Moreover this same population expressed IL-1β and TNFα pro-inflammatory cytokines. By 6 months, the mucous neck cell metaplasia (SPEM) expressed IL-6, phosphorylated STAT3 and the proliferative marker Ki67. Expression was not observed in Gli1 mutant mice consistent with the requirement of Gli1 to induce this pre-neoplastic phenotype. Ectopic Shh ligand expression alone was not sufficient to induce SPEM, but with Helicobacter infection synergistically increased the histologic severity observed with the inflammation. Therefore Hedgehog signaling is required, but is not sufficient to generate pre-neoplastic changes during chronic gastritis. Gli1-dependent myeloid cell differentiation plays a pivotal role in the appearance of myeloid cell subtypes ostensibly required for SPEM development. Moreover, it suggests that therapies capable of targeting this phenotypic switch might prevent progression to metaplasia, the pre-neoplastic change that develops prior to dysplasia and gastric cancer, which also occurs in other epithelial-derived neoplasias initiated by chronic inflammation.

  15. Gli1 deletion prevents Helicobacter-induced gastric metaplasia and expansion of myeloid cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El-Zaatari

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the stomach induces metaplasia, the pre-cancerous lesion that precedes inflammation-driven neoplastic transformation. While Hedgehog signaling contributes to the initiation of some cancers, its role in gastric transformation remains poorly defined. We found that Helicobacter-infected C57BL/6 mice develop extensive mucous cell metaplasia at 6 month but not at 2 months post-infection. Gastric metaplasia coincided with the appearance of CD45(+MHCII(+CD11b(+CD11c(+ myeloid cells that were normally not present in the chronic gastritis at 2 months. The myeloid regulatory gene Schlafen-4 was identified in a microarray analysis comparing infected WT versus Gli1 null mice and was expressed in the CD11b(+CD11c(+ myeloid population. Moreover this same population expressed IL-1β and TNFα pro-inflammatory cytokines. By 6 months, the mucous neck cell metaplasia (SPEM expressed IL-6, phosphorylated STAT3 and the proliferative marker Ki67. Expression was not observed in Gli1 mutant mice consistent with the requirement of Gli1 to induce this pre-neoplastic phenotype. Ectopic Shh ligand expression alone was not sufficient to induce SPEM, but with Helicobacter infection synergistically increased the histologic severity observed with the inflammation. Therefore Hedgehog signaling is required, but is not sufficient to generate pre-neoplastic changes during chronic gastritis. Gli1-dependent myeloid cell differentiation plays a pivotal role in the appearance of myeloid cell subtypes ostensibly required for SPEM development. Moreover, it suggests that therapies capable of targeting this phenotypic switch might prevent progression to metaplasia, the pre-neoplastic change that develops prior to dysplasia and gastric cancer, which also occurs in other epithelial-derived neoplasias initiated by chronic inflammation.

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Transitional Zone after Ileal Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Treatment Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pellino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is very rare. Method: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results: Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions: SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying.

  17. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  18. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The protein C4.4A, a structural homologue of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, is a potential new biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer, with high levels of expression recently shown to correlate to poor survival of adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, C4.4A immunoreactivity...... in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  19. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  20. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity of intestinal metaplasia at normal oesophagogastric junction indicates its aetiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvelard, A; Cauvin, J; Goldfain, D; Rotenberg, A; Robaszkiewicz, M; Flejou, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Cytokeratin (CK) 7 and 20 patterns are specific for long and short segments of Barrett's oesophagus but their use has not been assessed in intestinal metaplasia arising in macroscopically normal gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ).
PATIENTS AND METHODS—This study was carried out in a large prospective series of 254 patients who underwent upper endoscopy, had normal gastro-oesophageal anatomy, and who had biopsies of the antrum, fundus, cardia, GOJ, and lower oesophagus. Intestinal metaplasia of the GOJ was typed by histochemistry with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining and by immunohistochemistry using CK7 and CK20 antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical, endoscopic, and pathological data.
RESULTS—Sixty (23.6%) of our patients presenting with a normal GOJ had intestinal metaplasia. The CK7/CK20 pattern identified two groups of patients: one highly correlated with Barrett's and the other with characteristics of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The Barrett's type CK7/CK20 pattern was related to a high frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (p<0.02) and normal endoscopic appearance of the stomach (p<0.03). In contrast, the gastric type CK7/CK20 pattern was linked to atrophic (p<0.02) or erythematous (p<0.05) appearance of the stomach (p<0.03), high frequency of H pylori infection (p<0.04), antral inflammation (p<0.006) with atrophy (p<0.02), and intestinal metaplasia (p<0.02).
CONCLUSION—In patients presenting with intestinal metaplasia in normal appearing GOJ, the cytokeratin pattern identifies two groups of patients, one with features identical to those of long segment Barrett's oesophagus and one with features seen in H pylori gastritis. These data may be used by clinicians and should result in improved endoscopic surveillance strategies targeted specifically at patients at increased risk of Barrett's oesophagus and thus cancer.


Keywords: Barrett's oesophagus; cardia; intestinal metaplasia

  1. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia simulating bronchial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Flower, C. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital, University of Cambridge Teaching Hospital (United Kingdom); Schnyder, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Herold, C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP) is an uncommon but well-recognised condition that usually presents radiologically as bilateral multifocal patchy areas of consolidation on the chest radiograph and on computed tomography (CT). Five cases are described in which the presenting feature was that of a solitary pulmonary nodule. Four of these nodules showed evidence of cavitation and three patients presented with haemoptysis. In all cases the appearances closely resembled bronchial carcinoma. (orig.) With 5 figs., 21 refs.

  2. Relationship Between Atopy and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Dong In; Koh, Young Yull

    2013-01-01

    Both atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are characteristic features of asthma. They are also found among non-asthmatic subjects, including allergic rhinitis patients and the general population. Atopy and BHR in asthma are closely related. Atopy induces airway inflammation as an IgE response to a specific allergen, which causes or amplifies BHR. Moreover, significant evidence of the close relationship between atopy and BHR has been found in non-asthmatic subjects. In this article, w...

  3. Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Ross L; Wadleigh, Martha; Cools, Jan; Ebert, Benjamin L; Wernig, Gerlinde; Huntly, Brian J.P; Boggon, Titus J; Wlodarska, Iwona; Clark, Jennifer J; Moore, Sandra; Adelsperger, Jennifer; Koo, Sumin; Lee, Jeffrey C; Lee, Stephanie J; Gabriel, Stacey; Mercher, Thomas; D’Andrea, Alan; Fröhling, Stefan; Döhner, Konstanze; Marynen, Peter; Vandenberghe, Peter; Mesa, Ruben A; Tefferi, Ayalew; Griffin, James D; Eck, Michael J; Sellers, William R; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2005-01-01

    ..., and MMM. Introduction Myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), and systemic mast cell disease (SMCD). A clonal population o...

  4. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.

  5. [The diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath with chondroid metaplasia in right temporomandibular joint: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Qian, Zhang; Ning, Geng; Junyu, Liu; Haoman, Niu; Yu, Chen

    2017-04-01

    A case diagnosed as diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath with chondroid metaplasia in right temporomandibular joint was reported. The clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and treatment were discussed with the literature review.

  6. Dynamic Properties of Human Bronchial Airway Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Pallai, Prathap; Corrigan, Chris J; Lee, Tak H

    2011-01-01

    Young's Modulus and dynamic force moduli were measured on human bronchial airway tissues by compression. A simple and low-cost system for measuring the tensile-strengh of soft bio-materials has been built for this study. The force-distance measurements were undertaken on the dissected bronchial airway walls, cartilages and mucosa from the surgery-removed lungs donated by lung cancer patients with COPD. Young's modulus is estimated from the initial slope of unloading force-displacement curve and the dynamic force moduli (storage and loss) are measured at low frequency (from 3 to 45 Hz). All the samples were preserved in the PBS solution at room temperature and the measurements were perfomed within 4 hours after surgery. Young's modulus of the human bronchial airway walls are fond ranged between 0.17 and 1.65 MPa, ranged between 0.25 to 1.96 MPa for cartilages, and between 0.02 to 0.28 MPa for mucosa. The storage modulus are found varying 0.10 MPa with frequency while the loss modulus are found increasing from ...

  7. [Charcoal smoke causes bronchial anthracosis and COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Hans; Beyer, Michael; Bargon, Joachim

    2007-01-15

    Bronchopulmonary disease due to inhalation of smoke from open woodfires represents a major health problem in developing countries. Due to increasing migration such patients also present to medical services in Europe. An 84-year-old Afghan housewife who never smoked nor has a history of exposure to inorganic dusts, presents with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with bronchial anthracosis and stenosis of a bronchus. The complaints are found to be caused by chronic inhalation of smoke from an open woodfire which was used for cooking. The main complaints of "woodsmoke-associated lung disease" are cough und dyspnea with bronchial obstruction. Radiology and bronchoscopy usually reveal changes which are similar to pneumoconiosis of miners but without patients' relevant exposure. There is a frequent association of anthracotic bronchial stenosis and infection with tuberculosis. Since patients rarely recognize the risks of woodsmoke inhalation, they hardly report their exposure. Thus, the anamnesis is crucial to establish the right diagnosis and guide the patient to the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  8. Helicobacter pylori as a crucial factor in intestinal metaplasia development of gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Vernygorodskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is detected on the surface of gastric epithelium and in goblet cells, predominantly in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM. H. pylori infection persistence leads to the formation of gastrointestinal phenotype of IM. H. pylori can be considered as an etiological factor of IM. It inhibits the expression of SOX2 in gastric epithelial cells, hence activating transcription factor CDX2 as a counterpart to MUC5AC gene inhibition and MUC2 gene induction. Thus, in metaplastic cells, programming differentiation after intestinal phenotype will develop. The role of H. pylori in the origin of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was defined in this study to elucidate the probable mechanism of cell reprogramming. The activation of CDX2, with simultaneous inactivation and decreased number of genes (e.g., SHH, SOX2, and RUNX3 responsible for gastric differentiation, was identified to cause the appearance of IM.

  9. Intestinal metaplasia of the renal pelvis: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, WEIMIN; ZHONG, KUANGBIAO; WANG, JINGRONG; GU, YONGHONG; HUANG, LIHUA; JIANG, ZHIQIANG; HE, LEYE

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic changes in the renal pelvis are infrequent and may be malignant transformations to adenocarcinoma. The current study reports a case of intestinal metaplasia in the right renal pelvis, which was associated with staghorn calculi, in a 56-year-old female. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Immunohistochemical assessment of the mucosa of the renal pelvis revealed the positive expression of carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin (CK)-7 and CK20, but negative expression for CK5/6 and vimentin. Furthermore, Ki67 expression was diffusely positive, while p53 was negative. Unlike other previously reported cases, the patient opted for active surveillance as opposed to radical nephrectomy, following the removal of the calculi. No evidence of progression was observed after three years of follow-up. Therefore, etiological treatment and close follow-up may be a suitable treatment option for localized intestinal metaplasia. PMID:25364445

  10. Endometrial osseous metaplasia-a rare presentation of polymenorrhagia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigar, Asma; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Hakim, Seema

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial ossification is a rare entity in which bones are found in the uterus. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known but the most accepted theory is metaplasia of stromal cells into osteoblast cells result in the formation of bones. The possibility of malignant mixed mullerian tumour should be in the mind of clinician and pathologist while making diagnosis. We hereby report an extremely rare case, which is among very few reported cases in the world, in which endometrial ossification presented in a perimenopausal female with polymenorrhagia. A 41-year-old multiparous patient presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum for the past two years. She was found to be a case of endometrial calcification with osseous metaplasia with presence of bones varying from 7mm - 1.5 cms size in the uterine cavity. She was successfully managed by total abdominal hysterectomy.

  11. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yasukawa

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  12. Macrophages Promote Progression of Spasmolytic Polypeptide-Expressing Metaplasia Following Acute Loss of Parietal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christine P.; Weis, Victoria G.; Nam, Ki Taek; Sousa, Josane F.; Fingleton, Barbara; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Loss of parietal cells causes the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative metaplasia with increased expression of intestine-specific transcripts. We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM. Methods To study the adaptive immune system, Rag1 knockout (Rag1KO), interferon g-deficient (IFNgKO), and wild type (control) mice received L635 for 3 days. To study the innate immune system, macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Neutrophils were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against Ly6G 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Pathology and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine depletion efficiency, metaplasia, and proliferation. To characterize SPEM in each model, gastric tissues were collected and levels of Cftr, Dmbt1, and Gpx2 mRNAs were measured. Markers of macrophage polarization were used to identify subpopulations of macrophages recruited to the gastric mucosa. Results Administration of L635 to Rag1KO, IFNgKO, and neutrophil-depleted mice led to development of proliferative SPEM and upregulation of intestine-specific transcripts in SPEM cells, similar to controls. However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. In mice given L635, as well as patients with intestinal metaplasia, M2 macrophages were the primary inflammatory component. Conclusion Results from studies of mouse models and human metaplastic tissues indicate that M2 macrophages promote the advancement of SPEM in the presence of inflammation. PMID:24534633

  13. Mature chief cells are cryptic progenitors for metaplasia in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Sousa, Josane F; Weis, Victoria G; O'Neal, Ryan L; Finke, Paul E; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Shi, Guanglu; Mills, Jason C; Peek, Richard M; Konieczny, Stephen F; Goldenring, James R

    2010-12-01

    Gastric cancer evolves in the setting of a pathologic mucosal milieu characterized by both loss of acid-secreting parietal cells and mucous cell metaplasias. Indeed, mucous cell metaplasia is considered the critical preneoplastic lesion for gastric cancer. Previous investigations have shown that infection of mice with Helicobacter felis or induction of acute parietal cell loss with the drug DMP-777 leads to the emergence of a type of metaplasia designated spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). We have hypothesized that SPEM arises from proliferating cells in gland bases, either from a cryptic progenitor cell or by transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. Taking advantage of the chief cell-restricted expression of Mist1-Cre-ER(T2), we used lineage mapping to examine whether SPEM lineages were derived from chief cells in 3 independent models of induction by DMP-777 treatment, L-635 treatment, or H felis infection. Treatment of mice with L-635 for 3 days led to rapid parietal cell loss, induction of a prominent inflammatory infiltrate, and emergence of SPEM. In all 3 models, SPEM developed, at least in part, from transdifferentiation of chief cells. We further found that acute parietal cell loss in the setting of inflammation (L-635 treatment) led to more rapid induction and expansion of SPEM derived from transdifferentiation of chief cells. These studies provide direct evidence by lineage tracing that SPEM evolves from differentiated chief cells. Thus, mature gastric chief cells have the ability to act as cryptic progenitors and reacquire proliferative capacity within the context of mucosal injury and inflammation. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Macrophages promote progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia after acute loss of parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christine P; Weis, Victoria G; Nam, Ki Taek; Sousa, Josane F; Fingleton, Barbara; Goldenring, James R

    2014-06-01

    Loss of parietal cells causes the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative metaplasia with increased expression of intestine-specific transcripts. We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM. To study the adaptive immune system, Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and wild-type (control) mice received L635 for 3 days. To study the innate immune system, macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Neutrophils were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against Ly6G 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Pathology and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine depletion efficiency, metaplasia, and proliferation. To characterize SPEM in each model, gastric tissues were collected and levels of Cftr, Dmbt1, and Gpx2 mRNAs were measured. Markers of macrophage polarization were used to identify subpopulations of macrophages recruited to the gastric mucosa. Administration of L635 to Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and neutrophil-depleted mice led to development of proliferative SPEM and up-regulation of intestine-specific transcripts in SPEM cells, similar to controls. However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. In mice given L635, as well as patients with intestinal metaplasia, M2 macrophages were the primary inflammatory component. Results from studies of mouse models and human metaplastic tissues indicate that M2 macrophages promote the advancement of SPEM in the presence of inflammation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by

  15. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  16. Ductal metaplasia in oesophageal submucosal glands is associated with inflammation and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Katherine S; Kruger, Leandi; Thomas, Samantha; Swiderska-Syn, Marzena; Moser, Barry K; Diehl, Anna Mae; McCall, Shannon J

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that oesophageal submucosal gland (ESMG) ducts harbour progenitor cells that may contribute to oesophageal metaplasia. Our objective was to determine whether histological differences exist between the ESMGs of individuals with and without oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We performed histological assessment of 343 unique ESMGs from 30 control patients, 24 patients with treatment-naïve high-grade columnar dysplasia (HGD) or EAC, and 23 non-EAC oesophagectomy cases. A gastrointestinal pathologist assessed haematoxylin and eosin-stained ESMG images by using a scoring system that assigns individual ESMG acini to five histological types (mucous, serous, oncocytic, dilated, or ductal metaplastic). In our model, ductal metaplastic acini were more common in patients with HGD/EAC (12.7%) than in controls (3.5%) (P = 0.006). We also identified greater proportions of acini with dilation (21.9%, P metaplasia (4.3%, P = 0.001) in non-EAC oesophagectomy cases than in controls. Ductal metaplasia tended to occur in areas of mucosal ulceration or tumour. We found a clear association between ductal metaplastic ESMG acini and HGD/EAC. Non-EAC cases had dilated acini and some ductal dilation. Because ESMGs and ducts harbour putative progenitor cells, these associations could have significance for understanding the pathogenesis of EAC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Notch2 is required for inflammatory cytokine-driven goblet cell metaplasia in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahay, Henry; Pessotti, Angelica D; Coote, Julie; Montgomery, Brooke E; Xia, Donghui; Wilson, Aaron; Yang, Haidi; Wang, Zhao; Bevan, Luke; Thomas, Chris; Petit, Stephanie; London, Anne; LeMotte, Peter; Doelemeyer, Arno; Vélez-Reyes, Germán L; Bernasconi, Paula; Fryer, Christy J; Edwards, Matt; Capodieci, Paola; Chen, Amy; Hild, Marc; Jaffe, Aron B

    2015-01-13

    The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of pyloric metaplasia may improve the biopsy diagnosis of Crohn's ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulis, George K; Ke, Yong; Henley, John D; Cummings, Oscar W

    2002-02-01

    Pyloric metaplasia (PYME) is seen frequently in ileal resections from patients with Crohn's disease (CD). It represents a nonspecific reparative reaction in intestinal ulcers. The presence of PYME in terminal ileum biopsies (TIbxs) of CD has not received much attention and has been considered a rare finding. We reviewed 45 TIbxs from 45 adult patients with indisputable clinicopathologic diagnosis of CD. Endoscopic biopsies were obtained with an Olympus CIF 140 videoscope. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and were processed routinely. Pyloric metaplasia was identified in 10 TIbxs from 10 patients. Most of the metaplastic glands formed small aggregates in the mucosal base, and they were frequently noted below regenerating crypts and in the vicinity of granulation tissue and ulceration. In our material, 22.2% of the TIbxs revealed PYME. The single previous study with similar data showed an incidence of 2.27%. The difference could reflect the stage of the disease or the thoroughness of the endoscopic and pathologic examinations. Pyloric metaplasia, despite its lack of specificity, remains a sensitive indicator of persistent ulceration with inflammation. Because PYME is not as rare as previously thought, it should be carefully looked for in TIbxs to support the diagnosis of CD in the appropriate clinical setting.

  19. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  20. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplasia Proliferação celular e apoptose em câncer gástrico e metaplasia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Manoukian Forones

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Higher proliferation is commonly observed in cancer cells. Apoptosis can be a useful measure of a tumor cell kinetic. Alteration of the balance between proliferation and apoptosis is associated with cancer. AIM: To study proliferation and apoptosis on gastric cancer and in intestinal metaplasia. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two samples from gastric adenocarcinomas and 22 biopsies from intestinal metaplasia were studied. The apoptotic bodies in hematoxylin-eosin slides and the expression of p53, bcl-2 and Ki67 were determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The number of the apoptotic cells was higher in cancer. Ki 67LI increased from intestinal metaplasia to gastric cancer. p53 was positive in 68% of the patients with cancer, more frequently in advanced stage and negative in samples of intestinal metaplasia. Although there was no significant difference between the groups, bcl-2 was positive in 45% of gastric cancer tissue and in 68% of metaplasia. In gastric cancer patients bcl-2 was expressed in early gastric cancer more frequently than in advanced stage. CONCLUSION: The positivity of bcl-2 was higher in metaplasia and probably is involved in the progression of carcinogenesis. p53 was negative in metaplasia and positive in more than half of the gastric cancer, mostly in stage IV, suggesting a late event in gastric cancer.RACIONAL: O aumento da proliferação celular é comumente observado no câncer e a apoptose pode ser medida útil na avaliação da cinética celular do tumor. Alterações do equilíbrio entre proliferação celular e apoptose estão associadas ao câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a proliferação celular e a apoptose no câncer gástrico e na metaplasia intestinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois tecidos de adenocarcinoma gástrico e 22 biopsias de metaplasia intestinal foram estudados. Os corpos apoptóticos foram estudados em lâminas coradas pela hematoxilina-eosina e a expressão de p53, bcl-2 e Ki67 por imunoistoqu

  1. Oral pathology case: squamous papiloma

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 11 year-old boy was referred to our department due to a slow growing and painless neoformation of the dorsum of the tongue. Excisional biopsy was performed, and the histology revealed a squamous papiloma.

  2. IL-17A induces signal transducers and activators of transcription-6-independent airway mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Dawn C; Boswell, Madison G; Sherrill, Taylor P; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Boyd, Kelli L; Goleniewska, Kasia; Brody, Steven L; Kolls, Jay K; Adler, Kenneth B; Peebles, R Stokes

    2013-06-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia is a hallmark of asthma, and may be mediated by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-6 signaling. IL-17A is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with severe asthma, and IL-17A also increases mucus production in airway epithelial cells. Asthma therapeutics are being developed that inhibit STAT6 signaling, but the role of IL-17A in inducing mucus production in the absence of STAT6 remains unknown. We hypothesized that IL-17A induces mucous cell metaplasia independent of STAT6, and we tested this hypothesis in two murine models in which increased IL-17A protein expression is evident. In the first model, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific D011.10 Th17 cells were adoptively transferred into wild-type (WT) or STAT6 knockout (KO) mice, and the mice were challenged with OVA or PBS. WT-OVA and STAT6 KO-OVA mice demonstrated increased airway IL-17A and IL-13 protein expression and mucous cell metaplasia, compared with WT-PBS or STAT6 KO-PBS mice. In the second model, WT, STAT1 KO, STAT1/STAT6 double KO (DKO), or STAT1/STAT6/IL-17 receptor A (RA) triple KO (TKO) mice were challenged with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or mock viral preparation, and the mucous cells were assessed. STAT1 KO-RSV mice demonstrated increased airway mucous cell metaplasia compared with WT-RSV mice. STAT1 KO-RSV and STAT1/STAT6 DKO-RSV mice also demonstrated increased mucous cell metaplasia, compared with STAT1/STAT6/IL17RA TKO-RSV mice. We also treated primary murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) from WT and STAT6 KO mice. STAT6 KO mTECs showed increased periodic acid-Schiff staining with IL-17A but not with IL-13. Thus, asthma therapies targeting STAT6 may increase IL-17A protein expression, without preventing IL-17A-induced mucus production.

  3. The predictive value of bronchial histamine challenge in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    A prospective survey aiming to study the predictive value of bronchial histamine challenge was performed on 151 patients with a forced expiratory volume1 (FEV1) above 60% of predicted. According to variations in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and medical history the patients were classified as ...

  4. [Allergy diagnosis in patients with bronchial asthma (bronchial provocation test, skin test and RAST) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Fruhmann, G; von Liebe, V

    1978-12-15

    87 patients with bronchial asthma underwent skin test, RAST and measurment of airway resistance before and after inhalation of control solution as well as at least 10 times after each of one to four bronchial provocations (making up a total of 171 tests) with extracts of house dust, house dust mite, animal dander, mould spores and pollen in increasing concentrations. An actual clinical significance of the skin test reactions was found in 60% of all cases and of the RAST results in 66% of all cases. The overall agreement between skin test results and RAST results was 61%. The correlations between the different tests depended on the degree of hypersensitivity, on the tested allergen and on whether the results of skin test and RAST, respectively, were positive or negative. There existed a good correlation between the results of all three test methods and case history only for pollen allergens and animal dander. Noticeably often negative RAST results with house dust and mould spores, as well as positive skin tests with house dust mite and mould spores could not be confirmed by the provocation test. Important indications for a bronchial provocation test in asthmatics are doubtful case history, doubtful skin test or RAST results with the problem-allergens house dust, house dust mite and mould spores; the bronchial provocation test is especially commendable when drastic or cumbersome therapeutic measures (immunotherapy, change of home, change of job) are to follow or if late asthmatic reactions are expected.

  5. Bronchial Smooth Muscle Remodeling in Nonsevere Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Allard, Benoit; Thumerel, Matthieu; Begueret, Hugues; Dupin, Isabelle; Ousova, Olga; Lassalle, Régis; Maurat, Elise; Ozier, Annaig; Trian, Thomas; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2016-03-15

    Increased bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) mass is a key feature of airway remodeling that classically distinguishes severe from nonsevere asthma. Proliferation of BSM cells involves a specific mitochondria-dependent pathway in individuals with severe asthma. However, BSM remodeling and mitochondrial biogenesis have not been examined in nonsevere asthma. We aimed to assess whether an increase in BSM mass was also implicated in nonsevere asthma and its relationship with mitochondria and clinical outcomes. We enrolled 34 never-smoker subjects with nonsevere asthma. In addition, we recruited 56 subjects with nonsevere asthma and 19 subjects with severe asthma as comparative groups (COBRA cohort [Cohorte Obstruction Bronchique et Asthme; Bronchial Obstruction and Asthma Cohort; sponsored by the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM]). A phenotypic characterization was performed using questionnaires, atopy and pulmonary function testing, exhaled nitric oxide measurement, and blood collection. Bronchial biopsy specimens were processed for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy analysis. After BSM remodeling assessment, subjects were monitored over a 12-month period. We identified characteristic features of remodeling (BSM area >26.6%) and increased mitochondrial number within BSM in a subgroup of subjects with nonsevere asthma. The number of BSM mitochondria was positively correlated with BSM area (r = 0.78; P asthma with high BSM had worse asthma control and a higher rate of exacerbations per year compared with subjects with low BSM. This study reveals that BSM remodeling and mitochondrial biogenesis may play a critical role in the natural history of nonsevere asthma (Mitasthme study). Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00808730).

  6. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  7. Assessment of quality of life among children with bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global disease burden associated with bronchial asthma has continued to increase particularly among children. Asthma-related quality of life is a health related assessment of disease impact on patient and care givers. Aim: To determine the perceived quality of life (QOL) among children with bronchial ...

  8. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many workers in Alexandria are exposed to a variety of occupational and environmental allergens and/or irritants that predispose them to the development of bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to determine the role of occupational exposure as a determinant of occurrence of bronchial asthma ...

  9. [Safe local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Gromovik, M V

    The paper presents the analysis of studies of local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma. It was found that the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in patients with bronchial asthma must be optimized for development of local anesthesia selection algorithm in outpatient dentistry.

  10. APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF MONTELUKAST AMONG CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gevorkyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of montelukast efficiency depending on bronchial asthma severity level and the duration of a disease; the assessment of functional figures dynamics, disease pattern before and after the treatment with montelukast and the possibility of its application as mono therapy to achieve long term disease remission and asthma symptoms control.Key words: bronchial asthma, montelukast, children.

  11. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  12. (D) deficiency in children and adolescents suffering from bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of Vitamin (D) deficiency in children and adolescents suffering from bronchial asthma in Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia. ... Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home ... Therefore, the examination of relationship between vitamin D and bronchial asthma was important.

  13. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Gerard; Thomson, Neil C.; Rubin, Adalberto S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty is a bronchoscopic procedure to reduce the mass of airway smooth muscle and attenuate bronchoconstriction. We examined the effect of bronchial thermoplasty on the control of moderate or severe persistent asthma. METHODS: We randomly assigned 112 subjects who had...

  14. Children with bronchial asthma assessed for psychosocial problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric bronchial asthma causes respiratory related mortality and morbidity globally and elevates the risk ... Methods: Seventy five (75) children aged 7 to 14 years with bronchial asthma who were attending clinics at the University of Ilorin ... Inadequate spousal support and lower maternal occupational level.

  15. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha S. Elshaer

    2011-06-23

    Jun 23, 2011 ... opment, with approximately 85% of children who develop asthma and 40–50% .... year history; (e) had no respiratory symptoms or disease and never reporting ..... Table 5 Eosinophil count and total serum IgE level in different bronchial asthma severity categories in workers with bronchial asthma. Variable.

  16. Sensitivity of bronchial responsiveness measurements in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Buchvald, Frederik F; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt

    2006-01-01

    of variations for Ptco(2) and FEV(0.5) were 4% and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ptco(2) and FEV(0.5) are the most sensitive parameters for measurement of bronchial responsiveness in young infants. Measurements of baseline lung function should preferably be made using FEV(0.5.) Measurements of bronchial...

  17. Bronchial Thermoplasty: A Novel Therapy for Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Ajay; Castro, Mario; Chen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis This article presents an overview of bronchial thermoplasty, a novel treatment for severe asthma. Within, the authors discuss the rationale for bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma, current clinical evidence for the use of this procedure, clinical recommendations, and future directions. PMID:23993815

  18. Bronchial artery embolisation for the treatment of massive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bronchial arteriography and embolisation were performed using a 4 French C2 catheter and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles ranging from 300 to 900 micrometers. Results. Seven bronchial arteries in total were embolised (2 patients required embolisation of 2 arteries each). The haemoptysis was controlled during the first ...

  19. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Introduction. Bronchial asthma is characterized by a widespread and reversible narrowing of the air passage and clinically by paroxysms of dyspnoea, cough and wheezing which are episodic. 100-150 million people around the world suffer from bronchial asthma1. In Kenya the prevalence is approaching.

  20. [Anomalies of mucus and bronchial pathology in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polu, J M; Delorme, N

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that normal bronchial secretion composed of proteoglycans, atypical glycoproteins and neutral lipids neither includes mucins nor glycolipids, nor phospholipids. The rheological characteristics of bronchial mucus thus depend on mucociliary clearance and clearance of bronchial secretions by cough, which in turn depend on the properties of the glycoprotein acids secreted and on the degree of their entanglement which is linked to their water content and on the chemical bonds with other protein or lipid components which are present in the secretions. Chronic bronchitis, asthma and bronchorrhoea allow for changes in the biochemical composition and the physical and rheological characteristics of the bronchial mucus which alter the clearance. In certain conditions mucus plugs can form. An understanding of the pathology of bronchial mucus in the adult enables one to choose the best therapeutic prescriptions but the efficacy of measurements available remains imperfect.

  1. USAGE OF NON MEDICATED METHODS FOR CHILDREN'S BRONCHIAL ASTHMA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current situation of bronchial asthma non medicated therapy. The need to apply such therapy is associated with the on going trend of more frequent severe bronchial asthma cases, as well as not always efficient standard schemes of medicated treatment. The authors announce a physiotherapy device «aster» — it is based on innovative technologies and designed for noninvasive impact of electromagnetic waves with non thermal intensity upon the «pulmonary triangle» body area. A randomized multicentered survey of Russia's pediatricians union is being conducted to prove the efficiency of this device for children with bronchial asthma and basic therapy adequate to the severity degree. The application of this device is expected to reduce symptoms and eliminate dysfunctions of respiratory system typical for bronchial asthma, which cannot be totally eliminated with the current anti inflammatory agents.Key words: bronchial asthma, non medicated therapy.

  2. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  3. Clinical significance of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ning; Dong, Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi-Wang; Wu, Jun-Yan; Du, Hong; Li, Hai-Gang; Huang, Yan; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2017-05-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been recognized as neoplastic precursors in gastric carcinogenesis. We explored the relationship between SPEM and IM in Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBVaGC) and Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBVnGC) gastric cancer. Sixty-four EBVaGC and one hundred and fifty-four EBVnGC patients were included. EBV positivity was identified using Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 in situ hybridization. SPEM was subclassified into absent, early, and advanced SPEM. Acute and chronic inflammation was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and marked. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the correlation between SPEM, IM, and inflammation. Our study revealed that SPEM was detected in 87.5% EBVaGC and 85.1% EBVnGC patients. Distribution of patients according to the SPEM classification was significantly different between EBVaGC and EBVnGC groups (P=.038). IM was observed less frequently in EBVaGC when compared with EBVnGC patients (P<.001). No difference was observed between EBVaGC and EBVnGC in the levels of acute and chronic inflammation. A positive correlation between IM and SPEM status was observed in both EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Furthermore, advanced SPEM was an independent influential factor to IM in EBVnGC (P=.013). In conclusion, SPEM was associated with both EBVaGC and EBVnGC more frequently than IM. Moreover, advanced SPEM had a stronger association with IM than early SPEM in EBVnGC. These results suggest that identification of SPEM should be used as a high-risk indicator for detecting early gastric carcinoma, and should be brought to the attention of pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  5. The Role of Acid and Bile Reflux in Esophagitis and Barrett’s Metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Rhonda F.

    2010-01-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby gastroesophageal reflux disease causes reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus are not clear, even though these diseases have been known to be linked for many years. Recent studies indicate a role for the reflux-induced inflammatory response of esophageal squamous epithelial cells and the immune cells in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis. Although reflux esophagitis commonly heals with esophageal squamous cell regeneration, in some individuals the esopha...

  6. Squamous papilloma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, W J; Huang, C K; Chen, G H

    1996-06-01

    Squamous papilloma of the esophagus (SPE) is a rare lesion, with a prevalence of 0.01% to 0.04%. This study was to assess the incidence, symptoms, signs and prognosis of squamous papilloma of the esophagus. From October 1981 to October 1994, 124,000 patients at our hospital were examined with panendoscopy; 9 (0.0073%) subjects were histologically proved to have squamous papilloma of the esophagus. They included 4 males and 5 females, aged 60.8 +/- 9.7 years, ranging from 49 to 78 years old. These tumor locations were seven in the lower, one in the middle and one in the upper portion of the esophagus; sizes were not larger than 5 mm. Most of them were single (seven of nine) and sessile (eight of nine). Three of them were followed up with panendoscopy and six of them were followed up through clinical symptoms. The longest follow-up period were 11 years. The mean following time was 2.2 +/- 3.6 years. All of the patients are alive, and none has malignancy in the SPE. It is suggested that squamous papilloma of the esophagus may have a benign clinical course. Symptoms and signs are thought to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux or peptic ulcer diseases, and not to be related to the squamous cell papilloma itself.

  7. Tobacco smoking and intestinal metaplasia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Samantha; Rodrigues, Sandra; Amorim, Liliana; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-11-01

    The evaluation of specific risk factors for early endpoints in the gastric carcinogenesis pathway may further contribute to the understanding of gastric cancer aetiology. To quantify the relation between smoking and intestinal metaplasia through systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles providing data on the association between smoking and intestinal metaplasia were identified in PubMed(®), Scopus(®) and Web of Science™, searched until April 2014, and through backward citation tracking. Summary odds ratio estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed using the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I(2) statistic. A total of 32 articles were included in this systematic review and 19 provided data for meta-analysis. Smoking was defined as ever vs. never (crude estimates, six studies, summary odds ratio=1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.12, I(2)=67.4%; adjusted estimates, seven studies, summary odds ratio=1.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.61, I(2)=65.0%) and current vs. non-smokers (crude estimates, seven studies, summary odds ratio=1.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.84, I(2)=73.4%; adjusted estimates, two studies, summary odds ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-2.25, I(2)=0.0%). The weak and non-statistically significant association found through meta-analysis of the available evidence does not confirm smoking as an independent risk factor for intestinal metaplasia. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Numb regulates acinar cell dedifferentiation and survival during pancreatic damage and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Renee L; Staley, Binnaz K; Liou, Angela; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Through the process of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), pancreatic acinar cells give rise to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), the most common precursor of PDA. However, even when Kras is activated in a majority of acinar cells, ADM and subsequent development of PanINs is inefficient in the absence of additional stresses. Numb regulates cell junctions, integrins, and the activity of embryonic signaling pathways; therefore, we investigated its effects on acinar cell dedifferentiation, regeneration, and metaplasia. We used mouse models of pancreatic regeneration and PDA as well as mice with loss-of-function alleles of Numb (p48Cre/p48Cre(ER);Numb(f/f) and p48Cre/p48Cre(ER);Kras(G12D);Numb(f/f) mice) to study the roles of Numb in pancreatic regeneration and ADM. Loss of Numb resulted in premature dedifferentiation of acinar cells in response to injury due to administration of the cholecystokinin analogue cerulein and interfered with acinar cell regeneration. Numb was found to regulate multiple signaling pathways in acinar cells during cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Disruption of Numb accelerated and destabilized ADM in the context of oncogenic Kras (in p48Cre;Kras(G12D);Numb(f/f) and p48Cre(ER);Kras(G12D);Numb(f/f) mice). Numb is an important regulator of acinar cell differentiation and viability during metaplasia. In mice with pancreatitis or pancreatic injury, elimination of Numb causes dedifferentiated acinar cells to undergo apoptosis, and this is not mitigated by oncogenic Kras. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Gun; Lee, Byung Lan; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE)-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  10. Characterization of progressive metaplasia in the gastric corpus mucosa of Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Choi, Eunyoung; Petersen, Christine P; Noto, Jennifer M; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, Maria B; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Goldenring, James R

    2016-08-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia are considered neoplastic precursors of gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Loss of parietal cells causes the development of SPEM in the gastric corpus and then chronic inflammation drives SPEM toward a more proliferative lineage. Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori develop chronic gastritis and metaplasia, mimicking aspects of human gastritis with H. pylori infection. We therefore examined metaplastic lineages in the gastric corpus mucosa of gerbils infected by H. pylori strain 7.13, which produces rapid onset of severe inflammation. Six weeks following H. pylori infection, Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII)-positive SPEM developed in the base of oxyntic glands in association with parietal cell loss and inflammation. In association with severe inflammation, SPEM glands evolved into aberrant phenotypes, including branched lesions, dilated lesions, and penetrating invasive glands. Mucin 4 (MUC4) was up-regulated in SPEM and progressive SPEM. Clusterin was expressed in the tips of branched and dilated lesions and throughout regions of invasive glands. Intriguingly, clusterin-positive regions in these lesions expressed Ki67 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7). These same regions were also positive for expression of phospho-IkBα, suggestive of activated NFkB signalling. These findings suggest that clusterin-positive regions in progressive phenotypes of SPEM have invasive characteristics. Thus, H. pylori infection in gerbils induces SPEM, which then can progress to further aberrant and invasive metaplastic phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  12. Air pollution, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway disease in children; Luftverschmutzung, bronchiale Hyperreagibilitaet und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, J. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Hendel-Kramer, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Karmaus, W. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Kuehr, J. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Moseler, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Urbanek, R. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik; Weiss, K. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaets-Kinderklinik

    1992-11-01

    In the study population the lifetime prevalence of asthma (4,97% of n = 704) and point prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity (26.7% of n = 558: positive bronchial challenge test with 400 {mu}g carbachol) could be attributed partially to the use of single-room heatings. The finding was confirmed by a nested case-control-study. Outdoor NO{sub 2} and related particle pollution, both found to be relatively low compared to other German towns, were not associated with the prevalence of asthma or bronchial hyperreactivity. The Incidence of asthmatic symptoms during the study period (22 months) was associated with an NO{sub 2} exposure of more than 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (average outdoor concentration in fall/winter). In individuals with asthmatic symptoms (n = 106) forced expiratory volume (FEV{sub 1}/VC{sub IN}) was reduced in a dose dependent manner, if the average exposure exceeded 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Conclusion: Individuals with asthmatic symptoms are prone to detrimental effects of NO{sub 2} air pollution exceeding 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (average outdoor concentration in fall/winter). In so far the current outdoor air pollution gives cause for concern, thus we recommend further effort in order to reduce NO{sub 2} and related pollutants. On an individual basis, in children with asthma (and with asthma in the family) the parents should be advised not to use single-room heatings. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe statistischer Erklaerungsmodelle wurde im ersten Studien-Querschnitt (N = 704) die Lebenszeitpraevalenz von Asthma bronchiale und die bronchiale Hyperreagibilitaet untersucht. Die Lebenszeit-Praevalenz von Asthma bronchiale betrug 4.97% (n = 35). Als ein signifikanter Risikofaktor fuer Asthma wurde die Verwendung einer Einzelraumheizung identifiziert. Zugleich trat bei 558 mit 400 {mu}g Carbachol provozierten Probanden in 26.6% eine bronchiale Hyperreagibilitaet auf. Die in der Untersuchungsregion probandennah gemessene relativ niedrigen Aussenluft-Immissionen von NO{sub 2

  13. "BRONCHIAL ARTERY EMBOLIZATION IN MASSIVE HEMOPTYSIS WITH A RARE CAUSE AND UNUSUAL BRONCHIAL ARTERY ANATOMY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shabani H. Saberi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive hemoptysis is one of the most important respiratory emergencies and pulmonary infiltrating diseases are among the rare causes of hemoptysis. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE is a safe and effective treatment in these patients. Our case was a 45 years old woman with a 7 year history of Hodgkin's lymphoma who presented with massive hemoptysis of 20 days duration. CT scan revealed prebronchial infiltrating pattern. Diagnostic angiography showed hypervascularity in both hilar and perihilar areas and simultaneous opacification of both bronchial arteries from a right common trunk. BAE was successfully performed with 300 µ diameter polyvinyl alcohol. In follow up, hemoptysis did not recurred and patient was in good general health.

  14. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  15. Helicobacter pylori-Induced Signaling Pathways Contribute to Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Soichiro; Shibata, Wataru; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastric inflammation, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and cancer. Although the risk of gastric cancer increases exponentially with the extent of atrophic gastritis, the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. H. pylori induces genetic and epigenetic changes in gastric epithelial cells through activating intracellular signaling pathways in a cagPAI-dependent manner. H. pylori eventually induces gastric cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) or microsatellite instability (MSI), which are classified as two major subtypes of gastric cancer. Elucidation of the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis will also be important for cancer therapy. PMID:26064948

  16. Tiotropium attenuates IL-13-induced goblet cell metaplasia of human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Loes E M; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Bos, I Sophie T; Bouwman, Susanne; van den Berge, Maarten; Hylkema, Machteld N; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that acetylcholine is both a neurotransmitter and acts as a local mediator, produced by airway cells including epithelial cells. In vivo studies have demonstrated an indirect role for acetylcholine in epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we aimed to investigate direct effects of endogenous non-neuronal acetylcholine on epithelial cell differentiation. Human airway epithelial cells from healthy donors were cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI). Cells were exposed to the muscarinic antagonist tiotropium (10 nM), interleukin (IL)-13 (1, 2 and 5 ng/mL), or a combination of IL-13 and tiotropium, during or after differentiation at the ALI. Human airway epithelial cells expressed all components of the non-neuronal cholinergic system, suggesting acetylcholine production. Tiotropium had no effects on epithelial cell differentiation after air exposure. Differentiation into goblet cells was barely induced after air exposure. Therefore, IL-13 (1 ng/mL) was used to induce goblet cell metaplasia. IL-13 induced MUC5AC-positive cells (5-fold) and goblet cells (14-fold), as assessed by histochemistry, and MUC5AC gene expression (105-fold). These effects were partly prevented by tiotropium (47-92%). Goblet cell metaplasia was induced by IL-13 in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by tiotropium. In addition, tiotropium reversed goblet cell metaplasia induced by 2 weeks of IL-13 exposure. IL-13 decreased forkhead box protein A2 (FoxA2) expression (1.6-fold) and increased FoxA3 (3.6-fold) and SAM-pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) (5.2-fold) expression. Tiotropium prevented the effects on FoxA2 and FoxA3, but not on SPDEF. We demonstrate that tiotropium has no effects on epithelial cell differentiation after air exposure, but inhibits and reverses IL-13-induced goblet cell metaplasia, possibly via FoxA2 and FoxA3. This indicates that non-neuronal acetylcholine contributes to goblet cell differentiation by a direct effect

  17. SAM-pointed domain ETS factor mediates epithelial cell-intrinsic innate immune signaling during airway mucous metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfhagen, Thomas R; Kitzmiller, Joseph; Chen, Gang; Sridharan, Anusha; Haitchi, Hans-Michael; Hegde, Rashmi S; Divanovic, Senad; Karp, Christopher L; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-09

    Airway mucus plays a critical role in clearing inhaled toxins, particles, and pathogens. Diverse toxic, inflammatory, and infectious insults induce airway mucus secretion and goblet cell metaplasia to preserve airway sterility and homeostasis. However, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus hypersecretion, and airway obstruction are integral features of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis, which cause an immense burden of morbidity and mortality. These chronic lung diseases are united by susceptibility to microbial colonization and recurrent airway infections. Whether these twinned phenomena (mucous metaplasia, compromised host defenses) are causally related has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) was induced by rhinoviral infection of primary human airway cells and that cytoplasmic activities of SPDEF, a transcriptional regulator of airway goblet cell metaplasia, inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of epithelial cells. SPDEF bound to and inhibited activities of TLR signaling adapters, MyD88 and TRIF, inhibiting MyD88-induced cytokine production and TRIF-induced interferon β production. Conditional expression of SPDEF in airway epithelial cells in vivo inhibited LPS-induced neutrophilic infiltration and bacterial clearance. SPDEF-mediated inhibition of both TLR and type I interferon signaling likely protects the lung against inflammatory damage when inciting stimuli are not eradicated. Present findings provide, at least in part, a molecular explanation for increased susceptibility to infection in lung diseases associated with mucous metaplasia and a mechanism by which patients with florid mucous metaplasia may tolerate microbial burdens that are usually associated with fulminant inflammatory disease in normal hosts.

  18. Hallazgos clínicos, endoscópicos y magnitud del reflujo de contenido gástrico y duodenal en pacientes con metaplasia intestinal cardial y esófago de Barrett corto, comparados con controles

    OpenAIRE

    Csendes J,Attila; BURDILES P,PATRICIO; Smok S,Gladys; Rojas C,Jorge; Flores M,Noé; Domic P,Sergio; Quiroz G,Juan; Henríquez G,Ana

    1999-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of patients with short segments of intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus, has increased in recent years. Aim: To assess the clinical, pathological and functional features of patients with esophageal intestinal metaplasia. Patients and methods: A prospective study was performed in 95 control subjects, 115 patients with cardial intestinal metaplasia and 89 patients with short Barret esophagus with intestinal metaplasia. All had clinical and endoscopic assessmen...

  19. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  20. Schlafen 4-expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-08-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori-infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype.

  1. A relation between cell cycle and intestinal metaplasia in oesophageal biopsies using optical and digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Miklós; Molnár, Béla

    2015-07-01

    Protein expression changes in relation to cell cycles provide important information, and it may represent a new method for an early diagnosis of metaplasia - dysplasia - adenocarcinoma sequence. We investigated potential changes in cell cycle genes such as protooncogenes (PCNA, EGFR), tumour suppressor gene (p53), apoptotic TUNNEL (Tdt mediated dUTP nick and labelling) gene, as well as small intestinal mucus antigen (SIMA) and large intestinal mucus antigen (LIMA), which accumulates in metaplastic epithelium due to the inflammatory process in routine oesophageal biopsies using immunohistochemistry. Oesophageal biopsies were taken from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (n = 30), reflux oesophagitis (n = 30), healthy oesophagus (n = 30) and healthy cardia (n = 10). Immunohistochemical signalling was carried out by Streptavidin-Biotin-AEC (aminoetil-carbazol). Expression of PCNA was statistically significantly lower in healthy oesophagus (p metaplasia. Further, EGFR, p53 and TUNNEL levels were significantly different in healthy versus Barrett's oesophagus. Manual counting using virtual microscopy was comparable with the result using conventional light microscopy, but the former is significantly quicker. There was no difference between manual and automated cell counting (p > 0.05).

  2. Significance of paneth cell metaplasia in Barrett esophagus: a morphologic and clinicopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Frankel, Wendy L; Cronley, Kevin M; Yu, Lianbo; Zhou, Xiaoping; Yearsley, Martha M

    2015-05-01

    The metaplastic intestinal epithelium in Barrett esophagus (BE) occasionally contains Paneth cells; however, little is known regarding the prevalence and significance of Paneth cell metaplasia (PCM) in BE. We evaluated 757 esophageal biopsy specimens with intestinal metaplasia (IM) for PCM. Outcome analysis was performed in 299 cases with complete clinical data using multinomial logistic regression. Thirty-one percent (234/757) of the IM cases showed PCM. Paneth cells are decreased when BE epithelium becomes increasingly dysplastic. Long-segment BE shows significantly more PCM than short-segment BE. On follow-up biopsies, patients without PCM (NPCM) are three times more likely to regress than patients with PCM, regardless of dysplasia, BE segment length, age, or sex. However, there is no significant difference in terms of progression to dysplasia/adenocarcinoma between the PCM and NPCM groups. The presence of PCM is associated with less disease regression and is not associated with more disease progression. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. Apocrine carcinoma vs. apocrine metaplasia with atypia of the breast. Use of aspiration biopsy cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Inoue, M; Furuta, S; Sakai, R; Imai, R; Hayakawa, S; Fukatsu, T; Nagasaka, T; Nakashima, N

    1996-01-01

    To solve the problem of diagnosing apocrine carcinoma (APCA) through distinguishing it from benign apocrine metaplasia with atypia (APMA). The study group consisted of five histologically confirmed cases of uncommon infiltrating apocrine carcinoma and a case of noninfiltrating apocrine carcinoma of the breast by aspiration biopsy cytology. The control group consisted of 103 cases of benign apocrine metaplasia with no atypia (APMN), 4 cases of APMA and 34 cases of common-type adenocarcinoma that were encountered in 662 breast aspirations from 1988 to 1992 at Hekinan Municipal Hospital. In APCA the average age of patients (65 +/- 17.7 SD)(mean +/- SD) was more than 20 years older than APMA, and APCA generally measured > or = 2 cm or more in diameter as compared to or = 12 micron in diameter than in APMA. These findings, however, were present only to a mild degree in APMA, if at all. APMA may coexist with APCA. If APMA is diagnosed, an open biopsy should be performed to distinguish it from APCA.

  4. Frequent occurrence of mitochondrial DNA mutations in Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soong Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE is one of the most common premalignant lesions and can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA. The numerous molecular events may play a role in the neoplastic transformation of Barrett's mucosa such as the change of DNA ploidy, p53 mutation and alteration of adhesion molecules. However, the molecular mechanism of the progression of BE to EA remains unclear and most studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in BE have performed on BE with the presence of dysplasia. METHODS/FINDINGS: Thus, the current study is to investigate new molecular events (Barrett's esophageal tissue-specific-mtDNA alterations/instabilities in mitochondrial genome and causative factors for their alterations using the corresponding adjacent normal mucosal tissue (NT and tissue (BT from 34 patients having Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia. Eighteen patients (53% exhibited mtDNA mutations which were not found in adjacent NT. mtDNA copy number was about 3 times higher in BT than in adjacent NT. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme complexes in tissues from Barrett's metaplasia without the presence of dysplasia was impaired. Reactive oxygen species (ROS level in BT was significantly higher than those in corresponding samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High ROS level in BT may contribute to the development of mtDNA mutations, which may play a crucial role in disease progression and tumorigenesis in BE.

  5. Late Recurrence of Barrett's Esophagus After Complete Eradication of Intestinal Metaplasia is Rare: Final Report From Ablation in Intestinal Metaplasia Containing Dysplasia Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Cary C; Wolf, W Asher; Overholt, Bergein F; Li, Nan; Lightdale, Charles J; Wolfsen, Herbert C; Pasricha, Sarina; Wang, Kenneth K; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2017-09-01

    The goal of treatment for Barrett's esophagus (BE) with dysplasia is complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM). The long-term durability of CEIM has not been well characterized, so the frequency and duration of surveillance are unclear. We report results from a 5-year follow-up analysis of patients with BE and dysplasia treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the randomized controlled Ablation of Intestinal Metaplasia Containing Dysplasia (AIM) trial. Participants for the AIM Dysplasia trial (18-80 years old) were recruited from 19 sites in the United States and had endoscopic evidence of non-nodular dysplastic BE ≤8 cm in length. Subjects (n = 127) were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either RFA (entire BE segment ablated circumferentially) or a sham endoscopic procedure; patients in the sham group were offered RFA treatment 1 year later, and all patients were followed for 5 years. We collected data on BE recurrence (defined as intestinal metaplasia in the tubular esophagus) and dysplastic BE recurrence among patients who achieved CEIM. We constructed Kaplan-Meier estimates and applied parametric survival analysis to examine proportions of patients without any recurrence and without dysplastic recurrence. Of 127 patients in the AIM Dysplasia trial, 119 received RFA and met inclusion criteria. Of those 119, 110 (92%) achieved CEIM. Over 401 person-years of follow-up (mean, 3.6 years per patient; range, 0.2-5.8 years), 35 of 110 (32%) patients had recurrence of BE or dysplasia, and 19 (17%) had dysplasia recurrence. The incidence rate of BE recurrence was 10.8 per 100 person-years overall (95% CI, 7.8-15.0); 8.3 per 100 person-years among patients with baseline low-grade dysplasia (95% CI, 4.9-14.0), and 13.5 per 100 person-years among patients with baseline high-grade dysplasia (95% CI 8.8-20.7). The incidence rate of dysplasia recurrence was 5.2 per 100 person-years overall (95% CI 3.3-8.2); 3.3 per 100 person-years among patients with

  6. Allelic Polymorphism of enos Gene in Children Who Suffer from Bronchial Asthma, with Eosinophilic and Paucigranulocytic Subtypes of Bronchial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Bezrukov

    2015-07-01

    GT/TT genotype, children with paucigranulocytic bronchial inflammation were characterized by more frequent clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis, higher bronchial lability index and lower concentrations of NO metabolites in the exhaled breath condensate.

  7. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  8. Thoracic lymphangiectasis presenting with chyloptysis and bronchial cast expectoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orliaguet, O. [Pneumology Center Henri Bazire, St. Julien de Ratz, BP 129, 38504 Voiron Cedex (France); Beauclair, P. [General Hospital St. Marcellin (France); Gavazzi, G. [Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble (France); Winckel, P. [Clinique du Mail, Grenoble (France); Laporte, F. [Department of Biochemistry, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble (France); Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.R. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    A 70-year-old man with recurrent undiagnosed episodes of bronchial cast expectoration and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography for 15 years is described. The diagnosis of chyloptysis was established by chemical analysis of the bronchial aspiration. We emphasize the radiological findings of this rare observation. The CT-associated lymphangiography showed mediastinal lymphangiectasis with retrograde opacification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as submucosal lymphatic vessels protruding into the lumen of the tracheo-bronchial tree without evidence of thoracic duct obstruction as well as a ''crazy-paving appearance.'' Congenital incompetence of the valves of the lymphatic vessels originating from the thoracic duct is held to be the cause. Chyloptysis and pulmonary lymphatic disorder should be sought in cases of bronchial cast expectoration. (orig.)

  9. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  10. Acute Radiological Abnormalities after Bronchial Thermoplasty: A Prospective Cohort Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Hooghe, Julia N. S.; van den Berk, Inge A. H.; Annema, Jouke T.; Bonta, Peter I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel treatment for severe asthma based on radiofrequency energy delivery to the larger airways. Although impressive radiological abnormalities have been reported, the incidence, pattern, and behavior over time of acute radiological abnormalities

  11. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  12. Does consanguinity increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children?

    OpenAIRE

    El Mouzan Mohammad; Al Salloum Abdullah; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Omar Ahmad; Qurachi Mansour

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of consanguinity and bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of parental consanguinity on the occurrence of bronchial asthma in children. The study sample was determined by multistage random probability sampling of Saudi households. The families with at least one child with asthma were matched with an equal number of families randomly selected from a list of families with healthy children, the latter families being desi...

  13. Adenosquamous Carcinoma and Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Report of two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC and pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pancreas are very rare diseases. The author herein reports two cases of ASC and SCC of the pancreas. The first case is ASC. An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and weakness. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a pancreatic body tumor. Distal partial resection of the pancreas and splenectomy were performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 3 × 4 × 4 cm was present in the pancreatic body. Histologically, it was an ASC consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma element (20% in area and SCC element (80%. There was a gradual transition between the two. Many perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were recognized. The patient died of systemic metastasis five months after operation. The second case is an SCC. A 69-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a tumor in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 5 × 5 × 6 cm was present. Histologically, the tumor was pure SCC. The SCC was moderately differentiated SCC. A large number of perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were present. The patient died of systemic metastasis three months after operation. The author speculates that ASC of the pancreas may be derived from squamous tansdifferentiation of adenocarcinoma element or from pluripotent stem cells, and that SCC of the pancreas may arise from malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ducts or from pluripotent stem cells.

  14. Does consanguinity increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al Herbish, Abdulah S.; Al Omar, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of consanguinity and bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of parental consanguinity on the occurrence of bronchial asthma in children. The study sample was determined by multistage random probability sampling of Saudi households. The families with at least one child with asthma were matched with an equal number of families randomly selected from a list of families with healthy children, the latter families being designated as controls. There were 103 families with children having physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma, matched with an equal number of families with no children with asthma. This resulted in 140 children with bronchial asthma and 295 children from controls. The age and gender distribution of the children with bronchial asthma and children from controls were similar. There were 54/103 (52.4%) and 61/103 (59.2%) cases of positive parental consanguinity in asthmatic children and children from controls respectively (P = 0.40). Analysis of consanguinity status of the parents of children with asthma and parents among controls indicates that 71/140 (51%) of the children with asthma and 163/295 (55.3%) of the children from controls had positive parental overall consanguinity (P = 0.43). The results of this study suggest that parental consanguinity does not increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children. PMID:19561903

  15. Does consanguinity increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouzan Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of consanguinity and bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of parental consanguinity on the occurrence of bronchial asthma in children. The study sample was determined by multistage random probability sampling of Saudi households. The families with at least one child with asthma were matched with an equal number of families randomly selected from a list of families with healthy children, the latter families being designated as controls. There were 103 families with children having physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma, matched with an equal number of families with no children with asthma. This resulted in 140 children with bronchial asthma and 295 children from controls. The age and gender distribution of the children with bronchial asthma and children from controls were similar. There were 54/103 (52.4% and 61/103 (59.2% cases of positive parental consanguinity in asthmatic children and children from controls respectively ( P = 0.40. Analysis of consanguinity status of the parents of children with asthma and parents among controls indicates that 71/140 (51% of the children with asthma and 163/295 (55.3% of the children from controls had positive parental overall consanguinity ( P = 0.43. The results of this study suggest that parental consanguinity does not increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children.

  16. Preliminary study on pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ya-Feng; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Bo-Ai; Chen, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma remain unclear. This study is to investigate the risk factors related to bronchial asthma onset in children from genetics and immunology and preliminarily reveal the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative PCR was adopted to detect the expression level of TRPV1 gene and mRNA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to the total immunoglobulin E level and levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ in serum in peripheral venous blood for children in two groups. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factors inducing bronchial asthma in children. The mRNA level of TRPV1 in peripheral blood in the case group was higher than that in the control group (P bronchial asthma in children. The levels of TRPV1 gene expression and Th1/Th2 cytokines have a close relationship with asthma onset in children, which provides theoretical evidences for molecular targeted treatment in children with bronchial asthma.

  17. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  18. Fat metaplasia and backfill are key intermediaries in the development of sacroiliac joint ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Wichuk, Stephanie; Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fat metaplasia in bone marrow on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may develop after resolution of inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and may predict new bone formation in the spine. Similar tissue, termed backfill, may also fill areas of excavated...

  19. Comparison of precancerous conditions: atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori gastritis among Chinese and Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X. Y.; van der Hulst, R. W.; Shi, Y.; Xiao, S. D.; Tytgat, G. N.; ten Kate, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    AIM-Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) as precancerous conditions consistently begin in the antrum and are most severe along the lesser curvature. The aim of this study was to investigate discrepancies in the prevalence, the severity of atrophy, and IM in antral mucosa of Helicobacter pylori

  20. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    worldwide, stomach cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer, with 952 000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Ecuador currently holds the 15th place of countries with the highest incidence of stomach cancer for both sexes. the objective of this study was to evaluate risk and protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia. a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador. Cases were defined as patients with histological confirmation of gastric cancer (N = 60) or incomplete gastric metaplasia (N = 53). Controls were defined as patients free of gastric cancer or premalignant lesions (N = 144). All participants were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect data about dietary habits, lifestyle and medical history. risk factors significantly associated to the presence of gastric cancer/metaplasia were the consumption of reheated foods at least 3 times per week (AOR: 4.57; CI: 2.2 - 9.5) and adding salt to more than 50% of foods (AOR: 1.32; CI: 1.04 - 1.67). Protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia were the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (AOR: 0.39; CI 0.19 - 0.83), age less than 58 years old (AOR: 0.38; CI: 0.18 - 0.79) and have received treatment for H. Pylori infection (AOR: 0.33; CI: 0.16 - 0.71). this study reports for the first time, the risk and protective factors associated with gastric cancer and metaplasia in Ecuador. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of the p38 MAPK pathway in IL-13-induced mucous cell metaplasia in mouse tracheal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Ide, Kyotaro; Holtzman, Michael J; Suda, Takafumi; Suzuki, Kenichiro; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Chida, Kingo; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2008-03-01

    IL-13 has been shown to play a pivotal role in mucous cell metaplasia, which is an important feature of the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the signalling pathways evoked by IL-13 in airway epithelial cells remain unclear. This study investigated the signalling mechanism of IL-13-induced mucous cell metaplasia in primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC). mTEC were cultured in an air-liquid interface system in the presence or absence of IL-13. Goblet cell hyperplasia was evaluated quantitatively by immunofluorescent staining for MUC5AC, which is a major component of airway mucins. Western blotting was used to assess activation of the signalling molecules, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. MUC5AC gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. IL-13 induced mucous cell metaplasia for 7-14 days in mTEC. IL-13 phosphorylated STAT6 within 20 min, whereas it induced delayed phosphorylation of p38 MAPK 36-48 h after stimulation. In contrast, ERK1/2 was constantly activated and was not enhanced by IL-13. An inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB202190) suppressed mucous cell differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. In STAT6 knockout mice, IL-13 failed to induce mucous cell metaplasia and activate p38 MAPK. Cycloheximide also diminished activation of p38 MAPK and induction of MUC5AC mRNA expression by IL-13. The p38 MAPK pathway is involved in IL-13-induced mucous cell metaplasia and MUC5AC mRNA regulation in mTEC. In addition, p38 MAPK phosphorylation may require STAT6-dependent de novo protein synthesis induced by IL-13.

  2. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemm, Hege H; Engeseth, Merete; Vollsæter, Maria; Kotecha, Sailesh; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-06-20

    Being born preterm often adversely affects later lung function. Airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are common findings. Respiratory symptoms in asthma and in lung disease after preterm birth might appear similar, but clinical experience and studies indicate that symptoms secondary to preterm birth reflect a separate disease entity. BHR is a defining feature of asthma, but can also be found in other lung disorders and in subjects without respiratory symptoms. We review different methods to assess BHR, and findings reported from studies that have investigated BHR after preterm birth. The area appeared understudied with relatively few and heterogeneous articles identified, and lack of a pervasive understanding. BHR seemed related to low gestational age at delivery and a neonatal history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. No studies reported associations between BHR after preterm birth and the markers of eosinophilic inflammatory airway responses typically found in asthma. This should be borne in mind when treating preterm born individuals with BHR and airway symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  4. Interleukin 10 is an essential modulator of mucoid metaplasia in a mouse otitis media model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Katsuyuki; Komori, Masahiro; Zheng, Qing Yin; Ferrieri, Patricia; Lin, Jizhen

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the development of mucus cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) in otitis media (OM). However, which cytokines play an essential role in MCM OM is not clear at the moment. In this study, we hypothesized that interleukin-10 (IL-10) played an indispensable role in MCM of bacterial OM and used IL-10 knockout mice to test this hypothesis. In wild-type mice, both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae triggered the development of MCM in the middle ear mucosa. In IL-10 knockout mice, the number of goblet cells and mucin-producing cells in the middle ear was significantly reduced after bacterial middle ear infection compared with that in wild-type mice. We, therefore, concluded that IL-10 plays an essential role in MCM of bacterial OM. IL-10 is a potential target for the treatment of MCM in OM. PMID:18771082

  5. Follicular thyroid carcinoma characterized by abundant stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kitamori, Takashi; Kitamori, Fumiyo; Sato, Kazunari; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Sato, Junko; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In parts of the collagenous tissues, mature cartilages and bones were continuously formed. There was no cellular atypia or invasion in the components. We diagnosed this case as follicular thyroid carcinoma with metaplastic stroma. This is the first case report that characterizes stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a canine thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-02-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    the histogenesis of the condition have been proposed: embryonic origin, or metaplasia. Five cases of nephroid metaplasia were studied light-microscopically and by immunohistochemistry for the content of Tamm Horsfall's uromucoprotein. In addition, one case was examined by electron microscopy. The results were...... always in previously traumatized urothelial mucosa. The natural history of the typical nephroid metaplasia is benign, but a possible relationship to mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, representing the malignant counterpart of the lesion, is discussed in relation to the histological findings, suggesting a rare...

  8. Notch signaling prevents mucous metaplasia in mouse conducting airways during postnatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Po-Nien; Wei, Shu-Chen; Wu, Ming-Fang; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Hsien-Yi; Lee, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Wang, I-Jong; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung; Cardoso, Wellington V.

    2011-01-01

    Goblet cell metaplasia and mucus overproduction contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Notch signaling regulates cell fate decisions and is crucial in controlling goblet cell differentiation in the gut epithelium. Little is known, however, about how endogenous Notch signaling influences the goblet cell differentiation program that takes place in the postnatal lung. Using a combination of genetic and in vitro approaches here we provide evidence of a novel role for Notch in restricting goblet cell differentiation in the airway epithelium during the postnatal period. Conditional inactivation of the essential Notch pathway component Pofut1 (protein O-fucosyltransferase1) in Tgfb3-Cre-expressing mice resulted in an aberrant postnatal airway phenotype characterized by marked goblet cell metaplasia, decreased Clara cell number and increase in ciliated cells. The presence of the same phenotype in mice in which the Notch transcriptional effector Rbpjk was deleted indicated the involvement of the canonical Notch pathway. Lineage study in vivo suggested that goblet cells originated from a subpopulation of Clara cells largely present in proximal airways in which Notch was disrupted. The phenotype was confirmed by a panel of goblet cell markers, showed no changes in cell proliferation or altered expression of proinflammatory cytokines and was associated with significant downregulation of the bHLH transcriptional repressor Hes5. Luciferase reporter analysis suggested that Notch directly repressed MUC5AC transcription in lung epithelial cells. The data suggested that during postnatal life Notch is required to prevent Clara cells from differentiating into goblet cells. PMID:21791528

  9. Paneth cell metaplasia in newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Naomi; Furman, Mark; Karanika, Evi; Phillips, Alan; Bates, Alan W H

    2014-05-15

    Paneth cell metaplasia (PCM) is well described in adults but little is known about the distribution of colonic Paneth cells and the occurrence of PCM in a paediatric population. The aim of this study is to determine whether Paneth cell hyperplasia or metaplasia characteristically occurs in the colons of children with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We retrospectively reviewed colonic series from 28 new diagnoses of paediatric IBD at a tertiary referral centre, and from a further 14 children with IBD-like symptoms whose colonic biopsies and ancillary investigations were normal. Paneth cells were counted at 6 anatomical sites in the colon, and at each site acute and chronic inflammation were assessed semi-quantitatively and the presence or absence of crypt architectural distortion and eosinophilia was documented. In control, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) groups there was a gradient of decreasing Paneth cell numbers from caecum to rectum. Paneth cells were not seen in the distal colon in the control group, but they were present there in 11 of 13 patients with ulcerative colitis and 14 of 15 with Crohn's disease. Only patients with IBD showed Paneth cell hyperplasia, assessed as more than 10 Paneth cells per 10 well-oriented crypts at any site. There was a statistically significant increase in Paneth cells in the caecum, ascending, transverse and descending colon in UC and in the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon in CD compared with controls. There was no significant difference between UC and CD. There was no correlation between the site of PCM and acute or chronic inflammation, crypt distortion or eosinophilia. Paneth cells are found in the proximal but not the distal colon in otherwise normal paediatric colonic series. A high proportion of UC and CD patients show PCM in the distal colon. This is present early in the disease and does not correlate with histological features of chronicity.

  10. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Gun; Lee, Byung Lan; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers—including OLFM4 and EPHB2—are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett’s esophagus (BE)—which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia—exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease. PMID:25996368

  11. SOX2 Inhibition Promotes Promoter Demethylation of CDX2 to Facilitate Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haijing; Jia, Yuchen; Li, Tao; Su, Bingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is regarded as a premalignant lesion, conferring risks for gastric cancer development. An intestinal transcription factor, CDX2, plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining IM. SOX2, an HMG-box transcription factor, is expressed in normal gastric mucosa and downregulated in IM. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mutual interaction of SOX2 and CDX2 in gastric IM. This study aims to evaluate the negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 in mRNA expression and promoter methylation and to illuminate the effect of SOX2 on the promoter methylation of CDX2. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to evaluate the expression and promoter methylation of SOX2 and CDX2 in IM tissues from patients. SOX2 knockdown and CDX2 overexpression were performed in GES-1 cells to further clarify the relationship between SOX2 and CDX2. A negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 was found in 120 gastric IM specimens. Additionally, significant DNA demethylation of CDX2 promoter in clinical IM specimens was observed concomitantly with partial methylation of the SOX2 promoter. Furthermore, SOX2 knockdown in GES-1 cells triggered promoter demethylation of CDX2. Finally, the phenotype shift of gastric intestinal metaplasia in GES-1 cells, marked by MUC2 expression, was effectively induced by the combination of SOX2 RNAi and CDX2 overexpression. Aberrant DNA methylation of SOX2 and CDX2 genes contributes to the development of IM. Notably, SOX2 may play a role in establishing and maintaining the methylation status of the CDX2 gene in gastric tissues and cells.

  12. Clinical Features of Functional Dyspepsia in Combination with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Rostoka-Reznikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the clinical features of dyspepsia in case of combination with bronchial asthma. We examined 152 patients with functional dyspepsia, 102 of them were diagnosed with bronchial asthma. In patients with functional dyspepsia combined with bronchial asthma we detected worsening of functional dyspepsia (significantly higher levels of epigastric pain, feeling of fullness after eating and nausea and significant gender differences of its course in comparison with patients with functional dyspepsia without bronchial asthma. There was a significant prevalence of postprandial distress syndrome in women vs. men with functional dyspepsia and bronchial asthma. Among women in this group, there were also a higher rates of dyspeptic complaints generally and pain syndrome particularly, with more significant polymorphism of complaints in terms of pain nature (fasting pain and night pain, pain through the abdomen and/or with radiation to the back, the connection with spicy food and psychoemotional stress, whereas men from this group significantly more often complained only of the limosis.

  13. Psychological dysfunctions in women with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Astafieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma (BA is discussed in clinical guidelines, including in international and national clinical guidelines. However, a specific evaluation of their role as a cause of poor asthma control in susceptible patients is required. Aim. Assessment of psychological health of women with different levels of asthma control.Materials and methods. The study included 108 women with asthma observed in Saratov center for Allergology who were stratified into 3 groups according to the control level (good, partial, uncontrolled, according to GINA. In establishing a diagnosis of asthma, standard methods were used (medical history, symptoms, spirography. To assess the level of control, ACQ-5 (Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 items-self-administered was used, to assess the quality of life, questionnaires AQLQ-S (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire S; SF-36 (36-ltem MOS Short-Form Health Survey, a standardized and validated Russian version of the women’s health questionnaire WHQ (Women’s Health Questionnaire were used; for psychological diagnosis and evaluation of social and personal competencies that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health (the intellectual, personal, emotional, physical, social, creative, spiritual aspects, integrated multimodal questionnaire was used. The comparison was conducted with a control group of men with bronchial asthma, comparable in age and level of control.Results. Women with poorly controlled asthma had worse performance of AQLQ-S (combined median score of 3,43 instead of 5,13 in the group of good control; p < 0,05; all scales of the SF-36, including the general condition (43,48 against 55,07, role of physical (25,93 against 57,76 and emotional problems (43,83 against 64,37; at p < 0.05. According to the WHQ questionnaire (the inverse relationship: the higher the score, the lower the quality of life in the group with poor control

  14. Eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in relation to methacholine dose-response curves in atopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Moller (Trude); S.E. Overbeek (Shelley); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); J.M. Bogaard (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAsthma is characterized by both local infiltration of eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). A detailed characterization of BHR implies analysis of a histamine or methacholine dose-response curve yielding not only the dose

  15. International variations in bronchial responsiveness in children: findings from ISAAC phase two.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchele, G.; Genuneit, J.; Weinmayr, G.; Bjorksten, B.; Gehring, U.; von Mutius, E.; Priftanji, A.; Stein, R.T.; Addo-Yobo, E.O.; Priftis, K.N.; Shaham, J.R.; Forastiere, F.; Svabe, V.; Crane, J.; Nystad, W.; Garcia-Marcos, L.; Saracar, Y.; El-Sharif, N.; Strachan, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Bronchial responsiveness is an objectively measurable trait related to asthma. Its prevalence and association with asthma symptoms among children in many countries are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate international variations in bronchial responsiveness (BR) and their associations with

  16. Immunologycal Status of Children with Bronchial Asthma during Febrile Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the diagnostic value of some immunological tests for the verification of bacterial and/or viral infection during febrile episodes of bronchial asthma exacerbations in children. On the base of allergological unit of Chernivtsi Regional Child Hospital by the method of simple random sampling there have been examined 119 child patients with bronchial asthma who were admitted to the hospital due to asthma exacerbation caused by fever. They were divided into two groups of clinical observation. The analysis of clinical and laboratory data in children with bacterial and viral febrile bronchial asthma attacks revealed that such patients more likely had higher level of T-lymchocyte of various subpopulations and indices of NBT test neutrophils.

  17. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Smyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bronchial asthma is a classic psychosomatic disease by immunopathological origin. In present investigation, we studied influence of body-oriented psychotherapeutic methods directed towards clinico-immunological parameters and special psychological features of the patients with bronchial asthma, i.e., decrease in alexithymia, as an important pathogenetic factor of bronchial asthma, and improvement in motor coordination and interhemispheric interactions in motor sphere. We investigated 38 patients (18 men and 20 women, while discriminating those patients who underwent a course of body-oriented psychotherapy, and a group of comparison, who did not undergo similar therapy. When observing conventional standards of randomization according to sex, age, clinical variants, and disease severity, some heterogeneity of these groups was revealed. In general, the people with active life attitude, being ready to work with a psychologist, possessed special features both in psychological and immunological spheres.

  18. OMALIZUMAB FOR CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: INDICATIONS TO APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to IgE are a totally new class of medications currently used to enhance the supervision over severe persistent atopic bronchial asthma. Omalizumab is the most well studied, first and only medication of this group, which is recommended for the application and is allowed for treatment of uncontrolled bronchial asthma among adults and children aged 12 and over in different countries of the world, including Russia. High omalizumab assisted treatment costs, as well as the need in the monthly visits to the doctor for the omalizumab injections are justified for the patients, requiring repeat hospitalizations, emergency medical aid, using high doses of the inhalation and/or systemic glucocorticosteroids. The article reviews the criteria for the selection of patients fit for omalizumab assisted treatment.Key words: omalizumab, anti-ige-antibodies, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, treatment, children.

  19. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  20. Airway Inflammation after Bronchial Thermoplasty for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Darcy R; Doeing, Diana C; Hogarth, D Kyle; Dugan, Karen; Naureckas, Edward T; White, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is an alternative treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma in which the airway smooth muscle is eliminated using radioablation. Although this emerging therapy shows promising outcomes, little is known about its effects on airway inflammation. We examined the presence of bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines and expression of smooth muscle actin in patients with severe asthma before and in the weeks after bronchial thermoplasty. Endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 11 patients with severe asthma were collected from the right lower lobe before and 3 and 6 weeks after initial bronchial thermoplasty. Samples were analyzed for cell proportions and cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage and for the presence of α-SMA in endobronchial biopsies. α-SMA expression was decreased in endobronchial biopsies of 7 of 11 subjects by Week 6. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, both transforming growth factor-β1 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 were substantially decreased 3 and 6 weeks post bronchial thermoplasty in all patients. The cytokine tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which induces apoptosis in several cell types, was increased in concentration both 3 and 6 weeks post bronchial thermoplasty. Clinical improvement and reduction in α-SMA after bronchial thermoplasty in severe, uncontrolled asthma is associated with substantial changes in key mediators of inflammation. These data confirm the substantial elimination of airway smooth muscle post thermoplasty in the human asthmatic airway and represent the first characterization of significant changes in airway inflammation in the first weeks after thermoplasty.

  1. [Autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm in elderly patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, K A; Orakova, F Kh; Inarokova, A M

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of independent and combined interrelations of bronchial obstruction and autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm in elderly patients with bronchial asthma was carried out. Positive correlation of the extent of bronchial obstruction and decrease of absolute indices of cardiac rhythm variability was established.

  2. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  3. ALLERGIC RHINITIS AS A RISK FACTOR OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Revyakina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of classification, diagnostics and treatment of allergic rhinitis in children are viewed, the therapy with local antihistamines is detailed. The state of bronchial reactivity in children with allergic rhinitis has been studied, the methods of the prophylaxis of bronchial asthma progress are discussed.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, azelastine, children, treatment.

  4. A case of endobronchial lipoma mimicking bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya1, Hasan Demir1, Serhat Findik21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Endobronchial lipoma is a rare neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree and it may cause irreversible pulmonary damage due to recurrent pneumonia. Rarely, it may mimic bronchial asthma. We present a 53-year-old woman with an endobronchial lipoma, which had been treated as a bronchial asthma for four years. She also had developed recurrent pneumonia three times.Keywords: endobronchial lipoma, asthma, radiology, bronchoscopy

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  6. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Squamous papillomas of the conjunctiva: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Background: There is very limited literature on squamous papillomas of the conjunctiva from Nigeria and sub-Saharan. Africa. ... patients histologically diagnosed with squamous papilloma of the conjunctiva in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and .... by the same viral infection that caused the previous papilloma ...

  8. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  9. Bile acid and inflammation activate gastric cardia stem cells in a mouse model of Barrett’s-like metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, Michael; Bhagat, Govind; Abrams, Julian; Marache, Frederic; Good, Pamela; Lee, Michele D.; Lee, Yoomi; Friedman, Richard; Asfaha, Samuel; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Mahmood, Umar; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Kitajewski, Jan; Shawber, Carrie; Lightdale, Charles; Rustgi, Anil K.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises from Barrett esophagus (BE), intestinal-like columnar metaplasia linked to reflux esophagitis. In a transgenic mouse model of BE, esophageal overexpression of interleukin-1β phenocopies human pathology with evolution of esophagitis, Barrett’s-like metaplasia and EAC. Histopathology and gene signatures resembled closely human BE, with upregulation of TFF2, Bmp4, Cdx2, Notch1 and IL-6. The development of BE and EAC was accelerated by exposure to bile acids and/or nitrosamines, and inhibited by IL-6 deficiency. Lgr5+ gastric cardia stem cells present in BE were able to lineage trace the early BE lesion. Our data suggest that BE and EAC arise from gastric progenitors due to a tumor-promoting IL-1β-IL-6 signaling cascade and Dll1-dependent Notch signaling. PMID:22264787

  10. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia-like phenomenon in oral epithelial precursor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siar CH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Statement of the problem Dysplasia, the morphological yardstick of epithelial precursor lesions, is the collective term for a variety of architectural and cytological changes within the altered oral epithelium. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD, a distinct morphological characteristic in pre-invasive bronchial lesions, describes the presence of capillary tufts that are closely juxtaposed to and projecting into the dysplastic bronchial epithelium. Objective To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance. Methods Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ, and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction. Results Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31-and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration were identified in moderate (3/20; 15% and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%, but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (p Conclusions These preliminary findings taken together suggest that: 1. ASD-like phenomenon may be an important intermediary biomarker in oral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.

  11. IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a prevalent chronic allergic disease of lungs at early ages. A priority  task in allergology  is to search  biological  markers  related  to uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma. Cytokines fulfill their distinct function in pathogenesis of atopic  bronchial asthma, participating at the initiation, development and persistence of allergic inflammation in airways, causing different  variations of clinical course of the disease (with  respect  to its acuteness, severity, frequency of exacerbations. The  present  work has studied  indices  of cellular  and  humoral links of immunity, as well as levels of some  pro and  anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood serum (IL-4, IL-10, IL-2 and TNFα, aiming to determine potential markers of uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma in children. A group of Caucasian (European children was involved into the research: Cohort 1, moderate atopic  bronchial asthma with controlled course during the last 3 months (n = 59; Cohort 2, severe/moderate-severe atopic bronchial asthma with uncontrolled course of the disease within last 3 months (n = 51,  Cohort 3 – control, practically healthy  children without signs of atopy  (n = 33. All the  children included in the group with atopic  bronchial asthma underwent regular mono/combined basic therapy  at high/ intermediate therapeutic doses.  We performed a comparative analysis  of cell  population indices  reflecting certain cellular  immunity links,  and  determined significantly  lower  levels of CD3+   lymphocytes, as well as decrease in relative  and  absolute  contents of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells in the  cohort with  uncontrolled course of atopic  bronchial asthma, as compared with controlled-course cohort. When  evaluating concentrations  of cytokines in peripheral blood serum of the patients with controlled and uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma, we revealed  significantly  higher

  12. Plasma ghrelin level and plasma ghrelin/obestatin ratio are related to intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Ji Won; Byun, Junsu; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae

    2017-01-01

    Whether plasma ghrelin/obestatin levels are associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, subtypes of functional dyspepsia (FD), and gastric mucosal histology has not yet been established in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are related to gastric mucosal histology, H. pylori infection, and FD subtypes in elderly patients with FD. Ninety-two patients diagnosed with FD and older than 60 years (median age 69.4; range 60-88) were included. Clinical symptoms investigated included postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, epigastric soreness, nausea, and vomiting. According to the Rome III criteria, patients diagnosed with FD were divided into two subtypes: epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay, and histological examination of gastric mucosa was performed. H. pylori infection was determined by histopathological examination of gastric mucosal biopsy and/or Campylobacter-like organism test. In our study, plasma ghrelin levels and plasma ghrelin/obestatin (G/O) ratio were significantly lower in subjects with intestinal metaplasia compared with those without intestinal metaplasia (ghrelin, p = 0.010; G/O ratio, p = 0.012). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. (ghrelin, p = 0.130; obestatin, p = 0.888). Similarly, no significant differences were detected between the EPS and PDS groups (ghrelin, p = 0.238; obestatin, p = 0.710). Patients with intestinal metaplasia, a known precursor of gastric cancer, had significantly less plasma ghrelin levels and G/O ratio than those without intestinal metaplasia.

  13. Osseous Metaplasia in Mucinous Tubular and Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: A Case of Massive, Bilateral Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeen M. Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common kidney malignancy, with many histologic subtypes. One of the rare forms of RCC is mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC, which is newly described with limited information on clinical picture and outcome. Heterotopic bone formation (osseous metaplasia is a rare finding within any renal mass. Here we report a case of a massive, bilateral MTSCC with histologic findings of heterotopic bone formation, which has not been described before.

  14. Maturity and age influence chief cell ability to transdifferentiate into metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Victoria G; Petersen, Christine P; Weis, Jared A; Meyer, Anne R; Choi, Eunyoung; Mills, Jason C; Goldenring, James R

    2017-01-01

    The plasticity of gastric chief cells is exemplified by their ability to transdifferentiate into spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) after parietal cell loss. We sought to determine if chief cell maturity is a limiting factor in the capacity to transdifferentiate. Mist1(-)(/-) mice, previously shown to form only immature chief cells, were treated with DMP-777 or L635 to study the capability of these immature chief cells to transdifferentiate into a proliferative metaplastic lineage after acute parietal cell loss. Mist1(-/-) mice treated with DMP-777 showed fewer chief cell to SPEM transitions. Mist1(-/-) mice treated with L635 demonstrated significantly fewer proliferative SPEM cells compared with control mice. Thus immature chief cells were unable to transdifferentiate efficiently into SPEM after acute parietal cell loss. To determine whether chief cell age affects transdifferentiation into SPEM, we used tamoxifen to induce YFP expression in chief cells of Mist1(CreER/+);Rosa(YFP) mice and subsequently treated the cells with L635 to induce SPEM at 1 to 3.5 mo after tamoxifen treatment. After L635 treatment to induce acute parietal cell loss, 43% of all YFP-positive cells at 1 mo posttamoxifen were SPEM cells, of which 44% of these YFP-positive SPEM cells were proliferative. By 2 mo after tamoxifen induction, only 24% of marked SPEM cells were proliferating. However, by 3.5 mo after tamoxifen induction, only 12% of marked chief cells transdifferentiated into SPEM and none were proliferative. Thus, as chief cells age, they lose their ability to transdifferentiate into SPEM and proliferate. Therefore, both functional maturation and age limit chief cell plasticity. Previous investigations have indicated that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the stomach arises from transdifferentiation of chief cells. Nevertheless, the intrinsic properties of chief cells that influence transdifferentiation have been largely unknown. We now report

  15. Extensive goblet cell metaplasia of the peripheral lung may harbor precancerous molecular changes: comparison of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo; Kurabe, Nobuya; Okudela, Koji; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Neyatani, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Koda, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We present two cases of extensive goblet cell metaplasia in the peripheral lung. The first case was a 72-year-old male with a nodule (12 × 10 mm) detected by CT. Macroscopically, it contained abundant mucin; histopathologically, goblet cells were predominant, whereas ciliated and basal cells were sparse. A KRAS G12V mutation was detected. In the pulmonary background of this case, scattered tiny foci of goblet cell metaplasia were present. The second case was a 71-year-old female with a nodule (7 × 5 mm) detected by CT. It contained abundant mucin, and microscopically, various cell types were intermingled. Although the nodule mainly comprised goblet cells, ciliated and basal cells were also easily identified. No KRAS mutation was found in this patient. Dispersed minute foci of goblet cell metaplasia were identified in the pulmonary background. Therefore, we suspect that airway irritants may have contributed to the changes that occurred in the pulmonary background of both cases. We propose that the tendency of goblet cells to overwhelm other cell types in the metaplastic epithelium may be an indicator of precancerous molecular changes. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Loss of p27Kip¹ promotes metaplasia in the pancreas via the regulation of Sox9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, Pauline; Callot, Caroline; Baer, Romain; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Guerra, Carmen; Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Bachs, Oriol; Besson, Arnaud

    2015-11-03

    p27Kip1 (p27) is a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor via the inhibition of cyclin-CDK activity in the nucleus. p27 is also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, including transcription by acting as a transcriptional co-repressor. Loss of p27 expression is frequently observed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas in human and is associated with decreased patient survival. Similarly, in a mouse model of K-Ras-driven pancreatic cancer, loss of p27 accelerates tumor development and shortens survival, suggesting an important role for p27 in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Here, we sought to determine how p27 might contribute to early events leading to tumor development in the pancreas. We found that K-Ras activation in the pancreas causes p27 mislocalization at pre-neoplastic stages. Moreover, loss of p27 or expression of a mutant p27 that does not bind cyclin-CDKs causes the mislocalization of several acinar polarity markers associated with metaplasia and induces the nuclear expression of Sox9 and Pdx1 two transcription factors involved in acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. Finally, we found that p27 directly represses transcription of Sox9, but not that of Pdx1. Thus, our results suggest that K-Ras activation, the earliest known event in pancreatic carcinogenesis, may cause loss of nuclear p27 expression which results in derepression of Sox9, triggering reprogramming of acinar cells and metaplasia.

  17. Does bronchial thermodilution allow estimation of cardiac output?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loer, SA; Wietasch, JKG; Scheeren, TWL

    Objective: Transcapillary heat transfer after injections of cold saline into the right atrium generates bronchial thermodilution curves resembling those observed in the aorta. Under the assumption that no indicator is lost or gained within the pulmonary capillary bed and changes in blood temperature

  18. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Transmitral inflow velocity patterns during acute severe asthma in children are suggestive of altered LV preload due to an acute transient elevation in pulmonary artery pressure secondary to the altered lung mechanics, and are not reflective of intrinsic LV diastolic dysfunction. Keywords: Bronchial asthma, right ...

  19. Children with bronchial asthma assessed for psychosocial problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric bronchial asthma causes respiratory related mortality and morbidity globally and elevates the risk of psychological and social problems (psychosocial problems); which may result in poorer asthma control. The rate of and associated factors for psychosocial problems among our asthmatic children ...

  20. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor | Orakwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed due to a low index of suspicion.

  1. Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Farmers: Severity and Work-Relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saso Stoleski

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure in farmers may cause respiratory impairment which is closely related to its duration, characteristics, and intensity. The results suggest that cow breeders in general have higher rates of work-related respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness than agricultural farmers, whereas their severity increases with an increase in frequency and duration of animal contact.

  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  3. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma | Anderson | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen White children with bronchial asthma were divided into two groups; one received standard antiasthma chemoprophylaxis (SAC) and the other SAC supplemented with 1 g ascorbic acid (Redoxon) given as a single daily dose for a 6-month period. In 10 patients the effects of ascorbic acid on exerciseinduced ...

  4. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  5. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham E. Abd El Aaty

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in asthmatic patients, there was a strong correlation between asthma severity and 25(OH vitamin D concentrations and there was a direct and a positive significant correlation between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients, so the measurement of serum vitamin D levels in patients with bronchial asthma is very useful.

  6. Dry powder formulation in the twincertm for bronchial challenge testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; Ten Hacken, N.H.T.; Steckel, H.; De Boer, A.H.

    Summary Background: In bronchial challenge testing lung deposition of the stimulus may be poorly controlled due to incorrect use of nebulisers. Furthermore, the need for freshly prepared solutions burdens personnel and budget. In this study we aim to develop a dry powder alternative with higher

  7. Doses and models in risk assessment analysis for bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Marco, R; Bugiani, M; Zanolin, E; Verlato, G; Rijcken, B

    The aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate whether the estimates of the association of risk factors with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) depends on the accumulated dose administered in challenge tests; and (2) to verify whether a model developed for survival studies (Weibull regression) is

  8. Inhaled Mannitol as a Laryngeal and Bronchial Provocation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tunn Ren; Hoy, Ryan; Richards, Amanda L; Paddle, Paul; Hew, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Timely diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), more recently termed "inducible laryngeal obstruction," is important because VCD is often misdiagnosed as asthma, resulting in delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Visualization of paradoxical vocal cord movement on laryngoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, but is limited by poor test sensitivity. Provocation tests may improve the diagnosis of VCD, but the diagnostic performance of current tests is less than ideal. Alternative provocation tests are required. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using inhaled mannitol for concurrent investigation of laryngeal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Consecutive patients with suspected VCD seen at our institution's asthma clinic underwent flexible laryngoscopy at baseline and following mannitol challenge. VCD was diagnosed on laryngoscopy based on inspiratory adduction, or >50% expiratory adduction of the vocal cords. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness after mannitol challenge was also assessed. We evaluated the interrater agreement of postmannitol laryngoscopy between respiratory specialists and laryngologists. Fourteen patients with suspected VCD in the context of asthma evaluation were included in the study. Mannitol provocation demonstrated VCD in three of the seven patients with normal baseline laryngoscopy (42.9%). Only two patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There was substantial interrater agreement between respiratory specialists and laryngologists, kappa = 0.696 (95% confidence interval: 0.324-1) (P = 0.006). Inhaled mannitol can be used to induce VCD. It is well tolerated and can evaluate laryngeal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness at the same setting. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Air pollution, bronchial hyperreactivity and bronchial pulmonary disorders in children and adults. Luftverschmutzung, bronchiale Hyperreagibilitaet und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern und Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehr, J.; Hendel-Kramer, A.; Hader, S.; Urbanek, R. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Universitaets-Kinderklinik); Karmaus, W. (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB) (Germany, F.R.)); Steinitz, H. (Staatliches Gesundheitsamt, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany, F.R.)); Stephan, V. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a common feature of bronchial asthma. A sample of 560 school children of 2 different climate areas in the South-West of Germany was analyzed by standardized questionnaire, residential factors, passive smoking and skin prick testing (SPT) with 10 common aeoroallergens. BH was investigated by a standardized carbachol inhalation procedure (CIP) in cumulative manner. Pollutants (NO{sub 2}, particulate combustion products) in the outdoor air near the childrens residences were measured in the same winter season. The mode of heating and the ventilation manners (VM) in houses were characterized as parameters for indoor climate. In 149 children (26.6%) a BH in the CIP appeared. For multiple logistic regression analysis the best model to explain the existence of BH was fitted. In this final model the relative risk was significantly increased (odds ratio 2.39, 95%-confidence interval 1.19-4.77) by use of stoves within the dwelling burnt with gas, coal or oil. As confounding variable sensitization in SPT and passive smoking appeared significant. Outdoor air pollution and VM were not of significant relative risk. Therefore the indoor climate in residences which are heated by stoves within the rooms burnt with gas, coal or oil must be considered as a potential risk factor for bronchial hyperreactivity in childhood. (orig./MG).

  10. miR-30-HNF4γ and miR-194-NR2F2 regulatory networks contribute to the upregulation of metaplasia markers in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Josane F; Nam, Ki Taek; Petersen, Christine P; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Goldenring, James R

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) are considered neoplastic precursors of gastric adenocarcinoma and are both marked by gene expression alterations in comparison to normal stomach. Since miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, we sought to investigate the role of miRNAs on the development of stomach metaplasias. We performed miRNA profiling using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR approach on laser capture microdissected human intestinal metaplasia and SPEM. Data integration of the miRNA profile with a previous mRNA profile from the same samples was performed to detect potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory circuits. Transfection of gastric cancer cell lines with selected miRNA mimics and inhibitors was used to evaluate their effects on the expression of putative targets and additional metaplasia markers. We identified several genes as potential targets of miRNAs altered during metaplasia progression. We showed evidence that HNF4γ (upregulated in intestinal metaplasia) is targeted by miR-30 and that miR-194 targets a known co-regulator of HNF4 activity, NR2F2 (downregulated in intestinal metaplasia). Intestinal metaplasia markers such as VIL1, TFF2 and TFF3 were downregulated after overexpression of miR-30a in a HNF4γ-dependent manner. In addition, overexpression of HNF4γ was sufficient to induce the expression of VIL1 and this effect was potentiated by downregulation of NR2F2. The interplay of the two transcription factors HNF4γ and NR2F2 and their coordinate regulation by miR-30 and miR-194, respectively, represent a miRNA to transcription factor network responsible for the expression of intestinal transcripts in stomach cell lineages during the development of intestinal metaplasia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. High prevalence of gastric intestinal metaplasia detected by confocal laser endomicroscopy in Zambian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Heimburger, Douglas C; Morgan, Douglas R; Kelly, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) may increase the detection of gastric premalignant lesions, and facilitate targeted biopsies for histology. The study aim was to analyse premalignant lesions in Zambian adults using CLE. Using CLE and histology we analysed the antral mucosa for gastric premalignant lesions in asymptomatic adults living with HIV and in HIV seronegative adults. Fasting gastric pH and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were also evaluated. We enrolled 84 HIV seropositive participants (median age 43 years; 55 (65%) female), of whom 32 (38%) were anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-naïve. Also enrolled were 22 HIV seronegative controls (median age 39 years, 12 (55%) females). Hypochlorhydria was found in 48 (57%) HIV positive and 8 (38%) HIV negative controls (P = 0.14). Detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) was higher (P = 0.007) using CLE (49, 54%) than histology (9, 9%) and, using CLE, GIM was similar between HIV positive (41, 60%) and negative groups (8, 36%; P = 0.08). Gastric luminal fluorescein leakage was significantly associated with the presence of GIM [OR 8.2; 95% CI 2.5-31, P<0.001]. CLE is useful for the detection of GIM, and luminal fluorescein leakage may represent a novel CLE marker for GIM. GIM is common in Zambian adults, and is highly prevalent irrespective of HIV infection or use of ART.

  12. High prevalence of gastric intestinal metaplasia detected by confocal laser endomicroscopy in Zambian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Kayamba

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE may increase the detection of gastric premalignant lesions, and facilitate targeted biopsies for histology. The study aim was to analyse premalignant lesions in Zambian adults using CLE.Using CLE and histology we analysed the antral mucosa for gastric premalignant lesions in asymptomatic adults living with HIV and in HIV seronegative adults. Fasting gastric pH and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori were also evaluated.We enrolled 84 HIV seropositive participants (median age 43 years; 55 (65% female, of whom 32 (38% were anti-retroviral therapy (ART-naïve. Also enrolled were 22 HIV seronegative controls (median age 39 years, 12 (55% females. Hypochlorhydria was found in 48 (57% HIV positive and 8 (38% HIV negative controls (P = 0.14. Detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM was higher (P = 0.007 using CLE (49, 54% than histology (9, 9% and, using CLE, GIM was similar between HIV positive (41, 60% and negative groups (8, 36%; P = 0.08. Gastric luminal fluorescein leakage was significantly associated with the presence of GIM [OR 8.2; 95% CI 2.5-31, P<0.001].CLE is useful for the detection of GIM, and luminal fluorescein leakage may represent a novel CLE marker for GIM. GIM is common in Zambian adults, and is highly prevalent irrespective of HIV infection or use of ART.

  13. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  14. Genetic ablation of Smoothened in pancreatic fibroblasts increases acinar-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Pitarresi, Jason R; Cuitiño, Maria C; Kladney, Raleigh D; Woelke, Sarah A; Sizemore, Gina M; Nayak, Sunayana G; Egriboz, Onur; Schweickert, Patrick G; Yu, Lianbo; Trela, Stefan; Schilling, Daniel J; Halloran, Shannon K; Li, Maokun; Dutta, Shourik; Fernandez, Soledad A; Rosol, Thomas J; Lesinski, Gregory B; Shakya, Reena; Ludwig, Thomas; Konieczny, Stephen F; Leone, Gustavo; Wu, Jinghai; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    The contribution of the microenvironment to pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a preneoplastic transition in oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic cancer progression, is currently unclear. Here we show that disruption of paracrine Hedgehog signaling via genetic ablation of Smoothened (Smo) in stromal fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D) mouse model increased ADM. Smo-deleted fibroblasts had higher expression of transforming growth factor-α (Tgfa) mRNA and secreted higher levels of TGFα, leading to activation of EGFR signaling in acinar cells and increased ADM. The mechanism involved activation of AKT and noncanonical activation of the GLI family transcription factor GLI2. GLI2 was phosphorylated at Ser230 in an AKT-dependent fashion and directly regulated Tgfa expression in fibroblasts lacking Smo Additionally, Smo-deleted fibroblasts stimulated the growth of Kras(G12D)/Tp53(R172H) pancreatic tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. These results define a non-cell-autonomous mechanism modulating Kras(G12D)-driven ADM that is balanced by cross-talk between Hedgehog/SMO and AKT/GLI2 pathways in stromal fibroblasts. © 2016 Liu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Batra, Surinder K

    2014-06-30

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of KrasG12D/Pdx1Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers.

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Schmitt, Daniel M; Storz, Peter; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a reversible epithelial transdifferentiation process that occurs in the pancreas in response to acute inflammation. ADM can rapidly progress towards pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in the presence of mutant KRas and ultimately pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the present work, we elucidate the role and related mechanism of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in ADM development using in vitro 3D cultures and genetically engineered mouse models. We show that GSK-3β promotes TGF-α-induced ADM in 3D cultured primary acinar cells, whereas deletion of GSK-3β attenuates caerulein-induced ADM formation and PanIN progression in KrasG12D transgenic mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3β ablation influences ADM formation and PanIN progression by suppressing oncogenic KRas-driven cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that GSK-3β regulates proliferation by increasing the activation of S6 kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that GSK-3β participates in early pancreatitis-induced ADM and thus could be a target for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and the prevention of PDAC progression. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prevalence and functional impact of lipomatous metaplasia in scar tissue following myocardial infarction evaluated by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, Christian; Schindler, Kathrin; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Grothoff, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias [Leipzig Heart Center/University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Eitel, Ingo; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger [Leipzig Heart Center/University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany); Kivelitz, Dietmar [St. Georg-Hospital, Albers-Schoenberg-Institut fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To retrospectively assess the prevalence and functional relevance of lipomatous metaplasia (LM) of the left ventricle in patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (CIHD) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) with steady state free precession (SSFP) sequences. We examined 315 patients (248 male, mean age 63 {+-} 10 years) with a history of CIHD by cMRI. Standard SSFP sequences were applied and results were correlated with findings from cardiac catheterisation and computed tomography. In a subgroup of patients with LM (LM+) the functional results were correlated with patients without LM (LM-) as controls matched for age, body mass index, gender and infarct size. Of 315 patients, 36 showed LM. LM+ patients showed a higher tendency to develop aneurysms compared with LM- (31% vs. 17%; not significant), but no differences in ejection fraction or volumetric parameters. LM occurred significantly more often in older infarcts and patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia, while other cardiac risk factors or medication did not have a significant influence on the development of LM. LM is a common finding (11%) in patients with CIHD. LM does not have a significant influence on global cardiac function or ventricular size, but on local function and probably also on the development of left ventricular aneurysms. (orig.)

  18. Is there any association between colonic polyps and gastric intestinal metaplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünler, Gülhan Kanat; Teke Özgür, Gülsüm; Göktürk, Hüseyin Savaş; Korkmaz, Hüseyin; Erinanç, Özgür Hilal

    2016-05-01

    Chronic gastritis progression is a multistep process of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia, which may lead to invasive carcinoma. In this study, we identified an association of colonic polyps with gastric IM in patients undergoing colonoscopy. This retrospective case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary-care institution in Turkey. Pathology and endoscopy reports were reviewed. The study group comprised 400 patients with colonic adenomatous polyps, and the control group comprised 360 patients without colonic adenomatous polyps on colonoscopy. The risk of gastric IM was 1.42-fold higher in the study group (pfolder higher than that in the control group (p<0.05). H. pylori infection prevalence was higher only in patients with high-grade colonic polyp dysplasia (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of incomplete IM between the groups (p<0.05). This study observed increased rates of gastric IM with colonic polyps. An increased risk of gastric IM was associated with higher grades of polyp dysplasia.

  19. IL-17A Induces Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription–6–Independent Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Madison G.; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Brody, Steven L.; Kolls, Jay K.; Adler, Kenneth B.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2013-01-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia is a hallmark of asthma, and may be mediated by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)–6 signaling. IL-17A is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with severe asthma, and IL-17A also increases mucus production in airway epithelial cells. Asthma therapeutics are being developed that inhibit STAT6 signaling, but the role of IL-17A in inducing mucus production in the absence of STAT6 remains unknown. We hypothesized that IL-17A induces mucous cell metaplasia independent of STAT6, and we tested this hypothesis in two murine models in which increased IL-17A protein expression is evident. In the first model, ovalbumin (OVA)–specific D011.10 Th17 cells were adoptively transferred into wild-type (WT) or STAT6 knockout (KO) mice, and the mice were challenged with OVA or PBS. WT-OVA and STAT6 KO-OVA mice demonstrated increased airway IL-17A and IL-13 protein expression and mucous cell metaplasia, compared with WT-PBS or STAT6 KO-PBS mice. In the second model, WT, STAT1 KO, STAT1/STAT6 double KO (DKO), or STAT1/STAT6/IL-17 receptor A (RA) triple KO (TKO) mice were challenged with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or mock viral preparation, and the mucous cells were assessed. STAT1 KO-RSV mice demonstrated increased airway mucous cell metaplasia compared with WT-RSV mice. STAT1 KO-RSV and STAT1/STAT6 DKO-RSV mice also demonstrated increased mucous cell metaplasia, compared with STAT1/STAT6/IL17RA TKO-RSV mice. We also treated primary murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) from WT and STAT6 KO mice. STAT6 KO mTECs showed increased periodic acid–Schiff staining with IL-17A but not with IL-13. Thus, asthma therapies targeting STAT6 may increase IL-17A protein expression, without preventing IL-17A–induced mucus production. PMID:23392574

  20. Eosinophil cationic protein mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H Y; Li, X Y; Cai, Z F; Li, L; Shi, X Z; Song, H X; Liu, X J

    2015-11-13

    Studies have shown that eosinophils are closely related to pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Eosinophils release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which plays an important role in infection and allergic reactions. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma has not been adequately investigated. We analyzed serum ECP mRNA expression in 63 children with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy children by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to understand the role of ECP in children with bronchial asthma. The children with bronchial asthma were segregated into acute-phase and stable-phase groups, based on the severity of the illness. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma (0.375 ± 0.04) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (0.20 ± 0.02; P bronchial asthma.

  1. Distal bronchial tubes damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Sheyanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study prevalence and clinical picture of distal parts of bronchial tree(bronchiolitis in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 104 nonsmoking pts with RA and 100 pts without RA and chronic diseases of respiratory apparatus were included. General clinical examination, spirometry, bodyplethysmography, examination of lung diffusion capacity (LDC and multispiralcomputed tomography (MSCT of lungs were performed. Results. Direct and indirect bronchiolitis signs were revealed with MSCT in 36 (35% ptswith RA and 1 pt of control group (p<0,01. Pts with signs of bronchiolitis complained of shortness of breath (69% of pts, cough (56%, phlegm discharge (56%, heavy breathing (25%. Obstructive lung ventilation disturbances were revealed in 19 (53% RA pts with bronchiolitis. Restrictive disturbances and LDC decrease were present in 3 (8% pts. High frequency of oligosymptomatic bronchiolitis course was found in RA pts. Bronchiolitis symptoms in RA pts coincided with signs of proximal bronchial tubes damage forming picture of diffuse damage of bronchial tree. Conclusion. Bronchiolitis is a prevalent variant of respiratory apparatus damage in pts with RA. Pts with MSCT signs of bronchiolitis often have cough, phlegm discharge, shortness of breath, heavy breathing. Lung ventilation disturbances of obstructive type are common but part of pts has normal lung functional measures or restriction. Oligosymptomatic forms of distal bronchial tubes damage are prevalent in RA pts. Lung MSCT is the main method of bronchiolitis diagnostics because bronchiolitis induces nonspecific clinical signs and RA pts have multilevel respiratory apparatus damage. MSCT reveals signs of distal bronchial tubes damage in 35% of RA pts.

  2. Bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in well controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, X; Sanchez-Vidaurre, S; Roca, O; Torres, F; Morell, F; Cruz, M J

    2012-09-01

    Little research has been devoted to the characteristics of bronchial inflammation in patients with stable, well controlled asthma. The aim of this study was to assess the degree and type of airway inflammation and to investigate the relationship between inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with well controlled asthma. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 84 adult patients (43 men, mean age 43 years) with documented well controlled asthma. Induced sputum samples were obtained and cell types determined by differential cell count. Spirometry and methacholine challenge testing were performed. Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was used to assess symptoms. Patients were included if their ACQ score was bronchial inflammation: 28 cases were considered eosinophilic, 28 neutrophilic, and 3 mixed. Median (range) percentage of eosinophils was 4% (0-64) in patients testing positive to methacholine challenge (n = 66) and 1% (0-3) in those testing negative (n = 18) (P = 0.003). A positive correlation was found between eosinophil percentage and the methacholine dose/response ratio (r = 0.477, P = 0.0001). The geometric mean (95% CI) of the methacholine PC20 was 1.74 mg/mL (1.04-2.93) in patients with eosinophilic inflammation and 4.14 mg/mL (2.5-6.84) in those with neutrophilic inflammation (P = 0.03). Inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness persist in most patients with well controlled asthma. The study demonstrates that eosinophilic or neutrophilic inflammation persisted in most well controlled asthma patients despite the fact that their condition was controlled and therefore, measurement of bronchial inflammation seems essential to achieve proper asthma control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Use of MDCT to Assess the Results of Bronchial Thermoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Matheus; Strieder, Débora L; Rubin, Adalberto S; Watte, Guilherme; Marchiori, Edson; Cardoso, Paulo F G; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MDCT to assess response to bronchial thermoplasty treatment for severe persistent asthma. MDCT data from 26 patients with severe persistent asthma who underwent imaging before and after bronchial thermoplasty were analyzed retrospectively. Changes in the following parameters were assessed: total lung volume, mean lung density, airway wall thickness, CT air trapping index (attenuation < -856 HU), and expiratory-inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I index). Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score changes were also assessed. Median total lung volumes before and after bronchial thermoplasty were 2668 mL (range, 2226-3096 mL) and 2399 mL (range, 1964-2802 mL; p = 0.08), respectively. Patients also showed a pattern of obstruction improvement in air trapping values (median before thermoplasty, 14.25%; median after thermoplasty, 3.65%; p < 0.001] and in mean lung density values ± SD (before thermoplasty, -702 ± 72 HU; after thermoplasty, -655 ± 66 HU; p < 0.01). Median airway wall thickness also decreased after bronchial thermoplasty (before thermoplasty, 1.5 mm; after thermoplasty, 1.1 mm; p < 0.05). There was a mean Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire overall score change of 1.00 ± 1.35 (p < 0.001), indicating asthma clinical improvement. Our study showed improvement in CT measurements after bronchial thermoplasty, along with Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score changes. Thus, MDCT could be useful for imaging evaluation of patients undergoing this treatment.

  4. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, Omar; McCloskey, Jenny; Molina, Vicente Marco; Quirós, Beatriz; Bravo, Ignacio G; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pimenoff, Ville N

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and -positive patients. Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Sixteen (16/47) of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47) were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM); Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Vhlh and Pten Mutation Causes Genital Tract Cystadenoma and Squamous Metaplasia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ian J.; Minola, Andrea; Georgiev, Strahil; Hitz, Manuela; Moch, Holger; Richard, Stéphane; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Krek, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease develop tumors in a range of tissues, but existing mouse models of Vhlh mutation have failed to reproduce these lesions. Epididymal cystadenomas arise frequently in VHL patients, but VHL mutation alone is believed to be insufficient for tumor formation, implying a requirement for cooperating mutations in epididymal pathogenesis. Here we show that epididymal cystadenomas from VHL patients frequently also lack expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor and display activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling. Strikingly, while conditional inactivation of either Vhlh or Pten in epithelia of the mouse genital tract fails to produce a tumor phenotype, their combined deletion causes benign genital tract tumors with regions of squamous metaplasia and cystadenoma. The latter are histologically identical to lesions found in VHL patients. Importantly, these lesions are characterized by expansion of basal stem cells, high levels of expression and activity of HIF1α and HIF2α, and dysregulation of PI3K signaling. Our studies suggest a model for cooperative tumor suppression in which inactivation of PTEN facilitates epididymal cystadenoma genesis initiated by loss of VHL. PMID:18474617

  6. [Controversial categories in cytopathology of the uterine cervix. I. ASCUS: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Chieppa, A; Vecchione, A

    2001-02-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) is a class for reporting cervical cytopathologic diagnoses. The Bethesda System (TBS) introduced ASCUS in 1988 and then defined this cytologic class further. Since the initial subclassification in probably reactive or probably neoplastic , TBS proposed different subgroups for a correct clinical management. At present, the subgroups are the following: ASCUS a) due to compromised specimen (poor processing or obscuring material); b) with mature intermediate-type cytoplasm; c) in postmenopausal women; d) atypical metaplasia; and e) with orangeophilic cytoplasm. Generally, clinical management of ASCUS presents 3 options: 1) cytologic follow-up (colposcopy only in a persistent diagnosis of ASCUS); 2) colposcopy; and 3) both Human papillomavirus testing and Pap-test. These options may be adopted in the ASCUS type b) and e) whereas in the type c) only in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. In the ASCUS type a), Pap-test should be immediately repeated (processing defects) or after therapy (excessive inflammation). In postmenopausal women not receiving hormone replacement therapy, the Pap-test has to be repeated after topical estrogen therapy. In ASCUS type d), a more aggressive follow-up is needed, such as colposcopy and eventual biopsy. Therefore, in the ASCUS diagnosis an effective communication between cytopathologist and clinician is needed for a correct clinical management.

  7. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  8. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  9. Cytochromes P450 are Expressed in Proliferating Cells in Barrett's Metaplasia

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    Steven J. Hughes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 proteins, but it was noted that cells within the basal proliferative zone did not express CYPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of Barrett's esophagus (n = 13 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 that was prominent in the basal glandular regions, which are areas containing a high percentage of actively proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical staining for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the CYPs further supported the colocalization of CYP expression to areas of active cell proliferation in Barrett's esophagus, whereas in the esophageal squamous epithelium, CYP expression is limited to cells that are not proliferating. RT-PCR with amplification product sequence analysis confirmed CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 mRNA expression in Barrett's esophagus. These data suggest that the potential ability of cells in Barrett's esophagus to both activate carcinogens and proliferate may be important risk factors affecting carcinogenesis in this metaplastic tissue.

  10. Bronchial thermoplasty for moderate or severe persistent asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrego, Alfons; Solà, Ivan; Munoz, Ana Maria; Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan Jose; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Plaza, Vicente

    2014-03-03

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a procedure that consists of the delivery of controlled radiofrequency-generated heat via a catheter inserted into the bronchial tree of the lungs through a flexible bronchoscope. It has been suggested that bronchial thermoplasty works by reducing airway smooth muscle, thereby reducing the ability of the smooth muscle to bronchoconstrict. This treatment could then reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, resulting in improved asthma control and quality of life. To determine the efficacy and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in adults with bronchial asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials (CAGR) up to January 2014. We included randomised controlled clinical trials that compared bronchial thermoplasty versus any active control in adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma. Our primary outcomes were quality of life, asthma exacerbations and adverse events. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included three trials (429 participants) with differences regarding their design (two trials compared bronchial thermoplasty vs medical management and the other compared bronchial thermoplasty vs a sham intervention) and participant characteristics; one of the studies included participants with more symptomatic asthma compared with the others.The pooled analysis showed improvement in quality of life at 12 months in participants who received bronchial thermoplasty that did not reach the threshold for clinical significance (3 trials, 429 participants; mean difference (MD) in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.50; moderate-quality evidence). Measures of symptom control showed no significant differences (3 trials, 429 participants; MD in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores -0.15, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.10; moderate-quality evidence). The risk of bias for these outcomes was high because two of the studies did not

  11. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  12. The transcription factor MIST1 is a novel human gastric chief cell marker whose expression is lost in metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Jochen K M; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Oates, Edward L; Huh, Won Jae; Doherty, Jason M; Tian, Xiaolin; Bredemeyer, Andrew J; Goldenring, James R; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Shin, Young-Kee; Mills, Jason C

    2010-09-01

    The lack of reliable molecular markers for normal differentiated epithelial cells limits understanding of human gastric carcinogenesis. Recognized precursor lesions for gastric adenocarcinoma are intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM), defined here by ectopic CDX2 and TFF2 expression, respectively. In mice, expression of the bHLH transcription factor MIST1, normally restricted to mature chief cells, is down-regulated as chief cells undergo experimentally induced metaplasia. Here, we show MIST1 expression is also a specific marker of human chief cells. SPEM, with and without MIST1, is present in human lesions and, akin to murine data, likely represents transitional (TFF2(+)/MIST1(+) = "hybrid"-SPEM) and established (TFF2(+)/MIST1(-) = SPEM) stages. Co-visualization of MIST1 and CDX2 shows similar progressive loss of MIST1 with a transitional, CDX2(+)/MIST1(-) hybrid-intestinal metaplasia stage. Interinstitutional analysis and comparison of findings in tissue microarrays, resection specimens, and biopsies (n > 400 samples), comprising the entire spectrum of recognized stages of gastric carcinogenesis, confirm MIST1 expression is restricted to the chief cell compartment in normal oxyntic mucosa, rare in established metaplastic lesions, and lost in intraepithelial neoplasia/dysplasia and carcinoma of various types with the exception of rare chief cell carcinoma ( approximately 1%). Our findings implicate MIST1 as a reliable marker of mature, healthy chief cells, and we provide the first evidence that metaplasia in humans arises at least in part from the chief cell lineage.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gichuhi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is the end-stage of a spectrum of disease referred to as ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. OSSN is a malignant disease of the eyes that can lead to loss of vision and, in severe cases, death. The main risk factors for both are exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation outdoors, HIV/AIDS, human papilloma virus and allergic conjunctivitis. The limbal epithelial cells appear to be the progenitors of this disease.

  14. Presence and possible significance of immunohistochemically demonstrable prolactin in breast apocrine metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Mansel, R E; Jasani, B

    1987-03-01

    Paraffin wax embedded formalin-fixed benign breast disease tissue taken from 17 patients (15 with microcystic disease and 2 with fibroadenoma) was studied for the presence of tissue bound prolactin using a rabbit antiserum against human prolactin applied in conjunction with a highly sensitive modified version of the dinitrophenyl (DNP)-hapten sandwich staining (DHSS) procedure. Sections taken from 14 of the 15 cases showing apocrine cystic changes exhibited strong prolactin staining restricted to the cytoplasm of metaplastic apocrine cells lining the cysts. Normal lobules and ducts and blunt duct proliferations were all negative, as were also the two cases of fibroadenoma. In contrast 6 out of 8 cases of breast cancer examined showed heterogenously distributed cytoplasmic staining in the cancer cells. Maximal prolactin staining in the apocrine cells was observed at antiserum dilutions as high as 1:60,000. This compared favourably with a 1:120,000 dilution that gave maximal levels of staining in the prolactotrophs present in serial sections taken from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded post mortem human anterior pituitaries. In both types of tissues the specific staining was abolished by pre-absorption of the antiserum with human prolactin (10 micrograms ml-1). No staining was observed when the anti-prolactin serum was either omitted or substituted with DNP-labelled normal rabbit serum. Apocrine metaplasia in cystic disease of the breast has recently been found to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. The strong and selective presence of immunohistochemically demonstrable prolactin in the metaplastic cells may be of significance in view of the hormone's known growth stimulating effect on the breast epithelium.

  15. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  16. SCHLAFEN 5 expression correlates with intestinal metaplasia that progresses to gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companioni Nápoles, Osmel; Tsao, Amy C; Sanz-Anquela, José Miguel; Sala, Núria; Bonet, Catalina; Pardo, María Luisa; Ding, Lin; Simo, Ornella; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Blanco, Verónica Parra; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Merchant, Juanita L

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a gastric cancer precursor lesion (GCPL) and an extremely high risk factor for progression to gastric cancer (GC). Clinical guidelines recommend that patients with extensive IM undergo a gastroscopy every 3 years. However, protein biomarkers that indicate a transition from IM to GC are lacking. Our group recently identified an interferon-alpha (IFNα)-responsive gene, Schlafen 4 (Slfn4), in immune cells that correlates with metaplastic changes in Helicobacter-infected mice. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a human homolog of Slfn4, namely, Schlafen 5 (SLFN5), correlates with progression of GCPL to GC. Jurkat T-lymphoid and HL-60 myeloid cell lines were treated with IFNα, and SLFN5 mRNA was quantified by quantitative PCR. SLFN5 protein expression in the inflamed gastric mucosa was co-localized to specific immune cell types by immunohistochemistry using CD20, CD2, and MAC2 antibodies. SLFN5 expression was also determined by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from individuals with non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, complete IM, incomplete IM, and GC, respectively. The IFNα treatment of Jurkat and HL-60 cells induced SLFN5 mRNA. SLFN5 protein was expressed mainly by T lymphocytes in inflamed gastric mucosa. The highest level of SLFN5 expression was observed in patients with IM that progressed to GC. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that correlating SLFN5 expression with the histologic diagnosis of IM significantly increased the probability of identifying patients who may progress to GC. In this study population, elevated SLFN5 protein expression in patients with IM correlated with progression to GC.

  17. Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarresi, Jason R; Liu, Xin; Sharma, Sudarshana M; Cuitiño, Maria C; Kladney, Raleigh D; Mace, Thomas A; Donohue, Sydney; Nayak, Sunayana G; Qu, Chunjing; Lee, James; Woelke, Sarah A; Trela, Stefan; LaPak, Kyle; Yu, Lianbo; McElroy, Joseph; Rosol, Thomas J; Shakya, Reena; Ludwig, Thomas; Lesinski, Gregory B; Fernandez, Soledad A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Leone, Gustavo; Wu, Jinghai; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples relative to normal pancreatic controls. LSL-Kras(G12D/+); LSL-Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice showed that ETS2 expression initially increased in fibroblasts during ADM and remained elevated through progression to PDAC. Conditional ablation of Ets-2 in pancreatic fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse ADM model decreased the amount of ADM events. ADMs from fibroblast Ets-2-deleted animals had reduced epithelial cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Surprisingly, fibroblast Ets-2 deletion significantly altered immune cell infiltration into the stroma, with an increased CD8+ T-cell population, and decreased presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and mature macrophages. The mechanism involved ETS2-dependent chemokine ligand production in fibroblasts. ETS2 directly bound to regulatory sequences for Ccl3, Ccl4, Cxcl4, Cxcl5, and Cxcl10, a group of chemokines that act as potent mediators of immune cell recruitment. These results suggest an unappreciated role for ETS2 in fibroblasts in establishing an immune-suppressive microenvironment in response to oncogenic Kras(G12D) signaling during the initial stages of tumor development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) induces intestinal metaplasia and cell proliferation to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Soichiro; Shibata, Wataru; Kameta, Eri; Sato, Takeshi; Ishii, Yasuaki; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Miwa, Haruo; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Tamura, Toshihide; Kondo, Masaaki; Maeda, Shin

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia (IM) through genetic and epigenetic changes and activation of intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanism of IM in gastric carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated. We previously found that intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) mRNA expression increased in organoids cultured from Helicobacter-infected mouse mucosa. In this study, we elucidate the role of ISX in the development of IM and gastric carcinogenesis. ISX expression was assessed in Helicobacter-infected mouse and human gastric mucosa. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were co-cultured with H. pylori to determine whether Helicobacter infection induced ISX expression. We established stable MKN45 transfected cells expressing ISX (Stable-ISX MKN45) and performed a spheroid colony formation assay and a xenograft model. We performed ISX immunohistochemistry in cancer and adjacent gastric tissues. ISX expression was increased in mouse and human gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter. The presence of IM and H. pylori infection in human stomach was correlated with ISX expression. H. pylori induced ISX mRNA and protein expression. CDX1/2, cyclinD1, and MUC2 were upregulated in Stable-ISX MKN45, whereas MUC5AC was downregulated. Stable-ISX MKN45 cells formed more spheroid colonies, and had high tumorigenic ability. ISX expression in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa were correlated. ISX expression induced by H. pylori infection may lead to IM and hyperproliferation of gastric mucosa through CDX1/2 and cyclinD1 expression, contributing to gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. Maintenance of acinar cell organization is critical to preventing Kras-induced acinar-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; DiRenzo, D; Qu, C; Barney, D; Miley, D; Konieczny, S F

    2013-04-11

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers owing to a number of characteristics including difficulty in establishing early diagnosis and the absence of effective therapeutic regimens. A large number of genetic alterations have been ascribed to PDAC with mutations in the KRAS2 proto-oncogene thought to be an early event in the progression of disease. Recent lineage-tracing studies have shown that acinar cells expressing mutant Kras(G12D) are induced to transdifferentiate, generating duct-like cells through a process known as acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM). ADM lesions then convert to precancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that progresses to PDAC over time. Thus, understanding the earliest events involved in ADM/PanIN formation would provide much needed information on the molecular pathways that are instrumental in initiating this disease. As studying the transition of acinar cells to metaplastic ductal cells in vivo is complicated by analysis of the entire organ, an in vitro three dimensional (3D) culture system was used to model ADM outside the animal. Kras(G12D)-expressing acinar cells rapidly underwent ADM in 3D culture, forming ductal cysts that silenced acinar genes and activated duct genes, characteristics associated with in vivo ADM/PanIN lesions. Analysis of downstream KRAS signaling events established a critical importance for the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in ADM induction. In addition, forced expression of the acinar-restricted transcription factor Mist1, which is critical to acinar cell organization, significantly attenuated Kras(G12D)-induced ADM/PanIN formation. These results suggest that maintaining MIST1 activity in Kras(G12D)-expressing acinar cells can partially mitigate the transformation activity of oncogenic KRAS. Future therapeutics that target both the MAPK pathway and Mist1 transcriptional networks may show promising efficacy in combating this deadly disease.

  20. Transgenic Expression of Interferon-γ in Mouse Stomach Leads to Inflammation, Metaplasia, and Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Li-Jyun; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Liu, Zhiping; Tetarbe, Manas; Keeley, Theresa M.; Pero, Joanna; Ferris, Jennifer; Wilbert, Dawn; Kaatz, Ashley; Zheng, Xinlei; Qiao, Xiotan; Grachtchouk, Marina; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Samuelson, Linda C.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. It arises through a stepwise process that includes prominent inflammation with expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and multiple other pro-inflammatory cytokines. We engineered mice expressing IFN-γ under the control of the stomach-specific H+/K+ ATPase β promoter to test the potential role of this cytokine in gastric tumorigenesis. Stomachs of H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice exhibited inflammation, expansion of myofibroblasts, loss of parietal and chief cells, spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, and dysplasia. Proliferation was elevated in undifferentiated and metaplastic epithelial cells in H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice, and there was increased apoptosis. H/K-IFN-γ mice had elevated levels of mRNA for IFN-γ target genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Intracellular mediators of IFN-γ and IL-6 signaling, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3, respectively, were detected in multiple cell types within stomach. H/K-IFN-γ mice developed dysplasia as early as 3 months of age, and 4 of 39 mice over 1 year of age developed antral polyps or tumors, including one adenoma and one adenocarcinoma, which expressed high levels of nuclear β-catenin. Our data identified IFN-γ as a pivotal secreted factor that orchestrates complex changes in inflammatory, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell populations to drive pre-neoplastic progression in stomach; however, additional alterations appear to be required for malignant conversion. PMID:23036899

  1. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 regulates neutrophil elastase-induced mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marisa L; Potts-Kant, Erin N; Ghio, Andrew J; Fischer, Bernard M; Foster, W Michael; Voynow, Judith A

    2012-08-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) and neutrophil-predominant airway inflammation are pathological features of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. A signature feature of MCM is increased expression of a major respiratory tract mucin, MUC5AC. Neutrophil elastase (NE) upregulates MUC5AC in primary airway epithelial cells by generating reactive oxygen species, and this response is due in part to upregulation of NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity. Delivery of NE directly to the airway triggers inflammation and MCM and increases synthesis and secretion of MUC5AC protein from airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that NE-induced MCM is mediated in vivo by NQO1. Male wild-type and Nqo1-null mice (C57BL/6 background) were exposed to human NE (50 μg) or vehicle via oropharyngeal aspiration on days 1, 4, and 7. On days 8 and 11, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained and evaluated for MCM, inflammation, and oxidative stress. MCM, inflammation, and production of specific cytokines, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-5 were diminished in NE-treated Nqo1-null mice compared with NE-treated wild-type mice. However, in contrast to the role of NQO1 in vitro, we demonstrate that NE-treated Nqo1-null mice had greater levels of BAL and lung tissue lipid carbonyls and greater BAL iron on day 11, all consistent with increased oxidative stress. NQO1 is required for NE-induced inflammation and MCM. This model system demonstrates that NE-induced MCM directly correlates with inflammation, but not with oxidative stress.

  2. Recognition of goblet cells upon endocytoscopy indicates the presence of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; To, Kai Fai; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Lam, Candice Chuen Hing; Chan, Francis Ka Leung; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Lau, James Yun Wong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is considered precancerous and is difficult to differentiate upon endoscopy. Endocytoscopy enables observation at a cellular level for focused biopsy. The present study examined the use of endocytoscopy for recognition of gastric IM. Patients with a history of gastric IM were recruited. We first carried out narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy to look for suspicious areas of gastric IM. A prototype endocytoscope with a magnification of 450× was used to re-examine these areas. Areas examined were biopsied for histological comparison. Presence of goblet cells was considered as representative of IM upon endocytoscopy. Twenty patients were recruited with NBI demonstrating 102 suspicious lesions of gastric IM. Mean age of patients was 53.9 ± 7.6 years. Upon histology, 72 biopsies were confirmed as gastric IM, 15 showed IM and low-grade dysplasia, whereas 15were diagnosed as chronic gastritis. Endocytoscopy image quality was significantly better for areas of IM as compared to gastritis (P cells upon endocytoscopy achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 for gastric IM. Receiver operator characteristics curve achieved an area under curve of 0.8 with the presence of goblet cells under endocytoscopy as compared to 0.64 for NBI alone. Presence of goblet cells upon endocytoscopy indicates a diagnosis of gastric IM. Image quality of endocytoscopy, however, is suboptimal. Further developments in endocytoscopy should focus on image quality and staining methods to enhance differentiation between IM, dysplasia and early gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  3. Prostate stem cell antigen gene TT genotype and development of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotani, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Tanaka, Shingo; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is etiologically related to interactions between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, environmental and host factors. Gastric carcinoma is associated with a cascade of increasing atrophic gastric mucosal damage. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the interaction between PSCA polymorphisms and H. pylori in the progression of H. pylori-related gastritis. The genotypes (TT, TC and CC) of PSCA single nucleotide polymorphism rs2294008 among H. pylori infected and uninfected Bhutanese were compared with the severity of H. pylori-related gastritis [neutrophils, monocytes, atrophy scores, H. pylori density, and the presence and extent of intestinal metaplasia (IM)] using the updated Sydney system. Biopsies from 339 participants were included. The proportion of biopsies with IM was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in those with the TT genotype than in either those with the CT or CC genotype. Although no significant differences were found in inflammation or H. pylori density scores, the scores for IM at both gastric corpus and antrum among participants infected by H. pylori with the TT genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the C allele carriers. PSCA TT genotype is associated with a more than a threefold increase in the prevalence and the extent of gastric mucosal IM compared to C allele carriers among H. pylori-infected Bhutanese. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  5. Cutaneous metastases of a bronchial adenocarcinoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Degorce-Rubiales, Frederique

    2005-06-01

    This case report describes a cat with metastasis of a bronchial adenocarcinoma to the abdominal skin. The cat had been treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids for several episodes of coughing when it acutely developed erythema, pustules and plaques on the abdominal skin. Diagnosis was based on cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates of cutaneous pustules, X-ray examination of the thorax and histological examination of skin biopsy samples. As the prognosis was poor, the cat was euthanased. Necropsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Cutaneous metastases of lung carcinoma are rare in cats but have been reported in the digits with underlying bone involvement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of metastasis of a feline bronchial carcinoma to the ventral skin.

  6. CARIOUS EXPERIENCE IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Olar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is one of the most common pathologies of the chronic diseases of childhood, recording an ever-increasing frequency. The paper develops a control-type case study on the carious experience of 25 children suffering from bronchial asthma, comparatively with 25 healthy children. In both groups, the dmf-t/DMFT indices were calculated and the presence of Streptococcus mutans (SM and Lactobacillus acidophillus (LA in stimulated saliva, in concentrations with high cariogeneity risk, was determined. Carious experience and the SM level in concentrations with cariogenic risk were statistically significant in children with bronchic asthma (p=0.02. The presence of LA in concentrations with cariogenic risk was also higher in these children, yet statistically insignificant, comparatively with the reference (p>0.05.

  7. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  8. The quality of life in children with bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Boušková, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses the quality of life in children with bronchial asthma. It outlines causes, classification, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention, education of children with asthma and their quality of life. The qualitative assessment is the key issue of the work. The object of the research is represented by the children with asthma. The aim of the research is to describe the influence of asthma on the quality of life in children.

  9. Use of Physiotherapy at Asthma Bronchiale in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Petržílková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This work deal with use of physiotherapyst methodes within the global treatment of bronchial asthma in childhood. In the first part is served a brief overview about physiology of respiration and charakteristic illness. In the next one, the main part, is present listing options, how the physiotherapy can favorably affect the process and progress of disease and describes, what need to be focus on during the treatment of children with asthma.

  10. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Grover Naveen; D′Souza G; Thennarasu K; Kumaraiah V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured...

  11. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  12. [Diagnosis of children with occult bronchial foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Beibei; Huang, Ying; Li, Qubei; Dai, Jihong; Yuan, Xiaoping

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the clinical manifestation of children with occult bronchial foreign body, to analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis, to summarize the way of diagnosis and to emphasize the value of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of children with such disease. A retrospective analysis of 22 cases of occult bronchial foreign body diagnosed and treated with bronchoscopy in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University during the period from March 1, 2009 to February 28, 2014. Of the 22 cases, 15 were male and 7 female. Their age ranged from nine months and eight days to fourteen years and six months. The course of disease ranged in length from six days to one year. It took us one to thirty-three days in diagnosing the problem. They or their parents all denied aspirating foreign body and the patients did not have irritating chokes. They did not have tracheal displacement or flapping sound. There were no direct signs of bronchial foreign body in their imaging examination. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed as pneumonia before bronchoscopy, and the remaining one was diagnosed as tuberculosis. All of the patients were complicated with infection; atelectasis was found in 15 cases/times, lung consolidation in 10 cases/times, emphysema in 4, pleural effusion in 5, bronchiectasis in 4, one case had respiratory failure, one case had septicemia. The clinical symptoms were relieved in the patients after bronchoscopy, 3 cases were cured, 19 cases were improved. Occult bronchial foreign body with certain complications and great harm is hard to diagnose. We should pay more attention to the important clues, such as a child with repeated pulmonary infection, indirect signs of airway obstruction and difficult to treat. Early bronchoscopy will be useful to improve diagnostics once the vital clue is found.

  13. Use motion games in exercise with children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Polkovnyk-Markova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the possibility of using moving games in the rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma. Material & Methods: the modern scientific literature on integrated prevention and treatment of children with asthma. Results: A high frequency of morphological and functional deviations at children with asthma. Classification and examples of mobile games, which can be used for this group of children. Conclusions: the results of modern research that show the effectiveness the use of physical rehabilitation, including moving games.

  14. Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the gastric oxyntic mucosa does not arise from Lgr5-expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan L; Coffey, Robert J; Finke, Paul E; Barker, Nick; Goldenring, James R

    2012-12-01

    Metaplastic lineages in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach are critical preneoplastic precursors of gastric cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the mouse oxyntic mucosa arises from transdifferentiation of mature gastric chief cells. Other investigations of intestinal progenitor cells have shown that cells demonstrating transcriptional activity for leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) in the intestine, colon and gastric antrum function as adult stem cells. We have now investigated whether cells demonstrating Lgr5 transcriptional activity in the oxyntic mucosa of mice might be responsible for development of metaplasia. Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2/+);Rosa26R mice were used to examine the distribution of Lgr5 transcriptionally active cells in the normal oxyntic mucosa as well as after treatment with DMP-777 or L-635 to induce acute SPEM. Lineage mapping was performed to determine if Lgr5-expressing cells gave rise to SPEM. Cells expressing transcriptional activity for Lgr5 in the oxyntic mucosa were present as scattered rare cells only along the lesser curvature of the stomach. These cells also stained for markers of chief cells (intrinsic factor and pepsinogen) but never showed any staining for proliferative markers (Ki-67). In Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2/+);Rosa26R mice induced with tamoxifen, treatment with either DMP-777 or L-635 to induce acute oxyntic atrophy caused induction of SPEM, but no lineage mapping into SPEM from Lgr5-expressing cells was observed. The results indicate that, while chief cells with Lgr5 transcriptional activity are present along the lesser curvature of the gastric oxyntic mucosa, they are not responsible for production of metaplasia.

  15. Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia accompanies c-myc-induced exocrine pancreatic cancer progression in transgenic rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Paul J; Sandgren, Eric P

    2012-09-01

    Several important characteristics of exocrine pancreatic tumor pathogenesis remain incompletely defined, including identification of the cell of origin. Most human pancreatic neoplasms are ductal adenocarcinomas. However, acinar cells have been proposed as the source of some ductal neoplasms through a process of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. The oncogenic transcription factor c-myc is associated with human pancreatic neoplasms. Transgenic mice overexpressing c-myc under control of acinar cell-specific elastase (Ela) gene regulatory elements not only develop acinar cell carcinomas but also mixed neoplasms that display both acinar-like neoplastic cells and duct-like neoplastic cells. In this report, we demonstrate that, first, c-myc is sufficient to induce acinar hyperplasia, though neoplastic lesions develop focally. Second, cell proliferation remains elevated in the neoplastic duct cell compartment of mixed neoplasms. Third, the proliferation/apoptosis ratio in cells from all lesion types remains constant, suggesting that differential regulation of these processes is not a feature of cancer progression in this model. Fourth, before the development of mixed neoplasms, there is transcriptional activation of the duct cell-specific cytokeratin-19 gene promoter in multicellular foci of amylase-positive acinar neoplasms. This observation provides direct evidence for metaplasia as the mechanism underlying development of ductal neoplastic cells within the context of an acinar neoplasm and suggests that the stimulus for this transformation acts over a multicellular domain or field within a neoplasm. Finally, focal ductal elements develop in some acinar cell carcinomas in Ela-c-myc transgenic rats, indicating that myc-associated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia is not restricted to the mouse. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Orbital Cellulitis: A Rare Presentation of Metastatic Bronchial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We report a rare and unusual case of bronchial carcinoma presenting with symptoms of complications of sinonasal disease. Case Report. A 66-year-old lady was referred with a 1-week history of progressive ocular pain, chemosis, and visual disturbance. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed frontal and ethmoidal sinus opacification with orbital involvement consistent with a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis secondary to sinusitis. Surgical exploration revealed that the sinuses and right orbit were filled with soft tissue and subsequent histopathological examination of the biopsies indicating metastases from an adenosquamous bronchial carcinoma. Further imaging revealed a large, asymptomatic, bronchial primary with deposits in the brain and liver. The advanced presentation of the disease limited treatment to best supportive care. Conclusion. Orbital cellulitis and sinonasal malignancies have a similar pattern of clinical presentation, posing a potential diagnostic pitfall. There are only two previously reported cases of metastatic lung carcinoma in the frontal sinus with 15 cases of sinonasal tract involvement reported overall. There are no reported cases of adenosquamous carcinoma in the sinonasal tract.

  17. Risk factors of bronchial asthma in bahrah, saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazam, A; Mohamed, A G

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers. Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah. The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy controls matched in age and sex. A questionnaire was completed from cases and controls, consisting of data regarding personal, familial, indoor and outdoor environmental factors that may be potential risk factors to asthma. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess risk factors. The mean ages of cases and controls were 22.4 (± 16.7) and 22.8 (± 16.1) years, respectively. Each group consisted of 64 males (58%) and 46 (42%) females. There was a significant association between distance from houses to brick factories and bronchial asthma (Chi square for linear trend = 26.6, pfactories, family history and history of rhinitis, skin atopy, or recurrent respiratory tract infections are risk factors of bronchial asthma. An in-depth study to asses air pollution in Bahrah is recom-mended. People are advised not to live near brick factories.

  18. Decreased physical activity in adults with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hul, Alex J; Frouws, Siete; van den Akker, Edmee; van Lummel, Rob; Starrenburg-Razenberg, Anja; van Bruggen, Alie; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M

    2016-05-01

    Contradictory findings have been reported in the literature on the impact that bronchial asthma may have on habitual physical activity. The present study was designed to compare physical activity, objectively measured with an activity monitor, between adults with bronchial asthma and apparently healthy controls. Valid registrations of physical activity were obtained in 226 patients with asthma and 201 healthy controls. A multiple general linear model was used to test between group differences and to correct for confounding of the results due to between group differences in BMI and employment status. In the patients, statistically significantly lower values were found for average steps/day (-1202; CI -1893 to -511; P = 0.001), physical activity level based on an estimate of a person's total energy expenditure (-0.035; CI -0.067 to -0.003); P = 0.034) and daily time (minutes) spent at vigorous intensive physical activity (-11; CI -17 to -1; P asthma control. We conclude that bronchial asthma in adults is associated with a significant reduction in physical activity as compared to apparently healthy controls and is accompanied by a lower perceived health status. This is in support of the postulation of PA as potential pathway to better the outcome of care for these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of bronchial asthma among orang asli in peninsular malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Chow, S C; de Bruyne, J A; Liam, C K

    2011-03-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of bronchial asthma and their contributing risk factors among Orang Asli subgroups living in Malaysia using IUATLD questionnaire and spirometry without being discriminatory towards age or gender. Of the 1171 distributed questionnaires, 716 (61.1%) comprising of 62.7% Semai Pahang, 51.3% Temiar, 74.2% Mah Meri, 65.6% Semai Perak, 53.6% Temuan, 53.8% Semelai, 61.1% Jakun and 67.4% Orang Kuala subgroups completed their questionnaire and were included in the data analysis. Participants comprised 549 (76.7%) children and 167 (23.3%) adults, age between 1 to 83 years old, 304 (42.5%) males and 412 (57.5%) females. The overall prevalence of bronchial asthma was 1.4% of which 1.5% was children, 1.3% adults, 1.0% male and 1.7% female, respectively. Of the 8 subgroups surveyed, 5 out of 10 confirmed asthma cases were Semai Pahang, followed by 3 cases among Mah Meri, and one case each among Temuan and Semai Perak subgroups, respectively. This study also demonstrated that the prevalence of self-reported and confirmed bronchial asthma tend to be higher among those who had close contact with pets, smoking individuals and among those who had a family history of asthma.

  20. CDX2 homeoprotein is involved in the regulation of ST6GalNAc-I gene in intestinal metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Barros, Rita; Pereira-Castro, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    De novo expression of Sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen is one of the most common features of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinomas, and its biosynthesis has been mostly attributed to ST6GalNAc-I activity. However, the regulation of this glycosyltransferase expression is not elucidated. In IM...... in vitro differentiation, and overexpression of CDX2 in MKN45 gastric cells increases ST6GalNAc-I transcript levels. Nine putative CDX-binding sites in the ST6GalNAc-I-regulatory sequence were identified and analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation in Caco-2 cells and in IM. The results showed that CDX2...

  1. Response criteria for myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: results of an initiative of the European Myelofibrosis Network (EUMNET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barosi, Giovanni; Bordessoule, Dominique; Briere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The European Myelofibrosis Network (EUMNET), a European research network on myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM), has developed a definition of response for the disease by using clinicohematologic, histologic, and cytogenetic criteria. A core set of 5 clinicohematologic criteria was selected...... (Hb) and spleen size and the presence of constitutional symptoms, while changes in platelet count and white blood cell (WBC) count served as complementary criteria and were of value for defining minor responses. A histologic response was defined by changes in bone marrow fibrosis and cellularity...

  2. Unusual jaw metastasis from squamous cell lung cancer in heavy smoker: Two case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Aldo; Morrone, Michelangelo; Mici, Elidon

    2017-05-01

    Jaw metastasis is a very rare condition associated with lung cancer evolution. In this paper we present two cases of patients who underwent different approach.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Survival depends on the staging and biology of tumor. Smoking may affect the prognosis. There are herein reported the cases of two patients affected by squamous cell lung cancer with spread to mandibular bone. In the first case a computed tomography (CT scan) showed a large mass located in upper right lung , then bronchoscopy was performed with biopsies and the histology revealed a squamous cell carcinoma P63+ and TTF-. In the second case upper right lung mass with metastases to mediastinal bilateral lymph nodes was found at CT scan. A bronchial biopsy revealed a squamous cell carcinoma p63 positive and TTF-1 negative. The first, a 65-years old man, current heavy smoker who quit and relapsed, at initial stage of IIa (T2aN1M0), after initial neo-adjuvant chemotherapy underwent lung lobectomy and lymph nodes resection. Three months later a metastasis located on mandibular bone was found out. The second case, a 68-years old female heavy smoker, at initial stage IIIb not available for surgery because of involvement of bilateral lymph nodes, underwent first line course chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine and second line with erlotinib. The first patient underwent hyperthermia and radiotherapy but a sepsis developed and patients died. In the second case, after two months from the beginning of II line the patient developed a jaw metastasis and underwent surgery with resection of hemi-mandible, but soon after she died because of pulmonary embolism. These cases highlight the poor prognosis of patients current smokers affected by squamous cell lung cancer. The jaw bone localization is very rare and different approach could be applied.

  3. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECT OF OMALIZUMAB APPLICATION AMONG THE PATIENTS, SUFFERING FROM THE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kolbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the authors discuss the most difficult issue of the pediatrics, which is the treatment of the severe bronchial asthma. Our columnist is professor A.S. Kolbin introduces omalizumab, a new medication from the monoclonal antibodies group, to our readers. It allows practitioners to control the severe persistent bronchial asthma. The article accentuates the clinical effectiveness and pharmacoeconomic aspects of the medication application.Key words: bronchial asthma, severe run, treatment, monoclonal antibodies, children.

  4. Bronchial reactivity and intracellular magnesium: a possible mechanism for the bronchodilating effects of magnesium in asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominguez, L J; Barbagallo, M; Di Lorenzo, G; Drago, A; Scola, S; Morici, G; Caruso, C

    1998-01-01

    .... In the present study we investigated the relationship between bronchial reactivity, assessed by methacholine-provocation test, and magnesium concentrations both at extracellular and intracellular...

  5. Relationship between length of longitudinal extension and maximal depth of transmural invasion in roentgenographically occult squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus (nonpolypoid type).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamoto, N; Saito, Y; Suda, H; Imai, T; Sato, M; Ohta, S; Kanma, K; Sagawa, M; Takahashi, S; Usuda, K

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to verify our hypothesis that there are two different growth types in roentgenographically occult squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus. Serial blocks prepared from the entire bronchial tree of 83 resected specimens of occult carcinoma were used for the evaluation of the relationship between the length of longitudinal extension and the maximal depth of transmural invasion. We prepared a length-depth diagram of 92 lesions, including multifocal carcinomas, which confirmed that there are at least two types: Most of these lesions are of the creeping type, which shows a marked superficial growth; the minority are of the penetrating type, which shows a marked downward growth. The diagram suggests that occult carcinoma has a propensity either for longitudinal growth along the bronchial lumen or for transmural growth into the bronchial wall at the time of occurrence. It is likely that the penetrating type grows rapidly and becomes advanced in a short time. Identification of longer lesions of the creeping type is occasionally problematical both at bronchoscopy and at surgical treatment. The stump is usually positive for carcinoma unless frozen sections or imprint specimens of the margin of resection are examined, because it is frequently difficult to identify the proximal end of extension by bronchoscopy.

  6. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy is accurate for detecting gastric intestinal metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Corbo, Marina; Dulbecco, Pietro; Gemignani, Lorenzo; Giambruno, Elisa; Mastracci, Luca; Grillo, Federica; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the predictive value of narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) for identifying gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) in unselected patients. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy for various indications, such as epigastric discomfort/pain, anaemia, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, suspicion of peptic ulcer disease, or chronic liver diseases. Patients underwent NBI-ME, which was performed by three blinded, experienced endoscopists. In addition, five biopsies (2 antrum, 1 angulus, and 2 corpus) were taken and examined by two pathologists unaware of the endoscopic findings to determine the presence or absence of GIM. The correlation between light blue crest (LBC) appearance and histology was measured. Moreover, we quantified the degree of LBC appearance as less than 20% (+), 20%-80% (++) and more than 80% (+++) of an image field, and the semiquantitative evaluation of LBC appearance was correlated with IM percentage from the histological findings. RESULTS: We enrolled 100 (58 F/42 M) patients who were mainly referred for gastro-esophageal reflux disease/dyspepsia (46%), cancer screening/anaemia (34%), chronic liver disease (9%), and suspected celiac disease (6%); the remaining patients were referred for other indications. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection detected from the biopsies was 31%, while 67% of the patients used proton pump inhibitors. LBCs were found in the antrum of 33 patients (33%); 20 of the cases were classified as LBC+, 9 as LBC++, and 4 as LBC+++. LBCs were found in the gastric body of 6 patients (6%), with 5 of them also having LBCs in the antrum. The correlation between the appearance of LBCs and histological GIM was good, with a sensitivity of 80% (95%CI: 67-92), a specificity of 96% (95%CI: 93-99), a positive predictive value of 84% (95%CI: 73-96), a negative predictive value of 95% (95%CI: 92-98), and an accuracy of 93% (95%CI: 90-97). The

  7. T cells suppress memory-dependent rapid mucous cell metaplasia in mouse airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Hitendra S; Mebratu, Yohannes A; Montera, Marena; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-20

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition. Therefore, the present study investigated the memory-dependent response of airway epithelial cells to a secondary LPS challenge after the initial inflammation was resolved. Airway epithelial and mucous cells were assessed in response to a secondary LPS challenge in F344/N rats, and in C57BL/6 wild-type (Foxn1(WT)) and T cell-deficient athymic (Foxn1(nu)) mice that were instilled with LPS or saline 40 d earlier. Epithelial expression of TLR4, EGFR, and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (pERK) were also analyzed. LPS-pretreated F344/N rats responded with elevated numbers of AECs after saline challenge and with 3-4-fold increased MCM following the LPS challenge in LPS- compared with saline-pretreated rats. LPS-pretreated rats showed 5-fold higher number of AECs expressing TLR4 apically than saline-pretreated rats. Also, the expression of EGFR was increased in LPS-pretreated rats along with the number of AECs with active or nuclear pERK, and the levels were further increased upon LPS challenge. LPS-pretreated Foxn1(nu) compared with Foxn1(WT) mice showed increased MCM and elevated levels of TLR4, EGFR, and nuclear pERK at 40 d after LPS instillation. LPS challenge further augmented MCM rapidly in Foxn1(nu) compared with Foxn1(WT) mice. Together, these data suggest that AECs preserve an 'innate memory' that drives a rapid mucous phenotype via spatiotemporal regulation of TLR4 and EGFR. Further, T cells may suppress the sustained elevated expression of TLR4 and EGFR and thereby the

  8. MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Pikman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocytosis (ET, and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF. Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR, the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL, or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR.DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L in 9% (4/45 of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12/L, marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis.Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD exhibits certain features of

  9. Inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms increase the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Ying; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lu-Ying; Tian, Meng-Meng; Feng, Guo-Shuang; You, Wei-Cheng; Li, Ji-You

    2010-04-14

    To investigate the effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene polymorphisms, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, on the risk of developing severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). A total of 372 cases were selected from a cohort study in Linqu County, a high risk area for gastric cancer (GC) in northern China. To obtain a sufficient group size, patients with normal or superficial gastritis were included. Based on an average follow-up period of 56 mo, the 372 cases were divided into no progression group (no histological progression from normal or superficial gastritis, n = 137), group I (progressed from normal or superficial gastritis to SCAG, n = 134) and group II (progressed from normal or superficial gastritis to IM, n = 101). IL-8, MIF gene polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing. An increased risk of SCAG was found in subjects with IL-8-251 AA genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.23-5.72] or IL-8-251 A allele carriers (AA + AT) (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.09). An elevated risk of IM was found in subjects with IL-8-251 AT genotype (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.25-4.14) or IL-8-251 A allele carriers (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.16-3.69). An increased risk of SCAG was found in subjects with MIF-173 GC genotype (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.38-4.02) or MIF-173 C allele carriers (GC + CC) (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.21-3.55). An elevated risk of IM was found in subjects with MIF-173 CC genotype (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.16-4.46) or MIF-173 C allele carriers (OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.58-9.34). The risk of SCAG and IM was more evident in subjects carrying IL-8-251 A allele (OR = 6.70, 95% CI: 1.29-9.78) or MIF-173 C allele (OR = 6.54, 95% CI: 2.97-14.20) and positive for H. pylori infection. IL-8-251 and MIF-173 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with the risk of SCAG and IM in a population with a high risk

  10. Farnesoid X receptor signal is involved in deoxycholic acid-induced intestinal metaplasia of normal human gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway is known to be involved in the metabolism of bile acid, glucose and lipid. In the present study, we demonstrated that 400 µmol/l deoxycholic acid (DCA) stimulation promotes the proliferation of normal human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). In addition, DCA activated FXR and increased the expression of intestinal metaplasia genes, including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (Cdx2) and mucin 2 (MUC2). The treatment of FXR agonist GW4064/antagonist guggulsterone (Gug.) significantly increased/decreased the expression levels of FXR, Cdx2 and MUC2 protein in DCA-induced GES-1 cells. GW4064/Gug. also enhanced/reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and binding of the Cdx2 promoter region and NF-κB, the most common subunit p50 protein. Taken together, the results indicated that DCA is capable of modulating the expression of Cdx2 and the downstream MUC2 via the nuclear receptor FXR-NF-κB activity in normal gastric epithelial cells. FXR signaling pathway may therefore be involved in the intestinal metaplasia of human gastric mucosa.

  11. A case report of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles in the submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Cho, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyung Sik; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Nam, Eun Sook

    2016-09-01

    Spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles has not yet been described, and there are no published reports on its cytological appearance in fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 49-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right submandibular area that had been gradually enlarging for a period of 5 years. The cytologic smears showed fascicles of cohesive spindle cells as well as individual bland cells with bipolar naked nuclei in a fibrillary background. Brightly eosinophilic bundles were intermingled with spindle cells and fat-like vacuoles. The FNA results were suggestive of neurogenic tumor. Patient underwent submandibular gland resection. Grossly, the cut surface showed a well-encapsulated, yellowish-white, soft, elastic mass, measuring 2.8 × 1.9 × 1.5 cm. The tumor consisted of uniform bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles admixed with adipocyte-like cells and transversing thick collagen bundles, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for myoepithelial markers and ultrastructural features characteristic of myoepithelial cells, suggesting the presence of lipomatous metaplasia. The FNA cytology of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia mimicked that of neurogenic tumor or lipomatous mesenchymal tumor. This case represents the first description of submandibular gland myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia, which is characterized by the coexistence of spindle cells, collagen bundles, and fat-like vacuoles in a fibrillary background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:764-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  13. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  15. miR-30-HNF4γ and miR-194-NR2F2 regulatory networks contribute to the up-regulation of metaplasia markers in the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Josane F.; Nam, Ki Taek; Petersen, Christine P.; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Goldenring, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) are considered neoplastic precursors of gastric adenocarcinoma and are both marked by gene expression alterations in comparison to normal stomach. Since miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, we sought to investigate the role of miRNAs on the development of stomach metaplasias. Design We performed miRNA profiling using a qRT-PCR approach on laser capture microdissected human intestinal metaplasia and SPEM. Data integration of the miRNA profile with a previous mRNA profile from the same samples was performed to detect potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory circuits. Transfection of gastric cancer cell lines with selected miRNA mimics and inhibitors was used to evaluate their effects on the expression of putative targets and additional metaplasia markers. Results We identified several genes as potential targets of miRNAs altered during metaplasia progression. We showed evidence that HNF4γ (upregulated in intestinal metaplasia) is targeted by miR-30 and that miR-194 targets a known co-regulator of HNF4 activity, NR2F2 (downregulated in intestinal metaplasia). Intestinal metaplasia markers such as VIL1, TFF2 and TFF3 were down-regulated after overexpression of miR-30a in a HNF4γ-dependent manner. In addition, overexpression of HNF4γ was sufficient to induce the expression of VIL1 and this effect was potentiated by down-regulation of NR2F2. Conclusion The interplay of the two transcription factors HNF4γ and NR2F2 and their coordinate regulation by miR-30 and miR-194, respectively, represent a miRNA to transcription factor network responsible for the expression of intestinal transcripts in stomach cell lineages during the development of intestinal metaplasia. PMID:25800782

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  17. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is relatively rare with an incidence of 0.13–1.9/100,000 population. OSSN includes dysplastic lesions involving the squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva or cornea. Epibulbar squamous cell carcinoma and epithelioma have been noted commonly, but cases in which the tumor ...

  18. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Adina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  19. Impact of obesity on bronchial asthma in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Anandha K; Gupta, Nitesh; Kumar, Raj

    2014-04-01

    Obesity and asthma are common inflammatory conditions, having presence of both local and systemic inflammation and this relationship is not well understood. This study was undertaken to compare pulmonary function parameters, inflammatory marker like C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and atopic profile between non-obese and obese bronchial asthma patients in Indian population. The study aims to elucidate the association between the systemic and local inflammatory response relating to obesity in asthmatics. Sixty bronchial asthma patients were recruited for the study, and were divided equally into obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and non-obese (BMIanalysis of nitric oxide and skin prick testing for atopic profile. The study was approved by institutional ethical committee. The mean body mass index (BMI) for the non-obese and obese group was 21.64 kg/m(2) and 34.1 kg/m(2) respectively (P = 0.001). The functional residual capacity (FRC% predicted) (100.9 ± 4.21 vs 80.40 ± 4.03; P = 0.009) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV% predicted) (95.13 ± 6.71 vs. 67.03 ± 4.54; P = 0.001) both were significantly lower in the obese group. The non-obese and obese group had hs-CRP levels of 3.01 mg/L and 4.07 mg/L, respectively; the difference being statistically insignificant (P = 0.15). Similarly, FENO levels of non-obese and obese group were 63.20 ppb and 63.75 ppb, respectively; difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.95). Atopic profile of both the groups did not differ significantly. Obesity does not appear to increase the local and systemic inflammatory responses in bronchial asthma patients in Indian population.

  20. Importance of education in bronchial asthma treatment - gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Pleśniak, Justyna; Seń, Mariola; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma. Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the adherence and compliance. The study included 100 patients suffering from bronchial asthma and treated according to GINA 2002 guidelines in Allergy Clinic. Asthma control test (ACT), analysis of patients' medical documentation and a self-constructed questionnaire concerning health promotion and education were used in the study. Aim of this work was to assess differences in the influence of education on results of bronchial asthma control between sexes. Average duration of asthma was similar in women and men (13.0 ± 11.16 vs.12.7 ± 9.74 years). Weaker asthma control was found in women (ACT 17.7 vs. 20.4), as well as lower FEV1 values (80-50% of predicted value in 60.3% of women vs. 43.25 of men). In women an analysis of correlation concerning patients' knowledge and conducted health education with asthma control revealed a statistically significant positive correlation of knowledge acquired from the allergologist with asthma control, information about proceeding in acute attack, whereas negative correlation with asthma control with knowledge passed on by family doctor was found. Among the male respondents positive correlations of knowledge with asthma control within the scope of knowledge from allergologist and information concerning proceeding in asthmatic attack were found, while negative correlation with information coming from family doctor was revealed. Health education in patients with asthma should be conducted by a specialist in allergic diseases and well-prepared healthcare professionals.

  1. Increased myoepithelial cells of bronchial submucosal glands in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F H Y; Williams, D J; James, A; McPhee, L J; Mitchell, I; Mauad, T

    2010-01-01

    Fatal asthma is characterised by enlargement of bronchial mucous glands and tenacious plugs of mucus in the airway lumen. Myoepithelial cells, located within the mucous glands, contain contractile proteins which provide structural support to mucous cells and actively facilitate glandular secretion. To determine if myoepithelial cells are increased in the bronchial submucosal glands of patients with fatal asthma. Autopsied lungs from 12 patients with fatal asthma (FA), 12 patients with asthma dying of non-respiratory causes (NFA) and 12 non-asthma control cases (NAC) were obtained through the Prairie Provinces Asthma Study. Transverse sections of segmental bronchi from three lobes were stained for mucus and smooth muscle actin and the area fractions of mucous plugs, mucous glands and myoepithelial cells determined by point counting. The fine structure of the myoepithelial cells was examined by electron microscopy. FA was characterised by significant increases in mucous gland (p = 0.003), mucous plug (p = 0.004) and myoepithelial cell areas (p = 0.017) compared with NAC. When the ratio of myoepithelial cell area to total gland area was examined, there was a disproportionate and significant increase in FA compared with NAC (p = 0.014). Electron microscopy of FA cases revealed hypertrophy of the myoepithelial cells with increased intracellular myofilaments. The NFA group showed changes in these features that were intermediate between the FA and NAC groups but the differences were not significant. Bronchial mucous glands and mucous gland myoepithelial cell smooth muscle actin are increased in fatal asthma and may contribute to asphyxia due to mucous plugging.

  2. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor.

  3. Bronchial atresia in a neonate with congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia (BA is characterized by a mucus-filled bronchocele in a blind-ending segmental or lobar bronchus with hyperinflation of the obstructed segment of the lung. We describe a neonate who presented on his 9 th day of life with respiratory distress. Chest computed tomography showed a soft tissue density involving the right middle lobe (RML. RML lobectomy confirmed the diagnosis of BA. Cytomegalovirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and tracheal aspirates which may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of BA.

  4. Lung Sound Analysis and Airway Inflammation in Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study on lung sound analysis (LSA) revealed that the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a low-frequency range (E/I LF) was increased in patients with bronchial asthma, even when they have no wheezes. We also monitored the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a mid-frequency range (E/I MF) and the mid- to low-frequency sound power ratio for inspiration and expiration (ie, I MF/LF and E MF/LF, respectively) using a new software program to examine which parameter is most suitable as an index of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. A study was conducted in 31 patients with mild-to-moderate bronchial asthma to examine potential correlations of LSA parameters (E/I LF, E/I MF, I MF/LF, and E MF/LF) with spirogram parameters, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and sputum eosinophils. E/I LF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1.0]/forced vital capacity [FVC]%: r = -0.50, maximal expiratory flow at 50% [V50],%pred: r = -0.50) and peripheral airway inflammation (alveolar NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.41). E/I MF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (FEV1.0/FVC%: r = -0.46, V50,%pred: r = -0.49), airway inflammation (bronchial NO: r = 0.43, alveolar NO: r = 0.47, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.50), and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.49). E MF/LF was significantly correlated with airway inflammation (NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in sputum: r = 0.40) and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.40). I MF/LF was not significantly correlated with any parameters. Among the 4 LSA parameters investigated, E/I MF demonstrated the highest correlation with airway inflammation, and also with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple synchronous bronchial carcinoid tumors: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, S M; Machuca, T N; Moreira, A L S; Schio, S M; Moreira, J S; Camargo, J J P

    2009-02-01

    Peripheral bronchial carcinoids are uncommon. Their presentation as synchronous tumors is rare and limited to anecdotal cases.We report the case of a 62-year-old female with the radiological finding of multiple bilateral nodular lesions. Bilateral sequential thoracotomies were performed and all three nodules were treated by sublobar resections. Pathological examination revealed all specimens to be carcinoid tumors and subsequent investigation confirmed the lung as the primary site. A review of previous cases of multiple carcinoids is presented and the particularities of their management are discussed.

  6. Health-related quality of life in childhood bronchial asthma | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-related quality of life in childhood bronchial asthma. ... diagnosed bronchial asthma were clinically evaluated to determine level of asthma control and were administered pediatric asthma quality of life questionnaire (PAQLQ), ... Control of the main determinants of QoL scores might improve the QoL of these patients.

  7. An increase in bronchial responsiveness is associated with continuing or restarting smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Luczynska, CM; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, N; Neukirch, FO; Schouten, JP; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Wjst, M; Burney, PG

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchial responsiveness (BHR) has been found to be associated with smoking, atopy, and lower lung function in cross-sectional studies, but there is little information on determinants of change in adults. Objectives: To analyze change in bronchial responsiveness in an international

  8. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  9. Effect of Bronchial Asthama on Porphyrin Levels in Patients of Atopic Dermatitis - a Spectrophotometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Singh

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of porphyrins in blood, urine and stool of 30 patients with atopic dermatitis, 17 without and 13 with bronchial asthma was done. Rimington′s technique for the estimation of porphyrins was employed. No statistically significant difference in porphyrin levels was observed between patients without and with bronchial asthma.

  10. Effect of Bronchial Asthama on Porphyrin Levels in Patients of Atopic Dermatitis - a Spectrophotometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R L; Handa, F; Sidhu, K S

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assay of porphyrins in blood, urine and stool of 30 patients with atopic dermatitis, 17 without and 13 with bronchial asthma was done. Rimington's technique for the estimation of porphyrins was employed. No statistically significant difference in porphyrin levels was observed between patients without and with bronchial asthma.

  11. [Dental services in bronchial asthma patients and the ways to improve them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhnich, S N; Kupreeva, I V; Molokanov, N Ia

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted in 783 bronchial asthma patients which have been established to need treatment of caries and its complications in 95.4±0.84% of cases. The received data suggest that it is possible to achieve a highly efficient treatment of caries and its complications in patients suffering from bronchial asthma in out-patient clinical conditions.

  12. Indirect bronchial provocation tests in childhood asthma : Monitoring short-term treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we used indirect bronchial provocation tests to monitor treatment changes in asthmatic children. Indirect bronchial provocation tests assess the response of the airways to stimuli that act on inflammatory cells present in the airways. The response to indirect stimuli is greater in

  13. Ectopic ACTH-Dependent Cushing’s Syndrome Caused by Bronchial Carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Liashuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors of the neuroendocrine system. There was described a rare case of ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome caused by bronchial carcinoid, in the clinical pattern of which, along with typical symptoms, thromboembolic syndrome dominated. Surgical removal of bronchial carcinoid led to regression of cushingoid and other symptoms.

  14. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  15. A CASE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA WITH HYPEREOSINOPHILIA WITH EFFECTIVE SAIBOKUTOU THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuburai, Takahiro; Kamide, Yousuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Tomita, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Yuto; Watai, Kentaro; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Mitsui, Chihiro; Fukutomi, Yuma; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami

    2017-01-01

    A 42 year old woman visited on our hospital because of cough, sputum, pruritus and erythema. She showed peripheral blood eosinophilia, high level of FENO, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Diagnosis of bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis was made, but she rejected therapy except for Saibokutou, a Kampo herbal medicine. After 1 year, her symptoms and her laboratory data were improved.

  16. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    Nephroid metaplasia is an unusual lesion confined to the lamina propria of the lower urinary tract. It is defined by a characteristic histologic picture of tubular structures, formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells, surrounded by a thick basement membrane. Two main theories concerning...

  17. Induction of high-affinity IgE receptor on lung dendritic cells during viral infection leads to mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Mitchell H; Cheung, Dorothy; Rohlfing, Michelle M; Kitchens, Robert; Spiegel, Daniel E; Tucker, Jennifer; Battaile, John T; Alevy, Yael; Yan, Le; Agapov, Eugene; Kim, Edy Y; Holtzman, Michael J

    2007-10-29

    Respiratory viral infections are associated with an increased risk of asthma, but how acute Th1 antiviral immune responses lead to chronic inflammatory Th2 disease remains undefined. We define a novel pathway that links transient viral infection to chronic lung disease with dendritic cell (DC) expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRIalpha). In a mouse model of virus-induced chronic lung disease, in which Sendai virus triggered a switch to persistent mucous cell metaplasia and airway hyperreactivity after clearance of replicating virus, we found that FceRIa(-/-) mice no longer developed mucous cell metaplasia. Viral infection induced IgE-independent, type I IFN receptor-dependent expression of FcepsilonRIalpha on mouse lung DCs. Cross-linking DC FcepsilonRIalpha resulted in the production of the T cell chemoattractant CCL28. FceRIa(-/-) mice had decreased CCL28 and recruitment of IL-13-producing CD4(+) T cells to the lung after viral infection. Transfer of wild-type DCs to FceRIa(-/-) mice restored these events, whereas blockade of CCL28 inhibited mucous cell metaplasia. Therefore, lung DC expression of FcepsilonRIalpha is part of the antiviral response that recruits CD4(+) T cells and drives mucous cell metaplasia, thus linking antiviral responses to allergic/asthmatic Th2 responses.

  18. The FOXM1 inhibitor RCM-1 suppresses goblet cell metaplasia and prevents IL-13 and STAT6 signaling in allergen-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifeng; Ren, Xiaomeng; Wang, I-Ching; Pradhan, Arun; Zhang, Yufang; Flood, Hannah M; Han, Bo; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Kalin, Tanya V; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V

    2017-04-18

    Goblet cell metaplasia and excessive mucus secretion associated with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. We performed a high-throughput screen to identify small molecules targeting a transcriptional network critical for the differentiation of goblet cells in response to allergens. We identified RCM-1, a nontoxic small molecule that inhibited goblet cell metaplasia and excessive mucus production in mice after exposure to allergens. RCM-1 blocked the nuclear localization and increased the proteasomal degradation of Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), a transcription factor critical for the differentiation of goblet cells from airway progenitor cells. RCM-1 reduced airway resistance, increased lung compliance, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production in mice exposed to the house dust mite and interleukin-13 (IL-13), which triggers goblet cell metaplasia. In cultured airway epithelial cells and in mice, RCM-1 reduced IL-13 and STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) signaling and prevented the expression of the STAT6 target genes Spdef and Foxa3, which are key transcriptional regulators of goblet cell differentiation. These results suggest that RCM-1 is an inhibitor of goblet cell metaplasia and IL-13 signaling, providing a new therapeutic candidate to treat patients with asthma and other chronic airway diseases. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Activation of the BMP4 Pathway and Early Expression of CDX2 Characterize Non-specialized Columnar Metaplasia in a Human Model of Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, Daniel; Puig, Sonia; Iglesias, Mar; Seoane, Agustín; de Bolós, Carme; Munitiz, Vicente; Parrilla, Pascual; Comerma, Laura; Poulsom, Richard; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Grande, Luís; Pera, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background A human model of gastroesophageal reflux disease was used to examine the contribution of a non-specialized columnar type of metaplasia (NSCM) and key molecular events (BMP4 and CDX2) in the development of Barrett's esophagus. Methods Biopsies of the remnant esophagus from 18 patients

  20. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  1. Reclassifying bronchial-pulmonary carcinoma: Differentiating histological type in biopsies by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carvalho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current state of molecular knowledge on lung cancer demands a histological classification which goes beyond small-cell and non-small-cell carcinoma to provide support for tailored therapy in aiding in understanding of the drugs currently available.As diagnosis and follow-up in the vast majority of lung cancer cases is based on biopsies and cytology samples, Immunohistochemical Bronchial Pulmonary Carcinoma Classification (IBPCC is necessary to reveal the raft of characteristics available. This provides morphological support for the WHO's 1999/2004 classification, in addition to an understanding of carcinogenesis.The immunohistochemical panel clarifies the main morphology and cytology characteristics to maintain the leading histological types as squamous cell carcinoma (high weight molecular cytokeratins/HWMC, adenosquamous carcinoma (CK7, TTF1, HWMA, neuroendocrine carcinoma (Chrg, Syn, CD56, TTF1, Ki67, adenocarcinoma (CK7, CK20, TTF1 and bring the polymorphic and pleomorphic carcinomas under a single banner of pleomorphic carcinoma (Ck7, TTF1, HWMC, VMT, Desmin, Actin which shelters large cell carcinomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas.Lung cancer chemotherapy will still be based on platinum and gemcitabine for the near future and the IBPCC is a simple and efficient tool for streamlining the registration of lung cancer histological characteristics in biopsies and other reduced samples to support clinical evidence and trials. Resumo: Os conhecimentos actuais da patologia molecular do cancro do pulmão requerem outra caracterização histológica, para além de carcinoma de células pequenas e carcinoma não pequenas células para suporte da terapia personalizada e entendimento do valor real dos fármacos actualmente disponíveis.Como o diagnóstico e seguimento clínico da maioria dos casos de cancro do pulmão se baseia em produtos de biópsia e citologia, a classificação imunoistoquímica do carcinoma

  2. Adamtsl2 deletion results in bronchial fibrillin microfibril accumulation and bronchial epithelial dysplasia – a novel mouse model providing insights into geleophysic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hubmacher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the secreted glycoprotein ADAMTSL2 cause recessive geleophysic dysplasia (GD in humans and Musladin–Lueke syndrome (MLS in dogs. GD is a severe, often lethal, condition presenting with short stature, brachydactyly, stiff skin, joint contractures, tracheal-bronchial stenosis and cardiac valve anomalies, whereas MLS is non-lethal and characterized by short stature and severe skin fibrosis. Although most mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS, a microfibril disorder leading to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ dysregulation, domain-specific FBN1 mutations result in dominant GD. ADAMTSL2 has been previously shown to bind FBN1 and latent TGFβ-binding protein-1 (LTBP1. Here, we investigated mice with targeted Adamtsl2 inactivation as a new model for GD (Adamtsl2−/− mice. An intragenic lacZ reporter in these mice showed that ADAMTSL2 was produced exclusively by bronchial smooth muscle cells during embryonic lung development. Adamtsl2−/− mice, which died at birth, had severe bronchial epithelial dysplasia with abnormal glycogen-rich inclusions in bronchial epithelium resembling the cellular anomalies described previously in GD. An increase in microfibrils in the bronchial wall was associated with increased FBN2 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1 staining, whereas LTBP1 staining was increased in bronchial epithelium. ADAMTSL2 was shown to bind directly to FBN2 with an affinity comparable to FBN1. The observed extracellular matrix (ECM alterations were associated with increased bronchial epithelial TGFβ signaling at 17.5 days of gestation; however, treatment with TGFβ-neutralizing antibody did not correct the epithelial dysplasia. These investigations reveal a new function of ADAMTSL2 in modulating microfibril formation, and a previously unsuspected association with FBN2. Our studies suggest that the bronchial epithelial dysplasia accompanying microfibril dysregulation in Adamtsl2−/− mice

  3. with esophageal squamous cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively observe and analyze the long-term treatment outcomes of 191 elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC who were treated with californium-252 (252Cf neutron brachytherapy (NBT in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Material and methods : From January 2002 to November 2012, 191 patients with ESCC underwent NBT in combination with EBRT. The total radiation dose to the reference point via NBT was 8-25 Gy-eq in two to five fractions with one fraction per week. The total dose via EBRT was 50-60 Gy, which was delivered over a period of 5 to 6 weeks with normal fractionation. Results : The median survival time for the 191 patients was 23.6 months, and the 5-year rates for overall survival (OS and local-regional control (LRC were 28.7% and 54.2%, respectively. The patients’ age was a factor that was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.010, according to univariate analysis. The 5-year OS (LRC was 37.3% (58.6% for patients aged 70-74 years and 14.5% (47.9% for patients aged > 74 years (p = 0.010 and p = 0.038. In multivariate analysis, age and clinical N stage were associated with OS and LRC (p = 0.011 [0.041] and p = 0.005 [0.005]. From the time of treatment completion to the development of local-regional recurrence or death, 5 (2.6% patients experienced fistula and 15 (7.9% experienced massive bleeding. The incidence of severe late complications was related to older age (p = 0.027, higher NBT dose/fraction (20-25 Gy/5 fractions, and higher total dose (> 66 Gy. Conclusions : The clinical data indicated that NBT in combination with EBRT produced favorable local control and long-term survival rates for elderly patients with ESCC, and that the side effects were tolerable. Patient’s age, clinical stage N status, and radiation dose could be used to select the appropriate treatment for elderly patients.

  4. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus – an anatomical, digital, and statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; WoŸniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-01-01

    Background Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Material/Methods Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14–25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Results No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2–96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. Conclusions The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities. PMID:23857411

  5. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus -- an anatomical, digital, and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-07-16

    Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14-25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2-96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities.

  6. Bronchial thermoplasty and the role of airway smooth muscle: are we on the right direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzella F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Menzella,1 Mirco Lusuardi,2 Carla Galeone,1 Nicola Facciolongo1 1Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, IRCCS – Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, 2Unit of Respiratory Rehabilitation, AUSL Reggio Emilia, S Sebastiano Hospital, Correggio, Italy Abstract: Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways that includes eosinophils, basal membrane thickening, epithelial sloughing, vascular changes, smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and mucous gland hyperplasia. Recently, there have been studies on the role of hypersensitivity and inflammation in asthma, but the role of bronchial smooth muscle remains unclear. Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic procedure that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of severe refractory asthma, based on the local delivery of radio frequency at 65°C to the airways, with the aim of controlling bronchospasm through a reduction of airway smooth muscle (ASM. Several recent studies have shown significant improvement in clinical outcomes of bronchial thermoplasty for asthma, including symptom control, reduction in exacerbation and hospitalization rates, improved quality of life, and reduction in number of working days or school days lost due to asthma. Data from these recent studies have shown reduction in ASM following bronchial thermoplasty and changes in inflammation patterns. It has also been argued that bronchial thermoplasty may have modulating effects on neuroendocrine epithelial cells, bronchial nerve endings, TRPV1 nerve receptors, and type-C unmyelinated fibers in the bronchial mucosa. This may involve interrupting the central and local reflexes responsible for the activation of bronchospasm in the presence of bronchial hyperreactivity. Several questions remain regarding the use of bronchial thermoplasty, mechanism of action, selection of appropriate patients, and long-term effects. In this review, the role of ASM in the

  7. Radiologic management of haemoptysis. Diagnostic and interventional bronchial arterial embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittrich, H.; Adam, G. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. and Clinic; Klose, H. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Section Pneumology

    2015-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening pulmonary emergency with high mortality, is symptomatic of an underlying severe pulmonary disease and requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostically, bronchoscopy, conventional chest x-ray and contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with CT angiography (CTA) provide information regarding the underlying pulmonary disease, bleeding site, the vascular anatomy of the bronchial arteries (BA) and extrabronchial branches, as well a basis for planning of endovascular intervention. Therapeutically, bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an experienced interventionist with profound knowledge of the BA anatomy and possible pitfalls as well as experience with first-line therapy of recurrent and massive hemoptysis or as an intervention prior to elective surgery. Recurrent episodes of hemoptysis are not uncommon and require a prompt repeat BAE after exclusion of extrabronchial systemic and pulmonary artery bleeding sources. This review article should give an overview of the history, anatomical and pathophysiological basics and the clinical context of hemoptysis and diagnosis, as well as a survey of management, treatment and results of BAE.

  8. SWCNTs induced autophagic cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being actively introduced in electronics, computer science, aerospace, and other industries. Thus, the urgent need for toxicological studies on CNTs is mounting. In this study, we investigated the alterations in cellular response with morphological changes induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. At 24h after exposure, SWCNTs rapidly decreased ATP production and cell viability as well a slight increase in the number of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases. In addition, SWCNTs increased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, but not SOD-2, and the number of cells generating ROS. The concentration of Cu and Zn ions also increased in a dose-dependent manner in cells exposed to SWCNTs. SWCNTs significantly enhanced the release of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and up-regulated the expression of chemokine- and cytokine-related genes. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy-related genes, especially the DRAM1 gene, and the autophagosome formation-related proteins, were clearly up-regulated together with an increase of autophagosome-like vacuoles. Based on these results, we suggest that SWCNTs induce autophagic cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic damage in human bronchial epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bronchial carcinoma: recent developments in diagnosis and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.L.; Longin, F.

    1980-12-03

    Basic methods of diagnosis for bronchial carcinoma are X-ray examinations, flexible bronchoscopy to obtain cytological and histological preparations, simple cytology of the sputum and percutaneous needle biopsy of peripheral tumours with fluoroscopic control. The best results are obtained with surgical measures in stages 1 and 2. In case of general inoperability, also radiation may destroy the tumour in these stages. However, if tumours are only irradiated in stage 3 because of local inoperability as is most often the case, relief will be given but the survival time will not be prolonged considerably. Small-cell carcinomas are never operated on as tumours of this type of histology will generally have metastases at the time of discovery. A combined therapy of polychemotherapy and irradiation will prolong life in these cases but will not lead to healing. All in all, there is only a 10% chance of survival with bronchial carcinoma. Chances may be higher if specific risk groups are screened and new techniques of diagnosis are applied: Use of tumour labels and thermo- and radiosensitive probes in bronchoscopy, establishment of label profiles in the serum, use of new techniques like CT, ultrasonic methods, xerotomography, and scintiscanning with new radionuclides. Immunotherapy with BCG lengthens the interval between operation and recurrence of the tumour. Interferon treatment is now being tested.

  10. On Verification of Atopic Phenotype of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Belashova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the diagnostic value of the metabolic activity of blood granulocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils in the verification of atopic phenotype of bronchial asthma (BA in children there are formed two clinical groups. The first (I, basic group formed 38 children with atopic BA (having a positive own and/or family allergic anamnesis history, II clinical group consisted of 26 patients with non-atopic BA. Groups were comparable by the main characteristics. As indicators of the functional state of neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes, we determined their phagocytic activity (%, phagocytic number (c.u., the intracellular content of eosinophil and neutrophil cationic protein (c.u.. It is found that in the development of atopic phenotype of BA in childhood there is a tendency to decrease in intracellular content of major cytotoxic agents (eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase in eosinophilic granulocytes of the blood. The decrease of phagocytic activity parameters (less than 60 % and phagocytic number (less than 2.0 c.u. of blood eosinophils is associated with a significantly higher risk of atopic bronchial asthma in children.

  11. Estradiol increases mucus synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tam

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI. Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0 cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6 mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium.

  12. Dental caries status of children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Deepthi K; Hegde, Amitha M; Munshi, A K

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the dental caries status in children with bronchial asthma and to examine the correlation with the severity of asthma and the form of medication being taken. Two hundred and five asthmatic children of both sexes from three to eighteen years old participated in this study. Children were divided into groups: primary, mixed and permanent dentitions. They were also grouped depending on the severity of asthma into mild, moderate and severe asthma and depending on the form of medication being used into inhaler, syrup, tablet and combination group. In the primary dentition group, the asthmatic children had a mean deft of 5.02 +/- 3.05 and a caries prevalence of 75.75%, in the mixed dentition group, the mean deft was 3.45 +/- 2.89 and mean DMFT was 4.83 +/- 3.66 with a caries prevalence of 78.31%. In the permanent dentition the mean DMFT was 5.17 +/- 4.54 and a caries prevalence of 83.15%. Asthmatic children had a high caries prevalence and it increased with the severity of bronchial asthma. The caries prevalence was highest in those taking medication in the form of syrup.

  13. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  15. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

  16. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swainsonine, a natural indolizidine alkaloid, has been reported to have antitumour effects, and can induce apoptosis in human gastric and lung cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumour effects of swainsonine on several oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and investigated relative molecular ...

  17. Pathological Fracture Complicating Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    Burrows and Lyall2 reported malignant transformation of a venous ulcer. Kubler5 gives a rare report of malignant transformation of chronic changes in the skin that lead to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of this ulcer was not known in this case due to the fact that the patient presented late by which time the ulcer had ...

  18. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  19. Nivolumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    Name Human Papillomavirus Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Granulosa Cell Tumor-like Variant of Endometrioid Carcinoma of the Ovary with Osseous Metaplasia: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid carcinoma is a rare subtype with a close histological resemblance to the sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovaries, in particular the Sertoli cell tumor. However, very few cases of the granulosa cell tumor-like variant have been reported since it is commonly misdiagnosed as a granulose cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry is useful in the diagnosis of these tumors as they are typically negative for inhibin alpha. We herein describe the histological and immunohistochemical features of a rare case of granulosa cell tumor-like variant of endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary with extensive areas of hyalinization, calcification and osseous metaplasia in a 45-year-old female patient.

  1. Gastric tumor induction by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats with intestinal metaplasia caused by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kido, Shoichirou [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine] (and others)

    1999-11-01

    Five-week-old male Wistar rats were X-irradiated with a total of 20 Gy in 2 equal fractions at a 3-day interval. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) solution was injected i.m. into the back musculature at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight weekly for 10 weeks, beginning 20 weeks after the final irradiation. Twelve months after the initial carcinogen treatment, tumors in the fundus of the glandular stomach were observed in 5 of 23 animals receiving both X-irradiation and DMH treatment. No tumors of the glandular stomach were observed in the DMH and X-ray alone or nontreatment groups. It is concluded that the presence of intestinal metaplasia may increase sensitivity to the induction of gastric tumors by carcinogens like DMH. (author)

  2. Altered expression of a putative progenitor cell marker DCAMKL1 in the rat gastric mucosa in regeneration, metaplasia and dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1) is a candidate marker for progenitor cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Lineage cells in the gastric mucosa are derived from progenitor cells, but this process can be altered after injury. Therefore, we explored DCAMKL1 expression under pathological conditions. Methods An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in rat stomach with acute superficial injury, chronic ulcer, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results DCAMKL1 was exclusively expressed in immature quiescent cells in the isthmus of normal fundic glands, where putative progenitor cells are thought to reside. DCAMKL1-positive cells and proliferating cells shed into the lumen after superficial injury and re-appeared during the regenerative process, mainly in the superficial mucosa. In the marginal mucosa around the active ulcer, parietal and chief cells diminished, foveolar hyperplasia was evident, and trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2)/spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) emerged at the gland base. DCAMKL1 cells re-emerged in the deep mucosa juxtaposed with SPEM and proliferating cells. In the healing ulcer, the TFF2 cell population expanded and seemed to redifferentiate to chief cells, while proliferating cells and DCAMKL1 cells appeared above and below the TFF2 cells to promote healing. SPEM appeared and PCNA cells increased in the intestinalized mucosa, and DCAMKL1 was expressed in the proximity of the PCNA cells in the deep mucosa. DCAMKL1, PCNA and TFF2 were expressed in different dysplastic cells lining dilated glands near SPEM. Conclusion The ultrastructural appearance of DCAMKL1-positive cells and the expression patterns of DCAMKL1 in normal and pathological states indicate that the cells belong to a progenitor cell population. DCAMKL1 expression is closely associated with TFF2/SPEM cells after injury. DCAMKL1 cells repopulate close to proliferating, hyperplastic, metaplastic and dysplastic

  3. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins in Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence : A switch to a more resistant phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Woude, CJ; Jansen, PLM; Tiebosch, ATGM; Beuving, A; Homan, M; Kleibeuker, JH; Moshage, H

    Barrett's esophagus, or colonmar-lined esophagus (CLE), is a premalignant disorder in which the stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by metaplastic epithelium. To gain more insight into the process of carcinogenesis in CLE, we studied several factors involved in the apoptotic pathway in

  4. Bronchial reactivity and intracellular magnesium: a possible mechanism for the bronchodilating effects of magnesium in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, L J; Barbagallo, M; Di Lorenzo, G; Drago, A; Scola, S; Morici, G; Caruso, C

    1998-08-01

    1. Increased bronchial smooth muscle contractility with consequent bronchial hyperreactivity are characteristic physiopathological events of asthma. Since magnesium intervenes in calcium transport mechanisms and intracellular phosphorylation reactions, it constitutes an important determinant of the contraction/relaxation state of bronchial smooth muscle. In the present study we investigated the relationship between bronchial reactivity, assessed by methacholine-provocation test, and magnesium concentrations both at extracellular and intracellular levels measured by spectrophotometry. Twenty-two patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and 38 non-asthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis (24 allergic to Parietaria pollen and 14 allergic to Grass pollen) were recruited to the study. Exclusion criteria included renal failure, hepatic diseases, heart failure and arterial hypertension. 2. The salient finding of our study is that there is a strong positive correlation between bronchial reactivity and the level of intracellular magnesium (r=0.72, Pmagnesium concentrations in the group of patients with asthma were significantly lower (1.8+/-0. 01 mmol/l; n=22) when compared with levels in rhinitis subjects allergic to Parietaria (1.9+/-0.01 mmol/l; n=24, Pmagnesium may be an important determinant of bronchial hyperreactivity, as supported by the significant positive correlation between these two parameters in allergic patients with known bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This finding, in addition to reports of the bronchodilating effects of magnesium administration in patients with asthma, confirms the proposed role of this ion in the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma.

  5. Effect of TRPV1 gene mutation on bronchial asthma in children before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Liang; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a worldwide disease with high incidence. It not only harms children's physical and mental health, but it also brings a heavy burden to their families as well as the society. However, the trigger and pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze TRPV1 gene mutation and expression of cytokines in children with acute bronchial asthma before and after treatment, thus providing theoretical guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was adopted to detect TRPV1 mRNA expression level and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the serum total IgE level, eosinophil (EOS) number, IL-4, IL-5, and interferon (IFN) gamma levels in peripheral venous blood of children in the healthy control group and asthma group before and after treatment. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factor inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 mRNA level of peripheral blood in the asthma group was higher than that in the control group before treatment (p bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 gene mutation was closely related to bronchial asthma in children, which provided a theoretical basis for the treatment and prognosis of children with bronchial asthma.

  6. Surgical maneuvers for the management of bronchial complications in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Machuca, Tiago Noguchi; Perin, Fabíola Adélia; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Felicetti, José Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Many advances have substantially improved the clinical results of lung transplantation. However, the incidence of bronchial complications is still high, with significant impact on survival and limited interventional strategies for complex cases. Our aim is to evaluate the surgical management of bronchial complications following lung transplantation. From May 1989 to June 2007, 251 patients were submitted to lung transplantation at our institution. In five cases, the bronchial complications observed were dealt with open surgical procedures. Complications surgically dealt were one broncho-arterial fistula and four stenosis. One left upper sleeve lobectomy, one right upper sleeve lobectomy and three segmental bronchial resections with anastomosis were performed. In all five cases the surgical procedure was successful and optimal bronchial healing was observed. Three patients died due to causes unrelated to the bronchial anastomosis 5, 21 and 32 months after the bronchoplastic procedure. Two patients are still alive and functionally well at 52 and 70 months post-bronchoplasty. Surgical management of bronchial complications after lung transplantation may be the last resort in complex, recalcitrant cases, nevertheless it is a feasible procedure and can provide good results not only on short- but also long-term follow-up.

  7. Impact of obesity on bronchial asthma in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha K Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Obesity and asthma are common inflammatory conditions, having presence of both local and systemic inflammation and this relationship is not well understood. This study was undertaken to compare pulmonary function parameters, inflammatory marker like C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO and atopic profile between non-obese and obese bronchial asthma patients in Indian population. The study aims to elucidate the association between the systemic and local inflammatory response relating to obesity in asthmatics. Materials and Methods: Sixty bronchial asthma patients were recruited for the study, and were divided equally into obese (BMI>30 kg/m 2 and non-obese (BMI<25 kg/m 2 groups. These were assessed for pulmonary function parameters, blood hs-CRP levels, exhaled breath analysis of nitric oxide and skin prick testing for atopic profile. The study was approved by institutional ethical committee. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI for the non-obese and obese group was 21.64 kg/m 2 and 34.1 kg/m 2 respectively (P = 0.001. The functional residual capacity (FRC% predicted (100.9 ± 4.21 vs 80.40 ± 4.03; P = 0.009 and expiratory reserve volume (ERV% predicted (95.13 ± 6.71 vs. 67.03 ± 4.54; P = 0.001 both were significantly lower in the obese group. The non-obese and obese group had hs-CRP levels of 3.01 mg/L and 4.07 mg/L, respectively; the difference being statistically insignificant (P = 0.15. Similarly, FE NO levels of non-obese and obese group were 63.20 ppb and 63.75 ppb, respectively; difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.95. Atopic profile of both the groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion : Obesity does not appear to increase the local and systemic inflammatory responses in bronchial asthma patients in Indian population.

  8. Presence or absence of intestinal metaplasia but not its burden is associated with prevalent high-grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A; McGregor, D H; Anand, O; Singh, M; Rao, D; Cherian, R; Wani, S B; Rastogi, A; Singh, V; House, J; Jones, P G; Sharma, P

    2014-01-01

    Universal agreement on the inclusion of intestinal metaplasia to diagnose Barrett's esophagus (BE) is lacking. Our aim was to determine the association of intestinal metaplasia and its density with the prevalence of dysplasia/cancer in columnar lined esophagus (CLE). Patients with CLE but no intestinal metaplasia (CLE-no IM) were identified by querying the clinical pathology database using SNOMED codes for distal esophageal biopsies. CLE-IM patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database of BE patients. Subsequently, relative risks for prevalent dysplasia and cancer were calculated. Since patients with CLE-no IM are not usually enrolled in surveillance, only prevalent dysplasia/cancer on index endoscopy was analyzed. Goblet cell density and percent intestinal metaplasia were estimated. All biopsy slides were reviewed for dysplasia by two experienced gastrointestinal pathologists. Two hundred sixty-two CLE-IM and 260 CLE-no IM patients were included (age 64±12 vs. 60±11 years, P=0.001; whites 92% vs. 82%, P=0.001; males 99.7% vs. 99.3%, P=NS; CLE length 3.4±3.2 vears 1.4±0.4 cm, P=0.001 and hiatus hernia 64% vs. 56%, P=0.013). The odds of finding low-grade dysplasia and of high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/cancer were 12.5-fold (2.9-53.8, P=0.007) and 4.2-fold (95% CI 1.4-13, P=0.01) higher, respectively, in the CLE-IM group. Reanalysis after controlling for important variables of age, race, and length did not significantly alter the overall results. In CLE-IM group, when patients with high (>50/LPF) versus low goblet cell density (10% intestinal metaplasia were compared, the odds of HGD/cancer, OR 1.5 (0.5-4.9, P=0.5) and 1.97 (0.54-7.22), respectively, were not significantly higher. Demonstration of intestinal metaplasia continues to be an essential element in the definition of BE, but its quantification may not be useful for risk stratification of HGD/cancer in BE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of

  9. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  10. NEW OPPORTUNITIES OF PROPHYLAXIS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA EXACERBATIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Chernyshov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on pidotimod (Imunorix effectiveness in prophylaxis of bronchial asthma exacerbations in children are analyzed. Authors’ trial included 55 children 5–10 years old with exacerbations of a disease caused by acute respiratory infections. Authors studied influence of pidotimod on antioxidant system of blood serum. The effectiveness of the drug for the prophylaxis of respiratory infections in children with bronchial asthma was shown, and this effect favored to the decrease of rate of exacerbations.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, prophylaxis, pidotimod.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:54-57

  11. Allergic march in children: Atopic dermatitis in Japanese children with bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsufumi Mayumi; Yusei Ohshima; Kenji Katamura; Setsuko Ito; Takao Hirao; Hiroshi Akutagawa; Naomi Kondo; Akihiro Morikawa

    1996-01-01

    Atopic diseases in children often develop in series and atopic dermatitis usually occurs first. To clarify the serial development of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma in atopic children in Japan, the present and/or past history of atopic dermatitis in patients with bronchial asthma was examined. Patients (n=280) with bronchial asthma in five prefectures in Japan were examined at a mean (± SD) age of 8.2 (±4.5) years and asked about prior and/or concurrent atopic dermatitis. The mean (± S...

  12. Effect in bronchial asthma of a new beta-adrenergic blocking drug atenolol (ICI 66, 082).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, N P; Vale, J R

    1977-01-01

    The bronchial effect of intravenous atenolol (ICI 66.082) has been studied in a double-blind cross over trial in 10 patients with pronounced, labile bronchial asthama. A single i.v. dose of atenolol 3 mg. sufficient to cause a fall in heart rate and systolic blood pressure at rest, induced only a slight and clincially almost negligible impairment of ventilatory function. An ordinary therapeutic dose of salbutamol by inhalation far outweighed the bronchial effect of atenolol. The drug appears promising with regard to its cardio-selective properties.

  13. Risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vуsotska, Olena V.; Klymenko, Viktoriia A.; Trubitcin, Alexei A.; Pecherska, Anna I.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Wójcik, Waldemar; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Burlibay, Aron

    2017-08-01

    This article offers a risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis by applying fuzzy-set theory to accumulated statistical data. It is shown that with a view to executing the said task one should exercise a complex approach involving factors such as "IgE level", "existence of obstructions" and "burdened bronchial asthma heredity of immediate relatives". The obtained results will assist in making adequate and well-informed medical decisions as well as facilitate the decrease of the risk of developing bronchial asthma in children with atopic dermatitis.

  14. EFFICIENCY OF MONTELUKAST TREATMENT OF THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present open research was to assess the montelukast efficiency among 41 children, suffering from bronchial asthma. the age of patients was between 6 and 15 years old. Clinical and functional efficiency of montelukast was noted among 85,4% of the patients. montelukast treatment contributed to the decrease of the bronchial asthma recrudescence frequency, reduction of the number of the used betab2bprotoganists, inhaled glucocorticosteroids and increase of tolerance towards the physical load.Key words: bronchial asthma, montelukast, children, treatment.

  15. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

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    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  16. Bronchial carcinoid in college freshman with persistent focal wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Rena; Rosen, Dennis

    2013-12-01

    To bring attention to a rare diagnosis in the pediatric population that is in the differential diagnosis for not well-controlled asthma. Case presentation. Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare and usually present late in adolescence. Most of these tumors are located in the proximal airways and symptoms may be similar to those of asthma including cough, wheeze, chest pain, or recurrent pneumonia. Bronchial carcinoid should be in the differential diagnosis for adolescents with difficult to control asthma, who have symptoms including chronic cough and focal wheeze. Referral to a pulmonary specialist should be considered to help work up the differential diagnoses. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Bronchial and cardiac ruptures due to blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misao, Takahiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Aoe, Motoi; Iga, Norichika; Furukawa, Masashi; Suezawa, Takanori; Tago, Mamoru

    2011-03-01

    Tracheobronchial and cardiac injuries following blunt thoracic trauma are uncommon but can be life-threatening. We report a case in which the patient with bronchial and right atrial ruptures due to blunt trauma survived after emergent repairs. An 18-year-old female driver was transported to our hospital after a traffic accident and was hemodynamically stable on arrival. Chest computed tomography revealed cervicomediastinal emphysema and hemopericardium, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed a tear in the right main bronchus. She was intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube guided by bronchoscopy. A median sternotomy was undertaken, and a laceration of the right atrium was oversewn without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. After that, right-sided thoracotomy was performed. The tear in the membranous portion of the right main bronchus was repaired with interrupted sutures, and the suture lines were wrapped with a pedicled flap of intercostal muscle.

  18. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Kim, JongWon [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Si, Xiuhua A. [California Baptist Univ., Riverside, CA (United States); Corley, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kabilan, Senthil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shengyu [First Affliliated Hospital of Xi' an Medical Univ., Shaanxi (China)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de- livery protocol.

  19. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  20. Pranlukast hydrate in the treatment of pediatric bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihara S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Shigemi Yoshihara Department of Pediatrics, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Abstract: Pranlukast hydrate is a potent, selective, orally active, cysteinyl leukotriene antagonist that binds at the type 1 receptor. It is used as a 10% dry syrup to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients. In a 4-week, dose-finding study, a dose-dependent improvement in lung function was observed in pediatric patients with asthma at an optimal dose of 5.1–10 mg/kg/day. In a comparative, randomized, double-blind, 4-week multicenter trial, pranlukast dry syrup 7 mg/kg/day achieved significantly better final overall improvement (71.4% versus oxatomide 1 mg/kg/day (37.2% in pediatric patients older than one year with asthma. In two 12-week, open-label trials and in a long-term open-label trial of treatment for up to 24 months, pranlukast dry syrup improved asthma control over baseline values. In a prospective post-marketing surveillance study and a long-term follow-up study, the safety and efficacy of pranlukast dry syrup was confirmed in infants younger than one year with bronchial asthma. In a 4-week, open-label trial, pranlukast dry syrup improved overall health-related quality of life and physical and emotional domain scores over baseline in pediatric patients with asthma. In a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial, pranlukast dry syrup significantly inhibited exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with asthma compared with placebo. In a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test, pranlukast dry syrup was significantly more effective in controlling asthma in patients younger than 4 years with the common cold. These findings show that pranlukast is useful and beneficial for treating pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Keywords: pranlukast, leukotriene receptor antagonist, pediatric asthma

  1. The need for surgery in an unselected bronchial carcinoma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõu, E; Aberg, T

    1979-12-01

    An epidemiological study of bronchial carcinoma was carried out in the county of Uppsala, Sweden, during a five-year period. The number of cases found was 273. Of these, 25% were operated upon. The operation rate was six operations/100,000 inhibitants per year. Including additional patients with a false preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma, the operation rate was seven operations/100,000 inhabitants per yera. This figure is clearly subject to influence by the level of medical ambition. The expected five-year survival rate of the surgically treated carcinoma cases in 29%. Twenty-nine percent of the surgically treated patients and 45% of the expected survivors were detected by mass miniature chest X-ray during a general health survey. Fifty-five percent of the surgically treated patients and 75% of the expected survivors were discovered by chance. In no group comparisons with comparable non-surgically treated patients were the deceased surgically treated patients found to have a longer survival. Among the patients who were operated upon, a small tumor size, a peripheral location, clinico-anatomical stage 1 of the disease, and detection by chance were favorable prognostic indicators. Twenty-eight percent of the surgically treated patients were over 70 years of age. Their expected five-year survival rate is 21%. Active early diagnosis (increasing the need for surgery) and restriction of surgery only to those most likely to benefit from it (decreasing the need for surgery) may be expected to give maximum effectiveness in the surgical treatment in bronchial carcinoma.

  2. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia; Monsó, Eduard; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2-2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3-6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0-3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8-5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0-1.5) vs 0 (0-0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4-9) vs 5.9 (6.3-6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways.

  3. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  4. [Bronchial reactivity in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelj, Ivan; Plavec, Davor; Susac, Andrija; Cvitanović, Slavica; Tudorić, Neven

    2002-10-01

    The allergic rhinitis (AR) is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. In significant number of patients with AR, the non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) could be demonstrated. It has been anticipated that these patients were at the greater risk for asthma. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of BHR in patients with seasonal AR (SAR) due to Wall pellitory allergy. The patients who were sensitized solely to Parietaria officinalis (Wall pellitory) pollen allergen were recruited in the study, namely patients with SAR (n = 26), SAR with seasonal asthma (n = 23) as well as healthy volunteers (n = 10). In all subjects the clinical check-up, spirometry and bronchial challenge test with metacholine were performed before, during the peak, and after the peak of pollination of pellitory. Comparing to initial findings (23%), in patients with SAR the prevalence of BHR significantly increased during the peak of pollination (50%, p = 0.0039), and remained increased thereafter (43%, p = 0.0319). In patients with SAR and asthma prevalence and intensity of BHR was even higher with the similar seasonal variations. Comparing to initial findings (83%), the prevalence of BHR significantly increased during the peak of season (100%, p = 0.0001), and remained increased thereafter (87%, p = 0.061). In both groups of patients the intensity of BHR (median PC20) increased as well: 4.8, 2.05, and 2.45 mg/mL in patients with SAR, and 0.35, 0.16, and 0.20 mg/mL in patients with SAR and asthma. In healthy volunteers no significant BHR was observed. The results of the present study confirm significant prevalence of BHR in patients with SAR due to pellitory allergy. It is important to determine BHR in patients with SAR and without asthma because the appropriate pharmacotherapeutic and preventive measures (anti-inflammatory medication and specific immunotherapy) could prevent the development of asthma in these patients.

  5. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  6. Description of patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion triage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kristen A; Jeronimo, Jose; Stoler, Mark H

    2006-08-25

    The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study (ALTS) accumulated information regarding conventional and liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology, 2 kinds of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, cervicography, and colposcopically directed biopsy. The prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in these women, the efficacy of tests, and the time to detection were reviewed. The ALTS data base was reviewed for all women with invasive carcinoma. All results of colposcopy, HPV testing, cytology, biopsies, and cervigrams were reviewed for all women in the ALTS trial who were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. There were 7 diagnoses of invasive cancer (all squamous cell) during the 2 years of the ALTS trial. Although the enrollment studies isolated many high-grade lesions, none of those results were diagnostic of the underlying carcinoma. The prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in the setting of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology interpretation appears to be low (approximately 1 per 1000 women in the ALTS trial). Many of the carcinomas were not visible on the ectocervix by cervicography or colposcopy, which may explain in part the paucity of atypical cells detected on the Pap tests and the finding that the presenting cytology, although abnormal, was never diagnostic of cancer. HPV DNA tests were positive in all 7 cancers. Type-specific testing identified HPV type 16 in 6 of 7 cancers and HPV type 18 in 1 of 7 cancers. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  7. Metaplasia tubária endocervical: conceituação morfológica e importância prática Tubal metaplasia in endocervix: morphological concepts and practical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marques

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. A metaplasia tubária (MT endocervical é uma lesão benigna, classificada como pseudoneoplásica, que tem sido confundida com o adenocarcinoma in situ. Caracteriza-se pela substituição do epitélio mucoso endocervical por três tipos celulares: ciliado, secretor e intercalar. O objetivo deste trabalho é localizar e caracterizar morfologicamente a MT no colo uterino, relacionando-a a outras lesões . MÉTODOS. Os autores selecionaram 18 espécimes de colo uterino com o diagnóstico de MT, obtidos por conização (8 casos ou histerectomia (10 casos. Dividiram a endocérvice em regiões superior, inferior, epitélio de revestimento superficial e glandular, para observar a freqüência da MT nesses locais. Todos os casos estavam associados a outras lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas. RESULTADOS. A MT ocorreu em pacientes de 24 a 72 anos (média= 44 anos. Na maioria (83%, foi encontrada na região endocervical superior. Entretanto, em 61% dos casos, também ocorreu nas porções mais inferiores do canal, tanto no epitélio de revestimento superficial como em glândulas. Em 60%, houve associação da MT com neoplasia intra-epitelial ou invasiva, escamosa ou glandular. CONCLUSÃO. Apesar de ser mais freqüente na porção endocervical superior, a MT também foi identificada nas regiões mais inferiores em mais da metade dos casos estudados, em que pode ser confundida com o adenocarcinoma in situ. Embora comumente associada à neoplasia nesse material, os autores não podem afirmar qual a freqüência geral da MT no colo uterino e enfatizam a importância do reconhecimento morfológico da lesão.OBJECTIVE - Among uterine cervix tumorlike lesions, tubal metaplasia (TM has been confused with endocervical in situ adenocarcinoma. TM is a benign lesion composed of three cellular types: ciliary, secretory and intercalary ( or peg cell . Thus, the main purpose of this work is to localize and characterize tubal metaplasia and its relation to

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-12-31

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  9. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  10. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  11. eQTL of bronchial epithelial cells and bronchial alveolar lavage deciphers GWAS-identified asthma genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Hastie, A T; Hawkins, G A; Moore, W C; Ampleford, E J; Milosevic, J; Li, H; Busse, W W; Erzurum, S C; Kaminski, N; Wenzel, S E; Meyers, D A; Bleecker, E R

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes associated with asthma, yet, causal genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remain elusive. We sought to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma by combining expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and GWASs. Cis-eQTL analyses of 34 asthma genes were performed in cells from human bronchial epithelial biopsy (BEC, n = 107) and from bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL, n = 94). For TSLP-WDR36 region, rs3806932 (G allele protective against eosinophilic esophagitis) and rs2416257 (A allele associated with lower eosinophil counts and protective against asthma) were correlated with decreased expression of TSLP in BAL (P = 7.9 × 10(-11) and 5.4 × 10(-4) , respectively) and BEC, but not WDR36. Surprisingly, rs1837253 (consistently associated with asthma) showed no correlation with TSLP expression levels. For ORMDL3-GSDMB region, rs8067378 (G allele protective against asthma) was correlated with decreased expression of GSDMB in BEC and BAL (P = 1.3 × 10(-4) and 0.04) but not ORMDL3. rs992969 in the promoter region of IL33 (A allele associated with higher eosinophil counts and risk for asthma) was correlated with increased expression of IL33 in BEC (P = 1.3 × 10(-6) ) but not in BAL. Our study illustrates cell-type-specific regulation of the expression of asthma-related genes documenting SNPs in TSLP, GSDMB, IL33, HLA-DQB1, C11orf30, DEXI, CDHR3, and ZBTB10 affect asthma risk through cis-regulation of its gene expression. Whenever possible, disease-relevant tissues should be used for transcription analysis. SNPs in TSLP may affect asthma risk through up-regulating TSLP mRNA expression or protein secretion. Further functional studies are warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. DYNAMICS OF EOSINOPHIL INFILTRATION IN THE BRONCHIAL-MUCOSA BEFORE AND AFTER THE LATE ASTHMATIC REACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; DEMONCHY, JGR; KAUFFMAN, HF; SMITH, M; HOEKSTRA, Y; VRUGT, B; TIMENS, W

    We wanted to determine whether changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) following allergen challenge show a time relationship with inflammatory events in the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects. Lavage was performed and endobronchial biopsies were taken via the fibreoptic bronchoscope,

  13. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After

  14. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Shimoda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The E/I LF measurement obtained by LSA is useful as an indicator of changes in airway obstruction and inflammation and can be used for monitoring the therapeutic course of bronchial asthma patients.

  15. Long-term (5 year) safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomson, Neil C; Rubin, Adalberto S; Niven, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure....

  16. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

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    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  17. Study of serum vitamin D level in adult patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousry A. Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: There is an important association between adult bronchial asthma and vitamin D deficiency or even insufficiency. A strong correlation between the serum vitamin D level and asthma severity and control was found.

  18. Features of application of medical physical culture for the children of patients by bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina A.I.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work consists in generalization of scientific recommendations of scientists in relation to application of medical physical culture for children with bronchial asthma. The problem of bronchial asthma is analysed, as an enough widespread disease in the world, the basic tendencies of his prevalence, range of measures instrumental in diagnostics and treatment, are certain. It is presented statistical information about prevalence of bronchial asthma on Ukraine among children. Principal reasons of origin of disease and role of physical exercises in the process of rehabilitation of patients with bronchial asthma are certain. The features of the use and influencing of respiratory gymnastics on the method of Buteyko, Strel'nikovoy, drainage exercises, sound gymnastics, exercises of aerobic character are analysed. The necessity of application of medical physical culture at this disease is grounded.

  19. Soluble guanylate cyclase-dependent relaxation is reduced in the adult rat bronchial smooth muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaques Belik; Nadine Hehne; Jingyi Pan; Soenke Behrends

    .... The expression and activity of cyclases have been reported to be developmentally regulated in the lung, and little is known about the age-related changes in their bronchial muscle relaxation potential...

  20. HYPOXIHYPOBAROTHERAPY IN REGULATION OF NEUROHUMORAL AND CYTOKINE RESPONSE IN REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Alemanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hypoxihypobarotherapy in children with bronchial asthma at the rehabilitation stage on the clinicals and dynamics of immunity response to the disease has been studied. Clinical efficacy of hypoxihypobarotherapy was 63,3% in moderate asthma. Positive dynamics of immunological indicators and neuropeptides have manifested in reduced of IL 4, IL 5, IL 18 and substance P serum levels. Use of hypoxihypobarotherapy in children with bronchial asthma has resulted in favourable clinical and immune dynamics and positive alteration of neurohumoral regulation mechanisms and reduced intensity of neurogenic inflammation. Determining immunological indicators, including neuropeptides, may serve as an additional criterion for assessing the efficacy of this treatment in children with bronchial asthma at the rehabilitation stage.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, pneumotherapy, hypoxihypobarotherapy, neuropeptides, cytokines.

  1. Relationship between Methacholine Challenge Testing and exhaled nitric oxide in adult patients with suspected bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Valli, M; Ribuffo, V; Melara, R; Cappiello, G; Businarolo, E; Andreani, A

    2014-05-01

    Usually, hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine is considered closely associated with a diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Recently, it has been clearly pointed out that bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is not a constant feature of asthma and that this condition is not always related to airways inflammation. In the present study we evaluated 42 Patients (21 positive and 21 negative for bronchial hyperreactivity, BHR) with the aim to determine the effect of Methacholine Challenge Testing (MCT) on the levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO). Higher FeNO levels were found before methacholine provocation in the group that eventually resulted positive to the challenge, while after the challenge in both groups FeNO decreased in similar way, with no statistical difference. These data confirm that MCT is a relevant test for asthma diagnosis, but it is not always related to the severity of bronchial inflammation, while FeNO levels in our study have limited clinical significance when evaluated out of asthma exacerbation.

  2. [Treatment of patients with bronchial asthma associated with obesity in a health resort "Okeanskiy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsureva, U V; Demeev, Ya A; Skachkov, O A; Sheverdina, E A

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we assess the efficiency of sanatorium treatment of patients with bronchial asthma of two different weigh groups: with normal body weight and obesity. According to the results of clinical examination it was found that in patients with bronchial asthma and obesity of I-II degree efficiency of sanatorium treatment is lower in comparison with patients with bronchial asthma and normal body weight. The use of a standard set of procedures is not enough to correct the symptoms of asthma in obese patients. Comparative analysis of clinical symptoms in patients with bronchial asthma with normal body weight and obesity were differences of up to 50%. The conclusion about the need to develop a set of techniques to optimize the effectiveness of rehabilitation is given.

  3. IFNγ contributes to the development of gastric epithelial cell metaplasia in Huntingtin interacting protein 1 related (Hip1r)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiping; Demitrack, Elise S; Keeley, Theresa M; Eaton, Kathryn A; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L; Samuelson, Linda C

    2012-07-01

    Huntingtin interacting protein 1 related (Hip1r) is an F-actin- and clathrin-binding protein involved in vesicular trafficking that is crucial for parietal cell function and epithelial cell homeostasis in the stomach. Gastric parietal cells in Hip1r-deficient mice are lost by apoptotic cell death, which leads to a progressive epithelial cell derangement, including glandular hypertrophy, zymogenic cell loss and expansion of a metaplastic mucous cell lineage known as spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). The epithelial cell changes are associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells. As inflammatory mediators, such as IFNγ, have been shown to contribute to the development of the gastric epithelial cell metaplasia after Helicobacter infection, we tested whether IFNγ played a role in the spontaneous progressive epithelial metaplasia observed in Hip1r-deficient mice. Hip1r-deficient mice were crossed with IFNγ-deficient mice and single- and double-mutant mice were analyzed at 3 and 12 months of age. Histopathology scoring showed that loss of IFNγ tempered the spontaneous development of metaplastic lesions in Hip1r-deficient mice. Loss of IFNγ was observed to abrogate the glandular hypertrophy evident in Hip1r mutant stomach, although increased epithelial cell proliferation and elevated gastrin levels were not affected by the presence or absence of this pro-inflammatory cytokine. An analysis of cell lineage markers in the double-mutant mice demonstrated that IFNγ specifically affected the development of metaplastic mucous cells in the neck region, whereas the parietal cell, surface mucous cell and zymogenic cell alterations remained similar to the histopathology in the Hip1r mutant. Morphometric analysis showed that IFNγ was required for the mucous cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia observed in Hip1r-deficient mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that IFNγ is critical for the development of the gastric epithelial cell metaplasia that

  4. Establishment of novel in vitro mouse chief cell and SPEM cultures identifies MAL2 as a marker of metaplasia in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Victoria G; Petersen, Christine P; Mills, Jason C; Tuma, Pamela L; Whitehead, Robert H; Goldenring, James R

    2014-10-15

    Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach.

  5. FEATURES OF TRANSFORMATIONS OF RED BLOOD CELLS IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Suprun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA is noted recently. That’s why its treatment remains an urgent problem in allergology. Along with congenital atopy, a significant role in formation and development of a disease is given to hyperreactivity of bronchial tubes which is connected with a alterations of their epithelial membranes. However, sampling of bronchial epithelium cells is carried out by means of bronchoscopy with a biopsy which is an invasive procedure. Therefore, bronchial hyperreactivity is a relative contraindication for this intervention. Meanwhile, there exists a non-invasive method of integrated cellular membrane assessment.Analysis of membrane transformation in erythrocytes which do not have their own metabolism may be an informative model of cellular membranes in the organism in general. We have examined 52 persons (2 to 17 years old including 20 children with bronchial asthma and the comparison group comprising 32 healthy ageand sex-matched children. Percentage of spontaneous red blood cells (RBC transformation in the patients was carried out by means of light microscopy in whole blood smears made of native cell suspension. Children with bronchial asthma (2.6% exhibited more frequent occurrence of destructive RBC forms than in healthy children (0.8%, р < 0.05, with predominance of stomatocytes (0.55% and 0,1% which were >5-fold more common in children with bronchial asthma (р < 0.05. Respectively, transitional forms were significantly more often encountered in control group (39.9% against 34.12%, р < 0.05. Bronchial asthma is characterized by stomatocytic way of RBC transformation.An indicator of compensatory transformation (a ratio of transitional-to-destructive RBC forms seems to represent an integrative criterion for membrane ability of reversal to normal state. Children suffering from bronchial asthma (р < 0.05 have decreased levels of this compensatory transformation indicator as compared to healthy children (2

  6. MUC2 is a highly specific marker of goblet cell metaplasia in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Maria G; Soucy, Genevieve; Vaughan, Thomas L; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Odze, Robert D

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the American College of Gastroenterology requires identification of goblet cells in mucosal biopsies from the esophagus to diagnose Barrett esophagus (BE). Identification of goblet cells in mucosal biopsies is fraught with limitations such as sampling and interpretation error. One previous study by our group suggested that MUC2 expression in esophageal nongoblet columnar cells represents a late biochemical reaction in the conversion of mucinous columnar cells to goblet cells in BE. We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of MUC2 positivity in nongoblet columnar epithelium for detection of goblet cells in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) region. We also sought to identify associations between MUC2 positivity and clinical and endoscopic risk factors for BE. This analysis utilized mucosal biopsies of the distal esophagus or GEJ from 100 patients who participated in a community clinic-based study of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease evaluated prospectively in the western part of Washington state. We randomly selected 50 patients who had columnar epithelium with goblet cells, representing the study group and 50 patients without goblet cells, representing the comparison group. Immunohistochemistry for MUC2 was performed on samples in a blinded manner without knowledge of the clinical or endoscopic features of the patients. The presence of staining was noted in both goblet and nongoblet epithelium, both close to and distant from the mucosa with goblet cells, when the latter were present. All study patients showed MUC2 positivity in goblet cells. MUC2 was present in nongoblet columnar epithelium in 78% of study patients with goblet cells, but in only 4% of controls without goblet cells (Pcell metaplasia). MUC2 was significantly more common in nongoblet columnar cells close to, rather than distant from, the mucosa with goblet cells (Pmetaplasia in the distal esophagus, and with

  7. RORα-dependent type 2 innate lymphoid cells are required and sufficient for mucous metaplasia in immature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Charu; Cui, Tracy; Han, Mingyuan; Lei, Jing; Hinde, Joanna L; Wu, Qian; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2017-06-01

    Early-life wheezing-associated respiratory tract infection by rhinovirus (RV) is considered a risk factor for asthma development. We have shown that RV infection of 6-day-old BALB/c mice, but not mature mice, induces an asthmalike phenotype that is associated with an increase in the population of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and dependent on IL-13 and IL-25. We hypothesize that ILC2s are required and sufficient for development of the asthmalike phenotype in immature mice. Mice were infected with RV1B on day 6 of life and treated with vehicle or a chemical inhibitor of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-α (RORα), SR3335 (15 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ip for 7 days). We also infected Rora sg/sg mice without functional ILC2s. ILC2s were identified as negative for lineage markers and positive for cluster of differentiation 25 (CD25)/IL-2Rα and CD127/IL-7Rα. Effects of SR3335 on proliferation and function of cultured ILC2s were determined. Finally, sorted ILC2s were transferred into naïve mice, and lungs were harvested 14 days later for assessment of gene expression and histology. SR3335 decreased the number of RV-induced lung lineage-negative, CD25 + , CD127 + ILC2s in immature mice. SR3335 also attenuated lung mRNA expression of IL-13, Muc5ac, and Gob5 as well as mucous metaplasia. We also found reduced expansion of ILC2s in RV-infected Rora sg/sg mice. SR3335 also blocked IL-25 and IL-33-induced ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production ex vivo. Finally, adoptive transfer of ILC2s led to development of asthmalike phenotype in immature and adult mice. RORα-dependent ILC2s are required and sufficient for type 2 cytokine expression and mucous metaplasia in immature mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Risk of Gastric Cancer Among Patients With Intestinal Metaplasia of the Stomach in a US Integrated Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavya M; Chang, Jonathan I; Shi, Jiaxiao M; Wu, Bechien U

    2016-10-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a common finding from routine endoscopies. Although GIM is an early step in gastric carcinogenesis, there is controversy regarding routine surveillance of patients with GIM in regions with a low prevalence of gastric cancer. We aimed to determine the incidence of gastric cancer among patients with GIM and risk factors for gastric cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California region diagnosed with GIM from 2000 through 2011. GIM was identified by a keyword search of pathology reports; gastric cancer cases were identified by cross-reference with an internal cancer registry. The incidence of gastric cancer in patients with GIM (n = 923; median age at diagnosis, 68 y) was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched reference population (controls). Risk factors such as ethnicity, smoking status, history of Helicobacter pylori infection, and family history of gastric cancer were evaluated by individual Cox proportional hazards regression. We then performed a second case-cohort study to evaluate the risk of gastric cancer based on the location and extent of GIM. The median duration of follow-up evaluation was 4.6 years (interquartile range, 3.0-6.7 y). We identified 25 patients with GIM who developed gastric cancers. Seventeen cases of cancer were diagnosed at the same time as the diagnosis of GIM. Eight cases of cancer were identified within a median time period of 4.6 years after a diagnosis of GIM (interquartile range, 2-5.7 y). The overall incidence rate for the cohort was 1.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-3.39). Among the risk factors evaluated, only family history (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.7; P = .012) and extent of GIM (odds ratio, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-50.4) increased the risk for gastric cancer. The incidence rate for gastric cancer in patients with a positive family history was 8.12 (95% confidence interval, 1

  9. Evaluation of serum l-carnitine level in children with acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramadan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our study, it could be concluded that l-carnitine decrease is linked to the occurrence of attack of bronchial asthma. Accordingly, it is recommended to make further studies to find out if there is a beneficial role of carnitine intake in the prophylaxis & treatment of attacks of bronchial asthma. The recommended studies should search for the most suitable dose & side effects of carnitine as a potential pharmaceutical agent.

  10. Main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region: Their relation to airflow limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoya; Shiotani, Motoi; Sato, Suguru; Ohta, Atsushi; Maeda, Haruo; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Itoh, Kazuhiko; Tsukada, Hiroki (Department of Radiology, Respiratory Medicine, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata-city, Niigata-ken (Japan)), Email: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp

    2012-02-15

    Background. To date, bronchial diverticula have generally been treated as a pathological condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although only a limited amount of published information is available on the relationship between bronchial diverticula as depicted by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and airflow limitations. Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between airflow limitations and main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region using spirometry and thin-section MDCT. Material and Methods. A total of 189 consecutive adult patients were retrospectively evaluated based on spirometry and thin-section MDCT of the chest. All examinations were performed at our institution between June and October 2008. The study group included 70 women and 119 men with a mean age of 65 years (range 19-86 years). The relationship between the FEV1% and bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region was analyzed (Student's t-test). Results. The indications for conducting the examinations were pulmonary diseases (82 patients), cardiovascular diseases (22), extrapulmonary malignancies (74), and other conditions (11). A total of 84/189 (44.4%) patients showed bronchial diverticula, and the FEV{sub 1}% of 70/84 (83.3%) patients was above 70. The FEV{sub 1}% of patients with lesions ranged from 26.0 to 97.8 (mean 76.8), whereas the range was 28.1-94.4 (mean 73.7) in those without lesions. There was no significant association between the FEV{sub 1}% and the presence of subcarinal bronchial diverticula (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that thin-section chest CT commonly demonstrates main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region in patients without airflow limitations. We propose that the presence of a small number of tiny bronchial diverticula under the carina may not be a criterion for the diagnosis of COPD

  11. A bronchial fibroepithelial polyp with abnormal findings on auto?fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Naomi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Daido, Wakako; Ishiyama, Sayaka; Deguchi, Naoko; Taniwaki, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial fibroepithelial polyps represent a rare type of tumour that displays endobronchial growth. The findings of these lesions on auto?fluorescence imaging (AFI) bronchoscopy have not been reported, despite the usefulness of AFI in detecting early lung cancer. We report the case of a patient with a bronchial fibroepithelial polyp that displayed positivity (magenta colour) on AFI. The patient was a 65?year?old man, in whom an endobronchial polypoid lesion of 10?mm diameter had been detecte...

  12. [Genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunas, A S; Iunusbaev, B B; Fedorova, Iu Iu; Gimalova, G F; Ramazanova, N N; Gur'eva, L L; Mukhtarova, L A; Zagidullin, Sh Z; Etkina, E I; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease that is caused by the complex interaction of environmental influences and genetic susceptibility. The first genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma discovered a significant association between SNPs within 17q12-21 genomic region and childhood bronchial asthma in individuals of European descent. Association with this genomic region was then replicated in a number of independent samples of European and Asian descent. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia. The present study includes 358 unrelated patients with physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma and 369 disease-free control subjects of different ethnic origin (Russians, Tatars and Bashkirs). Genotyping of DNA samples was carried out using the Illumina Human610 quad array as a part of GABRIEL project (contract from the EC No LSHB-CT-2006-018996). After QC filtering procedures, a final set of 550915 SNPs genotyped in 330 cases and 348 controls was tested for association with bronchial asthma. Five markers on chromosome 17q12-21 showed statistically significant association with bronchial asthma (p < or = 4.79 x 10(-7)). SNP rs7216389 with the strongest evidence for association (p = 1.01 x 10(-7)) is located within the first intron of the GSDMB gene. Evidence for association was stronger with childhood-onset asthma (p = 1.97 x 10(-6) for SNP rs7216389) compared to late-onset asthma (p = 1.8 x 10(-4) for SNP rs7216389). Our replication study using three SNPs within GSDMB gene confirmed association with only childhood-onset asthma. In summary, these results suggest an important role for genetic variants within 17q12-q21 region in the development of bronchial asthma in the Volga-Ural region of Russia.

  13. “Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA test, which improved with administration of steroids.

  14. He-Ne laser radiation in combined therapy of children's bronchial asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilnikov, Dmitriy V.; Varavva, Andrey S.; Tarasova, Olga N.; Plaksina, Galina V.; Barybin, Vitaliy F.; Khlutkova, Svetlana N.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper the medical application of He-Ne lasers for the treatment of bronchial asthma is described. Research objective of this work was the development of a treatment method for children with bronchial asthman of heavy and medium-heavy forms, resistant to the base therapy, with the help of low-intensive laser radiation with wave length λ=0,63 μm.

  15. Hepato-bronchial fistula secondary to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jun Sunny; Govind, Shaylan; Wiseman, Daniele; Inculet, Richard; Kao, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with diverticulitis are predisposed to hepatic abscesses via seeding through the portal circulation. Hepatic abscesses are well-documented sequelae of diverticulitis, however instances of progression to hepato-bronchial fistulization are rare. We present a case of diverticulitis associated with hepatic abscess leading to hepato-bronchial fistulization, which represents a novel disease course not yet reported in the literature. Case Presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man ...

  16. Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongchun; Boussioutas, Alex; Reynolds, Jeremy; Russell, Sarah; Gu, Min

    2009-11-01

    Goblet cells are a requirement for the diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. The gastric mucosa is lined by a monolayer of columnar epithelium with some specialization at the crypts, but there are no goblet cells in normal gastric epithelium. The appearance of goblet cells in gastric epithelium is an indicator of potential malignant progression toward adenocarcinoma. Therefore, in vivo three-dimensional imaging of goblet cells is essential for diagnoses of a premalignant stage of gastric cancers called intestinal metaplasia. We used mouse intestine, which has goblet cells, as a model of intestinal metaplasia. One-photon confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy are employed for 3-D imaging of goblet cells. The penetration depth, the sectioning ability, and the photobleaching information of imaging are demonstrated. Both endomicroscopy techniques can three-dimensionally observe goblet cells in mouse large intestine and achieve an imaging depth of 176 μm. The two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy shows higher resolution and contrast of the imaging sections at each depth. In addition, two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy also has advantages of sectioning ability and less photobleaching. These results prove that two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy is advantageous in diagnoses of a premalignant stage of gastric cancers.

  17. Intra-procedural Bronchoscopy to Prevent Bronchial Compression During Pulmonary Artery Stent Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Rome, Nita; Santamaria, Ramiro W Lizano; Hallbergson, Anna; Glatz, Andrew C; Dori, Yoav; Gillespie, Matthew J; Goldfarb, Samuel; Haas, Andrew R; Rome, Jonathan J

    2016-03-01

    Stenosis of the pulmonary arteries frequently occurs during staged palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants, often necessitating stent angioplasty. A complication of stent angioplasty is compression of the ipsilateral mainstem bronchus. Following such a case, we re-evaluated our approach to PA stent angioplasty in these patients. The incident case is described. A retrospective observational study of children and adults with superior (SCPC) and/or total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) undergoing left pulmonary artery (LPA) stent angioplasty between January 1, 2005 and January 5, 2014 and subsequent chest CT was performed to assess the incidence of bronchial compression. The current strategy of employing bronchoscopy to assess bronchial compression during angioplasty is described with short-term results. Sixty-five children and adults underwent LPA stent angioplasty. Other than the incident case, none had symptomatic bronchial compression. Of the total study population, 12 % had subsequent CT, of which one subject had moderate bronchial compression. To date, seven subjects have undergone angioplasty of LPA stenosis and bronchoscopy. In one case, stent angioplasty was not performed because of baseline bronchial compression, exacerbated during angioplasty. In the rest of cases, mild-moderate compression was seen during angioplasty. Following stent angioplasty, the resultant compression was not worse than that seen on test angioplasty. Bronchial compression is a rare complication of stent angioplasty of the pulmonary arteries in children and adults with SCPC/TCPC. Angioplasty of the region of interest with procedural bronchoscopy can help to identify patients at risk of this complication.

  18. Computed tomography assessment of airways throughout bronchial tree demonstrates airway narrowing in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Ould Hmeidi, Yahya; Fetita, Catalin; Taillé, Camille; Aubier, Michel; Grenier, Philippe A

    2015-06-01

    To analyze airway dimensions throughout the bronchial tree in severe asthmatic patients using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) focusing on airway narrowing. Thirty-two patients with severe asthma underwent automated (BronCare software) analysis of their right lung bronchi, with counts of airways >3 mm long arising from the main bronchi (airway count) and bronchial dimension quantification at segmental and subsegmental levels (lumen area [LA], wall area [WA], and WA%). Focal bronchial stenosis was defined as >50% narrowing of maximal LA on contiguous cross-sectional slices. Severe asthmatics were compared to 13 nonsevere asthmatic patients and nonasthmatic (pooled) subjects (Wilcoxon rank tests, then stepwise logistic regression). Finally, cluster analysis of severe asthmatic patients and stepwise logistic regression identified specific imaging subgroups. The most significant differences between severe asthmatic patients and the pooled subjects were bronchial stenosis (subsegmental and all bronchi: P bronchial stenosis: P = .009). Airway count was as discriminant as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (P = .01) to identify patients in each cluster, with both variables being correlated (r = 0.59, P = .005). Severe asthma-associated morphologic changes were characterized by focal bronchial stenoses and diffuse airway narrowing; the latter was associated with airflow obstruction. WA%, dependent on airway caliber, is the best parameter to identify severe asthmatic patients from pooled subjects. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether lung sound analysis (LSA) is a valid measure of airway obstruction and inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma during treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). 63 good adherence patients with bronchial asthma and 18 poor adherence patients were examined by LSA, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and induced sputum. The expiration-to-inspiration lung sound power ratio at low frequencies between 100 and 200 Hz (E/I LF) obtained by LSA was compared between healthy volunteers and bronchial asthma patients. Next, post-ICS treatment changes were compared in bronchial asthma patients between the good adherence patients and the poor adherence patients. E/I LF was significantly higher in bronchial asthma patients (0.62 ± 0.21) than in healthy volunteers (0.44 ± 0.12, p bronchial asthma patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects and significance of methacholine bronchial provocation tests and salbutamol bronchial dilation test on measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in patients with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jielu; Yu, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuhan; Zhang, Pan; Fang, Zekui; Wang, Cuilan; He, Xi

    2016-03-01

    To study the effects and significance of methacholine (Mch) bronchial provocation tests and salbutamol bronchial dilation test on measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with asthma. This was a prospective study conducted between November 2014 and August 2015. A total of 135 patients with asthma visiting the respiratory clinic of Zhujiang Hospital were enrolled. The patients received either Mch bronchial provocation test or salbutamol bronchial dilation test based on their FEV1/FVC values and cooperative degree. Mch bronchial provocation test was performed by using Astograph Jupiter-21 (Astograh group) or APS-Pro airway reaction testing apparatus (APS group), and salbutamol bronchial dilation test was performed by using Jaeger spirometer (Dilation group). We compared the differences between FeNO values measured before examinations (Pre-FeNO) and 5 min after completion of these examinations (Post-FeNO). The geometric mean of Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO was 28.07 ppb and 24.08 ppb respectively in the Astograh group, with a significant decrease of the FeNO value after the examination (Z=-3.093, P=0.002). A significant difference between Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO was found in patients who had positive provocation results in the Astograh group (Z=-2.787, P=0.005), but not in the patients with negative results (Z=-1.355, P=0.176). The geometric mean of FeNO in the APS group decreased significantly from 27.95 ppb to 23.15 ppb after the examination was completed (Z=-5.170, P=0.000); both in patients with positive saline or Mch provocation results and in patients with negative provocation results, the differences between Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO in the APS group being significant (Z=-2.705, -3.709, -2.371, P=0.002, 0.000, 0.018). No difference of FeNO change(ΔFeNO) was observed between the 2 Mch bronchial provocation test groups (Ubronchial dilation test has minor effect on the measurement of FeNO, but Mch bronchial provocation tests can significantly