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Sample records for bronchi

  1. Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Bronchi and Bronchial Tree In the mediastinum , at the level of the ... trachea. As the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls ...

  2. Diseases of the bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roentgenologic semiotics of acute and chronic bronchites has been presented. It is shown, that in the combined daignosis of bronchi diseases roentgenograp hy and roentgenoscopy of lungs, roentgenofunctional tests and bronchography shou ld be used. For the diagnosis of broncholithiases, retention cysts and foreign bodies in bronchi the tomography, bronchography and bronchoscopy are used

  3. Quick Dissection of the Segmental Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional anatomy of the bronchopulmonary segments is essential for respiratory medicine. This report describes a quick guide for dissecting the segmental bronchi in formaldehyde-fixed human material. All segmental bronchi are easy to dissect, and thus, this exercise will help medical students to better understand the…

  4. Hixozide in therapy of tuberculosis of bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozova T.l.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combined inhaled anti-TB preparation Hixozide for improving the effectiveness of medical treatment of patients suffering from tuberculosis of bronchus. Material and Methods. Hixozide (made in Russia, the active substance Hydroxymethylchinoxylindioxydum 100mg + Isoniazidum 250 mg, was delivered via inhalations using a compressor nebulizer within 21 days in the course of the complex chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria: newly diagnosed patients and patients with relapsed tuberculosis with the presence of tuberculousendobronchitis, drug sensitivity saved to isoniazid. Exclusion criteria: the state of preventing the appointment of adequate treatment, HIV-infection (group 1, n=30. The comparison group was consisted of patients receiving standard treatment in combination with inhaled administration of Isoniazid (group 2, n=21. Rezults. The clinical study has figured out: after a course of inhalations of Hixozide the clinical cure of bronchial tuberculosis occurs after the period of 2 months of treatment (according to the results of endoscopy of bronchi; more patients — 69.2% versus 38.1% in the comparison group, p=0,039 showed a positive trend during the nonspecific endobronchitis — 85,7% vs. 52,9%, p=0,017; the treatment and bacteriological conversion were achieved: 143±27 days in the first group vs. 164±32 days in the control group, p=0,019. Adverse reactions to Hixozide demanding its abolition occurred in 13,3%, they were stopped and did not affect the health of patients in the future. Conclusion. Inhaled Hixozide in the complex treatment of patients with tuberculosis accelerates clinical cure of tuberculosis of the bronchi, healing the lesions in the lung tissue and abacillation.

  5. Cryotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the trachea and bronchi.

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwand, M O

    1986-01-01

    Cryotherapy was used to relieve symptoms in 75 patients suffering from advanced carcinoma of the trachea or bronchi. In all patients surgical resection, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy had been tried and been unsuccessful or had been thought to be unsuitable because of the patients' poor general condition. In cryotherapy the intraluminal tumour was frozen through a Stortz bronchoscope. Localised necrosis increased the patency of the lumen of the trachea or bronchi, resulting in relief of sympto...

  6. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    V.B. Shadlinsky; B.M. Guseynov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The lo...

  7. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirty-one bronchial samples from 62 patients have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. Complete patient records including occupational and smoking histories, as well as possible exposure to radon, are obtained. In addition, one hundred and sixty-two mongol dog bronchi dissected from different lobes of 23 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. Ninety-four human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 532 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 240 micrographs of dog epithelium from 31 bronchial samples have been entered into COSAS. We have, using the COSAS planimetry program, established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. The data are being used to develop weighting factors for dosimetry and radon risk analysis. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Usefulness of computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy in the evaluation of bronchi divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since introduction of multislice CT scanners into clinical practice, virtual brochoscopy has gained a lot of quality and diagnostic potential. Nevertheless it does not have established place in diagnostics of tracheal and bronchi disorders and its potential has not been examined enough. Nowadays a majority of bronchial tree variants and lesions are revealed by bronchofiberoscopy, which is an objective and a relatively safe method, but has side effects, especially in higher-risk subjects. Therefore noninvasive techniques enabling evaluation of airways should be consistently developed and updated. Material consisted of 100 adults (45 female, 55 male) aged between 18 and 65 years (mean 40 years, median 40.5 years, SD 14.02), who underwent chest CT examination by means of a 16-slice scanner. Every patient had normal appearance of chest organs, with the exception of minor abnormalities that did not alter airways route. Divisions of bronchial tree to segmental level were evaluated and assigned to particular types by means of virtual bronchoscopy projection. In case of difficulties MPR or MinIP projection was used. The frequency of lobar bronchi divisions other than the typical ones was in: right upper lobar bronchi 45%, left 55%; middle lobar bronchi 21%, lingula 26%; right lower lobar bronchi 28%, left 29%. Subsuperior bronchus or bronchi were found on the right side in 44% and on the left side in 37%. No dependency between types of bronchial divisions on different levels was found

  9. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Shadlinsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The longitudinal and transverse pieces were taken from cartilaginous and membranaceus walls of the upper, middle and lower one-third of the trachea and each bronchi principalis. These cuts 5-7 urn in thickness were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, azure-2-eosin, with hematoxylin-picrofucsin by Van-Gizon technique, with methyl green-pironin by Brashe technique (after fixation in water Karnua and reaction by Grymelius. The results of the research showed that during postnatal ontogenesis the sex related differences are observed in cell composition of the trachea and bronchi princiapalis' lymphoid structures. In adolescent, juvenile and 1-st mature period in females the percentage of small and big lymphocytes, cells with mitosis, plasma cells is more, but the percentage of medium lymphocytes and cells with degeneration is less than in males

  10. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes.

  11. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes).

  12. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  13. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziga Snoj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTKidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention.

  14. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the litera...

  15. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    OpenAIRE

    Ziga Snoj; Nenad Savic; Jaka Regvat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTKidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literat...

  16. Quality of life of patients treated by chemotherapy or radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bronchi or gastro-intestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospective study was intended to assess by various methods the conditions and quality of life of patients with advanced-stage carcinoma of the bronchi or gastrointestinal tract after they have been treated by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. (MBC)

  17. Dose and Volume of the Irradiated Main Bronchi and Related Side Effects in the Treatment of Central Lung Tumors With Stereotactic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijm, Marloes; Schillemans, W; Aerts, Joachim G; Heijmen, B; Nuyttens, Joost J

    2016-04-01

    High radiation dose to the main bronchi can result in stenosis, occlusion or fistula formation, and death. Only 8 articles have reported side effects to the main bronchi from stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), mostly with only one symptomatic complication per article. Therefore, we calculated the dose to the bronchial structures, such as trachea; mainstem bronchi; intermediate bronchus; upper-, middle-, and lower-lobe bronchus; and the segmental bronchi in 134 patients with central tumors and calculated the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for each of these structures, with toxicity determination based upon computed tomography imaging. No side effects were found in the trachea, and only stenosis occurred in the main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Higher grades of side effects, such as occlusion and atelectasis, were only seen in the upper-, middle-, and lower bronchi and the segmental bronchi. When 0.5cc of a segmental bronchi was irradiated to 50Gy in 5 fractions, it was about 50% likely to be occluded radiographically. For grade 1 radiographically evident side effects, the 50% risk level for a 5-fraction Dmax was 55Gy for mid-bronchi and 65Gy for mainstem bronchi. To assure the relationship between clinical toxicity and side effects to the bronchi, further investigation is needed. PMID:27000511

  18. New findings on the three-dimensional anatomical relations between the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels at the pulmonary hilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Takamasa; Kanzaki, Masato; Kikkawa, Takuma; Isaka, Tamami; Sakamoto, Kei; Oyama, Kunihiro; Murasugi, Masahide

    2015-05-01

    During the 1940s, considerable knowledge was acquired about the anatomy of pulmonary segments, and anatomical terms were proposed and have been widely accepted. In recent years, minimally invasive and thoracoscopic segmentectomy has been performed with a versatile sublobar resection approach on patients with early peripheral lung cancer, metastatic lung tumors, and undiagnosed nodules. The three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the bronchi and the pulmonary vessels has also been studied in individual patients. Three-dimensional models of the bronchi and pulmonary vessels were prepared using homemade software from computed tomograms (CT) of the chests of patients scheduled to undergo surgical procedures. Using these models, the authors examined the 3D positional relationships of the segmental broncho-arterial triangle (SBAT) created by three points defined by the origins and courses of the bronchi and the pulmonary arteries, which are located apart from each other at the pulmonary hilum, and the segmental pulmonary veins (SPV), which run near the SBAT. In the left and right upper lobes, many branches of the pulmonary arteries and parallel bronchi in subsegments were widely separated at the origin of the pulmonary hilum, creating a relatively large SBAT. However, as an exceptional case, an SPV passed through an SBAT in only one of 158 patients. To our knowledge, no similar findings have been documented previously. Our findings could help to determine resection surfaces for thoracoscopic segmentectomy in the future, and provide new insights into the 3D anatomy and development of the lung. PMID:25546314

  19. Lung cancer and bronchi-pulmonary diseases of iron uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung cancer mortality has been analyzed for 2.582 miners employed from 1943 to 1961. All persons observed had three years occupation at least. Basing upon the lung cancer risk value per unit of the exposure, the assessment of the effective standard of pulmonary organ irradiation to radon progeny was elaborated and mortality excess was calcuated. Medical demography studies of morbidity and mortality were elaborated for silicosis, silicotuberculosis, lung cancer and occupational bronchitis versus the magnitude of dust and radiation exposure. Annual and cumulative exposures have been assessed for seven cohorts of miners employed and vast primary material has been accumulated for the period of 40 years (1943-1984). Intensive indice of mortality were determined for observation periods. The mortality excess was compared to cumulated radiation exposure. The lung cancer mortality excess in iron-uranium miners was 3.3 cases per 106 man-years per 1 WLM; 4.8 cases per 106 man-years per 1 WLM was assessed if first years of occupation are negected. The latent period from radiation exposure to death from lung cancer is generally ten year or more. Changes of miners labor conditions (the magnitude of dust exposure) have been reflected by the bronchi pulmonary disease structure. The input of these dieseases into the occupational lung pathology has been significantly changed with the time course. Within first 18-20 years, pneumoconiosis was the only form of occupational lung pathology in the mine, whereas occupational bronchis and lung cancers were recorded within next then years thereafter. In cohorts of longest observation period, the average age of patients was increasingly ranked versus diseases as follows: silicosis, silicotuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer. (Author)

  20. In vivo endoscopic autofluorescence microspectro-imaging of bronchi and alveoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg-Heckly, G.; Thiberville, L.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Viellerobe, B.

    2008-02-01

    Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is an emerging technique that can be used during bronchoscopy to analyze the nature of the human bronchial mucosa and alveolar network fluorescence microstructure. An endoscopic fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy system with spectroscopic analysis capability was developed allowing realtime, simultaneous images and emission spectra acquisition, at 488 nm excitation, using a flexible miniprobe. This flexible 1.4 mm miniprobe can be introduced into the working channel of a flexible endoscope and gently advanced through the bronchial tree up to the alveoli. FCFM in conjunction with bronchoscopy is able to image the in vivo autofluorescence microstructure of the bronchial mucosa but also the alveolar respiratory network outside of the usual field of view. In the normal bronchi, reproducible images were obtained, characterized by a highly organized fibered network. Precancerous lesions exhibited alterations of this fibered network. Microscopic and spectral analysis showed that the signal mainly originates from the elastin component of the bronchial subepithelial layer. In non smokers, the system images the elastin backbone of the aveoli. In active smokers, a strong autofluorescence signal appears from alveolar macrophages. The FCFM technique appears promising for in vivo exploration of the bronchial and alveolar extracellular matrix.

  1. Normal dimensions of trachea and two main bronchi in the Iranian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal diameters of larger airways in the Persian population, since these demographic variables are essential for interpretation of chest CTs and/or plain X-rays. During a 6-month period, sagittal and coronal diameters of tracheas of all cases admitted for a chest CT to the radiology department of the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD) were measured. The patients had to accept to take part in the study and had to fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Ninety-nine percent confidence intervals (99% CI) were used to define the upper and lower limits of normal. Two hundred subjects, including 132 men and 68 women aged 20–85 years, were studied. Coronal and sagittal diameters of tracheas in the upper part were as follows: 1.8±0.24 and 2.06±0.27cm for men, and 1.48±0.20 and 1.49±0.24 for women, respectively. For the lower part that was: 1.8±0.23, 1.86±0.27, 1.51±0.18, and 1.46±0.23, respectively. For the right and left main-stem bronchi the values were as follows: 1.16±0.17 and 1.02±0.22 for men and 0.93±0.13 and 0.81±0.13 for women, respectively. The values determined by us had a narrower range of normality than the ones found in the previous reports, so they will stay more friendly for interpretation of individual cases

  2. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Final report, April 1, 1988 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by α particles and develop into cancers have been determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This research included extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, a second major part of this research consisted of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheobronchial epithelial population(s) using immunocytochemistry and the proliferation marker PCNA on paraffin sections. The basal and suprabasal cycling cell populations of the bronchi of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women were compared. Normal human airway linings were also compared with normal adult dog trachea and bronchi as well as metaplastic and repairing human airways. The quantitative data from this project resulted in several publications on the cycling and putative stem cells of the tracheobronchial epithelium and more accurate radon dosimetry and risk analyses

  3. Smoking particles enhance endothelin A and endothelin B receptor-mediated contractions by enhancing translation in rat bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granström, Bengt W; Xu, Cang-Bao; Nilsson, Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is known to cause chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi and to contribute to airway hyper-reactivity, such as in bronchial asthma. To study the effect of smoking on the endothelin system in rat airways, bronchial segments were exposed to DMSO-soluble smoking particles (DSP......) from cigarette smoke, to nicotine and to DMSO, respectively. METHODS: Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of DSP, nicotine or DMSO alone. Contractile responses to sarafotoxin 6c (a selective agonist for ETB receptors) and endothelin-1 (an ETA and ETB...... of ETA and ETB receptor mRNA through exposure to DMSO or to nicotine exposure alone occurred, although immunohistochemistry revealed a clear increase in ETA and ETB receptors in the smooth muscle after incubation in the presence of DSP. Taken as a whole, this is seen as the presence of a translation...

  4. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  5. The fibroblast growth factor-2 (F.G.F.-2) expression predicts the tumoral response and the local of non at small cells bronchi cancers after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumoral expression of the fibroblast growth factor-2 is correlated with a bad response to chemotherapy and a strong rate of local recurrence. F.G.F.-2 would define a radioresistant phenotype of non at small cells bronchi carcinoma. (N.C.)

  6. Smoking particles enhance endothelin A and endothelin B receptor-mediated contractions by enhancing translation in rat bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikman Petter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is known to cause chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi and to contribute to airway hyper-reactivity, such as in bronchial asthma. To study the effect of smoking on the endothelin system in rat airways, bronchial segments were exposed to DMSO-soluble smoking particles (DSP from cigarette smoke, to nicotine and to DMSO, respectively. Methods Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of DSP, nicotine or DMSO alone. Contractile responses to sarafotoxin 6c (a selective agonist for ETB receptors and endothelin-1 (an ETA and ETB receptor agonist were studied by use of a sensitive myograph. Before ET-1 was introduced, the ETB receptors were desensitized by use of S6c. The remaining contractility observed was considered to be the result of selective activation of the ETA receptors. ETA and ETB receptor mRNA expression was analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. The location and concentration of ETA and ETB receptors were studied by means of immunohistochemistry together with confocal microscopy after overnight incubation with selective antibodies. Results After being cultured together with DSP for 24 hours the bronchial segments showed an increased contractility mediated by ETA and ETB receptors, whereas culturing them together with nicotine did not affect their contractility. The up-regulation of their contractility was blunted by cycloheximide treatment, a translational inhibitor. No significant change in the expression of ETA and ETB receptor mRNA through exposure to DMSO or to nicotine exposure alone occurred, although immunohistochemistry revealed a clear increase in ETA and ETB receptors in the smooth muscle after incubation in the presence of DSP. Taken as a whole, this is seen as the presence of a translation mechanism. Conclusion The increased contractility of rat bronchi when exposed to DSP appears to be due to a translation mechanism.

  7. Pharmacological assessment of the onset of action of aclidinium and glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in COPD patients and human isolated bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Ora, Josuel; Lipsi, Roberto; Segreti, Andrea; Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2015-08-15

    Preclinical studies suggested that aclidinium and glycopyrronium might have a faster onset of action than tiotropium. In this study we assessed the onset of action of aclidinium and glycopyrronium versus tiotropium, all administered at the approved clinical doses, in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in human isolated bronchi by using different concentrations. Sixteen COPD patients inhaled single doses of aclidinium 400µg, glycopyrronium 50μg and tiotropium 18µg and FEV1 was measured to assess their onset of action. In human isolated bronchi the time to evoke half maximal relaxation of transmural stimulation was tested from 10nM to 1µM for each drug. Nine, eight and twelve patients did not achieve 15% increase of FEV1 after inhalation of aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium, respectively. Aclidinium (15.6±7.5min) and glycopyrronium (17.9±10.4min) enhanced 15% FEV1 more rapidly than tiotropium (42.5±19.4min), with no significant difference (P>0.05). In isolated airways, glycopyrronium elicited a dose-dependent onset of action (10nM: 8.2±1.3min, 100nM: 7.1±2.1min, 1μM: 3.4±0.4min) that was faster compared to that induced by aclidinium (1μM: 6.4±0.5min) and tiotropium (1μM: 8.4±1.1min) (Pglycopyrronium was faster than that induced by tiotropium, but since our analysis was restricted to the acute effect of these LAMAs and the inhaled doses were not isoeffective, the real differences in their impact on the onset of bronchodilation will be definitely determined after a long-term challenge of these treatments at isoeffective doses in COPD patients. PMID:25952728

  8. Particle Deposition in Human Lungs due to Varying Cross-Sectional Ellipticity of Left and Right Main Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.

  9. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by α particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis

  10. An interesting view of the trachea and main bronchi as if it is drawn with a pencil: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erkoc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 62 year old nonsmoker man presented with increasing shortness of breath, wheeze, dry cough and multiple episodes of hemoptysis from past 5 years. His clinical examination and multiple chest X-rays taken over the years were normal. Spirometry revealed a mild obstructive airway disease but bronchoscopy was not performed as the patient did not give consent for the procedure. The CT scan that lead to the diagnosis in our patient showed deformed, thickened and narrowed tracheal wall. There were irregular spaced 1-3 mm calcific submucosal nodules of trachea and the main bronchi extending to small airways which were similar to plaque. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is a rare benign disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of subepithelial osteo cartilaginous nodules projecting into the tracheobronchial lumen. Recently, disease has subdivided as tuberosa (degenerative changes with nodule formation and ossification and peripherica (diffuse degeneration of the trachea which is almost exclusively only found during autopsy according to the type of tracheal ossification and nodule formation. Cough not responding to usual medical treatment, recurrent hemoptysis and breathlessness are the most common symptoms. The treatment of this disease is unknown as it cannot be confirmed by a major control study because of the rarity of the disease. If there is localized disease, possible resection of the affected area may be attempted but most common chose is medical treatment .The patient was discharged with symptomatic treatment and was asked to follow up within 6 months period.

  11. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  12. Organ bath in detecting the effect of one-hour warm ischemia on pulmonic arteries and bronchi from non-heart-beating donor lungs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Song; WANG Jia-xiang; YANG Yang; HE Zhan-feng; LIAO Qiu-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-heart-beating donor lung has been a promising source of lung transplantation. Many studies on non-heart-beating donor lungs are based on animal lung transplantation. In this study, we assessed by organ bath the effect of one-hour warm ischemia on the non-heart-beating donor lung in terms of the integrity of contractile and relaxant functions and tissue structures of pulmonic arteries and bronchi.Methods Sixteen Swedish pigs were randomly classified into two groups: heart-beating donor group and 1-hour warm ischemia non-heart-beating donor group. Pulmonic and bronchial rings were taken from the isolated left lungs of the pigs. The pulmonic rings were stimulated by U-46619 (5.7 mol/L) and acetylcholine (10~(-4) mmol/L) to assess the contractile abilities of smooth muscle and the endothelium-dependent relaxation response, respectively. As such, acetylcholine (10~(-5) mmol/L) and natrium arachidonic acid (0.01%) were used to detect the contraction of bronchial smooth muscle and epithelium-dependent relaxation response. Meanwhile, the variances of precontraction tension of control groups were recorded to measure whether there was spontaneous relaxation during endothelium/epithelium-dependent relaxation course. Finally, papaverine solution (10~(-4) mmol/L) was used to detect the non-endothelium/epithelium-dependent relaxant abilities of pulmonic and bronchial smooth muscles.Results There was no significant difference in the tension values of precontraction of pulmonic rings (P>0.05), endothelium-dependent relaxation (P>0.05), precontraction of bronchial rings (P>0.05) and epithelium-dependent relaxation (P>0.05) between the heart-beating donor group and the 1-hour warm ischemia non-heart-beating donor group. And the pulmonic and bronchial rings of each subgroup B had no spontaneous relaxation. Finally, papaverine solution relaxed the smooth muscle of all the rings completely.Conclusions The results of this experiment suggest that the contractile

  13. Studies on the prediction of post-treatment pulmonary functions in lung cancer patients undergoing carbon radiotherapy, during which the first bronchi was included within the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cases of cancer that have developed at the site peripheral to the segmental bronchus, if the cancer tumor exists near the hilar area and if a dose of more than 95% is irradiated on the proximal portion of the segmental bronchus rather than on its inlet, stenosis or obstruction may occur in the central airway where there is no cancer infiltration. In such cases, it is expected that pulmonary functions may be lost to the same degree as cases in which lobectomy is performed; hence, patients with a poor pulmonary function may suffer from serious disorders. We studied these cases to determine whether it is possible to predict the post-treatment pulmonary functions prior to treatment. The dose to be irradiated on the first bronchi, cancer infiltration into which was not clarified, was set at a dose of 75% to be irradiated on the tumor. It is simple to predict values of pulmonary function from the proportion of the number of subsegmental branches, but a tendency was observed to underestimate values for vital capacity and overestimate values for FEV1.0. It is believed that the presence of underlying diseases, such as emphysema and asthma, may cause a gap between predicted and measured values. (author)

  14. Estudio anatómico de los bronquios segmentarios en una muestra de material de disección; Anatomical study of the segmental bronchi in a sample of dissection material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Giovanni Corzo Gómez, MD MSc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Las variaciones del árbol bronquial tienen grandes implicaciones durante la broncoscopia, la lectura de imágenes diagnósticas y la cirugía pulmonar.Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de variaciones en número de los bronquios segmentarios en una muestra de material de disección de especímenes humanos. Métodos: se disecaron 20 bloques pulmonares determinando las variaciones en número de sus bronquios segmentarios. Resultados: se encontraron variaciones en número entre el 5 y el 15%. Las mayores variaciones fueron en el lóbulo inferior derecho. No hubo variaciones en el lóbulo superior izquierdo.Conclusiones: a pesar de que el tamaño de la muestra es muy pequeño encontramos una elevada frecuencia de variaciones. Sería interesante realizar estudios ampliados sobre esta temática en nuestra población.Background: changes in the bronchial tree have major implications for the bronchoscopy, the reading of diagnostic images and pulmonary surgery. Objective: to determine the frequency of changes in segmental bronchi in a sample material for dissection in human. Methods: 20 blocks were dissected lung determining the variations in numbers of segmental bronchi. Results: there were variations in number between 5 and 10%. The biggest changes were on the right lower lobe. There were no changes in the left upper lobe. Conclusions: although the sample size is very small we found a high frequency of variations. I t would be interest ing to conduct comprehensive studies on this subject in our population.

  15. 肺表面活性蛋白B基因多态性与新生儿肺支气管发育不良的危险相关性%Association between gene polymorphisms of Surfactant Protein Band bronchi pulmonary dysphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to analyze the association between gene polymorphisms of Surfactant Protein V(SPV)and bron-chi pulmonary dysphasia. Methods Clinical data of bronchi pulmonary dysphasia patients received treatment at our hospital from 2008 to 2014 was retrospectively analyzed as Group A,35 cases. The prematures without bronchi pulmonary dysphasia were enrolled as Group V,45 cases. Re-sults There were no significant difference of gene frequency of SPV(1580C)or SPV(1580T)between the two groups( P > 0. 05). Group A had a higher rate of gene frequency of SPV(18A)(χ2 = 7. 740,P = 0. 005). Regression analysis showed that carried SPV(18A)gene was an independent risk factor of bronchi pulmonary dysphasia(OR:3. 612;CI:2. 213 ~ 4. 643). Conclusion SPV - 18A/ C polymorphism is associat-ed with bronchi pulmonary dysphasia.%目的:探讨新生儿肺支气管发育不良与肺表面活性蛋白 V 基因多态性的相关性。方法选2008~2014年接受治疗的肺支气管发育不良患儿35例(观察组),并纳入同期收治的早产儿(无肺支气管发育不良)45例作为对照组。所有受试者均为汉族人。分析对比两组患儿肺表面活性蛋白 V(SPV)基因多态性,并分析与肺支气管发育不良的危险相关性。结果观察组 SPV 的18A 等位基因频率显著高于对照组(χ2=7.740,P =0.005)。两组受试者1580C 及1580T 等位基因频率相比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。Logistics 回归分析显示,携带 SPV(18A)基因是支气管肺发育不良的独立危险因素(OR:3.612;CI:2.213~4.643)。结论汉族人群中,肺表面活性蛋白 V 基因与肺支气管发育不良相关,SPV(18A)基因可能是肺支气管发育不良的危险因素。

  16. Účinek osmitýdenního plicního rehabilitačního programu na hrudní mobilitu a maximální vdechový a výdechový ústní tlak u pacientů s bronchiálním astmatem The effect of 8 week pulmonary rehabilitation programme on chest mobility and maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure in patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vařeka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available U nemocných s bronchiálním astmatem se mohou vyskytovat nejen poruchy dýchání, ale také muskuloskeletální poruchy. Poruchy dýchání a muskuloskeletální poruchy mohou vést k dalším zdravotním problémům a mohou tak snižovat kvalitu života. Tyto poruchy mohou být také spojeny s psychosociálními problémy a mohou mít vliv na omezení různých aktivit nemocných (pohybové aktivity, sportování, běžné denní aktivity – nakupování, uklízení atd.. Mezi nejvíce omezující symptomy u nemocných s bronchiálním astmatem patří ztížené dýchání a kašel. Komprehensivní léčba je založena nejen na farmakoterapii, ale také na nemedikamentózní léčbě, jejíž důležitou součástí je respirační fyzioterapie. Pro účinek rehabilitační léčby je ale nutné správné nastavení farmakoterapie. Cílem této studie bylo zjistit, zda program plicní rehabilitace ovlivní hodnoty maximálních nádechových a výdechových ústních tlaků a rozvíjení hrudníku u nemocných s bronchiálním astmatem. Výzkumný soubor byl tvořen 23 nemocnými s bronchiálním astmatem, kteří absolvovali osmitýdenní program plicní rehabilitace (30minutová terapie dvakrát týdně. Jednalo se o pacienty s intermitentním lehkým stádiem bronchiálního astmatu beze změn ve farmakoterapii. Program plicní rehabilitace byl zaměřen na dechová cvičení (aktivace bráničního dýchání, aktivace výdechu, nácvik efektivní expektorace atd. a techniky měkkých tkání s cílem uvolnění svalů a fascií v oblasti hrudního koše a pletence ramenního. Na začátku a konci osmitýdenního programu plicní rehabilitace byly vyšetřeny maximální nádechové a výdechové ústní tlaky a rozvíjení hrudníku. Rozvíjení hrudníku bylo hodnoceno ve dvou úrovních – mezosternální a xiphosternální. Po absolvování osmitýdenního programu plicní rehabilitace bylo zaznamenáno zlepšení rozv

  17. Nerve growth factor levels and localisation in human asthmatic bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgart Höglund, C; de Blay, F; Oster, J P; Duvernelle, C; Kassel, O; Pauli, G; Frossard, N

    2002-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has recently been suggested to be an important mediator of inflammation. In support of this, serum levels of NGF have been shown to be enhanced in asthmatics. However, it has not yet been shown whether the levels of NGF are also altered locally in asthmatic airways, when compared with healthy subjects, and the localisation of potential sources of NGF in the human bronchus have not yet been described. The aim of the present study was to assess NGF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatics and to compare them to those of control subjects. Furthermore, the authors wanted to localise potential sources of NGF in bronchial tissue, and to number NGF-immunopositive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa. BALF and bronchial biopsies were obtained from seven control subjects and seven asthmatic patients by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. NGF protein levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in BALF. NGF localisation was examined by immunohistochemistry on bronchial biopsy sections. The asthmatics exhibited significantly enhanced NGF levels in BALF. Intense NGF-immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelium, smooth muscle cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in the submucosa, and to a lesser extent in the connective tissue. The asthmatics exhibited a higher number of NGF-immunoreactive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa than control subjects. This study provides evidence that nerve growth factor is locally produced in the airways, and shows that this production is enhanced in asthmatics. These findings suggest that nerve growth factor is produced by both structural cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in human bronchus in vivo, and the authors suggest that the increase in nerve growth factor protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid observed in asthmatic patients may originate both from structural cells, producing increased nerve growth factor levels in inflammatory conditons, and from the increase in nerve growth factor-immunopositive cells determined in the bronchial submucosa. PMID:12449162

  18. Interindividual variation in binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human Bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman; Connor, R.;

    1976-01-01

    The binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human bronchus was measured in specimens from 37 patients. The binding values ranged from 2 to 151 picomoles of benzo[a]pyrene per milligram of DNA with an overall mean +/- standard error of 34.2 +/- 5.2. This 75-fold interindividual variation in t...

  19. In vivo endoscopic autofluorescence microspectro-imaging of bronchi and alveoli

    CERN Document Server

    Bourg-Heckly, G; Vever-Bizet, C; Viellerobe, B

    2008-01-01

    Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new technique that can be used during a bronchoscopy to analyze the nature of the human bronchial and alveolar mucosa fluorescence microstructure. An endoscopic fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy system with spectroscopic analysis capability was developed allowing real-time, simultaneous images and emission spectra acquisition at 488 nm excitation using a flexible miniprobe that could be introduced into small airways. This flexible 1.4 mm miniprobe can be introduced into the working channel of a flexible endoscope and gently advanced through the bronchial tree to the alveoli. FCFM in conjunction with bronchoscopy is able to image the in vivo autofluorescence structure of the bronchial mucosae but also the alveolar respiratory network outside of the usual field of view. Microscopic and spectral analysis showed that the signal mainly originates from the elastin component of the bronchial subepithelial layer. In non smokers, the system images the elastin...

  20. In vivo endoscopic autofluorescence microspectro-imaging of bronchi and alveoli

    OpenAIRE

    Bourg-Heckly, G.; Thiberville, L.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Viellerobe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a new technique that can be used during a bronchoscopy to analyze the nature of the human bronchial and alveolar mucosa fluorescence microstructure. An endoscopic fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy system with spectroscopic analysis capability was developed allowing real-time, simultaneous images and emission spectra acquisition at 488 nm excitation using a flexible miniprobe that could be introduced into small airways. This flexible 1....

  1. March 2015 pulmonary case of the month: sticks and stones may break my bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. History of Present Illness: A 67-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of persistent cough of 2 months duration, productive of yellow sputum. Her symptoms progressed to include dyspnea despite an outpatient course of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids. She denied fevers, chills, hemoptysis, or chest pain. PMH, FH, SH: She was on chronic immunosuppression secondary to a history of liver transplant due to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and kidney transplant due to calcineurin toxicity. She denied any history of smoking, alcoholism or recreational drug use. Medications: Tacrolimus 3.5 mg bid, Mycophenolate mofetil 720 mg bid, Fluconazole 100 mg daily. Physical Examination: Vitals: Temperature 37.1°C, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, heart rate 88 beats/min, blood pressure 130/76 mm Hg, SpO2 95% on room air. General: Elderly female in no apparent distress. Lungs: Scattered inspiratory and expiratory squeaks and pops bilaterally, louder in the left lower lobe. The rest of her ...

  2. Intrathoracic major vessels, trachea and main bronchi : the effect of respiration on size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of respiration on the sizes of intrathoracic vasculature, and the trachea,and the main bronchus. Methods and Methods : Seventeen volunteers (10 males aged 20-39 years and 7 females aged 20-39 years) underwent spiral CT, between the apex and lowest base of the lung, collimation was 10 mm, pitch was 1,and images were obtained at breath hold forced end-inspiration and breath hold forced end-expiration. Crosssecional areas or diameters were measured in each respiration state at the aorta (ascending, descending, lower thoracic) and great branches, the IVC (thoracic, abdominal), the SVC, pulmonary artery (right main, left descending) and the tracheobronchus (trachea, left upper bronchus). Changes in the size of vessels and airways between the respiration states were evaluated and compared between inspiration and expiration. Results : During breath-hold forced end-inspiration CT, the ascending, descending, and lower thoracic aorta and its branches(brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian) as well as the thoracic IVC and SVC and the right main and left descending pulmonary arteries decreased in size: during breath-hold forced end-expiration CT, the size of all these vessels increased. For the trachea, left upper lobe bronchus and abdominal IVC, the situation was reversed. Statistically significant changes(p<0.05) were noted in the ascending aorta and descending aorta,the lower thoracic aorta, the thoracic and abdominal IVC, the SVC, the right main and left pulmonary arteries, and the trachea. Conclusion : During respiration, changes in the size of the thoracic vasculature and airways is probably due to changes in intrathoracic pressure. In the measurement and diagnosis of stenosis or dilatation in the intrathoracic vesculature and airways, respiration states should therefore be considered

  3. Intrathoracic major vessels, trachea and main bronchi : the effect of respiration on size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kul Ho; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Park, Yong Ok; Goo, Hee Yeoun Goo; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of respiration on the sizes of intrathoracic vasculature, and the trachea,and the main bronchus. Methods and Methods : Seventeen volunteers (10 males aged 20-39 years and 7 females aged 20-39 years) underwent spiral CT, between the apex and lowest base of the lung, collimation was 10 mm, pitch was 1,and images were obtained at breath hold forced end-inspiration and breath hold forced end-expiration. Crosssecional areas or diameters were measured in each respiration state at the aorta (ascending, descending, lower thoracic) and great branches, the IVC (thoracic, abdominal), the SVC, pulmonary artery (right main, left descending) and the tracheobronchus (trachea, left upper bronchus). Changes in the size of vessels and airways between the respiration states were evaluated and compared between inspiration and expiration. Results : During breath-hold forced end-inspiration CT, the ascending, descending, and lower thoracic aorta and its branches(brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian) as well as the thoracic IVC and SVC and the right main and left descending pulmonary arteries decreased in size: during breath-hold forced end-expiration CT, the size of all these vessels increased. For the trachea, left upper lobe bronchus and abdominal IVC, the situation was reversed. Statistically significant changes(p<0.05) were noted in the ascending aorta and descending aorta,the lower thoracic aorta, the thoracic and abdominal IVC, the SVC, the right main and left pulmonary arteries, and the trachea. Conclusion : During respiration, changes in the size of the thoracic vasculature and airways is probably due to changes in intrathoracic pressure. In the measurement and diagnosis of stenosis or dilatation in the intrathoracic vesculature and airways, respiration states should therefore be considered.

  4. Dose repartition in alveoli, alveolar ducts and bronchi of rats exposed to radon and its progeny, preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, Michèle; Fritsch, P; Morlier, J.P.; Sabattie, P.; Tredaniel, J.; Richard-Le Naour, H.; Monchaux, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, micronuclei scoring has been performed to estimate doses delivered to the lungs after heterogenous irradiation induced after inhalation of radon and its progeny. These studies were limited to the deep lung after either extraction of alveolar macrophages (AM) by lavage (Taya et al., 1994, Johnson and Newton, 1994) or enzymatic dissociation of lung cells to initiate fibroblast cultures (Khan et al., 1994). Dose estimates were performed after comparison with micronuclei formation induc...

  5. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  6. Up-regulation of bradykinin receptors in rat bronchi via I kappa B kinase-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Ying; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Yongxiao; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated intracellular signaling mechanisms may be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness through up-regulation of bradykinin receptors. This study was designed to examine if organ culture of rat bronchial segments induces airway hyperresponsiveness to bradykinin and if inhib...

  7. The Relationship of Lung Cancer-related Tumor Makers with Bronchi-pulmonary Infection%肺癌相关肿瘤标志物与支气管-肺感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余荣环; 黄运平; 胡斌; 赵佚; 李俊

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨相关肿瘤标志物(tumor marker,TMs)对肺癌的诊断价值及与支气管-肺感染的关系.方法测定30例肺癌和195例支气管-肺感染病人血清癌胚抗原(CEA)、糖链抗原211(CA211)、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)、糖链抗原199(CA199)、肿瘤特异性生长因子(TSGF)水平,对临床资料进行分析.结果肿瘤组血清 CEA、CA211、CA199、NSE均明显高于感染组(P0.05).感染组TMs均值低于正常参考值,但有部分病例高于正常参考值.感染组感染控制后TMs无明显下降,死亡病例CA211水平明显高于存活病例(P0.05).结论支气管-肺感染患者血清TMs无明显增高,对血清TMs增高的仍应注意排除肿瘤.

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute pulmonary edema is characterized by the accumulation of liquid in the pulmonary interstice, the alveoli, the bronchi and bronchioles; it is from the excessive circulation from the pulmonary vascular system towards extra vascular and the respiratory spaces. The Liquid filters first at the interstitial space to soon perivascular and peri bronchial and, gradually, towards the alveoli and bronchi

  9. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume oxygen in sputum from chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, M; Hansen, C R; Bjarnsholt, T;

    2010-01-01

    accumulating evidence for depletion of molecular oxygen (O(2)) in the mucus in infected CF bronchi, it was hypothesised that the O(2) depletion in the mucus in infected CF bronchi may be accelerated by the respiratory burst of the PMNs due to the reduction of O(2) to the superoxide anion (O(-)(2)) by the...

  10. Bronchographical findings in central bronci stenoses in infant age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four chosen examples of infant bronchi stenoses are described after a review of the patient collective. The etiology and the radiological signs and symptoms of bronchi stenoses in infant age are discussed. The prerequisites for bronchography in infants are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Intrabronchial Microdialysis: Effects of Probe Localization on Tissue Trauma and Drug Penetration into the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottbøll, Lisa Amanda Holm; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Barington, Kristiane;

    2015-01-01

    Recent intrabronchial microdialysis data indicate that the respiratory epithelium is highly permeable to drugs. Of concern is whether intrabronchial microdialysis disrupts the integrity of the respiratory epithelium and thereby alters drug penetration into the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid...... pigs. Inulin was used as a marker molecule of permeability of the epithelium, and florfenicol was used as test drug. Bronchial tissue was examined by histopathology (distal and proximal bronchi) and gene expression analysis (RT-qPCR, proximal bronchi) at the termination of the experiment (6.5hr). The...... microdialysis probe caused overt tissue trauma in distal bronchi, whereas no histopathological lesions were observed in proximal bronchi. A moderate up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1B, IL6 and acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A was seen in proximal bronchi surrounding the microdialysis...

  12. Is bronchial wall imaging affected by temporal resolution? Comparative evaluation at 140 and 75 ms in 90 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Tacelli, Nunzia; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Flohr, Thomas [Computed Tomography, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim (Germany); Duhamel, Alain [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of temporal resolution (TR) on cardiogenic artefacts at the level of bronchial walls. Ninety patients underwent a dual-source, single-energy chest CT examination enabling reconstruction of images with a TR of 75 ms (i.e., optimized TR) (Group 1) and 140 ms (i.e., standard TR) (Group 2). Cardiogenic artefacts were analyzed at the level of eight target bronchi, i.e., right (R) and left (L) B1, B5, B7, and B10 (total number of bronchi examined: n = 720). Cardiogenic artefacts were significantly less frequent and less severe in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.0001) with the highest scores of discordant ratings for bronchi in close contact with cardiac cavities: RB5 (61/90; 68 %); LB5 (66/90; 73 %); LB7 (63/90; 70 %). In Group 1, 78 % (560/720) of bronchi showed no cardiac motion artefacts, whereas 22 % of bronchi (160/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (152/160; 95 %), moderate (7/160; 4 %), and severe (1/160; 1 %). In Group 2, 70 % of bronchi (503/720) showed artefacts rated as mild (410/503; 82 %), moderate (82/503; 16 %), and severe (11/503; 2 %). At 75 ms, most bronchi can be depicted without cardiogenic artefacts. (orig.)

  13. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness

  14. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) which branches into smaller structures called bronchi. The process of breathing (respiration) is divided into two distinct phases, inspiration (inhalation) ...

  15. Differential diagnosis of several mechanisms of destruction in patients with dust diseases of lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumabekova, B.K.; Nikolaeva, L.N.; Milishnikova, V.V.

    1982-11-01

    In pathogenesis of lung diseases destruction of bronchial passability plays a significant role. Differential diagnosis of the mechanisms of destruction in patients ill with dust diseases was conducted with inhalation of salbutamol, stimulator of beta-adrenoreceptors of bronchi. Investigations of function of breathing included determination of ventilation characteristics, gases of blood and resistance of bronchi. Sixty patients were studied, 30 with pneumoconiosis and 30 with chronic dust bronchitis. Combination of ventilation characteristics and inhalation of salbutamol over 10, 20, 30 and 40 minute periods was used to determine mechanisms causing destruction of function of breathing. Comparisons of results of pneumotaxometry and fibroscopy show changes in mucous envelope of trachea and bronchi, inflammation and hypersecretion causing obstruction of bronchi. It is possible that these mechanisms may be combined with other changes of the tracheobronchial tree (dyskinesia, dystonia, changes in architectonics of bronchial tree and others). Further investigation of these possible mechanisms of destruction of bronchial passability is needed. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  16. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) which branches into smaller structures called bronchi. ... lungs. During expiration, the diaphragm relaxes, and the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure ...

  17. Three-dimensional display of bronchial images by helical scanning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a method for three-dimensional display of a bronchial image without use of contrast media. Be letting the CT x-ray tube to turn, the chest of a patient is helically scanned by moving the table while the patient suspends breathing. By setting up the CT values, the bronchi are automatically extracted and displayed three-dimensionally on the CRT screen, and a hologram is created. Compared with the bronchogram that employs contrast media, this method can relieve the burden on the patient while the condition and location of the bronchi can easily be seen on the three-dimensional image, compared with conventional plain film reading. The authors created a hologram of the bronchi from the lung CT scan by helical scanning, which has enabled easy observation of the bronchi in the three-dimensional display

  18. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

    OpenAIRE

    Schachner, Emma R.; Hutchinson, John R.; CG Farmer

    2013-01-01

    The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi). Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similar...

  19. The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul T King

    2009-01-01

    Paul T KingDepartment of Medicine, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Bronchiectasis is defined by permanent and abnormal widening of the bronchi. This process occurs in the context of chronic airway infection and inflammation. It is usually diagnosed using computed tomography scanning to visualize the larger bronchi. Bronchiectasis is also characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction. This r...

  20. Bronchial, alveolar, and vascular-induced anaphylaxis and irritant-induced cardiovascular and pulmonary responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, D B; Mussatto, D J; Hameister, W M; Daza, A.; Chandra, T; Wong, L B

    2001-01-01

    We examine the respiratory, bronchomotor, cardiac, and vascular responses to histamine and ragweed allergen delivered to the bronchi or alveoli compartments and the potential role of sensory nerves and reflexes mediating the histamine-induced responses. The masses of aerosols deposited in the bronchi and alveoli were quantitated using radioaerosol techniques. Activation of sensory nerves and/or histamine-induced mediator release were characterized by depositing nedocromil sodium aerosol prior...

  1. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  2. Pulmonary nodules: optimal slice thickness of CT in revealing bronchial imageology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjiang Li; Yuanyuan Wang; Changcheng Li; Xing Wang; Debin Liu; Wenjie Liang; Feng Zhu; Yan Zhu; Xuefeng Cui; Fangang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to determine an optimal slice thickness that was efficient in revealing bronchial imageology of pulmonary nodules (PNs) on multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images preliminarily. Methods: Fifty-four patients with 62 PNs (diameter ≤ 3 cm) underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the chest in a single-breath-hold technique. The raw data were acquired with a collimation of 0.625 mm. Three sets of contiguous im-ages were reconstructed with 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness, respectively. Bronchial imageology of SPNs on the CT images presented in 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness was compared. Using the 1-mm sections as the gold standard, an optimal slice thickness in revealing bronchial imageology of PNs was determined. Results: Bronchial imageology of PNs on the CT im-ages presented in 1 mm slice thickness involved 85 bronchi (35 second-fourth generation bronchi; 50 fifth-eighth generation bronchi). Bronchial imageology on 2-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 34 second- fourth generation bronchi. No statistically significant difference in number of second- fourth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology was found between that on 2-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.836 > 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 24 second-fourth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of second-fourth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 5-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.026 < 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 2-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 38 fifth-eighth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of fifth-eighth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 2-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.029 < 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5-mm-thick images was

  3. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow contributions to upper airways in canine lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood flow contributions and drainage patterns of the pulmonary and systemic circulations in the upper airways (trachea and main bronchi) were assessed in anesthetized dogs by injecting 15-μm radiolabeled microspheres into the right and left heart, respectively. After the animals were killed, the tracheal cartilage, tracheal muscle-mucosa, and main bronchi were excised. The tracheal cartilage and tracheal muscle-mucosa were divided into lower, middle, and upper segments for blood flow determinations. The pulmonary contribution to tracheal blood flow was very small, being higher in the lower segments. The systemic contribution to these same tracheal regions was significantly higher, and higher in the upper segments. The pulmonary and systemic circulations each contributed ∼50% to the main bronchi blood flow. The pulmonary blood flow contribution alone to the trachea and main bronchi was also determined in subsequent experiments that utilized the isolated lung, and these blood flows were not significantly different from the pulmonary contribution measured in the intact lungs. The present results indicate that the systemic (bronchial) circulation is the primary source of tracheal blood flow and that both the pulmonary and systemic circulations may contribute ∼50% of the blood flow to the main bronchi in dog lungs

  4. Index-matched measurements of the effect of cartilaginous rings on tracheobronchial flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Castillo, Luciano

    2016-06-14

    We present a comparison of the flow characteristics in an idealized smooth trachea model and a second model which has a roughness simulating cartilaginous rings. We use refractive index-matched particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity field in a two-generation model of the trachea and main bronchi. The flow rate has a trachea-based Reynolds number Re=2800, which is comparable to a resting state. Our results show considerable differences between both cases, the most important of which is the size and magnitude of recirculation zones at the inlet of both bronchi. The smooth case shows a larger separation bubble at the bronchi entrance, which may retain aerosols and have different effects on particles of different sizes. Furthermore, the smooth case displays a higher vorticity along the bottom walls of the bronchi, while a higher vorticity is seen along the trachea walls in the ׳ringed׳ model. These findings suggest that modeling the trachea and main bronchi as smooth tubes may not be justified, since the flow conditions in lower generations will be affected by these differences. PMID:27131850

  5. Quantitative bronchial luminal volumetric assessment of pulmonary function loss by thin-section MDCT in pulmonary emphysema patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the capability of quantitative bronchial luminal volume to assess pulmonary function loss and disease severity in pulmonary emphysema patients. Methods: Thirty-seven smokers (mean age, 68.1 years) underwent CT examinations and pulmonary function tests. For the quantitative assessment, luminal voxels of trachea and bronchi were computationally counted and the ratio of the following luminal voxels to all luminal voxels was obtained: (1) the lobe bronchi and the peripheral bronchi (Ratiolobe), and (2) the main bronchi and the peripheral bronchi (Ratiomain). To determine the capability of these assessments to predict pulmonary function loss, these ratios were correlated with pulmonary function tests. To determine the capability for predicting disease severity, these ratios were compared between clinical groups. Results: These ratios were no significant correlated with vital capacity and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p > 0.05), however significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (Ratiolobe: r = 0.61, p main: r = 0.58, p lobe: r = 0.36, p main: r = 0.33, p lobe of smokers without COPD was significantly different from those of moderate COPD and severe or very severe COPD (p main of severe or very severe COPD patients was significantly different from those of other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative bronchial luminal volumes were reflected the airflow limitation parameters and was corresponded to clinical groups in emphysema patients.

  6. Powdered diatrizoic acid for radiography of the respiratory tract. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic and clinical value of 41 examinations using insufflation and/or inhalation of powdered diatrizoic acid for tracheobronchography, tracheography, laryngography, nasopharyngography, and sinusography was investigated in 35 patients. Diatrizoic acid was found to be useful when applied by insufflation for demonstration of the nasopharynx, trachea and greater bronchi, especially in patients with airway stenosis and low pulmonary reserve. Double contrast images were obtained with good demonstration of anatomic details and adequate diagnostic value. Visualization of the peripheral bronchi by insufflation was satisfactory only when excessive secretions were not present. The inhalation method was adequate only for visualization of the trachea and main bronchi. The method was found to be safe since diatrizoic acid produced no toxic, allergic or febrile reactions and was given in relatively small amounts without impairment of respiratory function. (orig.)

  7. Case report: Williams-Campbell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Williams-Campbell syndrome is a rare type of bronchiectasis that is due to deficiency or absence of cartilage in the fourth- to sixth-order bronchi. Case Report: The paper presents the case of a patient with large, bilateral bronchiectasis caused by defect of cartilage in the fourth- to sixth-order bronchi referred to as Williams-Campbell syndrome. Conclusions: Williams-Campbell syndrome should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis. Both inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography should be performed to establish the diagnosis

  8. Tolerability and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Inhaled Dry Powder Tobramycin Free Base in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppentocht, Marcel; Akkerman, Onno W; Hagedoorn, Paul; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; van der Werf, Tjip S; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Bronchiectasis is a condition characterised by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchiectasis is associated with a higher hospitalisation frequency and a reduced quality of life, requiring frequent and adequate treatment with antibiotics. OBJECT

  9. Quantitative modelling of the biomechanics of the avian syrinx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Coen P. H.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Hoffmann, Marc R.;

    2003-01-01

    We review current quantitative models of the biomechanics of bird sound production. A quantitative model of the vocal apparatus was proposed by Fletcher (1988). He represented the syrinx (i.e. the portions of the trachea and bronchi with labia and membranes) as a single membrane. This membrane acts...

  10. Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome) - case report and review of the literature; Traqueobroncomegalia (sindrome de Mounier-Kuhn) - relato de caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Ribeiro, Ronei Edmar; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sem Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica]. E-mail: brunoradiol@hotmail.com; Cavalcante, Luciana Porto [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2002-06-01

    Tracheobronchomegaly is a rare condition of uncertain etiology characterized by marked dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi, bronchiectasis and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation is nonspecific and the diagnosis is usually made by imaging methods. We report a case of a patient with tracheobronchomegaly. Diagnosis was confirmed by plain X-ray films and computed tomography of the chest. (author)

  11. Severe tracheobronchial stenosis and cervical vertebral subluxation in X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundinger, Gerhard S. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Weiss, Clifford; Fishman, Elliot K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Radiologic manifestations of X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1) typically include chondrodysplasia, epiphyseal stippling, punctate calcification of cartilage, distal phalangeal hypoplasia, and nasal/midface hypoplasia. We present an infant with CDPX1 demonstrating calcification and stenosis of the entire trachea and mainstem bronchi, as well as possible anterior C1 subluxation due to progression of congenital vertebral dysplasia. (orig.)

  12. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    patients with lung cancer were also compared with those from patients without lung cancer. The profiles were similar except for an observed higher percentage of organic solvent-extractable metabolites formed by bronchi from the noncancer patients that eluted from the column as a single peak. This peak...

  13. Broncholithiasis-induced bronchial artery fistula and pulmonary artery fistula in an aged female: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Yan; BAI Chong; HUANG Hai-dong; DONG Yu-chao; HUANG Yi; YAO Xiao-peng; LI Qiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Broncholithiasis, a rare disorder of the respiratory system, is usually caused by pulmonary fungal infection and tuberculosis occurring in the early years of its victims. Pulmonary fungal infection and tuberculosis can lead to calcification of the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes; the calcified lymph nodes erode the nearby bronchi and cause clinical and imaging abnormalities.

  14. Respiratory tuberculosis and current potenti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on possibility of diagnosing the lungs bronchi tuberculosis on the background of development failures are presented. It is noted that for a faster tuberculosis diagnostics it is necessary to use not only the clinical-roentgenological data but also the data on diagnostical bronchoscopy and bioscopy of bronchial mucous membrane and lungs tissue

  15. Determining deposition sites of inhaled lung particles and their effect on clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential component of lung defense is clearance of particulates and infectious vectors from the mucus membrane of the tracheobronchial tree and the alveolar regions of the lung. To partition clearance between these areas we determined the bronchial branching pattern, the anatomical sites of particle deposition, and subsequent clearance in the same animal. Using a 2.85-microns particle tagged with 57Co for inhalation and deposition in the sheep lung, we followed clearance via a series of computer-stored gamma-scintillation lung images. The same sheep was reinhaled, and the particle distributions for both inhalations were compared. After the animals were killed, the bronchial branching pattern and length of the bronchial tree were documented. The number of particles depositing in all bronchi down to 1 mm diam was determined by scintillation counting, and the number in respiratory bronchioles and alveoli was microscopically counted. We conclude that particles deposited in bronchi greater than or equal to 1 mm diam clear in 2-4 h postdeposition. Bronchi distal to 1-mm-diam bronchi and alveoli clear evenly over 72 h, and the number of particles equal to the tracheobronchial deposition cleared after 45 h

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. AcEST: DK957815 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PTMAA_DANRE Prothymosin alpha-A OS=Danio rerio GN=ptma... 32 0.98 sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious...VDEEDD-DVAEEDEEDDGEGDDDDEDEEAEGGTGKR 84 >sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchi

  18. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1991-01-01

    rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout life. G-200 gelchromatography of lung extracts indicates that the EGF-reactive material is a high...

  19. Cavitary Lung Cancer Lined with Normal Bronchial Epithelium and Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Reports of cavitary lung cancer are not uncommon, and the cavity generally contains either dilated bronchi or cancer cells. Recently, we encountered a surgical case of cavitary lung cancer whose cavity tended to enlarge during long-term follow-up, and was found to be lined with normal bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinoma cells.

  20. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO is a rare disorder characterized as multiple osseous or cartilaginous nodules in the submucosa of trachea and main bronchi. TPO remains an under recognized entity due to lack of awareness. Four cases of TPO are reported in this review as well as various facets of TPO description.

  1. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica: Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Junping Sun; Lixin Xie; Xianling Su; Xingang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO) is a rare disorder characterized as multiple osseous or cartilaginous nodules in the submucosa of trachea and main bronchi. TPO remains an under recognized entity due to lack of awareness. Four cases of TPO are reported in this review as well as various facets of TPO description.

  2. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Emma R; Hutchinson, John R; Farmer, Cg

    2013-01-01

    The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi). Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT) and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria. PMID:23638399

  3. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Schachner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi. Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria.

  4. 显示肺结节累及支气管理想CT层厚的初步探讨%Optimal Slice Thickness of CT in Revealing Bronchial Imageology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慎江; 赵勇; 李常城; 王新; 刘德斌; 梁文杰; 朱峰; 朱岩; 崔学峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine an optimal slice thickness that can efficiently reveal the bronchial imageology of pulmonary nodules(PNs) on multi -slice spiral computed tomography(MSCT) images preliminarily. Methods Fifty -four patients with 62 PNs(diameter ≤ 3 cm) underwent multi-detector-row computed tomography of the chest in a single-breath-hold technique. The raw data were acquired with a collimation of 0.625 mm. Three sets of contiguous images were reconstructed with 1, 2, and 5 mm slice thickness, respectively. Bronchial imageology of SPNs on the CT images presented in 1,2, and 5 mm slice thickness was compared. Using the 1 mm sections as the gold standard, an optimal slice thickness in revealing bronchial imageology of SPNs was determined. Results Bronchial imageology of SPNs on the CT images presented in lmm slice thickness involved 85 bronchi(35 second-fourth generation bronchi; 50 fifth-eighth generation bronchi). Bronchial imageology on 2 mm thick sections was as same as that on 1 mm thick sections in 34 second-fourth generation bronchi. No statistically significant difference in the number of second-fourth generation bronchi with samebronchial imageology was found between that on 2 mm thick images and 1 mm thick images(P =0.836 >0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5 mm thick sections was as same as that on 1 mm thick sections in 24 second-fourth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of second-fourth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 5 mm thick images and 1 mm thick images(P=0.026<0.05). Bronchial imageology on 2 mm thick sections was as same as that on 1 mm thick sections in 38 fifth eighth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of fifth-eighth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 2 mm thick images and 1 mm thick images(P=0.029<0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5 mm-thick images was as same as that on 1 mm thick images in 31 fifth

  5. Multiple bronchoceles in a non-asthmatic patient with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Umar; Mahmood, Rabia

    2008-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction due to a fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus. It is typically seen in patients with long-standing asthma. Our patient was a non-asthmatic 18 years old male who presented with chronic cough for 2 years. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated scrum IgE were observed. His x-ray chest revealed v-shaped opacity in the left upper lobe close to the hilum. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed multiple dilated bronchi filled with mucous (bronchoceles) and central bronchiectasis (CB) involving main segmental bronchi. Central bronchiectasis (CB) was typical of ABPA but bronchocele formation was a rare manifestation of the disease. The patient was managed with oral prednisolone and was relieved of his symptoms. Occurrence of ABPA in non-asthmatics is very rare and deserves reporting. PMID:18846804

  6. Sarcoidosis with Major Airway, Vascular and Nerve Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a 60-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive dyspnea, cough and wheeze. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed innumerable bilateral inflammatory pulmonary nodules with bronchovascular distribution and a mediastinal and hilar infiltrative process with calcified lymphadenopathy leading to narrowing of lobar bronchi and pulmonary arteries. An echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hypertension. Bronchoscopy showed left vocal cord paralysis and significant narrowing of the bilateral bronchi with mucosal thickening and multiple nodules. Transbronchial biopsy was compatible with sarcoidosis. Despite balloon angioplasty of the left lower lobe and pulmonary artery, and medical therapy with oral corticosteroids, her symptoms did not significantly improve. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report describes the first case of pulmonary sarcoidosis resulting in major airway, vascular and nerve compromise due to compressive lymphadenopathy and suspected concurrent granulomatous infiltration. Its presentation mimicked idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis.

  7. Effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in the management of bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease in which clearance of sputum is disturbed because bronchi dilated permanently. So for the clearance of sputum we have to use physiotherapy techniques such as postural drainage percussion and vibration (PDPY), active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT), autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure, high frequency chest wall oscillation. Objective: To determine the role of Chest Physical therapy intervention in the management of Bronchi ectasis. To compare the prognosis of bronchiectasis with and without chest physiotherapy. Methodology: Data was collected from Gulab Devi Chest Hospital, Lahore. A Randomized Control Trial (RCT) study method was used and 60 patients are studied. In this study, they were divided into 03 groups 1- Antibiotics Therapy 2-Chest Physical therapy 3-Antibiotics and Chest Physical therapy. Each group consistant. (author)

  8. Infection with human H1N1 influenza virus affects the expression of sialic acids of metaplastic mucous cells in the ferret airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    of sialic acid detecting lectins and a monoclonal antibody towards the Sialyl-Tn antigen. The goblet cells in the bronchi from non-infected ferrets expressed Sialyla2-6Gal glycans, while the seromucinous glands in the submucosa expressed Sialyla2-3Gal glycans. In the infected animals, the surface......Glycans terminating in sialic acids serve as receptors for influenza viruses. In this study ferrets were infected with influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99, and the in situ localization of sialic acids linked a2-3 and a2-6 in the airways was investigated in infected and non-infected animals by use...... epithelial cells in some bronchi showed metaplasia and expressed the Sialyl-Tn antigen: Sialyla2-6GalNAc-O-Thr/Ser. The submucosal tracheal glands in these animals showed increased expression of both Sialyla2-3 and Sialyla2-6 epitopes....

  9. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  10. Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Noorani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica (TO is a rare disorder of large airways with unknown etiology which is characterized by cartilaginous and bony nodules lining the mucosa of the trachea and major bronchi. Generally, it is benign and asymptomatic, but it may present with cough, exertional dyspnea and wheezing. It could therefore be mistaken with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . The diagnosis is usually made on bronchoscopy and confirmed on histology .We describe two cases of TO with characteristic bronchoscopic and histological findings. The first one had exertional dyspnea and hoarseness for more than 3 years and the second one had exertional dyspnea for more than 10 years .In both of the cases, fiber optic bronchoscopy was performed which revealed numerous white,hard,irregular nodules on trachea and main bronchi. The pathologic diagnosis of bronchoscopic biopsy was TO.

  11. CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children. To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities. CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented. Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies. Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance. (orig.)

  12. Computed-tomographic and conventional linear-tomographic evaluation of tracheobronchial lesions for laser photoresection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser therapy is a new modality for treatment of airway lesions. The authors examined 18 patients prior to laser photoresection of tracheobronchial lesions. Thirteen had cancers involving the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi; five had benign lesions of the middle or proximal trachea. Each patient was examined by conventional linear tomography (CLT) and computed tomography (CT). CT was valuable in patients who had lesions of the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi. Its particular usefulness, and its advantage relative to CLT, consisted in its ability to delineate vascular structures adjacent to the planned area of photoresection. Neither CLT nor CT was helpful in evaluation of benign lesions of the proximal trachea

  13. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of williams-campbell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pedro Noriega Aldave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Campbell syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by the absence of cartilage in subsegmental bronchi leading to formation of bronchiectasis distal to the affected bronchi. The differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis is broad and the rarity of the disease poses a diagnostic and management challenge for clinicians. This present review aims to help the understanding of the clinical manifestations, pathophysiological features, diagnostic modalities, management and differential diagnosis of Williams-Campbell syndrome. A MedLine/PubMed search was performed identifying all relevant articles. No restrictions were used for publication dates. The author used the keywords "Williams-Campbell syndrome," "non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis" and "congenital bronchiectasis" finding 503, 195 and 489 articles, respectively.

  14. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  15. CT findings of tracheal mucormycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a opportunistic mycosis, typically occurring in immunocompromised or diabetic patients. It is characterized as an infection of the pulmonary parenchyma and larger bronchi, and involves extensive vascular thrombosis and tissue necrosis. A variety of CT findings have been reported, but tracheal involvement is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with tracheal mucormycosis placing particular emphasis on the CT findings

  16. Radon dosimetry based on the depth distribution of nuclei in human and rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of the absorbed dose by different lung cells is necessary for predicting the critical cells that are subject to injury from inhaled Rn and other alpha-particle sources. The absorbed dose was determined for cells in the airways of human and rat lungs, based on airway epithelial thickness and on cell cytoplasm and nuclear volume density as a function of depth from the luminal surface of the airway epithelium. The thickness of the stratified columnar epithelium of human airways varied from 57.8 micron in bronchi to 9.8 microns in bronchioles. The cell populations of all bronchi in human lungs were comparable. The cell populations of trachea and intrapulmonary airways in rats, however, were significantly different. Basal cell populations in rat trachea and human bronchi were similar and formed a nearly continuous layer. In rat bronchi, basal cells were not present in significant numbers. Measurements of epithelial thickness and volume density were used to estimate the absorbed dose for an alpha-particle source (214Po or 218Po) distributed uniformly in the mucus with an equivalent activity of 1 dpm per cm2 of epithelial surface. The following model predictions of dose to human bronchial epithelial cell nuclei for a 218Po alpha-particle source are provided in units of nanogray (nGy) for specific cell types: secretory 158, preciliated 114, ciliated 44, goblet 86, basal 78, and indeterminate cell nuclei 73. The absorbed dose to specific types of rat bronchial epithelial cell nuclei was also predicted: secretory 237, precillated 216, ciliated 203, goblet 204, basal 200, and indeterminate cell nuclei 166 nGy. These and other results indicate that human and rat airway dosimetry have significant differences that may contribute to the differences in cancer cell induction between the two species

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalphin, J.C.; Debieuvre, D.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M F; Polio, J. C.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs province in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5703 exclusively dairy farmers (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchi...

  18. Electromagnetic tracking and steering for catheter navigation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of electromagnetics for both steering and tracking of medical instruments in minimally invasive surgeries. The end application is virtual navigation of the lung for biopsy of early stage cancer nodules. Navigation to the peripheral regions of the lung is difficult due to physical dimensions of the bronchi and current methods have low successes rates for accurate diagnosis. Firstly, the potential use of DC magnetic fields for the actuation of catheter devices with ...

  19. Positive Association between Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma and Genetic Polymorphisms of FSIP1: a Case-Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Inseon S; Kim Mi-Kyeong; Uh Soo-Taek; Park Sung-Woo; Park Jong-Sook; Cheong Hyun Sub; Park Byung Lae; Pasaje Charisse; Lee Jin Sol; Bae Joon Seol; Park Tae Joon; Kim Jason; Kim Jeong Hyun; Cho Sang Heon; Choi Byoung Whui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA), which is caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, causes lung inflammation and reversal bronchi reduction, leading to difficulty in breathing. Aspirin is known to affect various parts inside human body, ranging from lung to spermatogenesis. FSIP1, also known as HDS10, is a recently discovered gene that encodes fibrous sheath interacting protein 1, and is regulated by amyloid beta precursor protein (APP). Rec...

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRESERVATIVES TESTING OF THE MEDICINE "EFIAL"

    OpenAIRE

    Borshchevskiy GI; Railko ZО; Reida VP

    2015-01-01

    Dosage form - spray is one of the most advanced and modern methods of medicines administration in the human body. The advantage of airborne mode of medicines delivery (inhalation) than injection and enterable methods is the ability to direct and rapid impact on the area of inflammation of the mucous membranes or when fine evaporation - on the bronchi and lungs. When finished medicinal product itself has not a sufficient antimicrobial activity, in its composition can be...

  1. NGF is released by IL-β and induces hyperrespon-siveness of the human isolated bronchus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ENALINE; NFROSSARD; COlgartHOGLUND; CADVENIER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: NGF, a neurotrophic factor essential for the development and survival of neurons, is also an important mediator of inflammation involved in airway hype0-esponsiveness. It is released by airway cells stimulated by IL-113. Since IL-113 induces airway hyperresponsiveness to the tachykinin NK-1 receptor agonist[Sar9,Met(O2)11]-substance P in human isolated bronchi, the aim

  2. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed.

  3. Anomalies and developmental defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonalies and developmental defects in trachea and bronchi (tracheal bronch us, diverticulum of trachea or bronchus, defects due to atresia of bronchial tre e, tracheobronchomegaly), lung vessels (aneurisms of pulmonary artery, agenesia, aplasia and hypoplasia of pulmonary artery,anomalies of pulmonary veins, varico sis of pulmonary veins), pulmonary tissue (lung sequestration, congenital lobar pulmonary emphysema, essential hemosiderosis), have beendescribed. The problems of the diagnosis of the above-mentioned diseases using roentgenograms are consid ered

  4. Endoscopic anatomy and map of the equine bronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B L; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Tyler, W S; Jones, J H; Hornof, W J; Pascoe, J R

    1994-07-01

    To develop a bronchoscopic map of the equine respiratory tree, the major airways of the lungs of 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses were systematically explored with a flexible fibreoptic endoscope through a tracheostomy while the horses were sedated in stocks. With the carina as the reference point, measurements were made of distances to the branches of the major airways using markers on the shaft of the endoscope. All branches were explored until the narrowing of their diameters prevented further advancement of the endoscope. Positions of origins of branches from the parent bronchus were recorded in relation to a 12 h clock. Branching patterns of the right and left lungs were similar. Seventeen branches of the principal and caudal lobar bronchi of the left lung, and 18 branches of the principal and caudal lobar bronchi of the right lung were identified. Mean explorable distances from the carina to the ends of the right and left caudal lobar bronchi were 34.0 +/- 3.5 (sd) and 34.5 +/- 3.0 cm, respectively. Generally, smaller horses had shorter explorable bronchial lengths. Branching patterns of the parent bronchi were fairly consistent among horses, particularly the branches closest to the carina. After endoscopy and euthanasia, the lungs were removed, and dried with pressurised air flowing through them for 7-10 days. Attempts to explore the airways of the dried lungs endoscopically were relatively unsuccessful, because airways were much smaller in the dried lungs, and many of the branches were distorted when compared with their antemortem appearances. However, having a dried lung specimen as a reference during the bronchoscopic procedure was useful for maintaining orientation in the lungs. Radiographs were used to estimate the location of the origin and destination of each airway branch in relation to the nearest intercostal space. This makes the airway map useful when lesions identified radiographically are to be lavaged. PMID:8575395

  5. Endobronchial Ultrasound Reliably Quantifies Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in an Equine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bullone, Michela; Beauchamp, Guy; Godbout, Mireille; Martin, James G.; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) revealed differences in the thickness of the layer representing subepithelial tissues (L2) between human asthmatics and controls, but whether this measurement correlates with airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling in asthma is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the ability of EBUS to predict histological ASM remodeling in normal and equine asthmatic airways. We studied 109 isolated bronchi from the lungs of 13 horses. They underwent EBUS examina...

  6. Pulmonary function testing in infants with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is found in 3-6% of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Along with findings of TOF, absence of pulmonary valve tissue results in aneurysmal dilatation of the main and branch pulmonary arteries compressing the trachea, main-stem, and intrapulmonary bronchi leading to obstructive airways disease. Our objective was to review pulmonary function tests (PFT) in TOF-APVS patients. Materials and Methods: Eight PFT were performed on five mechanically...

  7. Hypoxaemia in wheezy infants after bronchodilator treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Prendiville, A; Rose, A.; Maxwell, D L; Silverman, M

    1987-01-01

    The response of the bronchi to nebulised salbutamol was measured in five recurrently wheezy infants. Changes in oxygenation (measured by pulse oximeter and transcutaneous PO2 electrodes) and carbon dioxide (measured by transcutaneous PCO2 electrode) were recorded at the same time. Neither nebulised saline nor salbutamol caused any changes in the measurements of airway function. A significant drop in mean oxygen saturation of 2% and of transcutaneous oxygen tension of 1.3 kPa occurred after ne...

  8. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself

    OpenAIRE

    Wachsmann, Jason W.; Kim, Chun K.

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left...

  9. RHINOSCLEROMA OF LARYNX : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Jeevan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous disease of the respiratory mucosa caused by klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. It commonly involves the nose followed by nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Middle aged females are most prone for this disease. Isolated lar yngeal involvement is a rare condition. It should be differentiated from other chronic granulomatous conditions and should be managed early to decrease the morbidity caused by the disease.

  10. Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    OpenAIRE

    Benan Müsellim

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Bronchiectasis is an abnormal dilatation of bronchi and bronchioles due to repeated cycles of airway infection and inflammation. There is a limited data that support the existence of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in bronchiectasis. In the present study we investigated the existence of BHR and possible factors that could affect the BHR in bronchiectasis patients. Matherial and Method: Study performed in bronchiectasis outpatient clinic. We included 69 patients in which the diagnosis of ...

  11. The opaque chest: When to suspect a bronchial foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bronchial foreign body should be strongly suspected in a child with an opaque chest without a previous history of airways disease when there is: (1) any sign of volume loss or atelectasis in the lung density and (2) bronchiectasis within the lung density. Ultrasound may be helpful to rule out the presence of pleural fluid and may even demonstrate the bronchiectasis when the bronchi are fluid-filled. (orig.)

  12. Multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence around nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a multiple regression analysis of cancer incidence in the vicinity of a nuclear plant are presented. No dependence on radiation factors (natural background, radioactive releases, total dose of all types of medical examinations) is established. At the same time a relationship between general cancer incidence, turmors of lungs, trashea, bronchi and hematopoictic tissue carcimona incidence and releases of dangerous chemical substances is revealed

  13. Analysis of the Lung Microbiome in the “Healthy” Smoker and in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Erb-Downward, John R.; Thompson, Deborah L.; Han, MeiLan K.; Freeman, Christine M.; McCloskey, Lisa; Schmidt, Lindsay A.; Young, Vincent B.; Toews, Galen B.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Sundaram, Baskaran; Martinez, Fernando J; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    Although culture-independent techniques have shown that the lungs are not sterile, little is known about the lung microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used pyrosequencing of 16S amplicons to analyze the lung microbiome in two ways: first, using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to sample the distal bronchi and air-spaces; and second, by examining multiple discrete tissue sites in the lungs of six subjects removed at the time of transplantation. We performed BAL on three n...

  14. Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Peptidases: Modulation by cytokincs and glucocorticoids ill vitro and in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Velden, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe airways can be divided in the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx. and the lower respiratory tract. consisting of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This structure provides an enormous surface area where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. the function of the lungs, can take place. Respiratory diseases may affect onc or more of the different parts of the airways. For example, emphysema is characterized by a decreased num...

  15. Expression of the cystic fibrosis gene in adult human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, J F; Zepeda, M; Cohn, J.A.; Yankaskas, J R; Wilson, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to an understanding of the pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the development of effective gene therapies is a definition of the distribution and regulation of CF gene expression in adult human lung. Previous studies have detected the product of the CF gene, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), in submucosal glands of human bronchi. In this report, we have characterized the distribution of CFTR RNA and protein in the distal airway and alveoli of human lungs. ...

  16. Afferent nerves regulating the cough reflex: Mechanisms and Mediators of Cough in Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Brendan J.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and acid-sensitive, capsaicin-insensitive mechanoreceptors innervating the larynx, trachea and large bronchi regulate the cough reflex. These vagal afferent nerves may interact centrally with sensory input arising from afferent nerves innervating the intrapulmonary airways or even extrapulmonary afferents such as those innervating the nasal mucosa and esophagus to produce chronic cough or enhanced cough responsiveness. The mechanisms of cough initiation in health and...

  17. Antiasthmatic Role of “Pentapala -04” a Herbal Formulation Against Ova Albumin and Aluminium HydroxideInduced LungDamage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D. Srinivasa; Jayaraaj, Indira A.; Jayaraaj, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens ...

  18. Tracheal agenesis: A rare but fatal congenital anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, Suzan; Tewfik, Ted; Daniel, Sam

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe a newborn with a rare case of Type II tracheal agenesis and bronchoesophageal fistula. Polyhydramnios and suspected esophageal atresia were identified during routine pre-natal ultrasound screening. Upon delivery, rigid bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy, and intraoperative fluoroscopy were performed, where both bronchi and the carina showed unusual horizontal orientation making it difficult to identify the fistula. However, a post mortem CT confirmed the diagnosis of an is...

  19. Radiotherapy of bronco-pulmonary cancer; Radiotherapie des cancers brochopulmonaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourry, N.; Millardet, C.; Lapeyre, M.; Verrelle, P.; Gross, E.; Champeaux-Orange, E.; Lahbabi, K.; Galland, S.; Chomy, F.; Lagarde, P.; Blanchard, P

    2007-11-15

    Six oral communications as follow: tomography by positron emission with {sup 18}F-FDG and target volume determination in the non at small cells bronchi cancers: interest and limit; adjuvant radiotherapy in the non at small cells pulmonary cancers; pulmonary stereotaxic radiotherapy; the chemoradiotherapy of locally evolved bronco-pulmonary cancers; the mesothelioma: place of radiotherapy; predictive factors of the toxicity and the care of complications of thorax irradiation. (N.C.)

  20. Eurocancer 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For eighteen years Eurocancer analyses and presents the most recent knowledge in matter of fundamental research in diagnosis, therapy and more globally organisation in cancerology. The table content tackles breast cancers,anti-hormonal treatment in the breast cancer, oncology and surgery, new therapy approaches in the colon cancer, thorax and abdomen imaging, digestive cancers, skin cancerology, bronchi cancers, nuclear medicine, pain and cancer, nutrition and cancer. (N.C.)

  1. To investigate the prevention of OM-85 on bronchiectasis exacerbations (iPROBE) in Chinese patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jinming; Gao, Xiang; Kong, Lingfei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is characterized by the irreversible dilatation of the medium-sized bronchi as a result of airway injury from recurrent or chronic inflammation and lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis airways are commonly colonized with bacterial species. Infections of the airways play important role in bronchiectasis exacerbations. The non-specific prevention of recurrent airway infections by immunostimulating agents has gained growing interest. O...

  2. There is a specific response to pH by isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and this has a direct influence on biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Nadiah; Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Bent, Stephen J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hu, Fen Z; Kidd, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae colonizes the nasopharynx as a commensal. Strain-specific factors allow some strains to migrate to particular anatomical niches, such as the middle ear, bronchi or blood, and induce disease by surviving within the conditions present at these sites in the body. It is established that H. influenzae colonization and in some cases survival is highly dependent on their ability to form a biofilm. Biofilm formation is a key trait in the development of chronic infect...

  3. Cell surface marker profiling of human tracheal basal cells reveals distinct subpopulations, identifies MST1/MSP as a mitogenic signal, and identifies new biomarkers for lung squamous cell carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Laar, Emily; Clifford, Monica; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Kim, Bo Ram; Wang, Dennis; Lee, Sharon; Paterson, Josh; Vu, Nancy M; Waddell, Thomas K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tsao, Ming-sound; Ailles, Laurie; Moghal, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Background The large airways of the lungs (trachea and bronchi) are lined with a pseudostratified mucociliary epithelium, which is maintained by stem cells/progenitors within the basal cell compartment. Alterations in basal cell behavior can contribute to large airway diseases including squamous cell carcinomas (SQCCs). Basal cells have traditionally been thought of as a uniform population defined by basolateral position, cuboidal cell shape, and expression of pan-basal cell lineage markers l...

  4. Williams-Campbell syndrome presenting in an adult

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Quentin Christopher; Wathen, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of productive cough, shortness of breath and wheeze. He had been treated for asthma and given several courses of antibiotics which improved his symptoms. Medical history was unremarkable. There was no history respiratory disease in childhood although he was prone to chest infections in adult life. A high-resolution chest CT showed marked proximal cystic bronchiectasis associated with collapse of distal bronchi on expiration. A diagnosis of cys...

  5. Williams–Campbell syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Konoglou, Maria; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Loridas, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zervas, Vasilis; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Papakosta, Despoina; Boglou, Panagiotis; Bakali, Stamatia; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Williams–Campbell syndrome, also known as bronchomalacia, is a rare disorder characterized by a deficiency of cartilage in subsegmental bronchi, leading to distal airway collapse and bronchiectasis. There have been few reports about patients affected by saccular bronchiectasis, paracicatricial emphysema, and diminished cartilage. These are all characteristic of Williams–Campbell syndrome. Case presentation This report presents a 57-year-old woman with progressive dyspnea, cough, ...

  6. Eurocancer 2005; Eurocancer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiron, M.; Marty, M

    2005-07-01

    For eighteen years Eurocancer analyses and presents the most recent knowledge in matter of fundamental research in diagnosis, therapy and more globally organisation in cancerology. The table content tackles breast cancers,anti-hormonal treatment in the breast cancer, oncology and surgery, new therapy approaches in the colon cancer, thorax and abdomen imaging, digestive cancers, skin cancerology, bronchi cancers, nuclear medicine, pain and cancer, nutrition and cancer. (N.C.)

  7. Vocal Hoarseness and a Subglottic Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Rafizadeh, Sassan; Yoneda, Ken; Zeki, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with tracheopathia osteoplastica (TPO), a rare or perhaps underrecognized disorder, detected in approximately 1 in every 2000 to 5000 patients who undergo bronchoscopy. TPO is marked by proliferation of bony and cartilaginous spurs leading to airway stenosis. Multiple submucosal cartilaginous and osseous nodules can develop in the respiratory tract and may involve the entire trachea and mainstem bronchi. Symptoms may range from a completely silent condition to life-threate...

  8. Repeated Tracheostomy Tube Cuff Rupture Due to Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nikandish, Reza; Fallahi, Mahammad Javad; Ziaian, Beezhan; Iranpour, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO) is a rare benign disorder of the lower part of the trachea and the upper part of the main bronchi. Case Report: A case of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO) diagnosed at the time of intubation in an intensive care unit due to difficulty when advancing the endotracheal tube beyond the vocal cords, is reported. A problem was encountered which had not been reported previously in TPO: repeated cuff rupture at the time of s...

  9. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  10. Karakteristik Penderita Bronkitis Yang Dirawat Jalan Pada Kelompok Umur > 15 Tahun Di RSU Dr. Ferdinand Lumban Tobing Sibolga Tahun 2010 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Rinaldi Togap

    2014-01-01

    Bronchitis (Inflamation bronchi) is described as inflammation of the bronchial vessels. It is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes and divided into acute and chronic forms. Indonesia does not have accurate data on morbidity of acute or chronic bronchitis. Bronchitis including ten biggest disease in the outpatient Dr. Ferdinan L. Tobing General Hospital. Total cases of bronchitis in 2010-2012 there were 442 cases. To determine the characteristics of patients with bronchitis ...

  11. Use of salbutamol in detection of mechanism destructive to bronchial patency in dust-induced lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumabekova, B.K.

    1982-04-01

    Different mechanisms destroy the open passibility of the bronchi: bronchospasm, destruction of drop eliminator function of the bronchi, valvular mechanics, change in elastic properties of lungs, dyskinesia of the tracheobronchial tree and inflammatory edema of the mucous envelope. Bronchospasm is the most studied form of bronchial pathology. To detect the bronchospastic component, various bronchodilating means are used: (1) stimulators of adrenergic receptors, (2) blockers of acetylcholine (atropine, bella donna); preparations acting directly on smooth musculature of the bronchi (theophylline, euphylline). The pharmaceutical industry is now making aerosol bronchodilators. Since salbutamol is widely used as an aerosol and opinions of its effectiveness are not uniform, a test was made of it on 35 patients; 22 with chronic bronchitis and 13 with silicosis. The rate of air flow during inspiration and expiration was examined 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after administration of salbutamol aerosol. Results of the test are presented in a table and show that the use of a pharmacological test with salbutamol aerosol to detect bronchospasm as a cause of lung obstruction is valid. If 10 minutes after inhalation of salbutamol, a therapeutic effect is observed and inhalation and exhalation increase, bronchospasm as the cause of the pathology is demonstrated. The absence of a measurable reaction to salbutamol after 10 minutes indicates that other mechanisms are the basis of the obstruction. (11 refs.) (In Russian)

  12. Assessment of central lung cancer spreading based on roentgenological, radiological and endoscopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of 105 patients with central lung cancer of whom 74 had been operated on. The potentialities of the X-ray, endoscopic and radionuclide methods in the evaluation of the extent of tumor infiltration in the bronchi and the state of the intrathoracic lymph nodes for defining a disease stage had been studied. Combined X-ray and endoscopic investigations made it possible to establish the extent of tumor infiltration in the bronchi in 91% of the cases. Intrathoratic lymph node involvement could be detected with the help of a combined study using radionuclide methods and in some cases CT. The absence of foci of elevated 67Ga-citrate accumulation in the thoracic cavity with the involvement of the segmental and lobar bronchi testified against metastases in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Incseased RP fixation in a tumor and in the mediastinal zone was a convincing proof of the presence of metastates in the mediastinal lymph nodes. A study of the blood flow using 99mTc-MAA at Stages T1-2NO and T3N2 provided additional information to define indications for surgical treatment of central lung cancer

  13. Variability of bronchial measurements obtained by sequential CT using two computer-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the variability of lumen (LA) and wall area (WA) measurements obtained on two successive MDCT acquisitions using energy-driven contour estimation (EDCE) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) approaches. Both methods were applied to a database of segmental and subsegmental bronchi with LA > 4 mm2 containing 42 bronchial segments of 10 successive slices that best matched on each acquisition. For both methods, the 95% confidence interval between repeated MDCT was between -1.59 and 1.5 mm2 for LA, and -3.31 and 2.96 mm2 for WA. The values of the coefficient of measurement variation (CV10, i.e., percentage ratio of the standard deviation obtained from the 10 successive slices to their mean value) were strongly correlated between repeated MDCT data acquisitions (r > 0.72; p 2, whereas WA values were lower for bronchi with WA 2; no systematic EDCE underestimation or overestimation was observed for thicker-walled bronchi. In conclusion, variability between CT examinations and assessment techniques may impair measurements. Therefore, new parameters such as CV10 need to be investigated to study bronchial remodeling. Finally, EDCE and FWHM are not interchangeable in longitudinal studies. (orig.)

  14. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Jens; Raket, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger [University of Copenhagen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Feragen, Aasa [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems and Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery RT, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  15. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  16. Inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary CT: change of bronchial and accompanying pulmonary arterial diameter during respiration in healthy adult men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate changes in the diameter of bronchi and pulmonary arteries during respiration. The ratio of the diameter of matched inner bronchi and accompanying pulmonary arteries was calculated from full inspiration and expiration HRCT of healthy men. In 106 pairs of matched bronchi and pulmonary arteries, the bronhchial-arterial ratios were0.61 ±0.18(upper lung), 0.72±0.21(lower lung), and 0.65±0.20(total) at full inspiration and 0.51±0.32(upper lung), 0.52±0.15(lower lung), and 0.51±0.26(total) at full expiration HRCT, denotiong a statistically significant increase in bronchial diameter of the entire lung at full inspiration. The inner diameter of the bronchus was larger than the diameter of the accompanying pulmonary artery by 0.1% at full expiration and 8.5% at full inspiration. The result of this study would be helpful in understanding the physiology of the lung during respiration

  17. Neuropeptide expression in the lungs in tuberculosis and sarcoidosis - comparisons with non-specific lung diseases and irradiated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the proximal and distal bronchi was studied in humans with tuberculosis and sarcoidosis by use of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemically. Sample from patients shows chronic obstructive disease (COPD), and irradiated lungs are also examinated. There were no statistical difference in VIP and NPY concentrations between the different patient groups. However, in eleven cases from all three groups of patients (out of in total 40) high contents of VIP in both segmental and lobar bronchi was observed. It's interesting, all the samples from patients showing market allergic manifestations exhibited high VIP levels. The SP levels were observed to be low or even to be undetectable in tuberculosis disordered tissue. There were fewer neuropeptide - immunoreactive nerve fibres in the 'affected' than in 'unaffected' sides of tuberculosis patients. Conclusions: There appear to be changes in the innervation pattern in tuberculosis affected lungs tissue, but not in response to sarcoidosis. Allergic airways manifestations and seems to correlate to high VIP level in bronchi. (author)

  18. EGFR mutations are more frequent in well-differentiated than in poor-differentiated lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Mei Lin; Zhong, Hao Hao; Heng, Wan Jie; Wu, Bing Quan

    2008-12-01

    Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain, particularly deletions in exon 19 and point mutation in exon 21, are associated with clinical outcome in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting that EGFR mutation would have an important role in clinical decision making. DNA was extracted from the excised specimens of 60 lung adenocarcinoma patients with phenol-chloroform and ethanol precipitation. Exon 19 and 21 were amplified by PCR, and direct sequenced from both sense and antisense directions. EGFR somatic mutations were present in 13 of 60 patients (21.67%), including seven cases of in-frame deletion in exon 19 around codon 746 and six cases of amino acid substitution in exon 21. Exon 21 mutation is more frequent in adenocarcinomas with bronchi-alveolar component than exon 19 deletions. Mutations were more prevalent in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas (9/27, 33.33%) than in moderate to poor-differentiated adenocarcinomas (4/33, 12.12%) (P < 0.05). Adenocarcinomas with bronchi-alveolar components had higher mutation frequency (8/22,36. 36%) than those without bronchi-alveolar components (5/38, 13.16%) (P < 0.05). In this study, female patients had more mutation rate than male patients. This trend was also observed in the patients with pathologic stage I-II compared with stage III-IV, but neither of them was statistically significant. Patients with cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy had no significantly prolonged survival compared with single radical resection. But patients with EGFR mutation had relative longer survival. In conclusion, our study suggest that EGFR mutations may be a valuable prognostic factor for disease free survival of surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma patients independently from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:18985444

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Melissa [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Salter, Bill J. [The Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Papanikolaou, Niko [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Fuss, Martin [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Portland (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Presentation of outcomes of patients treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung lesions located within or touching a 2 cm zone around major airways. Serial tomotherapeutic SBRT has been planned and delivered at our institution since August 2001. Of 108 patients treated for primary and secondary lung tumors, nine harbored tumors (8 metastases, 1 recurrent NSCLC) located in close proximity to carina, right and left main bronchi, right and left upper lobe bronchi, intermedius, right middle lobe, lingular, or right and left lower lobe bronchi. SBRT was delivered to total doses of 36 Gy in 3 fractions (n=8) or 6 fractions (n=1), using a serial tomotherapy system (Nomos Peacock). We assessed local tumor control, clinical toxicity, normal tissue imaging changes, and overall survival. Median tumor volume was 26 cm{sup 3} (range 1.7 to 135 cm{sup 3}). Tumor locations were hilar (n=3), and parenchymal in six cases. Hilar lesions accounted for the three largest tumor volumes in the series. During a median follow-up of 10.6 months (range 2.5 to 41.5 months), all lesions treated were locally controlled as confirmed by CT or CT/PET imaging. Parenchymal imaging changes included focal lung fibrosis and major airway wall thickening. One occurrence of major airway occlusion (right lower lobe bronchus) was observed. This event was diagnosed by chest x-ray at 36 months, following treatment of the second largest hilar lesion in the present series. Based on the outcomes observed in this small sample series, SBRT for centrally located lung lesions appears feasible, was associated with low incidence of toxicities, and provided sustained local tumor control. However, long-term survival may be associated with major airway injury. As long-term follow-up in larger numbers of patients is lacking at this time, exclusion of patients with centrally located lesions may be considered when patients are treated in curative intent.

  20. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  1. Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine

  2. CT findings of mucoid impaction in 13 case: Speculation on their etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucoid impaction presents a typical appearance on plain radiography and CT. If the lesion is multiple with manifestations of diffuse bronchopathy, it usually is a medical disease. On the other hand, if the lesion is single, an effort should be made to determine the underlying disease. The most frequent cause of the latter lesion is lung cancer, which generally can be depicted by CT. We retrospectively reviewed 13 cases of chest CT with obstructive mucoid impaction, in which CT and BFS(bronchofiberscopy) did not reveal a specific underlying cause. Women in the twenties and thirties were dominant and a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis was present in nine, BFS, done in nine, showed bronchial obstruction, and also luminal narrowing and cicatricial mucosal changes proximal to the obstruction in all them. Endobronchial tuberculosis was proven in only one case by bronchial wall biopsy. Lobectomy was performed in three. At the bronchial obstruction site, thickened bronchial walls were connected to proximal bronchi and there was no evidence of a clear underlying pathology except submucosal fibrosis in all three. The level of bronchial obstruction , determined by CT and BFS, was in the main bronchus in one, lobar bronchi in six, and divisional or segmental bronchi in seven, CT additionally showed calcific spots in their parenchyma connected to the bronchial obstruction in seven cases, and other changes suggestive of tuberculous origin in eight patients. In the context of the clinical history, BFS results, CT findings and pathologic findings of surgical specimen, most, if not all, of these 13 lesions are supported to be a sequela of endobronchial tuberculosis

  3. Rounded atelectasis - computed tomography features; Atelectasia redonda - aspectos tomograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppke, Ana Luiza Leitao; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Torres, Erika Esteves Araujo; Crespo, Sheila Jandira Vianna; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1998-09-01

    Rounded atelectasis is a form of pulmonary collapse associated with pleural thickening that can mimick a neoplasm on plain chest radiographs. The abnormality was diagnosed radiologically in three patients. The lesion was observed in the left lower lobe in two cases, and in the right lower lobe in one. The aspect was a rounded or oval mass adjacent to the pleural surface that was thickened. Curving vessels and bronchi entering the mass on its anterior margin were seen in all cases, giving the so-called comet tail sign. The typical tomographic aspect allows the diagnosis of this benign condition, avoiding invasive diagnostic tests and unnecessary therapeutic producers. (author) 20 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Development of Therapeutic Modality of Esophageal Cancer Using Ho-166 Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Kwang Kyun; Lee, Min Geol [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The prognosis of esophageal cancer is poor due absence of serosa which prevent local invasion to the surrounding organs such as aorta, mediastinum, trachea, and bronchi. We developed a Ho-166 Coated Radioactive Self-Expandable Metallic Stent which is a new herapeutic device in the treatment of esophageal cancer and underwent an animal experiment in mongrel dogs. We observed mucosal destruction by 4-6 mCi of Ho-166 without serious complications such as perforation of esophageal wall. Therefore, Ho-166 coated self-expandable stent appears to be an effective therapeutic device in the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer. 17 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  5. Endosonography in bronchopulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Peter; Annema, Jouke; Clementsen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    via the esophagus, trachea and main bronchi. The concept of complete echo-endoscopic staging of lung cancer is postulated as virtually all mediastinal nodes as well as regions relevant to pulmonal medicine (liver and adrenal glands) can be reached by these two methods in combination....... major impact of EUSFNA as well as EBUS-TBNA on management of patients with lung cancer as well as in patients with unknown lesions in the mediastinum. The aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of endosonography in bronchopulmonary diseases focusing on endosonographically guided biopsy...

  6. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  7. Sinonasal inflammation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Konge, Lars; Thomsen, Sf;

    2013-01-01

    In this review we demonstrate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently report sinonasal symptoms. Furthermore, we present evidence that smoking on its own can cause nasal disease, and that in COPD patients, nasal inflammation mimics that of the bronchi. All this...... evidence suggests that COPD related sinonasal disease does exist and that smoking on its own rather than systemic inflammation triggers the condition. However, COPD related sinonasal disease remains to be characterized in terms of symptoms and endoscopic findings. In addition, more studies are needed to...

  8. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3...... months and 3 weeks of age, served as controls. Replication of BRSV took place in the luminal lining of the respiratory tract. In one of the BRSV infected animals (calf No. 1), replication was especially seen in the bronchi, whereas in the two other animals (calf Nos. 2 and 3) replication of BRSV was...

  9. Roentgenography with direct enlargement of image and roentgenopneumopolygraphy as additional methods for early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of roentgenography with direct enlargement of image and roentgenopneumopolygraphy (RPPG) combined with other X-ray and clinical methods was studied in 120 patients suffering from pneumoconioses. The comparison of skialogy results and comparative evaluation of morphological changes showed that an intensified and deformed pulmonary pattern, initial changes of small units of the division of vessels, bronchi and the presence of nodules were determined more clearly on enlarged radiograms. RPPG is effective for a study of functional shifts of the bronchopulmonary system in pneumoconioses. Roentgenography with direct enlargement of image and RPPG can be used for early diagnosis of pneumoconioses and the determination of efficacy of their treatment

  10. Pathological analysis of 9 cases uranium miners pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contrasts the pathological staging of pneumoconiosis with clinical staging. Two special kinds of the silicotuberculous nodules were found: The half of a solitary aciner nodule is composed of silicotic nodules, the other tuberculous lesion; The central nodule is caseous pneumonic lesion and the peripheral composition is silicotic nodules. Four kinds of cavity are found in pneumoconiosis: tubercular cavity, silicotic cavity, tuberculosilicosis and mixed pneumoconiosis cavity. Eqithelium changes i.e. hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinogenesis are observed on the epithelium of bronchi and alveoli in pneumoconiosis

  11. Urinary tract infection: A very rare presentation of Geotrichum candidum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Santosh Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotrichum candidum (G. candidum, a fungus from the class fungi imperfecti, is found saphrophtically saprophytically in nature and as a commensal in the mouth, bronchi, lungs, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. The pathogenicity of the fungus G. candidum has not been clearly defined. We describe a patient of perforative peritonitis who developed urinary tract infection (UTI secondary to catheterization. Urine sample isolated G. candidum with significant colony count and repeated isolation also yielded the same organism. Though it is yeast of low virulence, it is an emerging pathogen associated with infections in immunocompromised and debilitated individuals.

  12. Dependent Lung Tension Pneumothorax During 1-Lung Ventilation: Treatment by Transmediastinal Thoracentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenta, Okitsu; Shoko, Arimoto; Takeshi, Iritakenishi; Satoshi, Hagihira; Yuji, Fujino; Yasushi, Shintani; Masato, Minami; Meinoshin, Okumura

    2015-08-15

    Contralateral tension pneumothorax during 1-lung ventilation is rare but life threatening. We report the case of a patient who developed tension pneumothorax of the dependent lung during 1-lung ventilation while the surgeon was anastomosing the bronchi after sleeve lobectomy. Ventilation was not possible in either the dependent or nondependent lung, leading to severe desaturation and cardiac arrest. While the surgeons were administering direct cardiac compression, we suspected tension pneumothorax. As soon as the surgeons pierced the mediastinal pleura, adequate circulation was restored. Immediate diagnosis and treatment is important for this complication. PMID:26275308

  13. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Raket, Lars Lau; Feragen, Aasa; Pedersen, Jesper H.; Nielsen, Mads; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    . Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict...... more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. KEY POINTS: • Airway lumen diameter increases and wall thickness decreases with...

  14. Noninvasive correction of a fractured endoluminal nitinol tracheal stent in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Mathieu; Dunn, Marilyn E; Lussier, Bertrand; Chailleux, Nadège; Hélie, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    An 11-year-old, castrated male Pomeranian was presented for intractable cough and dyspnea secondary to severe tracheal collapse. An endoluminal nitinol tracheal stent was placed with good results. Five months following placement of the prosthesis, clinical signs acutely recurred and failure of the implant was noted. A second stent was superimposed over the fractured stent and resulted in resolution of all clinical signs. The dog died several months later from progression of the tracheal collapse to the carina and mainstem bronchi. PMID:17088395

  15. STUDY ON LUNG DOSE FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS BY INHALATION OF SHORT—LIVED RADON DAUGHTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素云; 张升慧; 等

    1994-01-01

    The dose distribution in the lung is inhomogeneous.The dose to the basal cell layer of trachea and main bronchi is much higher than the dose to total lung both for rabbits at different ages and for different animals.A maximum value of the dose to lung tissue for rabbits at ages of 20-40d is observed.The dose decreases with increasing body weight.The relationship between the dose and body weight can be descreibed by a power function.The dose to total lung increases exponentially with the minute breathing volume per unit of lung weight.

  16. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol lung scintigraphy in patients requiring mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon ventilation images are of limited diagnostic value in intubated patients since only posterior views can be readily obtained. In this study, Mallinckrodt Tc-99m DTPA aerosol was evaluated for its ability to provide six ventilation projections comparable to MAA perfusion images. Earlier particles have had the drawback to impacting in either ventilator tubing or the patient's major bronchi, limiting clinical utility. Nine patients were studied. Eight had good aerosol distribution without significant particle impaction. In the remaining patient, decreased aeration and holdup of activity beyond the area of impaction was confirmed by xenon ventilation images. Comparable ventilation and perfusion projections were obtained in every patient studied

  17. Abnormalities of the spleen in relation to congenital malformations of the heart: a survey of necropsy findings in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C; Devine, W. A.; Anderson, R H; Debich, D E; Zuberbuhler, J R

    1990-01-01

    A series of 1042 reports of necropsies on children dying at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh was reviewed. In each case, note was taken of the status of the spleen, the lobation of the lungs, the arrangement of the bronchi, the morphology of the atrial appendages, and the presence of any congenital malformations of the heart and great vessels and of any malformations of the abdominal organs. There was isomerism of the left atrial appendages in eight (0.77%), 13 (1.25%) showed isomerism of th...

  18. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  19. A Locus on Chromosome 8 Controlling Tumor Regionality -- a New Type of Tumor Diversity in the Mouse Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Lei; Hutson, Alan; Demant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Regional specificity of lung tumor formation has rarely been studied in mouse or human. By using crosses of strains semi-congenic for lung cancer susceptibility locus Sluc20, we have analyzed the genetic influences of Sluc20 and five other loci on tumor regionality in the mouse lung. We have mapped Sluc20 to a 27.92MB proximal region of chromosome 8 and found that it controls the number and load of only those tumors that surround or are directly adjacent to the bronchi or bronchioli (peribron...

  20. DEGRO 2006: 12. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society, 10. annual meeting of SASRO and 22. annual meeting of OeGRO. Abstracts; DEGRO 2006 - 12. Jahreskongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, 10. Jahrestagung der SASRO und 22. Jahrestagung der OeGRO. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The volume displays the abstracts of the meetings of the German, Swiss, and Austrian societies for radiooncology. Issues of the lectures, posters, and symposia were: new technological developments, head-neck tumors, radiobiology, prostate carcinomas, radiotherapy in palliative treatment, hematological malignomas, tumors of gastrointestinal tract, bladder, brain, breast, or bronchi, carrier planning, women in the field of radiooncology, image-guided radiotherapy, sexuality, fertility and pregnancy with gynecological tumors, psychooncology, pediatric oncology and radiotherapy, sex-dependent radiosensitivity, dosimetry, irradiation planning, quality of life in radiooncology, radiooncological information systems. (uke)

  1. Williams-Campbell syndrome presenting in an adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Quentin Christopher; Wathen, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of productive cough, shortness of breath and wheeze. He had been treated for asthma and given several courses of antibiotics which improved his symptoms. Medical history was unremarkable. There was no history respiratory disease in childhood although he was prone to chest infections in adult life. A high-resolution chest CT showed marked proximal cystic bronchiectasis associated with collapse of distal bronchi on expiration. A diagnosis of cystic bronchiectasis due to undiagnosed adult Williams-Campbell syndrome was made on the basis of these characteristic radiological features and the exclusion of other possible causes. PMID:22989422

  2. Fatal Pulmonary Hemorrhage Through Fiberoptic Broncoscopy in a Well Controlled Diabetic Female With Mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Di Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of invasive pulmonary mucormycosis complicated by fatal massive haemoptysis through bronchoscopy in a patient with a well controlled diabetes is reported. Histological features of infection are reported and the characteristic aspects of the staining are discussed. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed bilateral obstruction of the segmental bronchi and fatal massive bleeding occurring because of biopsy sampling. Caution is warranted in the use of bronchoscopy sampling in patients with radiological features of cavitated lesions of fungal origins. Better preventive and early therapeutic antifungal treatments are needed to avoid this serious complication.

  3. Risk assessment of cancer in relation with radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experimental studies have been studied in France in the field of low exposures to radon. The animal studies confirm the increase of ling cancer risk for exposures less than 100 units of exposures. A synthesis is actually running in the frame of an European programme coordinated by the Laboratory of epidemiology from the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.). It will describe the different steps of the carcinogenesis brought into play during this chronic exposure at the level of bronchi epithelium by grouping the whole of data coming from the follow up of uranium miners and experimental studies

  4. Clinical, histologic, and histochemical study of imidocarb diproprionate toxicosis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrier, D E; Adams, L G

    1976-07-01

    The toxic effects of imidocarb diproprionate (3,3'-bis [2 imidazolin-2yl]-carbanilde diproprionate) were evaluated in adult goats given (intramuscular injection) a lethal dose (6.75 mg/kg). The immediate clinical signs of toxicosis were transient excessive salivation and diarrhea. Anorexia, dyspnea, recumbency, and death occurred between postinjection days (PID) 4 and 8, during which time 7 goats died and 4 moribund goats were euthanatized. There were marked increases in mean serum urea nitrogen concentration and significant increases in serum glutamic oxalacetic transminase activity and in the mean number of circulating neutrophils after PID 4. Renal hyperemia and enlargement were evident by PID1. Serosanguineous fluid in the trachea and major bronchi, pulmonary congestion and edema, hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, and less frequently hydropericardium were observed on and after day 4. Microscopic renal tubular lesions rapidly progressed from pyknotic epithelial nuclei observed at 6 and 12 hours to acute tubular necrosis of epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules on days 1 and 2. Pulmonary congestion and edema; hemorrhage into alveoli, bronchioles, and bronchi; and intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles within the hepatocytes in the periacinar zones of the hepatic lobules were observed on or after day 4. Succinic dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activities decreased progressively in the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. The decreases in cellular enzymatic activity occurred shortly after the appearance of microscopic lesions in the tubular epithelium. PMID:132883

  5. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. PMID:27065241

  6. Measuring of the airway dimensions with spiral CT images: an experimental study in Japanese white big-ear rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure the length, angle and their correlation of the main anatomical dimensions of the trachea and bronchus in experimental Japanese white big-ear rabbits with the help of spiral CT 3D images, in order to lay the foundation of treating the airway disorders with stenting in animal experiment. Methods: Multi-slice CT scanning of cervico-thoracic region was performed in 30 healthy adult Japanese white big-ear rabbits, the longitudinal, transversal dimensions of the trachea, the glottis-carina length, the inner diameter and length of bronchi, and the angle formed by bronchial long axis and sagittal section were measured. Results: No significant difference was found in the inner diameters of various parts of the trachea and upper apical bronchi. The angle formed by bronchial long axis and sagittal section were smaller than that of the left ones. And the inner diameters of the right main bronchus was bigger than the left ones. Conclusion: The complex branching structure of the rabbit airway tree can be well displayed on spiral CT 3D images. Through measuring and statistical analysis of the results the authors have got a regressive equation for estimating the value of the inner diameter, length, angle, etc. concerning the airway tree, which is very helpful for providing the useful anatomical parameters in rabbit experiment. (authors)

  7. CT findings of the upper airways in patients with chronic obstructive emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT findings of the upper airways in patients with chronic obstructive emphysema (COE). Methods: Forty patients with COE proved by clinical and pulmonary function testing, and 39 control patients were examined by chest spiral CT scanning. Parameters were measured and statistically analyzed as follows: (1) the average tracheal cross sectional area (Ta); (2) the tracheal index (Ti), defined by the ratio between the coronal and sagittal diameters as measured 1 cm above the aorta arch; (3) the average right and left main stem bronchi diameters (Br, Bl); (4) the average bifurcate angle of the bronchi (Ba); (5) the thorax index (Thi); (6) the air trapping index (Ati). Results: In above-mentioned measurements, significant differences were revealed between COE group and control group except Ba. There were significant negative correlation between Ti and Ati (r=-0.593, P0.05), Ta and Ti (r=-0.125, P>0.05) in COE. Conclusion: The trachea change in patients with COE showed decreasing Ti, and Ti correlated significantly with Thi and Ati. (authors)

  8. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  9. Evaluation of tracheal bronchus in Chinese children using multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Lin, Zhang [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-12-15

    Tracheal bronchus is a congenital bronchial anomaly. The diagnosis should be considered early in intubated patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the newest modality for evaluating tracheal bronchus. To evaluate the utility of 16-slice MDCT in children with tracheal bronchus and to characterize the frequency of tracheal bronchus in children with congenital heart disease. From June 2005 to May 2007, 3,187 consecutive children (1,124 with congenital heart disease and 2,063 without congenital heart disease) underwent MDCT examination. Minimum-intensity projection reconstruction was performed to show the tracheobronchial tree in every case. Tracheal bronchus was found in 42 children (3.74%) with congenital heart disease but in only 6 children (0.29%) without congenital heart disease. Among the 48 children with tracheal bronchus, 45 had right-side tracheal bronchus and 3 had bilateral tracheal bronchi with heterotaxy syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity of MDCT was 100% (48/48). MDCT is a reliable imaging technique for the diagnosis of tracheal bronchus. Our data showed that right-side tracheal bronchus was more common and bilateral tracheal bronchi usually occurred with heterotaxy syndrome. In addition, tracheal bronchus often occurred with congenital heart disease. The angle between the tracheal bronchus and the trachea is important and should be measured. (orig.)

  10. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Pelca, Dominique; Fausser, Christian; Merckx, Jacques; Mitchell, Barrett R

    2015-01-01

    Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical ...

  11. The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T King

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul T KingDepartment of Medicine, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Bronchiectasis is defined by permanent and abnormal widening of the bronchi. This process occurs in the context of chronic airway infection and inflammation. It is usually diagnosed using computed tomography scanning to visualize the larger bronchi. Bronchiectasis is also characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction. This review will describe the pathophysiology of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Studies have demonstrated that the small airways in bronchiectasis are obstructed from an inflammatory infiltrate in the wall. As most of the bronchial tree is composed of small airways, the net effect is obstruction. The bronchial wall is typically thickened by an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and macrophages which may form lymphoid follicles. It has recently been demonstrated that patients with bronchiectasis have a progressive decline in lung function. There are a large number of etiologic risk factors associated with bronchiectasis. As there is generally a long-term retrospective history, it may be difficult to determine the exact role of such factors in the pathogenesis. Extremes of age and smoking/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be important considerations. There are a variety of different pathogens involved in bronchiectasis, but a common finding despite the presence of purulent sputum is failure to identify any pathogenic microorganisms. The bacterial flora appears to change with progression of disease. Keywords: bronchiectasis, inflammation, obstructive lung disease, pathophysiology, pathology

  12. CT findings of leukemic pulmonary infiltration with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the characteristic CT findings of leukemic pulmonary infiltration based on the pathologic findings. The CT findings of 11 leukemic patients with leukemic pulmonary infiltration were compared with those of 22 leukemic patients with other diseases as a control group. Evaluated pulmonary parenchymal CT findings included thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa, prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries, ground-glass opacities, air-space consolidation, and nodules. The CT-pathologic correlations for leukemic infiltration were evaluated in 7 patients. Frequent parenchymal CT findings were thickening of bronchovascular bundles (81.8%), prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries (81.8%), and non-lobular and non-segmental ground-glass opacities (90.9%). The first two findings were significantly more frequently observed in leukemic infiltration than in the control group, had good interobserver agreement, and corresponded pathologically to leukemic cell infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, bronchi, or bronchioles. Non-lobular and non-segmental ground-glass opacity corresponded to leukemic cell infiltration within alveolar spaces and septa adjacent to the pulmonary arteries or bronchi and also corresponded to hemorrhage, edema, or diffuse alveolar damage. Thickening of bronchovascular bundles and prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries are CT findings suggestive for leukemic infiltration and correspond to peribronchovascular tumor extension. (orig.)

  13. Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

  14. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  15. Effect of Perinatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on in vivo and intrinsic airway structure/function in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infants exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) experience more problems with wheezing. This study was designed to determine if perinatal SHS exposure increases intrinsic and/or in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine and whether potential structural/cellular alterations in the airway might explain the change in responsiveness. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulates) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50 days gestational age. The mother/infant pairs continued the SHS exposures postnatally. At 3 months of age each infant: 1) had in vivo lung function measurements in response to inhaled methacholine, or 2) the right accessory lobe filled with agarose, precision-cut to 600 μm slices, and bathed in increasing concentrations of methacholine. The lumenal area of the central airway was determined using videomicrometry followed by fixation and histology with morphometry. In vivo tests showed that perinatal SHS increases baseline respiratory rate and decreases responsiveness to methacholine. Perinatal SHS did not alter intrinsic airway responsiveness in the bronchi. However in respiratory bronchioles, SHS exposure increased airway responsiveness at lower methacholine concentrations but decreased it at higher concentrations. Perinatal SHS did not change eosinophil profiles, epithelial volume, smooth muscle volume, or mucin volume. However it did increase the number of alveolar attachments in bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In general, as mucin increased, airway responsiveness decreased. We conclude that perinatal SHS exposure alters in vivo and intrinsic airway responsiveness, and alveolar attachments

  16. The utility of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper establishes the utility of the fiber- optic bronchoscopy (FOB) studies performed in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) and confirm the possibility of tracheo-bronchial compromise. We carry out a descriptive study in 226 patients with esophageal cancer during 1991 to 1996 in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia of Colombia (INC). We excluded the patients with previous treatments: radiotherapy or surgery, and others primary cancers with metastases on the esophagus. We analyzed gastric, intestinal and general symptoms, smoking habits, primary cancer location, histological types, radiologic findings, fob findings, micro and macroscopes, and results of the samples: transbronchial, endobronchial biopsies, bronchi alveolar lavage and brush. We included 158 patients, 110 male and 48 female, with age between 32 and 83 years, symptoms duration average of 5,2 months. The most significant were cough, dysphonia and sputum. The location of EC was statistics significance only in the upper third escamocelular type. The significant radiological findings were: parenchymal nodules and interstitial infiltrates, the significant fob findings were: fistula endobronchial infiltration endobronchial mass and vocal cords palsy. The zones with more compromise were trachea, principal bronchi and vocal cords. Only 17 patients were positives in the samples; comparing the histopathologic findings (biopsies) as the gold standard with fob findings the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 35%, positive predictive value 15.6% and negative predictive value 100%

  17. Computed tomographic imaging of dogs with primary laryngeal or tracheal airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; Hartman, Susan; Matheson, Jodi; O'Brien, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen dogs with clinical signs attributable to nonneoplastic obstruction of the larynx, trachea, or large bronchi underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging. In 16 of the 17 dogs, CT was performed without general anesthesia using a positioning device. Fifteen of these 16 dogs were imaged without sedation or general anesthesia. Three-dimensional (3D) internal rendering was performed on each image set based on lesion localization determined by routine image planes. Visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, video fluoroscopy, and necropsy were used for achieving the cause of the upper airway obstruction. The CT and 3D internal rendering accurately indicated the presence and cause of upper airway obstruction in all dogs. CT findings indicative of laryngeal paralysis included failure to abduct the arytenoid cartilages, narrowed rima glottis, and air-filled laryngeal ventricles. Laryngeal collapse findings depended on the grade of collapse and included everted laryngeal saccules, collapse of the cuneiform processes and corniculate processes, and narrowed rima glottis. Trachea abnormalities included hypoplasia, stenosis, or collapse syndrome. The CT findings in tracheal hypoplasia consisted of a severely narrowed lumen throughout the entire length. Tracheal stenosis was represented by a circumferential decrease in tracheal lumen size limited to one region. Tracheal collapse syndrome was diagnosed by severe asymmetric narrowing. Lobar bronchi collapse appeared in CT images as a narrowed asymmetric lumen diameter. CT imaging of unanesthetized dogs with upper airway obstruction compares favorably with traditional definitive diagnostic methods. PMID:21447037

  18. Cold-inducible RNA binding protein regulates mucin expression induced by cold temperatures in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, DanHua; Chen, LingXiu; Xie, WenYue; Xu, Qing; Han, Zhong; Huang, HuaPing; Zhou, XiangDong

    2016-08-01

    Mucus overproduction is an important manifestation of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, however, the mechanisms underlying the association between cold air and mucus overproduction remain unknown. We found that the expression of the cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) was increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present study, we tested whether CIRP was involved in inflammatory factors and mucin5AC (MUC5AC) expression after cold stimulation and investigated the potential signaling pathways involved in this process. We found that CIRP was highly expressed in the bronchi of COPD patients. The expression of CIRP, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were increased, and the CIRP was localized in cytoplasm after cold stimulation. MUC5AC mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in a temperature- and time-dependent manner after cold stimulation and were associated with the phosphorylation of ERK and NF-κB, which reflected their activation. These responses were suppressed by knockdown of CIRP with a specific siRNA or the ERK and NF-κB inhibitors. These results demonstrated that CIRP was expressed in the bronchi of human COPD patients and was involved in inflammatory factors and MUC5AC expression after cold stimulation through the ERK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:27184164

  19. The radionuclide salivagram in children with pulmonary disease and a high risk of aspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to demonstrate the utility of the radionuclide salivagram in assessing children whose underlying medical problems suggest that aspiration of oral contents is a factor contributing ot otherwise unexplained lung disease or recurrent pneumonias. Following sublingual administration of 300 μCi (11.1 MBq) of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a drop of saline, serial images were obtained for 60 min and evaluated for entrance of tracer into the major airways and lung parenchyma. Thirty-four studies were performed on 31 patients (age: 3 weeks - 16.7 years, mean 5.5 years) with recurrent pneumonias or unexplained lung disease. All had medical conditions, most frequently neurological, predisposing to aspiration. Pulmonary aspiration was detected in eight patients. All positive studies demonstrated aspirated tracer distal to the tracheal bifurcation, either in bronchi or in bronchi and lung parenchyma. Aspiration was bilateral in six cases. Clearance of aspirated tracer was noted in one patient. The salivagram is an effective tool for demonstrating aspiration of oral contents and the level to which aspirated fluid penetrates the tracheobronchial tree. Additionally, by allowing for the evaluation of clearance of aspirated tracer, the salivagram may provide information on the status of airway-protective mechanisms. (orig./MG)

  20. The radionuclide salivagram in children with pulmonary disease and a high risk of aspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Sever, Z. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Connolly, L.P.; Treves, S.T.

    1995-11-01

    We wanted to demonstrate the utility of the radionuclide salivagram in assessing children whose underlying medical problems suggest that aspiration of oral contents is a factor contributing ot otherwise unexplained lung disease or recurrent pneumonias. Following sublingual administration of 300 {mu}Ci (11.1 MBq) of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a drop of saline, serial images were obtained for 60 min and evaluated for entrance of tracer into the major airways and lung parenchyma. Thirty-four studies were performed on 31 patients (age: 3 weeks - 16.7 years, mean 5.5 years) with recurrent pneumonias or unexplained lung disease. All had medical conditions, most frequently neurological, predisposing to aspiration. Pulmonary aspiration was detected in eight patients. All positive studies demonstrated aspirated tracer distal to the tracheal bifurcation, either in bronchi or in bronchi and lung parenchyma. Aspiration was bilateral in six cases. Clearance of aspirated tracer was noted in one patient. The salivagram is an effective tool for demonstrating aspiration of oral contents and the level to which aspirated fluid penetrates the tracheobronchial tree. Additionally, by allowing for the evaluation of clearance of aspirated tracer, the salivagram may provide information on the status of airway-protective mechanisms. (orig./MG)

  1. The radionuclide salivagram in children with pulmonary disease and a high risk of aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Z; Connolly, L P; Treves, S T

    1995-11-01

    Purpose. We wanted to demonstrate the utility of the radionuclide salivagram in assessing children whose underlying medical problems suggest that aspiration of oral contents is a factor contributing to otherwise unexplained lung disease or recurrent pneumonias. Materials and methods. Following sublingual administration of 300 μCi (11.1 MBq) of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a drop of saline, serial images were obtained for 60 min and evaluated for entrance of tracer into the major airways and lung parenchyma. Thirty-four studies were performed on 31 patients (age: 3 weeks - 16.7 years, mean 5.5 years) with recurrent pneumonias or unexplained lung disease. All had medical conditions, most frequently neurological, predisposing to aspiration. Results. Pulmonary aspiration was detected in eight patients. All positive studies demonstrated aspirated tracer distal to the tracheal bifurcation, either in bronchi or in bronchi and lung parenchyma. Aspiration was bilateral in six cases. Clearance of aspirated tracer was noted in one patient. Conclusion. The salivagram is an effective tool for demonstrating aspiration of oral contents and the level to which aspirated fluid penetrates the tracheobronchial tree. Additionally, by allowing for the evaluation of clearance of aspirated tracer, the salivagram may provide information on the status of airway-protective mechanisms. PMID:8577521

  2. One-dimensional modelling of pulse wave propagation in human airway bifurcations in space-time variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavica, Francesco; Alastruey, Jordi; Sherwin, Spencer J; Khir, Ashraf W

    2009-01-01

    Airflow in the respiratory system is complicated as it goes through various regions with different geometries and mechanical properties. Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations are typically limited to local areas of the system because of their high computational cost. On the other hand, the one-dimensional (1-D) equations of flow in compliant tubes offer a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost when a global assessment of airflow in the system is required. The aim of the current study is to apply the 1-D formulation in space and time variables to study the propagation of a pulse wave in human airways; first in a simple system composed of just one bifurcation, trachea-main bronchi, according to the symmetrical Weibel model. Then extending the system to include a further generation, the bronchi branches. Pulse waveforms carry information about the functionality and morphology of the respiratory system and the 1-D modelling, in terms of space and time variables, represents an innovative approach for respiratory response interpretation. 1-D modelling in space-time variables has been extensively applied to simulate blood pressure and flow in the cardiovascular system. This work represents the first attempt to apply this formulation to study pulse waveforms in the human bronchial tree. PMID:19965046

  3. Characteristics of Consolidation, Centrilobular Nodule and Bronchus as CT Findings for the Differentiation between Tuberculosis and Pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate tuberculosis from pneumonia by computed tomography (CT) in cases difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. CT scans of 300 patients with tuberculosis and 234 patients with pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Parenchymal abnormalities, lymph nodes, pleural effusions and central bronchial narrowing were evaluated. The density of consolidation was measured by pre- and post-enhanced CT. Centrilobular nodules, granulomas, cavitations in both nodules as well as consolidation, conglomerated nodules, and enlarged lymph nodes occurred with significantly greater frequency in patients with tuberculosis than in those with pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules were larger and denser in tuberculosis patients. In consolidation, decreases in lung lobe volume and a bronchial beaded appearance (irregular narrowing and dilatation) were more frequent in patients with tuberculosis. The tuberculous consolidation had significantly lower mean enhancement and net enhancement than that from pneumonia. When the diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis were set as well-demarcated larger centrilobular nodules and/or a lowerly enhancing consolidation with internal beaded bronchi, the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 82.0%. Consolidation with a low level of enhancement, decreased lung lobe volume, and bronchi with irregular, beaded shape and denser and larger centrilobular nodules are helpful CT findings for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  4. Characteristics of Consolidation, Centrilobular Nodule and Bronchus as CT Findings for the Differentiation between Tuberculosis and Pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Se Young; Chung, Myung Hee; Lim, Yeon Soo; Lim, Hyun Wook; Kahng, Ji Min [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Mi Sook [Dept. of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To differentiate tuberculosis from pneumonia by computed tomography (CT) in cases difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. CT scans of 300 patients with tuberculosis and 234 patients with pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Parenchymal abnormalities, lymph nodes, pleural effusions and central bronchial narrowing were evaluated. The density of consolidation was measured by pre- and post-enhanced CT. Centrilobular nodules, granulomas, cavitations in both nodules as well as consolidation, conglomerated nodules, and enlarged lymph nodes occurred with significantly greater frequency in patients with tuberculosis than in those with pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules were larger and denser in tuberculosis patients. In consolidation, decreases in lung lobe volume and a bronchial beaded appearance (irregular narrowing and dilatation) were more frequent in patients with tuberculosis. The tuberculous consolidation had significantly lower mean enhancement and net enhancement than that from pneumonia. When the diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis were set as well-demarcated larger centrilobular nodules and/or a lowerly enhancing consolidation with internal beaded bronchi, the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 82.0%. Consolidation with a low level of enhancement, decreased lung lobe volume, and bronchi with irregular, beaded shape and denser and larger centrilobular nodules are helpful CT findings for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  5. Bronchial neuroendocrine elements in late post-radiation stage in humans after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not known how long-term total body irradiation affects the neuroendocrine cells (Nc) and peptidergic innervation in the bronchial wall. This study examined, by immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques, the distribution of NC and neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres in the large bronchi of Chernobyl nuclear accident cleanup workers displaying pulmonary fibrosis and metaplastic epithelium. Bronchial mucous and submucous layers from 16 Chernobyl patients and 6 control subjects were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques for determination of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A, chromogranin A and B (CAB), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), helospectin I, neuropeptide Y (NPY), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), and substance P (SP). Additionally, bronchial biopsies from 6 Chernobyl cleanup workers and 3 control patients were examined by RIA for VIP and NPY/peptideYY-Ievels. The Chernobyl patients were examined 10 years after exposure during the cleanup works in the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres appeared to be more frequent in the bronchial wall after long term irradiation as compared with controls. However, no specific alterations in the amounts of NPY-, PACAP-, helospectin-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were seen in bronchi of control and Chernobyl patients. 5-HT -immunoreactive NC appeared to be more numerous in normal bronchial epithelium adjacent to metaplastic epithelium, in which numerous CAB- immunoreactive NC were seen in Chernobyl patients. RIA for VIP and NPY/PYY showed individual variations in the levels of these peptides in the bronchial tissue. In two cases (one Chernobyl patient and one control patient) there was a high concentration of VIP in parallel with a high concentration of NPY

  6. Change of pulmonary arterial and bronchial diameter during respiration : HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the changes and normal ranges of the artery-bronchus ratio(ABR) during respiration We analyzed HRCT of 10 healthy adults. The HRCT findings of ten healthy adults were analysed. CT scanning was performed with 1mm collimation at 3mm intervals during full inspiration and full expiration, with a range during inspiration from 2cm to 4cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. The range during expiration was from 1cm to 3cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. ABiR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the inner diameter of the bronchus), ABoR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) and BLR (defined as the inner diameter of the bronchus divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) were measured on the display console. The mean inner diameter of the bronchi was 2.04±0.73mm during inspiration and 1.68±0.51mm during expiration, while the mean diameter of the arteries was 3.95±1.03mm during inspiration and 4.37±1.09mm during expiration. The diameters of the bronchi were thus seen to increase during inspiration, and the diameters of the pulmonary arteries, to decrease. The mean thickness of the bronchial wall was 1.07±0.19mm during inspiration and 1.06±0.24mm during expiration;thus, no change in thickness was seen during respiration (p<0.05). Mean ABiR was 2.01±0.60 (range 1.15-4.58) during inspiration and 2.59±0.74(range 1.16-4.9) during expiration, and in all cases the inner diameter of the bronchus was less than that of the accompanying pulmonary artery. Mean ABoR was 0.91±0.19 during inspiration and 1.09±0.22 during expiration. While for BLR, the corresponding fingures were 0.46±0.06, and 0.44±0.09. HRCT is a useful tool for evaluating changes in the pulmonary arteries and bronchi during respiration

  7. Tracheal and bronchial involvement in colitis ulcerosa – a colo-bronchitic syndrome? A case report and some additional considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wichert, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic involvement is well known in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, but there are only few data looking to Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC separately instead of lumping together both entities to IBD. The frequency of bronchial involvement in UC is not yet exactly analysed but reported to be rare. We asked 100 patients with UC for bronchial complaints, and found in 13 patients a bronchial affection. From reports in the literature it is known that sometimes a bronchial involvement in patients with UC can affect the whole bronchial tree including small bronchi. The involvement of bronchial system in UC is obviously more prominent than previously thought and may fulfil the criteria for a separate syndrome. These relations may have consequences for pathogenetic understanding of UC as well as bronchitis and also consequences for treatment regimes.

  8. High-resolution CT of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports high-resolution CT correlated with inflation-fixed lung specimens in 92 consecutive patients with 94 lung nodules. The nodules included 41 adenocarcinomas, 24 squamous carcinomas, nine large cell carcinomas, seven inflammatory pseudotumors, six neuroendocrine carcinomas, and seven miscellaneous nodules. CT scans were reviewed by two independent observers without awareness of the pathologic diagnosis and then correlated with the pathologic findings. Features commonly seen in malignant and benign nodules included irregular margins, spiculation, and pleural tags. Pathologically, the irregular margins were due to nonencapsulated cellular proliferation at the periphery of the nodule. Pleural tags were due to desmoplastic reaction. Bubble lucencies (pseudocavitation) were seen most commonly in adenocarcinomas (12 of 41 [29%]), less commonly in other malignant nodules (five of 42 [12%]), and in only one of 11 benign nodules (9%). Bubble lucencies were due to patent bronchi. The authors conclude that the presence of bubble lucencies is helpful in distinguishing malignant from benign nodules

  9. An unusual cause for recurrent chest infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, Ronstan

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of an elderly non-smoking gentleman who, since 2005, had been admitted multiple times for recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, wheeze, cough and sputum. The patient was treated as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\/or lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchoscopy was done which revealed multiple hard nodules in the trachea and bronchi with posterior tracheal wall sparing. Biopsies confirmed this as tracheopathia osteochondroplastica (TO). He had increasing frequency of admission due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas infections, which failed to clear despite intravenous, prolonged oral and nebulised antibiotics. The patient developed increasing respiratory distress and respiratory failure. The patient died peacefully in 2012. This case report highlights the typical pathological and radiological findings of TO and the pitfalls of misdiagnosing patients with recurrent chest infections as COPD.

  10. [Acute airway obstruction during chemotherapy-induced agranulocytosis with fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, F; Deswardt, Ph; Hyvernat, H; Burel-Vandenbos, F; Bernardin, G

    2006-02-01

    Acute airway obstruction caused by mucoid impaction can cause sometimes life-threatening respiratory distress. Bronchial plugging is usually observed in subjects with chronic diseases such as asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or cystic fibrosis. In children, it can be related to heart failure. Acute airway obstruction in a patient without a chronic respiratory disease is exceptional. We report the case of a patient who developed bronchial plugs obstructing the bronchi during a period of agranulocytosis induced by chemotherapy. The patient experienced acute respiratory distress with asphyxia. The plugs were composed of fibrin and required several fibroscopic procedures for clearance. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of acute airway obstruction by plugging during a period of agranulocytosis. PMID:16604039

  11. Endoscopic low-coherence topography measurement for upper airways and hollow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Shaffer, Etienne; Pavillon, Nicolas; Kühn, Jonas; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the severity of airway pathologies, quantitative dimensioning of airways is of utmost importance. Endoscopic vision gives a projective image and thus no true scaling information can be directly deduced from it. In this article, an approach based on an interferometric setup, a low-coherence laser source and a standard rigid endoscope is presented, and applied to hollow samples measurements. More generally, the use of the low-coherence interferometric setup detailed here could be extended to any other endoscopy-related field of interest, e.g., gastroscopy, arthroscopy and other medical or industrial applications where tri-dimensional topology is required. The setup design with a multiple fibers illumination system is presented. Demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex vivo pig bronchi.

  12. A dosimetric model for localised radon progeny accumulations at tracheobronchial bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalent philosophy of inhalation risk assessment protocols is based upon assumptions of uniform particle deposition patterns and homogeneous clearance processes within human lung airways. Here we discuss the effects of enhanced deposition and reduced mucociliary clearance at tracheobronchial bifurcations on the dosimetry of inhaled radon progeny. In accordance with experimental deposition and clearance findings, upper tracheobronchial airways (i.e. generations k = 1 to 6) may be divided into three distinct physical regions: tubular segments, bifurcation zones (excluding the inclusive carina), and carinal ridges. Calculations indicate that radon progeny accumulations at airway branching sites can lead to significantly higher doses delivered to epithelial cells located within bifurcations, particularly at carinal ridges, than along tubular sections. These anatomical sites of increased exposure in tracheobronchial airways, the main, lobar, and segmental bronchi, are consistent with clinically reported locations of preferential occurrence of lung carcinomas in uranium miners. (author)

  13. [Prevention and treatment of intraoperative complications of thoracic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, L

    2015-05-01

    In order to achieve a minimal complication rate there is a need for a comprehensive strategy. This means in the first line preventive steps which include patient positioning, suitable approaches and access, an appropriately qualified surgical team as well as a carefully planned dissection and preparation. Furthermore, a supply of additional instrumentation, such as thrombectomy catheters, special vascular clamps and even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and a heart-lung machine (HLM) in cases of centrally located lesions should be on stand-by. Control instruments, such as a bronchoscope and esophagoscope should not be forgotten. In selected cases a preoperative embolization (vascular malformation) or cream swallow (thoracic duct injury) can be helpful. Special interventions to overcome complications arising are described for the chest wall, lung parenchyma, pulmonary vessels, great vessels, bronchial arteries, trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thoracic duct, heart, vertebral column and sternum corresponding to the topography. PMID:25691227

  14. An unexpected journey of a suction catheter in a preterm neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Leung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies are extremely rare in preterm neonates. The majority are iatrogenic. We describe a neonate of 27 weeks gestation who was found to have an 18 mm long suction catheter at the right main bronchi after resuscitation in another hospital. It was first detected by chest X-ray after endotracheal intubation. Repeat X-ray revealed the catheter moved to the stomach and migrated to the lower gastrointestinal tract in a few hours. The patient was treated conservatively and the catheter was passed out on day 14. Newborn resuscitation may result in iatrogenic foreign body in neonates. Serious complications such as respiratory compromise, perforations or abscess may occur. Early referral to a specialized tertiary center with pediatric surgical service is recommended. We hope our experience demonstrated the importance of preventing iatrogenic foreign body in clinical setting. Access to endoscopic instrumentation for foreign body removal in preterm neonates should be available at all times.

  15. Fetal Heterotaxy with Tricuspid Atresia, Pulmonary Atresia, and Isomerism of the Right Atrial Appendages at 22 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Solomon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the accurate prenatal diagnosis at 22 weeks gestation of right atrial isomerism in association with tricuspid atresia. Several distinctive sonographic features of isomerism of the right atrial appendages were present in this fetus: complex cardiac abnormality, ventriculoarterial discordance, juxtaposition of the aorta and the inferior vena cava to the right side, pulmonary atresia, and anomalous pulmonary venous return to the morphological right atrium. Tricuspid atresia, which is an extremely rare lesion within heterotaxy spectrum disorders, was present. Postnatal investigations confirmed all prenatally diagnosed abnormalities, with additional findings of pulmonary atresia with discontinuous pulmonary arteries and bilateral arterial ducts, asplenia, and bilateral eparterial bronchi. To our knowledge, tricuspid atresia in the setting of isomerism of the right atrial appendages has not previously been diagnosed or reported prenatally. Because of the complexity of cardiac lesions that may be present in cases of atrial isomerism, these disorders should be considered even if sonographic findings are uncommon or atypical.

  16. Imaging of community-acquired pneumonia: Roles of imaging examinations, imaging diagnosis of specific pathogens and discrimination from noninfectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi; Nambu; Katsura; Ozawa; Noriko; Kobayashi; Masao; Tago

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews roles of imaging examinations in the management of community-acquired pneumonia(CAP), imaging diagnosis of specific CAP and discrimination between CAP and noninfectious diseases. Chest radiography is usually enough to confirm the diagnosis of CAP, whereas computed tomography is required to suggest specific pathogens and to discriminate from noninfectious diseases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and some cases of viral pneumonia sometimes show specific imaging findings. Peribronchial nodules, especially tree-in-bud appearance, are fairly specific for infection. Evidences of organization, such as concavity of the opacities, traction bronchiectasis, visualization of air bronchograms over the entire length of the bronchi, or mild parenchymal distortion are suggestive of organizing pneumonia. We will introduce tips to effectively make use of imaging examinations in the management of CAP.

  17. Powdered diatrizoic acid for radiography of the respiratory tract. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powdered diatrizoic acid as a contrast medium administered by inhalation and insufflation for visualization of the airways was tested in vitro and in 21 dogs. Good radiocapacity of the contrast medium and its antibacterial activity was found in vitro. In the majority of animal experiments visualization of the bronchial tree down to segmental and partially to subsegmental bronchi with only minimal agglomeration of contrast medium and with good or very good demonstration of anatomic details was achieved. In the majority of dogs contrast medium was eliminated from the lungs within 18 hours. Arterial blood gases tested on 5 dogs showed only unimportant changes after contrast medium administration. No adverse reacions were observed. Histologic and ultrastructural examinations after contrast studies showed phagocytic reaction to diatrizoic acid, transient impairment of production of surfactant, reactive changes of bronchial mucosa, and no fibrotic changes in the longterm observation. (orig.)

  18. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  19. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  20. Identification of a novel cetacean polyomavirus from a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis with Tracheobronchitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Anthony

    Full Text Available A female short-beaked common dolphin calf was found stranded in San Diego, California in October 2010, presenting with multifocal ulcerative lesions in the trachea and bronchi. Viral particles suggestive of polyomavirus were detected by EM, and subsequently confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Full genome sequencing (Ion Torrent revealed a circular dsDNA genome of 5,159 bp that was shown to form a distinct lineage within the genus Polyomavirus based on phylogenetic analysis of the early and late transcriptomes. Viral infection and distribution in laryngeal mucosa was characterised using in-situ hybridisation, and apoptosis observed in the virus-infected region. These results demonstrate that polyomaviruses can be associated with respiratory disease in cetaceans, and expand our knowledge of their diversity and clinical significance in marine mammals.

  1. Minutes of the 45. meeting of the American society of therapeutic radiology and oncology (Astro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forty fifth meeting of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) held at the center of congress in Salt Lake city in october 2003. 542 scientific works have been presented, whom 221 orally. Escalation of radiation doses in prostate cancers have been studied. Fractionation and hormones therapy in prostate cancers are reported. The bladder cancers made the object of information, the bronchi cancer ( non at small cells and at small cells) have been analysed. Cancers of the ORL sphere, mammary gland and brain metastases were presented. The radiotherapy as a palliative treatment of bone metastases made the object of a report. The receptors of the epidermoid growth factor has been shown as an important factor to predict the tumor response to irradiation. (N.C.)

  2. Inhaled Foreign Bodies In Pediatric Patients: Proven Management Techniques In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraynes, Megan; Agoritsas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Foreign body inhalation affects thousands of children every year, and it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Inhaled organic or inorganic foreign bodies can become lodged in the posterior nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, or bronchi. Presentation of foreign body inhalation can range from nonspecific respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure associated with a choking episode. In this issue, an in-depth review of the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies is presented. Risk factors for foreign body inhalation and clinical clues to diagnosis, as well as emergent management of inhaled foreign bodies are reviewed. A systematic approach, as described in this issue, will aid in timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies, thereby limiting future complications and morbidity. PMID:26510331

  3. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  4. Tracheobronchomalacia post-pneumonectomy: A late complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Datey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old male presented with dyspnoea and stridor. He had undergone pneumonectomy 40 years ago. CT scan revealed gross shift of mediastinum (post-pneumonectomy syndrome with tortuous trachea kinked at the thoracic inlet. Fibre optic bronchoscopy showed a near total expiratory closure of trachea, right main bronchus, and segmental bronchi confirming tracheobronchomalacia. He was managed with long length, low tracheostomy in view of his poor general condition of permitting more invasive procedures. He showed adequate clinical improvement and was discharged home. Tracheobronchomalacia in post-pneumonectomy syndrome requires emergent management. Its occurrence after 40 years is very rare and may be easily missed. It can be diagnosed with dynamic CT and FOB. Although invasive management with stenting or surgical methods is routinely advised, conservative care can be effective in selected cases.

  5. Síndrome de Mounier-Kühn Mounier-Kuhn syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Piccoli Fortuna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Mounier-Kühn, ou traqueobroncomegalia congênita, é uma entidade clínica rara caracterizada pela dilatação anormal de traquéia e brônquios principais. O diagnóstico geralmente pode ser realizado através da mensuração do diâmetro traqueal. Os autores apresentam o caso de um homem de 40 anos com pneumonia refratária ao tratamento, no qual a traqueobroncomegalia foi confirmada através de tomografia computadorizada.Mounier-Kuhn syndrome, or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical entity characterized by abnormal dilation of the trachea and main bronchi. The diagnosis can usually be made by measuring the tracheal diameter. We report the case of a 40-year-old black man with refractory lower respiratory tract infection. Tracheobronchomegaly was confirmed through computed tomography.

  6. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed. PMID:22082167

  7. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  8. Treatment of Adult Primary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the distal air spaces and terminal bronchi, which may lead to impaired gas exchange. This accumulation of surfactant is due to decreased clearance by the alveolar macrophages. Its primary, most common form, is currently considered an autoimmune disease. Better knowledge of the causes of PAP have led to the emergence of alternatives to whole lung lavage, although this is still considered the treatment of choice. Most studies are case series, often with limited patient numbers, so the level of evidence is low. Since the severity of presentation and clinical course are variable, not all patients will require treatment. Due to the low level of evidence, some objective criteria based on expert opinion have been arbitrarily proposed in an attempt to define in which patients it is best to initiate treatment. PMID:25896950

  9. Pulmonary changes in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from the obstruction of small bronchi by highly viscous mucus. Chronic obstructive lung disease and recurrent pulmonary infections result in a typical radiographic pattern later in the disease. Most patients can now be expected to survive into adulthood. The radiologist must make a careful comparison of serial films in order to detect complications early. By far the most important imaging modality is the conventional chest radiograph. CT is more sensitive for detection of structural abnormalities of the lung. Bronchography is a dangerous procedure and can lead to rapid deterioration of lung function. Lung scanning is a very sensitive method for demonstrating regional disturbances of ventilation and may reveal abnormalities earlier than conventional radiographs. In severe hemoptysis, selective bronchial arteriography with embolization of the bleeding vessel can be a life-saving procedure. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring the state of the human airways by analysis of respiratory sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. C.; Patterson, J. L. Jr

    1979-01-01

    A mechanism whereby sound is generated by the motion of vortices in the human lung is described. This mechanism is believed to be responsible for most of the sound which is generated both on inspiration and expiration in normal lungs. Mathematical expressions for the frequencies of sound generated, which depend only upon the axial flow velocity and diameters of the bronchi, are derived. This theory allows the location within the bronchial tree from which particular sounds emanate to be determined. Redistribution of pulmonary blood volume following transition from Earth gravity to the weightless state probably alters the caliber of certain airways and doubtless alters sound transmission properties of the lung. We believe that these changes can be monitored effectively and non-invasively by spectral analysis of pulmonary sound.

  11. The role of magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular disorders in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of congenital cardiovascular diseases magnetic resonance tomography may be used for children of all age groups as a method providing valuable additional clues, if the information obtained by the usual non-invasive techniques is found wanting and the degree of the disease does not warrant angiocardiography. The current uses of mganetic resonance tomography are largely restricted to the major vessels, septal anomalies that are difficult to ascertain and complex lesions associated with organ displacement. Information even superior to that of angiography may be provided by magnetic resonance tomography in carefully selected cases where probing of certain cardiac or vascular sections is impossible or the disease more widely spread to include the bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma. (orig.)

  12. Different Cell Types In the Lower Respiratory Tract of the Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. - A Transmission Electron Microscopical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo A.m. Saari

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the trachea and distal airways of 12 healthy adult reindeer were studied with transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the reindeer respiratory tract corresponded to the findings of previous investigators studying other mammalian species. The epithelium of the trachea and bronchi, down to the level of the distal bronchioli, was composed of three main types of cell: ciliated, goblet, and basal. In the distal brochioli, non-ciliated cells similar to those known as Clara cells were predominant. Numerous electron-dense granules and the cell organelle pattern resembled the Clara cell type observed in laboratory rodents, rabbit, sheep, pig, horse, and llama. Pneumocyte 1 and pneumocyte 2 cells were readily identified in the alveoli. The pneumocyte 2 cells possessed short microvilli and granules with lamellar content. Micropinocytotic vesicles were very numerous in the alveolar wall, and a small number of alveolar macrophages occasionally seen in the alveolar lumen.

  13. Evaporation of water at the level of bronchial and alveolar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' goal in this paper is to investigate the role of the bronchi and alveoli in the evaporation of water by the lungs. The authors sought to determine whether the most distal segments of the respiratory tract, the alveoli, are involved in the mass exchange of water. In order to determine the quantity of water evaporated by the lungs, the exhaled air was cooled to 00C. The amount of condensate was determined gravimetrically during a 15-minute interval. Added to the perfusate was 1 cm3 tritiated water of 4 x 106 Bq total activity; as a result of dilution, the activity of the perfusate comprised 0.5 x 104 Bq/cm3. The radioactivity of the perfusate and condensate was determined by liquid scintillation radiometry on an RZhB-3-01 apparatus. The lungs were ventilated with atmospheric air or a dry gas mixture of 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen

  14. Cobalt iontophoresis of sensory nerves in the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bermani, A W; Chang, T L

    1979-02-01

    By iontophoretically introducing, first, cobalt and, subsequently, sulfide ions into the vagus nerve, it is possible to trace sensory nerves to their endings in the rat lung. Nerve fibers and terminals are found predominantly in the adventitia of the airways and blood vessels. Some nerves are found in the submucosa of the bronchi and bronchioles. Some are found in the cardiac muscle on the periphery of pulmonary veins, and a few nerves are seen to end among smooth muslces of the blood vessels and the airways. At least three types of nerve endings can be identified at the light microscopic level: (1) free nerve endings; (2) brush-like endings; (3) knob-like terminals. PMID:760496

  15. Use of intraluminal nitinol stents in the treatment of tracheal collapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellasch, Kelly L; Dá Costa Gómez, Tamara; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Bjorling, Dale E

    2002-12-15

    Tracheal collapse is a common problem that is typically observed in middle-aged and older small-breed dogs. It is a structural, obstructive airway disease with a dynamic component that can affect the intra- and extrathoracic portions of the trachea and mainstem bronchi. Many methods of treatment have been suggested, including medical management and provision of extraluminal and intraluminal support. All techniques used to treat intrathoracic and mainstem bronchial collapse have been associated with major complications or limitations. This report describes the implantation of intraluminal nitinol stents to successfully treat intrathoracic as well as extrathoracic tracheal collapse in a dog. The stents are composed of material that has characteristics similar to those of the trachea; nitinol stents may provide a method of supporting intrathoracic tracheal and mainstem bronchial collapse in dogs. PMID:12494969

  16. AcEST: DK957378 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mbrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchi... 31 6.0 sp|P69607|VME1_IBVH5 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious... bronch... 31 6.0 sp|P69604|VME1_IBVH1 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronch... 31 6.0 sp|Q9J3N8|VME...1_IBVDE Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronch... 31 6.0 sp|P69603|VME1_IBVD1 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious... bronch... 31 6.0 sp|Q91QS9|VME1_IBVBU Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious... bronch... 31 6.0 sp|P69602|VME1_IBVBC Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronch... 31 6.0 sp|P11222|

  17. AcEST: BP919061 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ike B1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana G... 31 3.1 sp|P05136|VME1_IBV6 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchi....ous bronch... 30 6.8 sp|P69601|VME1_IBVB Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronc...VKTC 595 >sp|P69602|VME1_IBVBC Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudette CK) G...5.2 sp|P00533|EGFR_HUMAN Epidermal growth factor receptor OS=Homo sa... 30 5.2 sp|P69602|VME1_IBVBC Membrane protein OS=Avian infecti...ctious bronchitis virus (strain 6/82) GN=M PE=3 SV=1 Len

  18. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary involvement; Papilomatose respiratoria recorrente com envolvimento pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikawa, Marcos Hiroyuki [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes [Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com

    2008-01-15

    A five-year-old girl developed hoarseness with gradual worsening at the age of eight months. Three months later, she underwent bronchoscopy in which papillomas in the vocal cords, larynx and trachea were observed. Because of serious bronchospasm crises and respiratory failure, she needed several hospitalizations, definitive tracheostomy and multiple endoscopic procedures for papilloma excision. The most recent chest radiography (Figure A) and computed tomography (CT) scans (Figures B and C) showed a nodule inside the trachea and multiple pulmonary nodules, cysts and consolidations. The anatomopathological findings from curettage of the lesions revealed benign squamous-cell papillomas. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is directly related to the human papillomavirus (HPV). Its spread to the lower airways is uncommon, with involvement of trachea and/or proximal bronchi in 5% of the patients, and extension to the lungs in only 1% of the cases. (author)

  19. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mibu (Japan); Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Mibu (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  20. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis. PMID:25892614

  1. Relationship Between Expression of Interleukin-5 and Interleukin-13 by Epithelial Cells and Bronchiolar Changes in Pigs Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; Batista, M; Hernández, J N; Afonso, A M; Poveda, J B

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is a bacterium that specifically infects the surface of bronchi and bronchioles of pigs without invading the host cells, and it is considered to be the primary agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEN). The present study investigates the morphological and immunohistological changes induced in bronchiolar epithelium by Mh infection. Lungs from 20 pigs with naturally occurring Mh pneumonia were compared with those from 10 uninfected controls. Bronchiolar epithelial height, inflammatory infiltration, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and mucin subtype MUC5AC-producing cells significantly increased in all infected animals. Mh antigen was detected in association with the cilia of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were expressed consistently by epithelial and mononuclear cells of the airways of infected animals. The expression of these cytokines in the bronchial and bronchiolar tissues is related to the histological changes of PEN. PMID:26922858

  2. Chronic exposure to a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist increases the airway response to methacholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt-Enderby, P A; Yamamura, H I; Halonen, M; Palmer, J D; Bloom, J W

    1993-09-01

    Scheduled chronic administration of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist bronchodilators in patients with asthma recently has been reported to be associated with a worsening of symptoms and an increase in bronchial responsiveness. We wanted to determine whether a 28-day in vivo exposure to albuterol (beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist) altered the response of rabbit airways to the cholinergic agonist methacholine. We found, using in vitro tissue bath techniques, that in mainstem bronchi from rabbits given a 28-day exposure to albuterol, maximum contraction to methacholine was increased in the albuterol-treated group (control group = 1.10 +/- 0.11 g vs. treated group = 1.50 +/- 0.13 g, P airway smooth muscle to methacholine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7901034

  3. Tracheal and bronchial involvement in colitis ulcerosa - a colo-bronchitic syndrome? A case report and some additional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wichert, Peter; Barth, Peter; von Wichert, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Systemic involvement is well known in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there are only few data looking to Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) separately instead of lumping together both entities to IBD. The frequency of bronchial involvement in UC is not yet exactly analysed but reported to be rare. We asked 100 patients with UC for bronchial complaints, and found in 13 patients a bronchial affection. From reports in the literature it is known that sometimes a bronchial involvement in patients with UC can affect the whole bronchial tree including small bronchi. The involvement of bronchial system in UC is obviously more prominent than previously thought and may fulfil the criteria for a separate syndrome. These relations may have consequences for pathogenetic understanding of UC as well as bronchitis and also consequences for treatment regimes. PMID:25834480

  4. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    ), and 0.7 % with Bowen’s disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8 % (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8 % (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.......1 % (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen’s disease, 0.04 % (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0 %. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1 %; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. Conclusion CuSCC and non-cuSCC were rare events among metastatic melanoma patients....

  5. Chyloptysis causing plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Stoddart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chyloptysis is a rare clinical problem that is associated with conditions affecting lymphatic channels in the thorax. Diagnosis is usually made when the patients present with expectoration of milky-white sputum or of thick tenacious mucus in the shape of smaller bronchi (bronchial cast. Typically the symptoms resolve after coughing up of the bronchial casts. Pleural, mediastinal, pulmonary or lymphatic abnormalities result in chyloptysis. Lymphangiography and detection of lipids (cholesterol or triglycerides in sputum help to establish the diagnosis. However, lymphangiography may not be positive in all patients. We report 2 patients with chyloptysis and bronchial casts with different etiologies. Abnormal lymphatics were demonstrated in one of our cases, but the second patients lymphangiogram was normal. In this patient we suspect that high venous filling pressures due to congestive heart failure had a causative effect in the setting of compromised lymphatic drainage in the thorax due to a prior history of radiation therapy to the chest for lymphoma.

  6. Assessment of a Sudden Death Case due to Coronary Artery Disease Based on the PMCT and Forensic Autopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Lei; ZHANG Jian-hua; HUANG Ping; YING Chong-liang; LIU Ning-guo; ZHU Guang-you

    2012-01-01

    It is never an easy thing to diagnose heart vascular disease only depending on the unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT).This article reported a case of sudden natural death after the complaint of anterior chest pain in which coronary artery calcification (CAC) was clearly displayed using PMCT scan.The entire coronary artery system was almost reconstructed via multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume-rendering reconstruction (VR),and the total calcium score of the coronary arteries was obtained with CaScoring automatic analysis software.The results showed that CAC was conspicuous; the total calcium score was 640.3,considerably higher than 400.The pulmonary ground-glass opacity (GGO) and small amount of fluid both in the subglottic trachea and main bronchi were also found.The imaging results confirmed those of autopsy.In addition,the results concluded that PMCT might serve as an invaluable adjunct to the classic autopsy procedure.

  7. Surgical resection of a huge ruptured mature mediastinal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Metesh Nalin; De Robertis, Fabio; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Anastasiou, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    Usually slow-growing and benign, mature mediastinal teratomas are rare clinical entities. They may be complicated by rupture into the pleural or pericardial spaces, lungs, or bronchi. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice and is usually curative. We report the unusual case of a 24-year-old woman presenting 15 weeks postpartum with a huge ruptured mature mediastinal teratoma superinfected with Mycobacterium avium Catastrophic bleeding from the superior vena cava was encountered on mobilization of adhesions attached to it, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support for control. Histopathological examination confirmed a 12.0 × 7.8 × 4.5-cm differentiated teratoma without malignant transformation. PMID:27440933

  8. Child homicide or natural death? A case report of unexpected death of unusual asymptomatic acute laryngotracheobronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Luo; Liu, Liang; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Cases involving the unexpected deaths of children are always a concern for the police and medical examiners alike. In particular, unexpected deaths due to asphyxia without obvious injuries sometimes make decisions regarding the manner of death more difficult. In the present case, a 2-year-old boy was found dead at home, and his mother was initially believed to have killed him. A complete autopsy and forensic investigation were performed, and no injuries were found on the body; however, marked laryngeal edema was observed. Histology showed extensive inflammatory infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The cause of death was given as respiratory failure due to acute laryngotracheobronchitis; thus, the manner of death was natural. This case helps to remind the forensic community to keep an open mind and consider a broad differential diagnosis when approaching a case rather than jumping to a conclusion based solely on a preliminary investigation. PMID:26101441

  9. Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald, C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Wang, Gang; Weir, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human. PMID:25188530

  10. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Winther, Ole; Backer, Vibeke; von Buchwald, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii......) bronchial inflammation exists in all CRSwNP patients irrespective of clinical asthma status. Methods We collected biopsies from nasal polyps, inferior turbinates and bronchi of 27 CRSwNP patients and 6 controls. All participants were evaluated for lower airway disease according to international guidelines...... cytokines measured, IL-13 was significantly increased in bronchial biopsies from CRSwNP patients with, but not without asthma. Conclusion Our findings support the united airways concept; however, we did not find evidence for subclinical bronchial inflammation in CRSwNP patients without asthma. Finally, this...

  11. Experimental evolution of sprays in a lung model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results of an experiment conceived to observe the evolution of sprays inside the lungs. We have built a model that covers the first 6 generations (from the trachea to segmental bronchi of 5th generation). This setup is placed on a wind tunnel, and the flow inside the model is induced by a vacuum pump that emulates the breathing process using a valve. We inject a previously determined distribution of particles (water droplets), whose average diameter can be modified. Then, we measure the droplet distribution in different branches and compare how the droplet distribution is modified at each generation. The parameters that control the behavior are the average diameter of the original distribution, the airflow rate inside the model and the frequency of the breathing cycle.

  12. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Njiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP. Diaminobenzidine (DAB was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium.

  13. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiro, S M; Nkosi, C M

    2009-12-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. PMID:20458863

  14. Upper airway obstruction in infants and children: evaluation with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) was evaluated prospectively in 25 infants and children with suspected airway obstruction. All examinations were conducted in spontaneously breathing, nonsedated children. Scan acquisition times were 0.05 or 0.1 second. CT examinations, completed in an average of 10 minutes, routinely included localizing, contiguous sections through the trachea followed by serial images obtained at a rate of 17 per second through regions of interest. Imaging results were correct in 24 of 25 examinations as judged from clinical and surgical data. Ultrafast CT data permitted diagnosis of dynamic changes in airway caliber, small intraluminal polyps, focal tracheal atresia, compressive mediastinal masses, and foreign body obstructions of the major bronchi. Dose measurements showed a maximum skin exposure of 245 mR (0.06 mC/kg) per 0.05-second image. Ultrafast CT provides an accurate, minimally invasive method for dynamic imaging of the airway in nonsedated children

  15. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  16. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  17. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  18. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min; Sun, Ai-Min; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming; Qiu, Hai-Sheng [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Liu, Jin-Fen [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai (China); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai (China); Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  19. Particle doses in the pulmonary lobes of electronic and conventional cigarette users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate size segregated doses from e-cigarette aerosols as a function of the airway generation number in lung lobes. After a 2-second puff, 7.7 × 1010 particles (DTot) with a surface area of 3.6 × 103 mm2 (STot), and 3.3 × 1010 particles with a surface area of 4.2 × 103 mm2 were deposited in the respiratory system for the electronic and conventional cigarettes, respectively. Alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited doses were compared to the ones received by non-smoking individuals in Western countries, showing a similar order of magnitude. Total regional doses (DR), in head and lobar tracheobronchial and alveolar regions, ranged from 2.7 × 109 to 1.3 × 1010 particles and 1.1 × 109 to 5.3 × 1010 particles, for the electronic and conventional cigarettes, respectively. DR in the right-upper lung lobe was about twice that found in left-upper lobe and 20% greater in right-lower lobe than the left-lower lobe. - Highlights: • Lobar doses were compared for mainstreams of electronic and conventional cigarettes. • Aerosol doses from e-cigarettes were more than double that from conventional ones. • Doses from a 2-s puff exceed the daily doses of a no smoking Australian subject. • Highest deposition densities occurred at the lobar bronchi. • Aerosol deposition was greater in the right than in the left lung lobes. - Lobar bronchi and right lung lobes represent sites where effects of the aerosol from e-cigarette smoke may be more likely to occur

  20. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eMauroy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions.We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical chest physiotherapy techniques. We show that for secretions to move, air flow has to be high enough to overcome secretion resistance to motion. Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions. However, pressures too high are efficient up to a point where airways compressions prevents air flow to increase any further. Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs. Also, some secretions might be pushed deeper into the lungs; this effect is stronger for high pressures and for mechanical chest physiotherapy. Finally, we propose and tested two adimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

  1. Iterative reconstruction technique vs filter back projection: utility for quantitative bronchial assessment on low-dose thin-section MDCT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Seki, Shinichiro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for quantitative bronchial assessment during low-dose computed tomography (CT) as a substitute for standard-dose CT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fifty patients (mean age, 69.2; mean % predicted FEV1, 79.4) underwent standard-dose CT (150mAs) and low-dose CT (25mAs). Except for tube current, the imaging parameters were identical for both protocols. Standard-dose CT was reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP), and low-dose CT was reconstructed using IR and FBP. For quantitative bronchial assessment, the wall area percentage (WA%) of the sub-segmental bronchi and the airway luminal volume percentage (LV%) from the main bronchus to the peripheral bronchi were acquired in each dataset. The correlation and agreement of WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were statistically evaluated. WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were significant correlated (r > 0.77, p < 0.00001); however, only the LV% agreement between SD-CT and low-dose CT reconstructed with IR was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.93); the other agreement was poor (concordance correlation coefficient <0.90). Quantitative bronchial assessment via low-dose CT has potential as a substitute for standard-dose CT by using IR and airway luminal volumetry techniques. circle Quantitative bronchial assessment of COPD using low-dose CT is possible. (orig.)

  2. A confocal microscopic study of solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in human airway epithelium

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    Sparrow Malcolm P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC are specialized epithelial cells that are thought to play important roles in lung development and airway function. PNEC occur either singly or in clusters called neuroepithelial bodies. Our aim was to characterize the three dimensional morphology of PNEC, their distribution, and their relationship to the epithelial nerves in whole mounts of adult human bronchi using confocal microscopy. Methods Bronchi were resected from non-diseased portions of a lobe of human lung obtained from 8 thoracotomy patients (Table 1 undergoing surgery for the removal of lung tumors. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies to reveal all nerves (PGP 9.5, sensory nerves (calcitonin gene related peptide, CGRP, and PNEC (PGP 9.5, CGRP and gastrin releasing peptide, GRP. The analysis and rendition of the resulting three-dimensional data sets, including side-projections, was performed using NIH-Image software. Images were colorized and super-imposed using Adobe Photoshop. Results PNEC were abundant but not homogenously distributed within the epithelium, with densities ranging from 65/mm2 to denser patches of 250/mm2, depending on the individual wholemount. Rotation of 3-D images revealed a complex morphology; flask-like with the cell body near the basement membrane and a thick stem extending to the lumen. Long processes issued laterally from its base, some lumenal and others with feet-like processes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was present in about 20% of PNEC, mainly in the processes. CGRP-positive nerves were sparse, with some associated with the apical part of the PNEC. Conclusion Our 3D-data demonstrates that PNEC are numerous and exhibit a heterogeneous peptide content suggesting an active and diverse PNEC population.

  3. Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent

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    Bayat, S. [TIMC-PRETA, UMR CNRS 5525, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Universite Joseph Fourier, Faculte de Medecine, Domaine de la Merci, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: sam.bayat@imag.fr; Le Duc, G.; Berruyer, G.; Nemoz, C.; Monfraix, S.; Fiedler, S.; Thomlinson, W. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, Grenoble (France); Porra, L.; Suortti, P. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University of Helsinki Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Sovijaervi, A.R.A. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-12-01

    Small airways play a key role in the distribution of ventilation and in the matching of ventilation to perfusion. The purpose of this study was to introduce an imaging method that allows measurement of regional lung ventilation and evaluation of the function of airways with a small diameter. The experiments were performed at the Medical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation beams were used to obtain quantitative respiration-gated images of lungs and airways in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits using inhaled stable xenon (Xe) gas as a contrast agent. Two simultaneous images were acquired at two different energies, above and below the K-edge of Xe. Logarithmic subtraction of the two images yields absolute Xe concentrations. This technique is known as K-edge subtraction (KES) radiography. Two-dimensional planar and CT images were obtained showing spatial distribution of Xe concentrations within the airspaces, as well as the dynamics of filling with Xe. Bronchi down to 1 mm in diameter were visible both in the subtraction radiographs and in tomographic images. Absolute concentrations of Xe gas were calculated within the tube carrying the inhaled gas mixture, small and large bronchi, and lung tissue. Local time constants of ventilation with Xe were obtained by following the evolution of gas concentration in sequential computed tomography images. The results of this first animal study indicate that KES imaging of lungs with Xe gas as a contrast agent has great potential in studies of the distribution of ventilation within the lungs and of airway function, including airways with a small diameter. (author)

  4. Acute tracheobronchial injuries: Impact of imaging on diagnosis and management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of chest radiography, single-slice CT and 16-row MDCT in the direct evidence of tracheobronchial injuries. Methods: Patients with acute tracheobronchial injury were identified from the registry of our level 1 trauma center during a 5-year period ending July 2005. Findings at chest radiograph and CT were compared to those shown at bronchoscopy. Results: Eighteen patients with tracheobronchial injury - three patients with cervical trachea injury, eight with thoracic trachea injury and seven with bronchial injury - were identified. Twelve patients had a blunt trauma (67%), six patients had a penetrating (iatrogenic) injury (33%). Chest radiograph directly identified the site of tracheal injury in four cases, showing overdistension of the endotracheal cuff in three cases and displacement of the endotracheal tube in one case. At the level of the bronchi, chest radiograph demonstrated only one injury. CT directly identified the site of tracheal injury in all the cases showing the overdistension of the endotracheal cuff at the level of the thoracic trachea (three cases), posterior herniation of the endotracheal cuff at the thoracic trachea (three cases), lateral endotracheal cuff herniation at the thoracic trachea (one case), tracheal wall discontinuity at the cervical (one case) and at the thoracic trachea (one case) and displacement of endotracheal tube at the cervical trachea (two cases). At the level of the bronchi, CT correctly showed the site of injury in six case including: discontinuity of the left main bronchial wall (two cases), the 'fallen lung' sign (one case), right main bronchial wall enlargement (one case), discontinuity of the right middle bronchial wall (two cases). In one case, CT showed just direct 'air leak' at the level of the carina suggesting main bronchus injury. This finding was confirmed by bronchoscopy. Conclusion: Chest radiograph was helpful for the assessment of iatrogenic tracheal injuries. CT detected the site

  5. Dosimetry model for bronchial and extrathoracic tissues of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group to Review the Lung Model for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is proposing to revise the dosimetry model for the respiratory tract on the basis of the relative radiosensitivities of the various tissue components. The task group considers that if all tissues were to receive the same radiation dose, approximately 64% of fatal cancers would be likely to arise in the bronchi, about 12% in the bronchioles, about 20% in extrathoracic tissues (divided between the naso-- and oropharynx and larynx), and only about 4% in the alveolar-interstitial tissue, with a very small fraction of all cancers (less than 0.1%) in lymph nodes. A new and detailed treatment of dose received by epithelia in the tracheo-bronchiolar and extra-thoracic regions of the respiratory tract is therefore required. This paper describes the approach proposed by the task group to evaluate doses to presumed target cells in each of these tissues at risk in the respiratory tract from non-uniform irradiation by α-, β- and electron-emitters. The task group's approach takes into account the impact of observed phenomena that may cause long-lived radionuclides to be retained in epithelial tissues: the uptake of particles by the airway wall; the chemical binding of sparingly soluble nuclides in epithelial tissues; and, especially in the bronchi and bronchicles, the slow clearance of particles by mucus. Values of dose, weighted by the task group's proposed relative risk factors are calculated for several types of α- and β- emitters. These weighted doses are compared with the committed effective dose equivalent calculated using the current ICRP lung model, in which the simplifying assumption is made that all of the activity retained in the thorax uniformly irradiates the 1 kg mass of a ''composite'' lung. 11 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Animal experiment and clinical preliminary application of percutaneous 70% ethanol injection therapy in multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous injection of 70% ethanol in the treatment of multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Percutaneous and transcatheter absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 60% meglucamine diatrizoate(or distilled water) injection into the lung (25 cases) and the bronchi (25 cases) of healthy rabbits were performed, respectively.All specimens were studied with pathology. On the base of animals experiment, thirty-five patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with percutaneous 70% ethanol injection. Every patient was treated by the same way for 1-3 times. Results: Pathological findings of the specimens of pulmonary tissue showed nonspecific inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. The chief pathological changes with percutaneous or transcatheter 70% ethanol injection were slighter than those with absolute ethanol injection. Pathological findings of the specimens of bronchi showed slight mucosal edema, nonspecific inflammation, and focal cytonecrosis. Recovery of the damaged bronchial mucosa occurred within 14-30 days after the treatment. All patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were followed up for 6 to 33 months. The sputum bacterial conversion to negative rate was 100% within 6 months after the treatment. Cavity closing, shrinking, and no changing rate were 47.1% (16/34), 50.0% (17/34), and 2.9% (1/34), respectively. Radiographic improvement rate was 94.3 % (33/35). No severe complications and adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous 70% ethanol injection is safe, effective, and easy to perform in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. (authors)

  7. Mechanical ventilation causes airway distension with proinflammatory sequelae in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Hannah T; Sumkauskaite, Migle; Wang, Xin; Wegner, Ingmar; Puderbach, Michael; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury has predominantly been attributed to overdistension or mechanical opening and collapse of alveoli, whereas mechanical strain on the airways is rarely taken into consideration. Here, we hypothesized that mechanical ventilation may cause significant airway distension, which may contribute to the pathological features of ventilator-induced lung injury. C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated at tidal volumes of 6, 10, or 15 ml/kg body wt. Mice were imaged by flat-panel volume computer tomography, and central airways were segmented and rendered in 3D for quantitative assessment of airway distension. Alveolar distension was imaged by intravital microscopy. Functional dead space was analyzed in vivo, and proinflammatory cytokine release was analyzed in isolated, ventilated tracheae. CT scans revealed a reversible, up to 2.5-fold increase in upper airway volume during mechanical ventilation compared with spontaneous breathing. Airway distension was most pronounced in main bronchi, which showed the largest volumes at tidal volumes of 10 ml/kg body wt. Conversely, airway distension in segmental bronchi and functional dead space increased almost linearly, and alveolar distension increased even disproportionately with higher tidal volumes. In isolated tracheae, mechanical ventilation stimulated the release of the early-response cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Mechanical ventilation causes a rapid, pronounced, and reversible distension of upper airways in mice that is associated with an increase in functional dead space. Upper airway distension is most pronounced at moderate tidal volumes, whereas higher tidal volumes redistribute preferentially to the alveolar compartment. Airway distension triggers proinflammatory responses and may thus contribute relevantly to ventilator-induced pathologies. PMID:24816486

  8. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  9. High-resolution three-dimensional 19F-magnetic resonance imaging of rat lung in situ: evaluation of airway strain in the perfluorocarbon-filled lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are biologically and chemically inert fluids with high oxygen and CO2 carrying capacities. Their use as liquid intrapulmonary gas carriers during liquid ventilation has been investigated. We established a method of high resolution 3D-19F-MRI of the totally PFC-filled lung. The goal of this study was to investigate longitudinal and circumferential airway strain in the setting of increasing airway pressures on 3D-19F-MR images of the PFC-filled lung. Sixteen female Wistar rats were euthanized and the liquid perfluorocarbon FC-84 instilled into their lungs. 3D-19F-MRI was performed at various intrapulmonary pressures. Measurements of bronchial length and cross-sectional area were obtained from transversal 2D images for each pressure range. Changes in bronchial area were used to determine circumferential strain, while longitudinal strain was calculated from changes in bronchial length. Our method of 3D-19F-MRI allowed clear visualization of the great bronchi. Longitudinal strain increased significantly up to 31.1 cmH2O. The greatest strain could be found in the range of low airway pressures. Circumferential strain increased strongly with the initial pressure rise, but showed no significant changes above 10.4 cmH2O. Longitudinal strain was generally higher in distal airways, while circumferential strain showed no difference. Analysis of mechanical characteristics showed that longitudinal and circumferential airway expansion occurred in an anisotropic fashion. Whereas longitudinal strain still increased with higher pressures, circumferential strain quickly reached a 'strain limit'. Longitudinal strain was higher in distal bronchi, as dense PFCs gravitate to dependent, in this case to dorso-basal parts of the lung, acting as liquid positive end expiratory pressure

  10. Multi-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of congenital heart diseases associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of post processing techniques of MSCT for diagnosing congenital heart disease associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children. Methods: Thirty four patients with congenital heart disease complicated by tracheobronchial stenosis were evaluated with MSCT. MPR, CPR, MinIP and VR were performed to show the tracheobronchial morphology. Findings in 43 segments of 32 cases were compared with the findings of surgical operation. Mann-Whitney test was employed to assess the significance of measurement between the post processing techniques and the operation. Results: The length of stenotic segments were variable seen at operation, with values between 4- 39 mm in trachea, 4-33 mm in main bronchi and 3-12 mm in lobe bronchi, respectively. The biggest difference between the measurement of operation and MSCT was 4 mm (3 segments). Other differences of stenotic segments were within 3 mm. Six segments exhibited mild, 16 moderate and 21 severe stenosis at surgery. By contrast, five segments exhibited mild, 17 moderate and 21 severe stenosis by MPR or CPR, 2 mild, 9 moderate and 32 severe stenosis by MinIP and 4 mild, 11 moderate and 28 sever stenosis by VR, respectively. There was no significant difference in measuring the degree of tracheobronchial stenosis between MPR or CPR, VR and the surgery (Z=-0.105, -1.479; P>0.05), while MinIP frequently overrated the degree of stenosis compared with the measurement at surgery (Z=-2.484, P=0.013). Conclusion: The integrated three dimensional reformations of MSCT scan can accurately evaluate the degree and extent of congenital heart disease associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children and provide valuable information for clinical management. (authors)

  11. Iterative reconstruction technique vs filter back projection: utility for quantitative bronchial assessment on low-dose thin-section MDCT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for quantitative bronchial assessment during low-dose computed tomography (CT) as a substitute for standard-dose CT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fifty patients (mean age, 69.2; mean % predicted FEV1, 79.4) underwent standard-dose CT (150mAs) and low-dose CT (25mAs). Except for tube current, the imaging parameters were identical for both protocols. Standard-dose CT was reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP), and low-dose CT was reconstructed using IR and FBP. For quantitative bronchial assessment, the wall area percentage (WA%) of the sub-segmental bronchi and the airway luminal volume percentage (LV%) from the main bronchus to the peripheral bronchi were acquired in each dataset. The correlation and agreement of WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were statistically evaluated. WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were significant correlated (r > 0.77, p < 0.00001); however, only the LV% agreement between SD-CT and low-dose CT reconstructed with IR was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.93); the other agreement was poor (concordance correlation coefficient <0.90). Quantitative bronchial assessment via low-dose CT has potential as a substitute for standard-dose CT by using IR and airway luminal volumetry techniques. circle Quantitative bronchial assessment of COPD using low-dose CT is possible. (orig.)

  12. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

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    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez

    2013-02-01

    , Brazil. A 7.5-cm, 24 F steel chest tube was inserted into the second intercostal space along the midclavicular line bilaterally, and we measured the distances from the tube to the main bronchi, upper lobe bronchi, subclavian vessels, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary arteries in the upper lobe, superior pulmonary vein, azygos vein, and aorta. Weight, height, and chest wall thickness, as well as laterolateral and posteroanterior diameters of the chest, were measured for each cadaver. RESULTS: Of the 30 cadavers dissected, 20 and 10 were male and female, respectively. The mean distance between the distal end of the tube and the main bronchi (right and left was 7.2 cm (for both. CONCLUSIONS: The placement of a fixed-size chest tube in the specified position is feasible and safe, regardless of the anthropometric characteristics of the patients.

  13. Bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and healthy individuals: demonstration with high resolution computed tomography

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    Schueller, G. E-mail: gerd.schueller@univie.ac.at; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Herold, C.J

    2004-11-01

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to assess the extent of bronchial reactivity after inhalative bronchoprovocation and dilation in hyperresponsive patients and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Patients with mild intermittent asthma, 15 with a >20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}+) in PaO{sub 2}, 12 with a <20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}-) in PaO{sub 2} after provocation, and eight healthy humans were included in the study. Changes in cross-sectional area in a total of 1256 bronchi and in bronchial wall area (792 bronchi) were evaluated after histamine-triggered bronchoprovocation and salbutamol-induced bronchodilation at high lung volumes (FVC 80%). Data were compared with the results of pulmonary function tests (FEV{sub 1}, PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}). Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in bronchial cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and a significant increase in bronchial wall area (P<0.001) were observed subsequent to bronchoprovocation. After bronchodilation, the increase in cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and the further increase in airway wall area (P<0.01) were significant in all groups. In PC{sub 20}+ and PC{sub 20}- asthmatics, significant differences (P<0.05) in PaO{sub 2}, >10 mmHg between baseline and provocation were observed. In healthy persons, the PaO{sub 2} decrease was <10 mmHg (P>0.05). After histamine provocation, the decrease in FEV{sub 1} was measured in the PC{sub 20}+ group, whereas a <20% FEV{sub 1} decrease was found in the PC{sub 20}- and the control groups, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. Conclusions: HRCT demonstrated bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and, unexpectedly, in healthy subjects. The applied pulmonary function tests failed to characterize bronchial reactions in the healthy subjects. Based on these results, HRCT is a useful tool by which

  14. Acute tracheobronchial injuries: Impact of imaging on diagnosis and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Mariano [Emergency and Trauma CT Section, Department of Radiology, Cardarelli Hospital, Via G. Merliani 31, 80127 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: mscaglione@tiscali.it; Romano, Stefania [Emergency and Trauma CT Section, Department of Radiology, Cardarelli Hospital, Via G. Merliani 31, 80127 Naples (Italy); Pinto, Antonio [Emergency and Trauma CT Section, Department of Radiology, Cardarelli Hospital, Via G. Merliani 31, 80127 Naples (Italy); Sparano, Amelia [Emergency and Trauma CT Section, Department of Radiology, Cardarelli Hospital, Via G. Merliani 31, 80127 Naples (Italy); Scialpi, Michele [Istituto di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica Policlinico Monteluce, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Via Brunamonti 51, 06122 Perugia (Italy); Rotondo, Antonio [Dipartimento Universitario di Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale F. Magrassi-A. Lanzara, Sezione Scientifica di Diagnostica per Immagini, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of chest radiography, single-slice CT and 16-row MDCT in the direct evidence of tracheobronchial injuries. Methods: Patients with acute tracheobronchial injury were identified from the registry of our level 1 trauma center during a 5-year period ending July 2005. Findings at chest radiograph and CT were compared to those shown at bronchoscopy. Results: Eighteen patients with tracheobronchial injury - three patients with cervical trachea injury, eight with thoracic trachea injury and seven with bronchial injury - were identified. Twelve patients had a blunt trauma (67%), six patients had a penetrating (iatrogenic) injury (33%). Chest radiograph directly identified the site of tracheal injury in four cases, showing overdistension of the endotracheal cuff in three cases and displacement of the endotracheal tube in one case. At the level of the bronchi, chest radiograph demonstrated only one injury. CT directly identified the site of tracheal injury in all the cases showing the overdistension of the endotracheal cuff at the level of the thoracic trachea (three cases), posterior herniation of the endotracheal cuff at the thoracic trachea (three cases), lateral endotracheal cuff herniation at the thoracic trachea (one case), tracheal wall discontinuity at the cervical (one case) and at the thoracic trachea (one case) and displacement of endotracheal tube at the cervical trachea (two cases). At the level of the bronchi, CT correctly showed the site of injury in six case including: discontinuity of the left main bronchial wall (two cases), the 'fallen lung' sign (one case), right main bronchial wall enlargement (one case), discontinuity of the right middle bronchial wall (two cases). In one case, CT showed just direct 'air leak' at the level of the carina suggesting main bronchus injury. This finding was confirmed by bronchoscopy. Conclusion: Chest radiograph was helpful for the assessment of iatrogenic tracheal injuries

  15. Role of acetylcholine and polyspecific cation transporters in serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction in the mouse

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    Koepsell Hermann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that serotonin (5-HT-mediated constriction of the murine trachea is largely dependent on acetylcholine (ACh released from the epithelium. We recently demonstrated that ACh can be released from non-neuronal cells by corticosteroid-sensitive polyspecific organic cation transporters (OCTs, which are also expressed by airway epithelial cells. Hence, the hypothesis emerged that 5-HT evokes bronchoconstriction by inducing release of ACh from epithelial cells via OCTs. Methods We tested this hypothesis by analysing bronchoconstriction in precision-cut murine lung slices using OCT and muscarinic ACh receptor knockout mouse strains. Epithelial ACh content was measured by HPLC, and the tissue distribution of OCT isoforms was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Epithelial ACh content was significantly higher in OCT1/2 double-knockout mice (42 ± 10 % of the content of the epithelium-denuded trachea, n = 9 than in wild-type mice (16.8 ± 3.6 %, n = 11. In wild-type mice, 5-HT (1 μM caused a bronchoconstriction that slightly exceeded that evoked by muscarine (1 μM in intact bronchi but amounted to only 66% of the response to muscarine after epithelium removal. 5-HT-induced bronchoconstriction was undiminished in M2/M3 muscarinic ACh receptor double-knockout mice which were entirely unresponsive to muscarine. Corticosterone (1 μM significantly reduced 5-HT-induced bronchoconstriction in wild-type and OCT1/2 double-knockout mice, but not in OCT3 knockout mice. This effect persisted after removal of the bronchial epithelium. Immunohistochemistry localized OCT3 to the bronchial smooth muscle. Conclusion The doubling of airway epithelial ACh content in OCT1/2-/- mice is consistent with the concept that OCT1 and/or 2 mediate ACh release from the respiratory epithelium. This effect, however, does not contribute to 5-HT-induced constriction of murine intrapulmonary bronchi. Instead, this activity involves 1 a non

  16. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

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    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  17. Aspirasi Benda Asing Paku dengan Komplikasi Atelektasis Paru dan Aspirasi Benda Asing Jarum Pentul Tanpa Komplikasi

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    Novialdi .

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Aspirasi benda asing bronkus adalah masalah yang sering  pada anak-anak dan merupakan masalah seriusserta bisa berakibat fatal. Sebagian besar aspirasi benda asing di bronkus pada anak-anak karena kecenderunganmemasukkan sesuatu ke mulut, pertumbuhan gigi molar yang belum lengkap, kurangnya pengawasan dari orang tuadan lain-lain. Aspirasi jarum pentul di bronkus biasanya terjadi pada wanita remaja muslim yang menggunakan jilbab.Benda asing tajam di bronkus harus segera dikeluarkan dalam kondisi dan peralatan optimal untuk mencegahkomplikasi yang timbul. Komplikasi akibat aspirasi benda asing tajam yang paling sering berupa perforasi jalan nafas,trakeitis, bronkitis, jaringan granulasi, efusi pleura dan atelektasis. Tindakan bronkoskopi merupakan pilihan untukekstraksi benda asing tajam yang teraspirasi. Dilaporkan dua kasus aspirasi benda asing tajam di bronkus yaitu padaseorang anak laki-laki, berusia 6 tahun dengan aspirasi paku dengan komplikasi atelektasis paru dan seorang anakperempuan, berusia 14 tahun dengan aspirasi jarum pentul tanpa komplikasi yang telah berhasil diekstraksimenggunakan bronkoskopi kaku.Kata kunci: benda asing tajam di bronkus, aspirasi paku, aspirasi jarum pentul, atelektasis, bronkoskopi kaku  Abstract Bronchial foreign body aspiration is a common problem in children and it is a serious problem that can befatal. Most of bronchial foreign body aspiration occur in children because of the tendency to put something into themouth, the molar growth is not yet complete, the lack of supervision from parents and others situation . Aspiration of apin in the bronchi usually occurs in adolescent Muslim women who wear headscarf. Sharp foreign bodies in thebronchi must be removed immediately and the optimal equipment to prevent complications. Complications due tosharp foreign bodies aspiration most often in the form of perforation, tracheitis, bronchitis, granulation tissue, pleuraleffusion and atelectasis. Bronchoscopy

  18. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  19. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% {+-} 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm{sup 2}) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm{sup 2}); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator.

  20. Properties of radioactive aerosols produced by interactions of indoor radon decay products with cigarette smoke and burning cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks of lung cancer to smokers, attributable in part to exposure to indoor radon decay products, are dependent on properties of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles. The authors have investigated the properties and interactions of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles as they pass through burning cigarettes into mainstream smoke, using /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles as tracers, cascade impactors for particle size determinations, and low-level β/sup -/ counting techniques. /sup 212/Pb-tagged particles of submicron size are destroyed in the burning zone of cigarettes. However, /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles exceeding 1.0 μm diameter pass readily through the burning zone and tobacco rod into mainstream smoke. /sup 212/ Pb- tagged particles in mainstream smoke have an activity median aerodynamic diameter between 1.0 and 2.0 μm diameter. Particles > 2.0 μm diameter carry about 10 percent of the total activity, are selectively deposited at the carina of bifurcations, and are resistant to dissolution in lung fluid. These results indicate that indoor radon progeny on large particles in mainstream smoke can contribute substantially to the cumulative alpha radiation dose at ''hot spots'' in the bronchi of smokers

  1. Tolerability and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Inhaled Dry Powder Tobramycin Free Base in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hoppentocht

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis is a condition characterised by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchiectasis is associated with a higher hospitalisation frequency and a reduced quality of life, requiring frequent and adequate treatment with antibiotics.To assess local tolerability and the pharmacokinetic parameters of inhaled excipient free dry powder tobramycin as free base administered with the Cyclops dry powder inhaler to participants with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. The free base and absence of excipients reduces the inhaled powder dose.Eight participants in the study were trained in handling the device and inhaling correctly. During drug administration the inspiratory flow curve was recorded. Local tolerability was assessed by spirometry and recording adverse events. Serum samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 min; 4, 8 and 12 h after inhalation.Dry powder tobramycin base was well tolerated and mild tobramycin-related cough was reported only once. A good drug dose-serum concentration correlation was obtained. Relatively small inhaled volumes were computed from the recorded flow curves, resulting in presumably substantial deposition in the central airways-i.e., at the site of infection.In this first study of inhaled dry powder tobramycin free base in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients, the free base of tobramycin and the administration with the Cyclops dry powder device were well tolerated. Our data support further clinical studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of this compound in this population.

  2. Diagnostic value of static and dynamic scintigraphy in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the course of sepsis. Part 2. Lung aerosol scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid increase in permeability of functionally and/or structurally damaged alveolar-capillary barrier is the pivotal factor in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema development. Rate of exudative changes progress in the lungs decides about prognosis in patients with this serious, over 50% death rate, syndrome. The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of dynamic lung scintigraphy in diagnosis of gas exchange abnormalities in sepsis and ARDS. Aerosol scintigraphy with pulmonary clearance of DTPA in 6 septic and in 6 ARDS patients were performed. Studies were done using planar gamma camera, type MB9200, in A-P projection. They were analyzed with the modified NMS Warsaw Polytechnic computer program. Aerosol scintiscans demonstrated very irregular borderlines of both lungs, features of marked impairment in ventilation (with foci of increased radioactivity in the view of main bronchi) and about 2.5-fold faster pulmonary clearance of DTPA in ARDS patients comparing to sepsis and control groups. The results showed that dynamic scintigraphy can be safely performed in patients in critical condition. Changes in scintiscans and rapid pulmonary clearance of DTPA might be an early indicator of ARDS development in septic patients. (author)

  3. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stittelaar, Koert J.; de Waal, Leon; van Amerongen, Geert; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J.B.; Fraaij, Pieter L.A.; van Baalen, Carel A.; van Kampen, Jeroen J.A.; van der Vries, Erhard; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; de Swart, Rik L.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI). Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies. PMID:27314379

  4. Antitussive Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Saraswathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways; it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. The most frequently used antitussive drugs in clinical conditions produce adverse effects like depression of the respiratory centre, decreased secretion in the bronchioles and inhibition of ciliary activity, increased sputum viscosity, decreased expectoration, hypotension and constipation acts as limitation to the therapy. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including antitussive activity as they are safe and devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity.

  5. A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Layer Entrainment by Airflow in Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitran, Sorin M.

    2008-07-01

    Coughing is an alternative mode of ensuring mucus clearance in the lung when normal cilia induced flow breaks down. A numerical model of this process is presented with the following aspects. (1) A portion of the airway comprising the first three bronchus generations is modeled as radially reinforced elastic tubes. Elasticity equations are solved to predict airway deformation under effect of airway pressure. (2) The compressible, turbulent flow induced by rapid lung contraction is modeled by direct numerical simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-10,000 and by Large Eddy Simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-40,000. (3) A two-layer model of the airway surface liquid (ASL) covering the airway epithelial layer is used. The periciliary liquid (PCL) in direct contact with the epithelial layer is considered to be a Newtonian fluid. Forces modeling cilia beating can act upon this layer. The mucus layer between the PCL and the interior airflow is modeled as an Oldroyd-B fluid. The overall computation is a fluid-structure interaction simulation that tracks changes in ASL thickness and airway diameters that result from impulsive airflow boundary conditions imposed at bronchi ends. In particular, the amount of mucus that is evacuated from the system is computed as a function of cough intensity and mucus rheological properties.

  6. Global impact of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Redondo

    2016-09-01

    To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems.; Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections. It can be caused by a range of inherited and acquired disorders, or may be idiopathic in nature. The most well recognised inherited disorder in Western countries is cystic fibrosis (CF, an autosomal recessive condition that leads to progressive bronchiectasis, bacterial infection and premature mortality. Both bronchiectasis due to CF and bronchiectasis due to other conditions are placing an increasing burden on healthcare systems internationally. Treatments for CF are becoming more effective leading to more adult patients with complex healthcare needs. Bronchiectasis not due to CF is becoming increasingly recognised, particularly in the elderly population. Recognition is important and can lead to identification of the underlying cause, appropriate treatment and improved quality of life. The disease is highly diverse in its presentation, requiring all respiratory physicians to have knowledge of the different “bronchiectasis syndromes”. The most common aetiologies and presenting syndromes vary depending on geography, with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease predominating in some parts of North America, post-infectious and idiopathic disease predominating in Western Europe, and post-tuberculosis bronchiectasis dominating in South Asia and Eastern Europe. Ongoing global collaborative studies will greatly advance our understanding of the international impact of bronchiectasis and CF.

  7. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Evaluation of mass-like consolidation after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mass-like consolidation of the lung on computed tomography (CT) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) retrospectively. Forty lung tumors in 37 patients who underwent SBRT were evaluated. Mass-like consolidation was defined as a dense consolidation that newly appeared over or around the original tumor, which included radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) and local recurrence. Time of appearance, initial CT findings (ectatic bronchi and conformity to dose distribution) and serial changes in the size of the mass-like consolidation were evaluated. Mass-like consolidation appeared in 27 (68%) of 40 tumors at a median of 5 months after SBRT. Follow-up examination revealed that 24 (89%) of the 27 mass-like consolidations were RILI and 3 (11%) were local recurrence. There were no significant differences in the initial CT findings between RILI and local recurrence. The size of the mass-like consolidation varied in the 12 months after SBRT. After 12 months or more, however, the size did not increase in any of the RILI cases, but it did increase in all recurrence cases. Mass-like consolidations were observed in 68% of cases at a median of 5 months after SBRT. Although most of the mass-like consolidations were RILI, local recurrence was observed in a few cases. Early detection of local recurrence after SBRT was difficult. (author)

  9. Bronchopulmonary arterial anastomosis at the precapillary level in human lung. Visualization using CT angiography compared with microangiography of autopsied lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the interrelationships between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations including the existence of precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses, CT of bronchial arteriography (BAG-CT) was performed in 10 patients and BAG-CT during a pulmonary artery block test (PA-block) in 5 patients with lung cancer. Bronchial and pulmonary circulations were evaluated in 5 autopsied normal lungs by injecting silicone rubber with different colors into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries. BAG-CT correlated well with the findings at silicone rubber injection into lung autopsy samples. BAG-CT demonstrated inflow of contrast medium into the pulmonary artery during PA-block in all cases, while no inflow was observed before and following reversal of PA-block. Mixed silicone rubber was observed in the lobar to subsubsegmental bronchial arteries in all cases and in the subsubsegmental pulmonary artery in one case. Precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses may exist at the level of the lobar bronchi to the periphery. If either the pulmonary or bronchial circulation is disturbed, flow occurs inside the anastomoses to supplement the other flow, especially flow from the bronchial to the pulmonary arteries via the anastomoses, which occurs within 30 min

  10. Bronchopulmonary arterial anastomosis at the precapillary level in human lung. Visualization using CT angiography compared with microangiography of autopsied lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the interrelationships between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations including the existence of precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses. Material and Methods: CT of bronchial arteriography (BAG-CT) was performed in 10 patients and BAG-CT during a pulmonary artery block test (PA-block) in 5 patients with lung cancer. Bronchial and pulmonary circulations were evaluated in 5 autopsied normal lungs by injecting silicone rubber with different colors into the bronchial and pulmonary arteries. Results: BAG-CT correlated well with the findings at silicone rubber injection into lung autopsy samples. BAG-CT demonstrated inflow of contrast medium into the pulmonary artery during PA-block in all cases, while no inflow was observed before and following reversal of PA-block. Mixed silicone rubber was observed in the lobar to subsubsegmental bronchial arteries in all cases and in the subsubsegmental pulmonary artery in one case. Conclusion: Precapillary bronchopulmonary arterial anastomoses may exist at the level of the lobar bronchi to the periphery. If either the pulmonary or bronchial circulation is disturbed, flow occurs inside the anastomoses to supplement the other flow, especially flow from the bronchial to the pulmonary arteries via the anastomoses, which occurs within 30 min. (orig.)

  11. Neutron radiography in vivo imaging of mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze water structure in the living body. Male 4-week-old ddy and BALA/C mice and male 2-month-old F344 rats were used as experimental animals. The animals were fed standard CE-2 diet and tap water freely. To induce pulmonary tumors, BALB/C mice was given 0.2 mmol of N-nitrosomorpholine as drinking water for 20 weeks. Neutron radiography was undertaken using X-ray films and video tapes. An X-ray film image was capable of distinguishing extremities and cartilage of the tail from the surrounding tissue. It also clearly visualized transparencies of the bronchi and lung. At 75 weeks after the beginning of the administration of N-nitrosomorpholine, lung tumors were clearly seen. The heart was clearly distinguished from the surrounding lung transparency. The abdomen was visualized as gas transparency of the stomach and intestine. Findings on video images were almost the same as those on X-ray film images. Both image quality and contrasts on video images were slightly inferior to those on X-ray film images. Video images, however, were superior to X-ray film images in visualizing contraction of pulmonary dilatation due to respiration and cardiac dilatation due to heart rate. Neutron radiography has a great potential in visualizing lesions of bone, cartilage and lungs. It would become a useful tool in the analysis of water structure of the tumor. (N.K.)

  12. Linking Hospital Discharge Summaries from Oncology Departments in Order to Achieve Epidemiological Cancer Monitoring for Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues J-M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of the creation of a cancer institute (ICL in Saint-Etienne, France, 3 hospitals tested a procedure which permanently links hospital discharge summaries to DRG’s (PMSI. To this end used the asymmetric hashing and encrypting software developed by one of the authors which had been evaluated from 1996 to 1999 by selecting discharge summaries from each institution containing at least one malignant tumour ICD code. Thus, we were able to compile an anonymous 16,000 patient register. 5 tumour locations were found in almost half the patients: breast (16.7 %, bowel (9.6 %, lung and bronchi (9.1 %, prostate gland (6.8 %, and skin (5.5 %. We estimate that the future ICL will take care of 2,500 cancer patients annually. We compared the number of new patients hospitalized each year (1,500 to the incidence reported by the manual cancer registers (FRANCIM. We conclude that this linking procedure is both feasible and acceptable when its precise health goal is clearly defined. Following this initial step, we are extending the procedure to involve other health care institutions (both public and private in the Saint Etienne area and to the main regional cancer network (ONCORA. Beginning in 2001 the French ministry of health has approved this DRGs linking procedure throughout France.

  13. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Alister; Cetto, Raul; Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto; Tolley, Neil; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Schroter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective trans- port of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 litre per second peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20ms, resulting in large- amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed...

  14. [Application of photodynamic therapy to reduce the amount of resection for non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Rusanov, A A; Chistiakov, I V; Urtenova, M A; Kazakov, N V; Gerasin, A V; Papaian, G V

    2013-01-01

    A prospective analysis of results of combined treatment of 22 patients with central stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed (the defeat of the main bronchi or lower parts of the trachea), which initially had been regarded as unresectable or inoperable (12 patients for functional reasons could not pass pneumonectomy, and in 10 patients a contraindication to primary surgery was the involvement of the distal trachea in tumor), but underwent surgery after preoperative treatment.Combination therapy included preoperative endobronchial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy followed by surgery and intraoperative PDT resection margins. PDT was carried out with the use of chlorine E6 (Radachlorin) and light wavelength of 662 nm. Overall response rate after neoadjuvant treatment was 82 %, endoscopic remission was observed in 21 of 22 patients (95%). 10 patients underwent pneumonectomy, 12--lobectomy. 19 surgical interventions were regarded as radical (R0--86%), 3--as microscopically non-radical (R1--14%). Degree of lymphatic metastasis spreading pN0 was detected in 6 patients (27 %), pN1--in 14 (64%) and pN2--in 2 patients (9%). Surgical lethality was 5%. In the late time of the whole observation period none of the patients developed local recurrence. One-year survival was 95%, 3-year--91%. PDT can play an important role in combination with surgical treatment for NSCLC and reduces the amount of resection in part of initially unresectable or inoperable patients. PMID:24624784

  15. Dosimetry of localised accumulations of cigarette smoke and radon progeny at bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation risk assessment protocols are frequently based upon assumptions of uniform particle deposition patterns and homogeneous clearance processes within human lung airways. However, experiments conducted with cigarette smoke and surrogate airway systems reveal ''hot spots'' at upper tracheobronchial branching sites. The localised deposits of sub-micron sized particles are predicted by a theory, presented here, simulating the aerodynamic behaviour of aerosol clouds. We couple the effects of enhanced deposition with impaired mucociliary clearance for the dosimetry of inhaled cigarette smoke and radon progeny. In accordance with deposition and clearance observations, upper tracheobronchial passages may be conceptualised as distinct physical regions: tubular segments, bifurcation zones and carinal ridges. For short-lived radon progeny, we first determine deposition with a validated mathematical model, then account for redistribution. Since mucociliary clearance competes with radioactive decay, surface activity distributions of alpha emitting radionuclides within the bronchial compartment will not be identical to initial deposition patterns. Our calculations predict that radon progeny accumulations at airway branching sites can lead to significantly higher doses delivered to epithelial cells located within bifurcations, particularly at carinal ridges, than along tubular sections. These anatomical sites of increased exposure, within the main, lobar, and segmental bronchi, are consistent with clinically reported preferential locations of bronchogenic carcinomas. (author)

  16. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  17. Endoluminal bronchial valves: a replacement for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The benefit of LVRS in COAD is controversial because of a high complication rate. A potentially effective less invasive method may be endoluminal placement of one-way valves to block air entry and thus collapse affected lung zones. Our study assessed the physiological effects of this procedure. Three patients with severe COAD suitable for LVRS, underwent this procedure to both upper lobe main bronchi. Assessment included pre-and post-operative Tc-99m Technegas and quantitative Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) studies, and also measurement of regional ventilation dynamics using Xe-133, ( 80 seconds wash-in / equilibration and a 3.5 minutes wash-out phase). The index of wash-in was Xe-133 counts at 20 sees /Xe-133 counts at 80 seconds. In all 6 treated upper lobes in patients with COAD substantial ventilation and perfusion persisted, and no radiographic collapse occurred. % perfusion to upper lung zones fell slightly from 27+12% to 21+8% (mean +SD): (P<0.05). The decreased wash-in index to the treated lobes shows a significant effect of the endoluminal valve. The increased washout rate from the lower lobes suggests therapeutic benefit. However preserved volume, ventilation and perfusion in the treated lobes suggest continuing aeration via interlobar ventilatory connections with the untreated lobes. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Effect of morphological variability on particle deposition in idealized human airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eleanor; Bernate, Jorge A.; Parada San Martin, Daniel A.; Makitani, Yuzo; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on the effects of variability in airway morphology on particle deposition in the lungs, which in turn impacts disease inception and drug delivery. We generated a parameterized geometry of the human airway derived from Lola: a realistic geometry obtained from CT scans (Zhang et al. J AEROSOL SCI 46, 34 (2012)). The upper airway geometry is parameterized using an elliptic model from Xi and Longest (ANN BIOMED ENG 35, 560 (2007)), with the glottis modified to a realistic triangular shape, based on measurements taken from Lola. The trachea and bronchi are generated using rules adapted from Kitaoka et al. (J Appl Physiol 87, 2207-2217 (1999)), with the first 3 generations closely matching those of Lola. We perform simulations corresponding to a full breathing cycle and illustrate the preferential deposition in each generation. In addition, we compared the deposition features in the idealized geometry to those from simulations in the original scanned airways. Perturbations are then applied to the parameterized geometry to study the effects of morphological variability on deposition patterns. This work is funded by the Army AHPCRC at Stanford.

  19. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  20. 儿童支气管异物246例临床分析%Clinical analysis of bronchial foreign bodies in 246 children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马渝燕; 焦安夏; 江沁波; 饶小春; 潘跃娜; 刘玺诚

    2010-01-01

    目的 回顾性研究儿童支气管异物的临床特点以及电子支气管镜在诊断治疗儿童支气管异物中的作用.方法 2000年1月至2009年8月北京儿童医院经支气管镜诊断治疗的支气管异物患儿246例,应用Olympus电子支气管镜,在局部黏膜麻醉下经鼻插入支气管镜逐级观察支气管结构,使用篮状异物钳或齿状异物钳钳取异物.结果 246例患儿中,支气管异物以果仁或果壳类(230例,占93.5%)最为常见,异物嵌顿位置以右下叶支气管开口(98例,占39.8%)为最多.钳取异物手术次数平均为(1.9±1.3)次,一次取出率为58.5%(144例).阻塞于左右主支气管、右中叶和右下叶支气管的异物一次取出率较高,分别为91.1%、60.0%和55.1%.篮状异物钳钳取所需次数(1.4±0.9)明显低于齿状异物钳所需次数(2.1±1.4),差异有统计学意义(P=0.000).结论 儿童支气管异物种类以果仁或果壳类植物性异物为主,阻塞部位以右下支气管为多见.位于左右主支气管异物一次取出率明显高于其他部位.用篮状异物钳钳取异物所需手术次数明显少于使用齿状异物钳.%Objective To analyze the characters of bronchial foreign bodies in children and the utilization of bronchoscope in the treatment of bronchial foreign bodies. Methods A total of 246 children were diagnosed with bronchial foreign bodies at our hospital during January 2000 until August 2009. Under local mucosal anesthesia, a bronchoscope was inserted through nasal cavity into bronchi. After identifying the site of foreign body, grasping forceps was guided through bronchoscope to remove the foreign body from airway. Results Among 246 cases, hard nut and skin of melon seed were found ( n = 230, 93.5% ). The most common site of foreign body was in right lower lobe bronchi ( n =98, 38.9% ). The average operative frequency was 1.9 ± 1.3 and one-time extraction ratio 58.5% ( n = 144). The one-time extraction ratio of patients with foreign

  1. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In western European countries most blunt chest traumas are associated with motor vehicle and sport-related accidents. In Switzerland, 39 of 10,000 inhabitants were involved and severely injured in road accidents in 1998. Fifty two percent of them suffered from blunt chest trauma. According to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, traumas represented in men the fourth major cause of death (4 %) after cardiovascular disease (38 %), cancer (28 %), and respiratory disease (7 %) in 1998. The outcome of chest trauma patients is determined mainly by the severity of the lesions, the prompt appropriate treatment delivered on the scene of the accident, the time needed to transport the patient to a trauma center, and the immediate recognition of the lesions by a trained emergency team. Other determining factors include age as well as coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Our purpose was to review the wide spectrum of pathologies related to blunt chest trauma involving the chest wall, pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, aorta, aortic arch vessels, and diaphragm. A particular focus on the diagnostic impact of CT is demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  3. Fluid flow and particle transport in mechanically ventilated airways. Part I. Fluid flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rhein, Timothy; Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam; Salzman, Gary

    2016-07-01

    A large eddy simulation-based computational study of fluid flow and particle transport in upper tracheobronchial airways is carried out to investigate the effect of ventilation parameters on pulmonary fluid flow. Respiratory waveforms commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators are used to study the effect of ventilation parameters and ventilation circuit on pulmonary fluid dynamics. A companion paper (Alzahrany et al. in Med Biol Eng Comput, 2014) reports our findings on the effect of the ventilation parameters and circuit on particle transport and aerosolized drug delivery. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature and resulted in a fluid jet that caused an increase in turbulence and created a recirculation zone with high wall shear stress in the main bronchi. Stronger turbulence was found in lower airways than would be found under normal breathing conditions due to the presence of the jet caused by the ETT. The pressure-controlled sinusoidal waveform induced the lowest wall shear stress on the airways wall. PMID:26563199

  4. Infection of the upper respiratory tract of hamsters by the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-1 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Minakuchi, Moeko; Sagai, Mami; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is an important pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). We have generated a recombinant BPIV3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rBPIV3-EGFP) based on the BN-1 strain isolated in Japan. After intranasal infection of hamsters with rBPIV3-EGFP, EGFP fluorescence was detected in the upper respiratory tract including the nasal turbinates, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. In the nasal turbinates, rBPIV3-EGFP attained high titers (>10(6) TCID50/g of tissue) 2-4 days after infection. Ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates and trachea were infected with rBPIV3-EGFP. Histopathological analysis indicated that mucosal epithelial cells in bronchi were shed by 6 days after infection, leaving non-ciliated cells, which may have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection leading to the development of BRDC. These data indicate that rBPIV3-EGFP infection of hamsters is a useful small animal model for studying the development of BPIV3-associated BRDC. PMID:25543964

  5. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This open-quotes field cancerizationclose quotes theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in open-quotes normalclose quotes bronchial epithelial cells

  6. A neglected problem of developing countries: Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babayigit Arzu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Bronchiectasis has been defined as the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi. It is still an important problem in many developing countries. Aim:The aim of this study was to identify the chacteristics and underlying etiology of children followed with the diagnosis of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Materials and Methods:Children with bronchiectasis confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients, including symptoms of the disease, age at the onset of symptoms, findings of physical examination, labrotory investigations performed in order to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis, etiology of bronchiectasis if found, radiologic findings and treatment modalities were noted. Results: Sixty-six children between 1 and 17 years were included in the study retrospectively. Forty-four of them were males (66.7% and 22 (33.3% were females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100% and sputum expectoration (50%. An underlying etiology was identified in 44 (66.7% of the study subjects. The four most common underlying causes were found as infections (21.2%, asthma (16.7%, aspiration syndromes and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.1% and immunodeficiency syndromes (7.6%, respectively. Conclusion:Identifying an underlying etiology will have a significant effect on the management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Defining the cause of bronchiectasis may also decrease its incidence, progression and complications.

  7. A neglected problem of developing countries: Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Arzu; Olmez, Duygu; Uzuner, Nevin; Cakmakci, Handan; Tuncel, Tuba; Karaman, Ozkan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis has been defined as the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi. It is still an important problem in many developing countries. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the chacteristics and underlying etiology of children followed with the diagnosis of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with bronchiectasis confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients, including symptoms of the disease, age at the onset of symptoms, findings of physical examination, labrotory investigations performed in order to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis, etiology of bronchiectasis if found, radiologic findings and treatment modalities were noted. RESULTS: Sixty-six children between 1 and 17 years were included in the study retrospectively. Forty-four of them were males (66.7%) and 22 (33.3%) were females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100%) and sputum expectoration (50%). An underlying etiology was identified in 44 (66.7%) of the study subjects. The four most common underlying causes were found as infections (21.2%), asthma (16.7%), aspiration syndromes and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.1%) and immunodeficiency syndromes (7.6%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Identifying an underlying etiology will have a significant effect on the management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Defining the cause of bronchiectasis may also decrease its incidence, progression and complications. PMID:19561918

  8. A neglected problem of developing countries: Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchiectasis has been defined as the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi. It is still an important problem in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the chacteristics and underlying etiology of children followed with the diagnosis of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Children with bronchiectasis confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients, including symptoms of the disease, age at the onset of symptoms, findings of physical examination, labrotory investigations performed in order to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis, etiology of bronchiectasis if found, radiologic findings and treatment modalities were noted. Sixty-six children between 1 and 17 years were included in the study retrospectively. Forty-four of them were males (66.7%) and 22 (33.3%) were females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100%) and sputum expectoration (50%). An underlying etiology was identified in 44 (66.7%) of the study subjects. The four most common underlying causes were found as infections (21.2%), asthma (16.7%), aspiration syndromes and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.1%) and immunodeficiency syndromes (7.6%), respectively. Identifying an underlying etiology will have a significant effect on the management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Defining the cause of bronchiectasis may also decrease its incidence, progression and complications. (author)

  9. The trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal trachea is usually well seen on conventional frontal radiographs, lying just to the right of the midline and extending from the larynx at the level of the cricoid cartilage at about C-4 to the carina at about T-5. On the lateral radiograph, the trachea inclines gently posteriorly in a relatively straight line, normally maintaining an even caliber throughout. The trachea diminsishes in caliber at its bifurcation into right and left main-stem bronchi. On an expiratory chest film in infants and young children, the trachea buckles anteriorly and to the right, sometimes so markedly as to be alarming to the inexperienced observer. Preliminary observations on the size of the normal trachea from infancy to 18 months of age were reported. More recently, others studied the trachea by computed tomography. The latter investigators have shown that both the length and cross-sectional areas increase with age and correlate well with body height. If tracheal pathology is suspected, the air column can be optimally visualized using xeroradiography or filtered, high-kilovoltage magnification techniques. The latter method is usually preferred because of lower radiation exposure. Fluoroscopy of the normal trachea shows little, if any, change in caliber during quiet breathing unless peripheral airway obstruction is present; then the trachea can collapse by up to 50% on expiration. The trachea is also well visualized by computed tomography (CT). Narrowing of the tracheal lumen is perhaps better appreciated by this modality than any other

  10. Translational Study Searching for Synergy between Glycopyrronium and Indacaterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Segreti, Andrea; Facciolo, Francesco; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to explore whether the acute bronchodilation induced by indacaterol 150 μg and glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg is additive or synergistic with respect to monocomponents by testing the type of effect ex vivo on isolated human bronchi and then in vivo in COPD patients. Both indacaterol and glycopyrronium caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of human isolated bronchial tissues sub-maximally pre-contracted with acetylcholine; glycopyrronium was significantly more potent than indacaterol. The analysis of data using the Bliss Independence (BI) criterion indicated that glycopyrronium plus indacaterol produced an additive interaction at the isoeffective concentrations inducing EC20 and a significant synergistic relaxant effect at isoeffective concentrations inducing EC30. In COPD patients, the inhalation of indacaterol and glycopyrronium in combination significantly anticipated at 15 min post-administration the mean peak of bronchodilatory effect compared to the two drugs administered alone. The study of interaction between indacaterol and glycopyrronium by BI analysis evidenced an additive effect for FEV1 between 5 min and 180 min post-inhalation, with synergistic interaction at 15 min post-administration, compared to the bronchodilation induced by these drugs administered alone. This study suggests that the combination ensures a broncholytic effect that is greater than that induced by the single monocomponents. PMID:25222881

  11. Mechanical complication of endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulain Fatima Kizilbash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old Vietnamese lady was diagnosed with culture positive, left upper lobe pulmonary tuberculosis for which medical treatment was initiated. Four months into treatment, she developed a 'rubber-band-like' stretching sensation in her left chest with wheezing and shortness of breath. Decreased respiratory excursion over the left lung was present on physical-examination. Chest-Xray revealed left-upper-lobe collapse with leftward deviation of the trachea and mediastinum. CT thorax revealed a long segment of stenosis in the left mainstem bronchus. FEV1 was 1.26 L (45% predicted, FVC 1.53 L (49% predicted, FEV1/FVC 82% (95% predicted indicating airway limitation. Ventilation-perfusion scan noted 9.8% ventilation to the left lung and 92.8% to the right lung and 7.6% perfusion to the left lung and 92.4% to the right lung. Bronchoscopy was notable for pin point stenosis of the left mainstem bronchus beyond which was inflamed mucosa and abnormal cartilage rings in the left upper and middle lobe bronchi. Nine months of medical therapy for tuberculosis along with oral steroid taper was completed successfully; however the patient has required six serial bronchscopies with dilatations without stent placement at four to six week intervals due to partial restenosis, with the last bronchoscopy at four months after completion of tuberculosis therapy.

  12. [Pulmonary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma--A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Hideoki; Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyamoto, Takeaki; Minami, Takafumi; Tsuji, Fumio; Murata, Kohei; Ohishi, Kazuhito

    2015-11-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lungs is a rare type of lung cancer, mainly arising from the submucosal salivary type mucous glands of the large bronchi. MEC is classified into low- and high-grade subtypes based on its cytological and histological features, and this classification correlates well with prognosis. We report the case of a 36-year-old man diagnosed after an initial episode of obstructive pneumonia. CT and bronchoscopy revealed an endobronchial mass in the right S3 bronchus and distal atelectasis. Although biopsy is important for deciding the treatment plan, both pre- and intraoperative biopsy resulted in false negativity in this patient. The tumor was completely resected via right upper lobectomy, and the final pathological diagnosis was low-grade MEC. No evidence of disease was found 2 years after the operation without any adjuvant therapy. At (11; 19) translocation with the associated CRTC1-MAML2 fusion oncogene is often recognized in cases of both salivary and pulmonary MEC. It is speculated that MEC is sensitive to EGFR-TKI therapy, which disrupts CRTC1-MAML2-induced proliferation signals via upregulation of the EGFR ligand amphiregulin. PMID:26805187

  13. Pentastomid infections in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, with a description of the males of Alofia simpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J; Bolton, L A

    1999-06-01

    Two Nile crocodiles were obtained from two different localities in the Kruger National Park, one a healthy specimen, the other in a severely debilitated condition. Both were males over 3 m long and both harboured the three pentastome genera Sebekia, Alofia and Leiperia. The genus Sebekia was represented by three species, Sebekia wedli Giglioli, 1922, Sebekia cesarisi Giglioli, 1922 and Sebekia okavangoensis Riley & Huchzermeyer, 1995. Of the genus Alofia two species, Alofia simpsoni Riley, 1994 and Alofia nilotici Riley & Huchzermeyer, 1995 were found. The male of A. simpsoni, formerly unknown, is described and the description of the females emended. Leiperia cincinnalis Sambon, 1922 was the only Leiperia present. Whereas Sebekia and Alofia were recovered from the bronchioles and lung parenchyma, female Leiperia occurred in the trachea and bronchi, and infective larvae as well as immature males and females, were collected from the lungs, the heart and the aorta. Adult Subtriquetra (Family Subtriquetridae) were not present in the nasopharynx of either crocodile. The intensity of infection was low in the healthy crocodile and had no negative effect on the host. In contrast, the debilitated crocodile was heavily infected and its poor condition is ascribed to its high pentastome burden. Histopathology revealed lesions in the tracheal wall and the lungs accompanied by chronic granulomata with secondary fungal infection as well as severe chronic multifocal granulomatous pneumonia. PMID:10486822

  14. Analysis of pediatric airway morphology using statistical shape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Stephen M; Hunter, Kendall S; Shandas, Robin; Deterding, Robin R; DeBoer, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    Traditional studies of airway morphology typically focus on individual measurements or relatively simple lumped summary statistics. The purpose of this work was to use statistical shape modeling (SSM) to synthesize a skeleton model of the large bronchi of the pediatric airway tree and to test for overall airway shape differences between two populations. Airway tree anatomy was segmented from volumetric chest computed tomography of 20 control subjects and 20 subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF). Airway centerlines, particularly bifurcation points, provide landmarks for SSM. Multivariate linear and logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between airway shape variation, subject size, and disease state. Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to test the ability to detect shape differences between control and CF groups. Simulation experiments, using tree shapes with known size and shape variations, were performed as a technical validation. Models were successfully created using SSM methods. Simulations demonstrated that the analysis process can detect shape differences between groups. In clinical data, CF status was discriminated with good accuracy (precision = 0.7, recall = 0.7) in leave-one-out cross-validation. Logistic regression modeling using all subjects showed a good fit (ROC AUC = 0.85) and revealed significant differences in SSM parameters between control and CF groups. The largest mode of shape variation was highly correlated with subject size (R = 0.95, p control. PMID:26718559

  15. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BRONCHOSOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Michalak, Anna; Kędzia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bronchosol is a traditional medicinal product in the form of syrup used in cough and impeded expectoration. The active ingredients that it contains include extracts from the herb of thyme, the root of primrose and thymol. It is recommended in disorders of the respiratory tract when expectoration is impeded and secretion of liquid mucus in bronchi is insufficient. Antimicrobial activity of the components of Bronchosol, especially thyme and thymol, has frequently been reported in the literature. To date, there have not been any studies to confirm such activity of Bronchosol, though. The results of our research are the first one to point to the great activity of Bronchosol against microorganisms causing infections of the respiratory tract. It has been demonstrated that this product displayed antimicrobial activity against reference strains as well as strains of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria and fungi isolated from patients. The confirmation of the antimicrobial activity of Bronchosol provides an explanation of its effectiveness in the therapy of the respiratory tract infections. PMID:26642688

  16. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  17. Airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model assessed by in-vivo respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederlin, Mathieu; Montaudon, Michel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique, Pessac (France); Ozier, Annaig; Begueret, Hugues; Ousova, Olga; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); Laurent, Francois [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique, Pessac (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Hopital Cardiologique, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for assessment of airway remodelling in a mouse asthma model. Six female BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin. A control group of six mice received saline inhalation. All mice underwent plethysmographic study and micro-CT. For each mouse, peribronchial attenuation values of 12 bronchi were measured, from which a peribronchial density index (PBDI) was computed. Mice were then sacrificed and lungs examined histologically. Final analysis involved 10 out of 12 mice. Agreement of measurements across observers and over time was very good (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.94-0.98). There was a significant difference in PBDI between asthmatic and control mice (-210 vs. -338.9 HU, P=0.008). PBDI values were correlated to bronchial muscle area (r=0.72, P=0.018). This study shows that respiratory-gated micro-CT may allow non-invasive monitoring of bronchial remodelling in asthmatic mice and evaluation of innovative treatment effects. (orig.)

  18. Undifferentiated bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients display higher elastic modulus than their non-asthmatic counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sarna

    Full Text Available During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development.

  19. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria. Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli. Structural alterations (that is, remodeling of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.

  20. Undifferentiated bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients display higher elastic modulus than their non-asthmatic counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Hermanowicz, Pawel; Wnuk, Dawid; Burda, Kvetoslava; Sanak, Marek; Czyż, Jarosław; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development. PMID:25679502

  1. Airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model assessed by in-vivo respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for assessment of airway remodelling in a mouse asthma model. Six female BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin. A control group of six mice received saline inhalation. All mice underwent plethysmographic study and micro-CT. For each mouse, peribronchial attenuation values of 12 bronchi were measured, from which a peribronchial density index (PBDI) was computed. Mice were then sacrificed and lungs examined histologically. Final analysis involved 10 out of 12 mice. Agreement of measurements across observers and over time was very good (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.94-0.98). There was a significant difference in PBDI between asthmatic and control mice (-210 vs. -338.9 HU, P=0.008). PBDI values were correlated to bronchial muscle area (r=0.72, P=0.018). This study shows that respiratory-gated micro-CT may allow non-invasive monitoring of bronchial remodelling in asthmatic mice and evaluation of innovative treatment effects. (orig.)

  2. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

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    Wicky, S.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Capasso, P.; Denys, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-10-01

    In western European countries most blunt chest traumas are associated with motor vehicle and sport-related accidents. In Switzerland, 39 of 10,000 inhabitants were involved and severely injured in road accidents in 1998. Fifty two percent of them suffered from blunt chest trauma. According to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, traumas represented in men the fourth major cause of death (4 %) after cardiovascular disease (38 %), cancer (28 %), and respiratory disease (7 %) in 1998. The outcome of chest trauma patients is determined mainly by the severity of the lesions, the prompt appropriate treatment delivered on the scene of the accident, the time needed to transport the patient to a trauma center, and the immediate recognition of the lesions by a trained emergency team. Other determining factors include age as well as coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Our purpose was to review the wide spectrum of pathologies related to blunt chest trauma involving the chest wall, pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, aorta, aortic arch vessels, and diaphragm. A particular focus on the diagnostic impact of CT is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Role of PET-CT in cancers around the esophagus and the bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a useful modality for cancer diagnosis. It, however, often needs assistance from morphological imaging modalities such as CT or MRI for accurate diagnosis. PET-CT is a combination of a functional imaging tool. PET, and a morphological imaging tool, CT. The areas around the esophagus and bronchi contain complicated anatomical structures and display many variations of physiological uptake of FDG, which makes PET interpretation difficult. PET-CT solves this problem and allows easier and more confident interpretations. Though MRI may be superior to FDG-PET in diagnosis of primary cancer, FDG-PET is very useful in detecting unknown primary cancers which are negative on CT or MRI. In staging, it is possible to accurately localize nodal or other metastases, which has a bearing on surgical or radiation treatment planning. There are some issues in determining therapeutic efficacy, such as optimal timing of evaluation and avoiding false positive findings due to postradiation inflammation. Nonetheless, there is a report recommending evaluation using the change of standardized uptake value (SUV) of FDG uptake in the tumor. Radiation therapy planning using PET-CT has been tried in several institutes and new challenges using PET-CT are to be expected. (author)

  4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT with Chemotherapy for Advanced Lung Cancer with Airway Stenosis

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    Masakazu Kimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intractable advanced lung cancer can be treated palliatively with photodynamic therapy (PDT combined with chemotherapy to remove central and peripheral (lobar or segmental bronchi bronchial stenosis and obstruction. We present data for 12 (eight men, four women consecutive patients with 13 advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas in whom curative operations were contraindicated, who underwent PDT combined with chemotherapy for local control of the intraluminal lesions. The mean age was 73.3 years (range, 58–80 years, and the stages of cancer were IIA–IV. The median stenosis rates before treatment, one week post-treatment, and one month post-treatment were 60% (range, 30%–100%, 15% (range, 15%–99%, and 15% (range 15%–60%, respectively. The mean and median survival times were 9.3 and 5.9 months, respectively. The overall 1-year survival rate was 30.0%. No PDT-related morbidity or mortality occurred. In this single-institution study, all patients experienced improved symptoms and quality of life at one week after treatment; furthermore, an objective response was evidenced by the substantial increase in the openings of the bronchial lumen and prevention of obstructive pneumonia. Therefore, PDT with chemotherapy was useful and safe for the treatment of bronchial obstruction.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats. PMID:27110242

  6. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  7. Airway Gland Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032

  8. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

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    Koert J. Stittelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo. Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50 administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI. Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies.

  9. [Use of antihistamines in a physician's clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luss, L V

    2014-01-01

    Histamine that belongs to one of the most important mediators involved in the regulation of the body's vital functions plays a great role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Histamine is released during inflammatory and allergic reactions, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid shock, pseudoallergic reactions, and others. Acting through histamine receptors, it leads to increased intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, enhanced chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils, production of prostaglandins and thromboxane B, suppressed synthesis of lymphokines, etc. and causes contraction of smooth muscles of particularly the bronchi and intestine, dilation of vessels and their increased permeability, mucus hypersecretion in the upper airways, lower blood pressure, angioedema and itch, etc. In this connection, antihistamines that block histamine-induced reactions in various ways: by inhibiting its biosynthesis, enhancing its neutralization, blocking the access to receptors, and suppressing the release from mast cells, occupy a prominent place in clinical practice. The review covers the classification, main mechanisms of pharmacological action, and indications for the use of antihistamines that not only have the well-known antihistamine properties, but have also a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity. There are data on the benefits of a group of antihistamines, the quinuclidine derivatives (quifenadine, sequifenadine) that were designed by Academician M.D. Mashkovsky and are one of the first examples of designing new classes of multifunctional non-sedating antihistamines, which combines a high selective activity to block histamine type 1 receptors and an ability to block serotonin and to break down histamine directly in tissues. PMID:25306755

  10. Morphological study of the respiratory system of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua

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    João Flavio Panattoni Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe, macroscopically and with light microscopy, the respiratory organs of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua. Five animals were euthanized, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and stored for dissection. The respiratory tracts of the coati were examined, measured and photographed. For the light microscopy study, fragments were collected from the respiratory organs, processed using standard techniques for histology and stained with HE and toluidine blue. The nose of the coati is pointed and turned upward. Internally it has ethmoidal, dorsal nasal and ventral nasal conchae that are separated by the dorsal and ventral nasal meatuses. The larynx has four cartilaginous structures: arytenoid, cricoid, epiglottis and thyroid. The trachea contains 34 tracheal rings and tracheal ligaments that are covered with ciliated pseudostratified epithelial tissue. The lungs are divided into lobes by interlobular fissures. The right lung is divided into four lobes and is larger than the left lung, whereas the left lung has only two lobes. Microscopically, the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi have epithelial tissue that is similar to the trachea. We conclude that the respiratory tract of the brown-nosed coati resembles the respiratory tracts described for domestic carnivores.

  11. Morphology of the bronchial tree of coati lungs (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1966

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a diurnal, terrestrial and arboricola procionidae. It feeds extensively on the ground and uses trees to procriate, to sleep overnight and to take refuge. Its diet is omnivorous and it feeds on fruits, small vertebrates and invertebrates, nectar, eggs and vegetables. The aim of this work was to characterize microscopically the bronchial tree of the coati. Four coatis (two males and two females, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%, were used from previous research conducted at CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB (IBAMA-02027.003731/04-76. For this work, the tissue samples were embedded in paraffin by routine technique and processed for light microscopy in HE staining for analysis under a light microscope. It was found that microscopically, the bronchial tree of the coati is similar to that of other mammals described in the literature, i.e. it has great variations in its architecture, such as a reduced height of the epithelium which changes from ciliated pseudostratified in the larger bronchi to being cubic in the smaller bronchioles, an absence of cilia and glands in the smaller bronchioles, and a decrease in diameter and thickness of its walls.

  12. Epithelial binding of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the respiratory and upper alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioactivation and binding of 14C-labelled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE) in the tissues of C57B1 mice were studied. As shown by autoradiography with heated and organic solvent-extracted tissue sections of i.v. injected mice, a high and selective localization of bound metabolites occurred in the nasal olfactory mucosa, preferentially in the Bowman's glands. High levels of bound metabolites were also present in epithelia of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioli and in the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, tongue and esophagus. An epithelial binding was observed in tissue slices incubated with 14C-TCE. Incubation of 14C-TCE with homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and liver showed that the olfactory mucosa had a higher ability to activate 14C-TCE into products that become irreversibly bound to protein. Addition of metyrapone, glutathione or sodium dithionite to the incubations decreased the level of irreversible binding, suggesting that the activation of TCE to reactive products is mediated via an oxidative cytochrome P-450 dependent process in the olfactory mucosa. (orig.)

  13. [Right tracheal bronchus with anomalous ramification of the bronchial artery disclosed during an episode of hemoptysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, S; Maeda, H; Yahata, T; Kawashima, T; Takada, T; Ohnishi, K; Adachi, K

    2000-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on June 18th, 1998 during an episode of hemoptysis that had lasted for 6 days. She had no hemorrhagic diathesis and no history of pulmonary disease. Chest X-ray films disclosed a ground-glass opacity in the right upper lung field. Bronchoscopic examination revealed bleeding from an anomalous ectopic orifice on the right lateral trachea, about 1 cm above the carina. Chest computed tomographic examinations by conventional and spiral methods readily disclosed an ectopic bronchus. Bronchial arteriography showed that the tracheal bronchus was fed by a branched vessel of the thyrocervical artery arising from the brachiocephalic artery. Atypical mycobacterium was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the ectopic bronchus. A shunt had formed with the pulmonary artery and peripheral parts of the bronchial artery that fed the tracheal bronchus. It was speculated that the hemoptysis in this case might be due to the combined phenomena of infection and abnormal vessel formation in the tracheal bronchus. In our patient, the system of blood supply to the tracheal bronchus may have been a manifestation of atavism because it closely resembled the circulatory structure of the tracheal bronchi normally observed in sheep and giraffes. The tracheal bronchus should be taken into consideration as a potential cause of hemoptysis, inflammatory changes, and atelectasis during intubation. PMID:10723948

  14. Polysplenia Syndrome Detected after Chest Symptoms in Two Adult Patients: Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polisplenia syndrome (PSS) is a rare subtype of heterotaxy syndrome and means ambiguous location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs with vascular anomalies and multiple spleens. We reported on the findings of computed tomography (CT) of PSS in adults, detected incidentally. Two woman underwent a CT examination of the thorax for different thoracic pathologies. There were common abnormalities such as hyparterial bronchi and absence of middle lobe fissure on CTscans suggesting heterotaxy syndrome. Therefore, the abdominal CTs were performed to detect the accompanying abdominal anomalies. Our two cases defined as PSS were diagnosed with multiple spleens in the normal location in the abdomen. The left-dominant liver and short pancreas with agenesis of the pancreatic tail and lateral part of the body were detected on CT scan. In the first case, the vascular abnormalities were as follows: variant entrance of the main portal vein into the liver and atypically located superior mesenteric vein (SMV) joining with the splenic vein to form the portal vein. In the second case, the preduodenal portal vein and hemiazygos continuation with interruption of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were the vascular anomalies. The bowels were malrotated in the second case. Although such cases are usually admitted as abdominal emergency, our two cases were detected during examinations for thoracic and cardiac pathologies. The knowledge and awareness of PSS can be helpful to diagnose pathology and plan surgical procedures

  15. The effects of emphysema on airway disease: Correlations between multi-detector CT and pulmonary function tests in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahaba, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp; Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp; Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp; Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp; Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp; Kasai, Hajime, E-mail: daikasai6075@yahoo.co.jp; Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com; Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp; Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-06-15

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by emphysema and small airway narrowing. Quantitative evaluation of airway dimensions by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has revealed a correlation between airway dimension and airflow limitation. However, the effect of emphysema on this correlation is unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether emphysematous changes alter the relationships between airflow limitation and airway dimensions as measured by inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Methods: Ninety-one subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Images were evaluated for mean airway luminal area (Ai), wall area percentage (WA%) from the third to the fifth generation of three bronchi (B1, B5, B8) in the right lung, and low attenuation volume percent (LAV%). Correlations between each airway index and airflow limitation were determined for each patient and compared between patients with and without evidence of emphysema. Results: In patients without emphysema, Ai and WA% from both the inspiratory and expiratory scans were significantly correlated with FEV{sub 1.} No correlation was detected in patients with emphysema. In addition, emphysematous COPD patients with GOLD stage 1 or 2 disease had significantly lower changes in B8 Ai than non-emphysematous patients. Conclusions: A significant correlation exists between airway parameters and FEV{sub 1} in patients without emphysema. Emphysema may influence airway dimensions even in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

  16. The Mounier-Kuhn syndrome

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    Milić Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS or tracheobronchomegaly (TBM is a rare condition of unknown frequency, up to now about 100 cases have been reported. It presents by marked dilatation of the trachea and major bronchi, recurrent respiratory infections and consecutive bronchiectasis and scars in lung parenchyme. Sometimes enlargement of transversal colon may be present. Diagnosis is usually made radiologically. Cases report. We reviewed two patients 77 and 72 years old with typical clinical presentation and enlarged upper airways, in whom diagnosis of MKS was established by chest multislice computed tomography (MSCT. Transversal diameter of trachea was 30 mm in the first patient and 33 mm in the other one. Complications of syndrome (tracheal diverticulosis in the first patient, and pulmonary fibrosis, bulous emphysema and bronchiectasis in both patients also were seen. Lung function tests showed mixed ventilation disorder, and disturbance of respiratory gases values in arterial blood samples. Conclusion. The Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is rare disorder, although diagnosis is often missed. Clinical presentation is similar to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis. Computed tomography is gold standard for diagnosis. Therapy is presumely supportive.

  17. Perioperative management of tracheobronchial injury following blunt trauma

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    Nilesh M Juvekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe tracheobronchial injury (TBI in a 17-year-old teenager following blunt trauma resulting from a road traffic accident. The patient presented to a peripheral hospital with swelling over the neck and face associated with bilateral pneumothorax for which bilateral intercostal drains were inserted and the patient was transferred to our institute. Fiber-optic videobronchoscopy (FOB was performed, the trachea and bronchi were visualized, and the site and extent of injury was assessed. Spontaneous respiration was maintained till assessment of the airway. Then the patient was anesthetized with propofol and paralyzed using succinylcholine and a double-lumen endobronchial tube was inserted; thereafter, the adequacy of controlled manual ventilation and air-leak through intercostal drains was assessed and the patient was transferred to operating room (OR for repair of the airway injury. The OR was kept ready during FOB to manage any catastrophe. This case describes the need for proper preparation and communication between health care team members to manage all possible scenarios of traumatic TBI.

  18. Endobronchial Actinomycosis Mimicking Lung Cancer: A Case Report

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    Sezen Sabanci Kucukaltun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary actinomycosis is usually occured as a result of aspiration of the organism contained in the oropharingeal secretions. It could cause a pulmonary mass, pneumonia or pleural involvement and also rarely an endobronchial lesion. A 63 year old nonsmoker male patient admitted our clinic with complaints of dry cough, dyspnea and wheezing which have been continiuing for 6 months. The patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 15 years had a partial collapse in right middle lobe and elevation at right diafragma contour in computerized tomography of the thorax . An endobronchial lesion in the intermediate bronchi was viewed with fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Biopsy result showed no finding of malignancy, colonies of actinomycosis were seen. As a result of oral penicillin based antibiotic therapy for 21 days, radiological and clinical regression were detected. A prominent regression was seen in the lesions at control bronchoscopy.As a result, for the differantial diagnosis of endobronchial lesions, especially if immunosupressive disease is present, fungal infections should also be kept in mind. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 946-949

  19. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways, and/or tissue sensitivity: the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapours from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. It is emphasised that the current version of the model described here is still provisional. (author)

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary histopathology in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) experimentally infected with Otostrongylus circumlitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Caroline; Measures, Lena; Bédard, Christian; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize pathologic changes associated with experimental infection of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) with the lungworm Otostrongylus circumlitus (Metastrongyloidea: Crenosomatidae). The leukocyte differential cell count in samples obtained by unguided bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the intensity of the histologic lesions in the lungs were assessed in seven harp seals experimentally exposed to 300 infective, third-stage O. circumlitus larvae. Seven unexposed harp seals were used as controls. First-stage larvae were observed in the feces of three of the seven exposed seals at 38, 42, and 45 days postexposure (dpe). Adult nematodes were found in the right primary bronchi of two of these three seals at necropsy 53 dpe. Fifty-six BALs were performed on the 14 seals. No statistical difference was observed between the exposed and control seals and among the four sampling times in percentage of neutrophils and macrophages in the BAL fluid. A significant difference was observed between the exposed and control seal groups in the percentage of eosinophils (Pseals. Significant statistical differences were observed between exposed and control seals in intensity of interstitial inflammation (P=0.001), bronchitis (P=0.02), bronchiolitis (P=0.04), alveolitis (P=0.03), and interstitial granulomatous inflammation (P=0.04). Our findings showed that harp seals are susceptible to infection with O. circumlitus. However, parasitic infections were transient and of low intensity, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:20688634

  1. Comparative study of computed tomography and pulmonary pathology in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Furue, Masuhiro; Kitaichi, Masanori

    1987-06-01

    We have reported that characteristic CT findings of diffuse panbronchiolitis are (1) hyperinflation of the lungs, (2) diffuse small nodular lesions located in the peripheral regions of the airways, (3) thickening of the bronchial wall and (4) dilation of small bronchi and bronchioles. The nodular lesions are supposed to be centrilobular in location, because they are always separated from the pleura and pulmonary veins (the edge of the pulmonary lobule) with a constant distance ( < 5 mm). In this article we tried to correlate those CT findings with pathological findings of the lungs in an autopsy case of diffuse panbronchiolitis. The lungs were inflated and fixed after Heitzman's method, then sliced lung specimens were examined by contact radiography and stereomicroscopy to select the tissues for histology. The small nodular shadows found in CT corresponded to the lesions located at the end of peripheral airways where walls were thickened by infiltrated lymphocytes and foamy cells. The lesions were distributed diffusely in both lungs and separateol from the pleura, interlobular septa and pulmonary vein at a distance of 2 to 3 mm, showing their locatin to be centrilobular. The bronchioles within the lesions were narrowed, while those proximal to the lesions were dilated. Mural thickenings of the extralobular airways suggested in CT were not recognized in the post mortem lungs, possibly because it reflected mucous secretion which was markedly improved before death.

  2. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

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    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  3. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

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    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  4. Spirometer-controlled cine magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia in pediatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Wielopolski, Piotr; Manniesing, Rashindra;

    2014-01-01

    covering the thorax using a 3D SPGR sequence. 3D-Dynamic-scans were performed covering only the central airways. TBM was defined as a decrease of the trachea or bronchi diameter greater than 50% at end-expiration in the static and dynamic scans.The success rate of the cine-MRI protocol was 92%. Cine-MRI...... restricted by ionizing radiation. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of spirometer-controlled cine-MRI as alternative to cine-CT in a retrospective study.12 children (mean 12 years, range 7-17), suspected to have TBM, underwent cine-MRI. Static scans were acquired at end-inspiration and expiration...... was compared with bronchoscopy or chest-CT in 7 subjects. TBM was diagnosed by cine-MRI in 7 out of 12 children (58%) and was confirmed by bronchoscopy or CT. In 4 patients, cine-MRI demonstrated tracheal narrowing that was not present in the static scans.Spirometer-controlled cine-MRI is a promising...

  5. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 ± 0.10 (99%CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 ± 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs. PMID:25643795

  6. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  7. Perfusion study in the pulmonary hilar region by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveoli in the hilar region comprise the peripheral area containing daughter branches from subsegmental or one more divisional peripheral bronchi. Pulmonary perfusion in hilar region was examined by SPECT (single photon emission CT) in ten normal volunteers. ROI (region of interest) in the axial images were set in the hilar region, the upper, middle and lower lung fields with 10.8 mm thickness. Counts/one pixel (C/P) were calculated in these ROI. There was a tendency of C/P increase from upper to lower lung field. And there were no significant differences in C/P increase between hilar region and other axial fields. In the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, however, ventilation studies in the previous reports using Xe dynamic CT or PET (positron emission tomography) showed differences between outer region and hilar region. This method will be expected to evaluate the pulmonary perfusion not only in the whole lung but in different lung areas, including the hilar region in the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. (author)

  8. Diagnosis and clinic-pathological findings of influenza virus infection in Brazilian pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Rajão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a respiratory pathogen of pigs and is associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC, along with other respiratory infectious agents. The aim of this study was to diagnose and to perform a clinic-pathological characterization of influenza virus infection in Brazilian pigs. Lung samples from 86 pigs in 37 farrow-to-finish and two farrow-to-feeder operations located in the States of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Mato Grosso were studied. Virus detection was performed by virus isolation and quantitative real time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Pathologic examination and immunohistochemistry (IHC were performed in 60 lung formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue fragments. Affected animals showed coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, hyperthermia, inactivity, apathy, anorexia, weight loss and growth delay, which lasted for five to 10 days. Influenza virus was isolated from 31 (36.0% lung samples and 36 (41.9% were positive for qRT-PCR. Thirty-eight (63.3% lung samples were positive by IHC and the most frequent microscopic lesion observed was inflammatory infiltrate in the alveoli, bronchiole, or bronchi wall or lumen (76.7%. These results indicate that influenza virus is circulating and causing disease in pigs in several Brazilian states.

  9. Nuclear microprobe applications to biomedical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Microprobe techniques have a remarkable potential in biomedicine once image information on tissue topography, structural organisation and elemental distribution is simultaneously obtained. These micro-analytical techniques can constitute an important tool for studies of the influence of external aggressors in health, such as internalised airborne particulate matter, and in pathological conditions associated to inflammatory processes that may result from endogenous aggressors (e.g., reactive products of metabolism, essential trace elements impairment). The tissue reactivity to exogenous or endogenous toxic substances may involve remodelling of specific cells organisation, such as epithelial layers or basement membranes. The evaluation of the magnitude of tissue remodelling and its progression is of the foremost importance to assess the mechanisms involved. The fate of respired particles in the human respiratory system and the evaluation of skin alterations in haemochromatosis condition (disease characterised by impaired Fe metabolism) will illustrate some of the helpful aspects of NMP in biomedical studies. The chemical characterisation of individual particles in the epithelial regions of trachea and bronchi, the accumulation of toxic elements, such as V, Cr, and Ni, in lung alveoli and their mobilisation to surrounding tissue, to phagocytic cells and to the associated lymphatic tissue will be discussed. Also, the abnormal deposition of Fe and its possible role in skin inflammation an din changes of skin integrity and structure will also be presented

  10. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-12-31

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  11. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β2-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  12. A fire death with a rare finding: anthracosis or soot embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Razuin; Omar, Effat; Md Noor, Shahidan

    2015-04-01

    Charred human remains were found in the smoking ambers of a dying fire in an oil palm plantation in Selangor, Malaysia in the midnight of January 28, 2013. Investigations showed that palm fronds and rubber tires were used to light and sustain the blaze. At least four to five tires were estimated to be used based on the residual burnt metal wires at the site. The remains were brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Selangor for post-mortem examination. Pre-autopsy imaging showed a fractured skull with presence of a bullet in the head. The body belonged to a male with unrecognizable facial features, pugilistic attitude, and reduced body size caused by fire damage with sparing of the posterior surface. A large fracture was present at the skull vault. An entry gunshot wound was observed on the left side of the body of mandible, which was associated with base of skull fracture. Heat-related fractures were also noted on the right side of the frontal bone. A projectile was retrieved from the right side of the occipital lobe. Further examination showed presence of soot and hyperaemic larynx, trachea, main bronchi, and oesophagus. Black spots measuring 1 to 2 mm were present on the surface and parenchyma of the heart, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Histopathology examination showed black particles within the vessels in the affected organs. We report this rare finding in a charred body and present a discussion based on published literature on this issue. PMID:25890616

  13. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides cause airway contraction and lung neutrophil infiltration via formyl peptide receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; Szasz, Theodora; McCarthy, Cameron G; Baban, Babak; NeSmith, Elizabeth; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory failure is a common characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MITs) are DAMPs that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides, and are potent immune system activators. Recently, we observed that hemorrhagic shock-induced increases in plasma levels of F-MITs associated with lung damage, and that antagonism of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury in rats. Corroborating these data, in the present study, it was observed that F-MITs expression is higher in plasma samples from trauma patients with SIRS or sepsis when compared to control trauma group. Therefore, to better understand the role of F-MITs in the regulation of lung and airway function, we studied the hypothesis that F-MITs lead to airway contraction and lung inflammation. We observed that F-MITs induced concentration-dependent contraction in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, pre-treatment with mast cells degranulator or FPR antagonist decreased this response. Finally, intratracheal challenge with F-MITs increased neutrophil elastase expression in lung and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cell division control protein 42 expression in all airway segments. These data suggest that F-MITs could be a putative target to treat respiratory failure in trauma patients. PMID:26923940

  14. Tuberculosis as a three-act play: A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Lack of access to human tissues with untreated tuberculosis (TB) has forced generations of researchers to use animal models and to adopt a paradigm that granulomas are the characteristic lesion of both primary and post primary TB. An extended search of studies of human lung tissues failed to find any reports that support this paradigm. We found scores of publications from gross pathology in 1804 through high resolution CT scans in 2015 that identify obstructive lobular pneumonia, not granulomas, as the characteristic lesion of developing post-primary TB. This paper reviews this literature together with other relevant observations to formulate a new paradigm of TB with three distinct stages: a three-act play. First, primary TB, a war of attrition, begins with infection that spreads via lymphatics and blood stream before inducing systemic immunity that contains and controls the organisms within granulomas. Second, post-primary TB, a sneak attack, develops during latent TB as an asymptomatic obstructive lobular pneumonia in persons with effective systemic immunity. It is a paucibacillary process with no granulomas that spreads via bronchi and accumulates mycobacterial antigens and host lipids for 1-2 years before suddenly undergoing caseous necrosis. Third, the fallout, is responsible for nearly all clinical post primary disease. It begins with caseous necrotic pneumonia that is either retained to become the focus of fibrocaseous disease or is coughed out to leave a cavity. This three-stage paradigm suggests testable hypotheses and plausible answers to long standing questions of immunity to TB. PMID:26980490

  15. Fetal bronchoscopy as a useful procedure in a case with prenatal diagnosis of congenital microcystic adenomatoid malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio; Méndez, Antonio; Perez-Garcilita, Oscar; Monroy, Araceli; Aguilar-Vidales, Karla; Cruz-Martinez, Miriam Alejandra; Martinez-Morales, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Massive microcystic congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and bronchial atresia are associated with a high perinatal mortality secondary to lung hypoplasia and cardiac dysfunction, and fetal intervention should be considered to improve prognosis. Therapeutic options include open fetal surgery with pulmonary resection, fetal sclerotherapy and fetoscopy. We present a case with a severely enlarged left lung without ultrasound signs of dilated airways compatible with the diagnosis of microcystic CCAM, hydrops and severe contralateral lung hypoplasia that was treated successfully at 30 weeks of gestation by fetal bronchoscopy, through which bronchial atresia was identified at the end of the left mainstem bronchi and permeabilized by laser ablation. After fetal surgery, weekly follow-up showed a progressive decrease in the affected lung size and an increase in the contralateral hypoplastic lung size, demonstrating normal dimensions of both lungs at 34 weeks of gestation, reversal of the mediastinal shift, and complete disappearance of hydrops. A healthy neonate was delivered uneventfully at term with no need for respiratory support, and the boy is now doing well at 15 months of age. This report demonstrates that in cases with prenatal diagnosis of large microcystic CCAM, fetal bronchoscopy can be used to refine the diagnosis of bronchial atresia and as a therapeutic tool with good outcome. PMID:25138479

  16. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Laura A; Robertson, Ian D; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  17. Surgical treatment of tracheal collapse using pliable total ring prostheses: results in one experimental and 4 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, S A; Holmberg, D L

    1999-11-01

    Pliable total ring prostheses were created from the polyvinyl chloride drip chambers of intravenous administration sets. The total ring prostheses were placed in one clinically normal research dog and in 4 client-owned dogs diagnosed with tracheal collapse. The research dog was euthanized one month after placement of the prostheses. Histopathological analysis of the trachea adjacent to the prostheses revealed a mild inflammatory response. The follow-up period for the clinical cases was from 4 months to 11 years. Radiographs taken and fluoroscopy performed 1 day to 5 months after surgery revealed improvement or resolution of the tracheal collapse. One dog was asymptomatic 28 weeks following surgery. Two dogs died 7 and 9 years after surgery, with one requiring intermittent medical management for coughing. They were euthanized for nonrespiratory illness. One dog had a persistent nonproductive cough, due to collapse of the mainstem bronchi, when last evaluated 4 months postoperatively. Pliable total ring prostheses provided adequate stability to the trachea and had the advantage of conforming to the trachea and being easy to create, place, and suture. PMID:10563237

  18. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  19. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  20. MR evaluation of visceroatrial situs abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen patients with visceroatrial situs abnormalities were evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Eleven patients were confirmed surgically. Two patients were diagnosed by MRI and cardiac catheterization. Right isomerism was found in seven patients, left isomerism in two, and situs in versus in four. For the determination of situs, we evaluated the morphology of atrial appendages and main bronchi, the relationship between abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (lVC), and the status of upper abdominal viscera. The bilateral atrial morphology was differentiated in 8 of 12 patients. The bronchial situs was determined in 11 of 12 patients. Juxtaposition of abdominal aorta and IVC was found in 6 of 7 with right isomerism. lVC interruption with azygos continuation was found in all two with left isomerism. Incidentally three cases of short pancreas were found. MR imaging showed all structures relevant for the assessment of situs, thus obvrating the need for performing additional diagnostic procedures. MR imaging, therefore, is a valuable tool in the clinical management of patients who are suspected of having a situs abnormality

  1. [Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenard, H

    1987-01-01

    The ratios of ventilatory (V) and perfusion (Q) flow rates in the lung are to a large extent responsible for the efficiency of gas exchange. In a simplified monocompartmental model of the lung, the arterial partial pressure of a given gas (Pa) is a function of several factors: the solubility of this gas in blood, its venous and inspired partial pressures and the V/Q ratio. In a multicompartemental model, the mean arterial partial pressure of the gas is a function of the individual values of Pa in each compartment as well as the distribution of V/Q ratios in the lung and the relationship between the concentration and the partial pressure of the gas. The heterogeneity of the distribution of V/Q results from those of both V and Q. Two factors are mainly responsible for this heterogeneity: the gravity and the morphometric characteristics of bronchi and vessels. V/Q ratios are partially controlled at least in low V/Q compartments since hypoxia in these compartments leads to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction. However lungs V/Q ratios range from 0.1 to 10 with a mode around 1. Age, muscular exercise, posture, accelerations, anesthesia, O2 breathing, pulmonary pathology are factors which may alter the distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3332289

  2. First Reported Case of Fatal Stinging by the Large Carpenter Bee Xylocopa tranquebarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Raveendran, Sathasivam; Edirisinghe, Jayanthi; Karunaratne, Inoka; Weerakoon, Kosala

    2016-06-01

    In the order Hymenoptera, bees, hornets, and wasps are well-known stinging insects whose envenoming can be fatal. Their stinging attacks are common in rural and forested areas of Sri Lanka. However, fatal stinging by the large-bodied carpenter bees is unreported. We report the first known case of a fatal sting by the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa tranquebarica, in a forested area in Puttalam (North Western Province) in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. A 59-year-old healthy male manual laborer accompanied by a fellow worker had been fixing a fence on a coconut estate bordering a forested area when a flying insect emerged from a dead tree trunk and stung him on his face. His coworker, who was watching the incident, killed the insect. The victim complained of immediate intense pain in the face and collapsed on the ground just after resuming work after 10 minutes of resting. He was found dead on admission to the hospital 90 minutes later. Autopsy showed normal coronary arteries and heart, but the lungs were slightly congested and contained secretions in the bronchi. Acute anaphylaxis was the most likely cause of death. This case presents the habitat, morphology, attack pattern, and the medical importance of large carpenter bees. PMID:27061039

  3. Diffuse panbronchiolitis: high-resolution CT findings and correlation with pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis(DPB) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease of unknown causes mainly affecting the respiratory bronchioles and the more proximal bronchi. Findings on chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) are well known and Akira classified HRCT findings of DPB into four types. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between findings of HRCT and PFT. We retrospectively analyzed the chest radiographs and HRCT images of eleven patients with DPB and compared CT classification with pulmonary function test. Chest radiographs usually showed small nodular opacities throughout the both middle and lower lungs. The HRCT findings of DPB were centrilobularly distributed small nodular densities, branching linear densities contiguous with small round densities, dilated and thickened peripheral and central airways including bronchioles. More than one CT type by Akira's classification, usually two or three types, were found in nine patients. There was good correlation between CT types and FEV1%(ρ < 0.05), CT types and FEV1/FVC (ρ < 0.05) respectively. HRCT seems to be more useful for diagnosis and disease progression of DPB as compared with the chest radiographs or clinical stage such as pulmonary functions test

  4. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% ± 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm2) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm2); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator

  5. Lung remodeling in a mouse model of asthma involves a balance between TGF-β1 and BMP-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leindecker Stumm

    Full Text Available A key event in chronic allergic asthma is the TGF-β-induced activation of fibroblasts into α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts which synthesize type-I collagen. In the present study we investigated the effect of the anti-fibrotic molecule BMP-7 in asthma. Balb/c mice were immunized i.p. with ovalbumin in alum and challenged every 2 days with ovalbumin aerosol (two or six challenges for acute and chronic protocols, respectively. The lung was evaluated for: α-SMA and type-I collagen by immunohistochemistry; BMP-7 and TGF- β1 gene expression by qRT-PCR; type-I collagen and Smads 2 and 3 by immunoblotting; mucus by PSA staining. Type-I collagen around bronchi, α-SMA, mucus secretion, TGF- β1 and BMP-7 gene expression were all increased in asthma. The TGF- β1/BMP-7 ratio was higher in the chronic group and correlated with higher levels of collagen. Fibroblasts isolated from asthmatic and healthy lungs produced type-I collagen upon stimulation with TGF- β1 via phosphorylation of Smad-2, Smad-3. Pre-treatment of the fibroblasts with BMP-7 reduced collagen production and Smads phosphorylation. Intranasal treatment of asthmatic mice with recombinant BMP-7 during the immunization protocol reduced lung inflammation and type I collagen deposition. These results suggest a protective role for BMP-7 in lung allergic inflammation, opposing the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF- β1.

  6. The localization and uptake of in ovo injected soluble and particulate substances in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochemsen, P; Jeurissen, S H M

    2002-12-01

    The localization of in ovo injected substances in the chicken was investigated. We determined that localization is dependent on the nature of substances and the time of in ovo injection. In ovo injections with soluble bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU), particulate colloidal carbon, 40 nm fluorescent microspheres, and live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) were performed with a 25-mm (1-in) needle at Days 16 and 18 of incubation (DI-16 and DI-18, respectively). Localization of injected substances was determined in several organs using immunocytochemical methods. At DI-16, approximately 50% of the substances were detected in the organs; therefore, the localization of substances was not consistent. At DI-18, the substances were injected into the amnion. The substances entered the embryo by the mouth and were ingested into the intestinal and respiratory tract. All substances reached the lungs of the embryo via the trachea and the bronchi and were absorbed by the gas exchange tissue. In addition, the substances were absorbed by the bursa. Particulate colloidal carbon and microspheres remained in the organs where they were taken up initially for the rest of time of the experiment. Live IBDV, however, was distributed to other organs of the embryo. Soluble BrdU was found in all investigated organs of the embryo in high amounts. These results demonstrate that in ovo injection at DI-18 is an effective route to introduce substances into the chicken embryo, whereby the characteristics of the substance determine its final localization. PMID:12512571

  7. Tolerability and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Inhaled Dry Powder Tobramycin Free Base in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paul; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Bronchiectasis is a condition characterised by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchiectasis is associated with a higher hospitalisation frequency and a reduced quality of life, requiring frequent and adequate treatment with antibiotics. Objectives To assess local tolerability and the pharmacokinetic parameters of inhaled excipient free dry powder tobramycin as free base administered with the Cyclops dry powder inhaler to participants with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. The free base and absence of excipients reduces the inhaled powder dose. Methods Eight participants in the study were trained in handling the device and inhaling correctly. During drug administration the inspiratory flow curve was recorded. Local tolerability was assessed by spirometry and recording adverse events. Serum samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 min; 4, 8 and 12 h after inhalation. Results and Discussion Dry powder tobramycin base was well tolerated and mild tobramycin-related cough was reported only once. A good drug dose-serum concentration correlation was obtained. Relatively small inhaled volumes were computed from the recorded flow curves, resulting in presumably substantial deposition in the central airways—i.e., at the site of infection. Conclusions In this first study of inhaled dry powder tobramycin free base in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients, the free base of tobramycin and the administration with the Cyclops dry powder device were well tolerated. Our data support further clinical studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of this compound in this population. PMID:26959239

  8. Autoradiographic localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding in fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and subcellular localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding was examined in fetal mouse lung at various stages of development and in human fetal lung at 8 weeks of gestation using a rapid in vitro steroid incubation technique followed by thaw-mount autoradiography. Competition studies with unlabeled steroids demonstrate the specificity of [3H]dexamethasone labeling, and indicate that fetal lung mesenchyme is a primary glucocorticoid target during lung development. Autoradiographs of [3H]dexamethasone binding in lung tissue at early stages of development demonstrate that the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the more proximal portions of the bronchiolar network is heavily labeled. In contrast, the epithelium which will later differentiate into bronchi and bronchioles, is relatively unlabeled. Distal portions of the growing epithelium, destined to become alveolar ducts and alveoli, do show nuclear localization of [3H]dexamethasone. In addition, by utilizing a technique which allows the simultaneous examination of extracellular matrix components and [3H]dexamethasone binding, a relationship is observed between extensive mesenchymal [3H]dexamethasone binding and extensive extracellular matrix accumulation. Since glucocorticoids stimulate the synthesis of many extracellular matrix components, these results suggest a role for these hormones in affecting mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during lung morphogenesis

  9. The effects of emphysema on airway disease: Correlations between multi-detector CT and pulmonary function tests in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by emphysema and small airway narrowing. Quantitative evaluation of airway dimensions by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has revealed a correlation between airway dimension and airflow limitation. However, the effect of emphysema on this correlation is unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether emphysematous changes alter the relationships between airflow limitation and airway dimensions as measured by inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Methods: Ninety-one subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Images were evaluated for mean airway luminal area (Ai), wall area percentage (WA%) from the third to the fifth generation of three bronchi (B1, B5, B8) in the right lung, and low attenuation volume percent (LAV%). Correlations between each airway index and airflow limitation were determined for each patient and compared between patients with and without evidence of emphysema. Results: In patients without emphysema, Ai and WA% from both the inspiratory and expiratory scans were significantly correlated with FEV1. No correlation was detected in patients with emphysema. In addition, emphysematous COPD patients with GOLD stage 1 or 2 disease had significantly lower changes in B8 Ai than non-emphysematous patients. Conclusions: A significant correlation exists between airway parameters and FEV1 in patients without emphysema. Emphysema may influence airway dimensions even in patients with mild to moderate COPD

  10. An preliminary clinical study of transbronchoscopic interventional treatment for severe emphysema with local made one-way valvular stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficiency of bronchoscopic interventional lung volume reduction with domestic-made stents. Methods: The target areas of 7 patients with severe emphysema for valvular stenting form May 2006 to Aug. 2007 were prospectively selected on the basis of CT scan. Under general anesthesia, one-way valvular stenting were carried out over a guidewire under flexible bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic control. The symptom, pulmonary function, blood gas analysis, B-ultrasonic wave, 6 minute walk distance and thoracic CT were undertaken. Results: 4-6 stents per patient took place in 136 ± 72.3 min to obstruct the upper-lobe segments unilaterally but without obvious atelectasis under imaging. The patients could walk 2 hours after the operation with relief of dyspnea. No major change in radiologic findings and lung function occurred in 2 weeks, only bronchi distal to the stents gathered together. 6-min walk distance, Borg dyspnea scale fell and the pulmonary arterial pressure showed significant (P<0.05)statistical discrepancy. No major life-threatening complications were noted in the 15-day study period and no conspicuous change in lung function, blood gas analysis and lung volume. Lower-lobe pneumonia of nontarget area developed in 1 patient and acute episode of COPD occurred in another. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic interventional lung volume reduction may improve dyspnea and quality of life, as a rather safety therapeutic measure. (authors)

  11. Assessment of radiofrequency ablation for lung cancer on the basis of clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for malignant lung tumors become increasingly widespread. We therefore conducted a multi-center phase I/II clinical study to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Eligibility criteria included a lesion of longer axis 1-2.5 cm with abnormal accumulation on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and of which was also considered to be difficult to curatively resect. Lesion of the diameters of which was difficult to measure, and close to the mediastinum, pleura or major blood vessels or bronchi larger than 5 mm is excluded. Percutaneous puncture was performed under image guidance using local anesthesia. Output power is gradually elevated from a low power. Overlapping ablation is carried out if necessary to cover the entire lesion. Safety was evaluated before and after the procedure by patient observation, CT, MRI, blood biochemical tests, respiratory function test and so on. The efficacy was evaluated by visual analysis of abnormal accumulation of FDG-PET before the procedure, 3 months later and 6 months later. Of the 30 cases (primary 6, metastasis 24) reported until now, the mean diameter was 1.53 cm. Pneumothorax was observed in 46.7% and a chest tube needed to be inserted in one case of them. There were no severe complications. The rate of efficacy evaluated by FDG-PET was 91.7%. Data should be analyzed in more detail in the future. (author)

  12. Agenesis of right upper lobe of lung.

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    Kuo, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Yen-Ta; Lin, Rong-Luh

    2015-06-01

    Agenesis of the right upper lobe of the lung is a very uncommon congenital anomaly and may be referred to chest clinics in adulthood for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph. The presentations of chest radiograph may imitate many common situations such as right upper lobe collapse presenting as an ipsilateral shifting of the mediastinum or elevation of the right hemidiaphragm due to eventration or subdiaphragmatic lesions. A chest computed tomography is considered the most conclusive examination used to diagnose lung agenesis. Three-dimensional reconstructed images can be particularly helpful in delineating abnormalities of the bronchi and associated arterial and venous structures. We describe here a young woman with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma since her early childhood. She was referred to our clinic for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph after a school health checkup. Right upper lobe atelectasis or intra-abdominal lesions were initially suspected. After a thorough image study, she was diagnosed as a case of agenesis of the right upper lobe. Our report emphasizes the importance that a high index of suspicion and adequate image investigation are necessary to diagnose congenital lung anomalies. PMID:26090110

  13. The origin of dyspnea and its role in the reduction of exercise endurance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Mikhail Vasil'evich Sheyanov

    2010-01-01

    Results. Dyspnea during exercise was reported by 54 (52% patients with RA and 9 (9% control patients (p < 0.001. Dyspnea was more frequently detected and more significant in RA patients with other symptoms of respiratory organ lesions (cough, sputum discharge, chest pain on breathing and coughing, anemia, and emotional disorders of the anxious-depressive type. The degree of dyspnea correlated with DAS 28 scores (r = 0.33; p < 0.01. No correlation was found between lung function parameters and blood gas composition. Pulmonary MSCT in RA patients with dyspnea more frequently revealed signs of bronchiolitis and lesion of the lung as its interstitial fibrotic type. Conclusion. Dyspnea is a common symptom and an important factor in reducing EE and QL in patients with RA. Dyspnea in these patients has a multifactorial origin. Of importance in its occurrence are the involvement of the lung and bronchi in the pathological process irrespective of the lung function, as well as RA-associated factors (including anemia, and nosogenic emotional disorders (anxiety and/or depression.

  14. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

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    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  15. Radiological description about the globally first case of human infected avian influenza virus (H10N8 induced pneumonia

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    Jian He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 is an acute infectious respiratory tract infection caused by JX346-H10N8. The reported case in this paper is the globally first case report about radiological description of human infected avian influenza (H10N8 virus related pneumonia. The patient showed an epidemiological history of contacts to living poultries and the incubation period lasted for 4 days. The condition was clinically characterized by fever, cough, chest distress and obvious hypoxia. CT scan demonstrated the lungs with large flake of hyper-intense consolidation, confined patch of ground glass opacity, dilated bronchi, predominantly dorsal thickening of the interlobular septum, and other types of lesions related to interstitial pulmonary edema. Meanwhile, accompanying interlobar effusion, infrapulmonary effusion and pleural effusion were demonstrated in a small quantity by CT scan. Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 related pneumonia should be differentiated from pneumonia induced by human infected avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9. No characteristic key points for radiological differentiation have been found. And its definitive diagnosis should be based on the etiological examination.

  16. Hemoptysis as a first symptom of endoleak after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, which caused aortic rupture and required complex management

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    Warot, Marcin; Burchard, Paweł; Paschke, Łukasz; Łysiak, Zuzanna; Chęciński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has become the most common procedure in the treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysms. However, potential long-term complications of this technique could be life-threatening. Hemoptysis is a common symptom of lung tumor, especially cancer. On the other hand, hemoptysis can also be caused by bronchitis, tuberculosis, mycosis, and trauma. In this case report, we present a patient with hemoptysis and lung tumor suggesting lung cancer, which was a unique symptom of type IA endoleak after TEVAR and led to rupture of the thoracic aneurysm. It was decided to perform next an endovascular procedure due to the severe state of the patient. Next the thoracotomy was performed because drainage of the left pleural cavity was unsuccessful. In the last stage bronchoscopy was needed to remove the thrombus, which occluded the left main bronchi. Successful management has led to the patient's full recovery. Despite justified popularity of endovascular procedures in the treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysms, we should remember about potential long-term complications. Hemoptysis could be a unique symptom of the endoleak after TEVAR and treatment of such complications could be complex and demanding. PMID:23837105

  17. Tissue disposition of carbon disulfide: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) is associated with several adverse effects such as neurotoxicity, atherosclerosis, liver injury and endocrinal disturbances. In the present study, the distribution of CS2 and its metabolites after inhalation of 35S- or 14C-labelled CS2 was studied in adult male mice with whole-body autoradiography. CS2 itself was registered in body fat and in well-perfused tissues at survival times up to 2 hours. Very little CS2 was taken up by the brain. The distribution patterns of CS2 metabolites were very different after administration of C35S2 or 14CS2. 35S-Labelled metabolites were initially concentrated in the liver and kidney, but were rapidly eliminated from the body. There was evidence of an extensive metabolic incorporation of sulfur split off from CS2 during its biotransformation. 14C-Labelled metabolites were likewise concentrated in the liver and kidney, but were also observed in large amounts in the nasal mucosa, bronchi, bone, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal cortex and testis. A marked retention of non-extractable 14C-labelled metabolites was seen in the liver and thyroid. The results point to several sites of specific CS2-induced toxicity due to the tissue disposition of metabolites of CS2. (author)

  18. Williams–Campbell syndrome: a case report

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    Konoglou M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Konoglou1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Nikolaos Loridas1, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Alexandros Mitrakas2, Vasilis Zervas2, Theodoros Kontakiotis2, Despoina Papakosta2, Panagiotis Boglou4, Stamatia Bakali5, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis6, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis21First Pulmonary Clinic, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Pulmonary Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 5Microbiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 6Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, GreeceIntroduction: Williams–Campbell syndrome, also known as bronchomalacia, is a rare disorder characterized by a deficiency of cartilage in subsegmental bronchi, leading to distal airway collapse and bronchiectasis. There have been few reports about patients affected by saccular bronchiectasis, paracicatricial emphysema, and diminished cartilage. These are all characteristic of Williams–Campbell syndrome.Case presentation: This report presents a 57-year-old woman with progressive dyspnea, cough, sputum production, and fever. The clinical and laboratory examination revealed that the patient had a respiratory infection due to bronchiectasis caused by Williams–Campbell syndrome, which was undiagnosed in the patient until then.Conclusion: Although a rare syndrome, when patients' signs and symptoms include recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, productive cough, and dyspnea, Williams–Campbell syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis.Keywords: bronchietasis, Williams–Campbell syndrome, bronchomalacia

  19. Integrin α6β4 identifies human distal lung epithelial progenitor cells with potential as a cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease.

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    Xiaopeng Li

    Full Text Available To develop stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease, it is first necessary to identify markers of human lung epithelial progenitor/stem cells and to better understand the potential for differentiation into distinct lineages. Here we investigated integrin α6β4 as an epithelial progenitor cell marker in the human distal lung. We identified a subpopulation of α6β4(+ cells that localized in distal small airways and alveolar walls and were devoid of pro-surfactant protein C expression. The α6β4(+ epithelial cells demonstrated key properties of stem cells ex vivo as compared to α6β4(- epithelial cells, including higher colony forming efficiency, expression of stem cell-specific transcription factor Nanog, and the potential to differentiate into multiple distinct lineages including basal and Clara cells. Co-culture of α6β4(+ epithelial cells with endothelial cells enhanced proliferation. We identified a subset of adeno-associated virus (AAVs serotypes, AAV2 and AAV8, capable of transducing α6β4(+ cells. In addition, reconstitution of bronchi epithelial cells from CF patients with only 5% normal α6β4(+ epithelial cells significantly rescued defects in Cl(- transport. Therefore, targeting the α6β4(+ epithelial population via either gene delivery or progenitor cell-based reconstitution represents a potential new strategy to treat CF lung disease.

  20. Attempted validation of ICRP 30 and ICRP 66 respiratory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of human biological models for inhaled radionuclides is nearly impossible. Requirements for validation are: (1) the measurement of the relevant human tissue data and (2) valid exposure measurements over the interval known to apply to tissue uptake. Two lung models, ICRP 30(1) and ICRP 66(2), are widely used to estimate lung doses following acute occupational or environmental exposure. Both ICRP 30 and 66 lung models are structured to estimate acute rather than chronic exposure. Two sets of human tissue measurements are available: 210Po accumulated in tissue from inhaled cigarettes and ingested in diet and airborne global fallout 239,240Pu accumulated in the lungs from inhalation. The human tissue measurements include pulmonary and bronchial tissue in smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers analysed radiochemically for 210Po, and pulmonary, bronchial and lymph nodes analysed for 239,240Pu in lung tissue collected by the New York City Medical Examiner from 1972 to 1974. Both ICRP 30 and 66 models were included in a programme to accommodate chronic uptake. Neither lung model accurately described the estimated tissue concentrations but was within a factor of 2 from measurements. ICRP 66 was the exception and consistently overestimated the bronchial concentrations probably because of its assumption of an overly long 23-d clearance half-time in the bronchi and bronchioles. (authors)

  1. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

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    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  2. The branching pattern of the aortic arch in the long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus Cretzschmar 1829).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Kılınç, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular branching morphology of the aortic arch in the long-legged buzzard. For this purpose, two long-legged buzzards were evaluated in this study. The latex injection method was used to investigate the branching of the aortic arch. Two innominate brachiocephalic trunks branched continually from aortic arch caudoventral to the primary bronchi and ventral to the syrinx. The left subclavian artery gave rise to sternoclavicular, thoracic, axillary and intercostal arteries in this region. On the right side, it was observed that the right subclavian artery gave off thoracic, sternoclavicular and intercostal arteries, and the axillary artery was the branch of thoracic artery differently from the left one. Each carotid artery was continued to the middle of the neck and soon disappeared, becoming covered by the muscles of the anterior part of the neck, and entering the canal formed by the inferior spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae, within which it ran hidden, and in close contact with its fellow of the other lateral side, to near the head. This morphological study in the long-legged buzzard will elucidate the vascular organization for regional blood supply, and provide specific anatomical data. PMID:24136451

  3. Detection of Cl--HCO3- and Na+-H+ Exchangers in Human Airways Epithelium

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    Al-Bazzaz FJ

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular species of the Na(+-H(+ exchanger (NHE and anion exchanger (AE gene families and their relative abundance in the human airway regions were assessed utilizing RT-PCR and the RNase protection assay, respectively. Organ donor lung epithelia from various bronchial regions (small, medium, and large bronchi and trachea were harvested for RNA extraction. Gene-specific primers for the human NHE and AE isoforms were utilized for RT-PCR. Our results demonstrated that NHE1, AE2, and brain AE3 isoforms were expressed in all regions of the human airway, whereas NHE2, NHE3, AE1, and cardiac AE3 were not detected. RNase protection studies for NHE1 and AE2, utilizing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as an internal standard, demonstrated that there were regional differences in the NHE1 mRNA levels in human airways. In contrast, the levels of AE2 mRNA remained unchanged. Differential regional expression of NHE1 isoform may be related to a higher acid load in the tracheal epithelial cells than in epithelia of distal airways. Fluctuations in PCO(2 during inspiration and expiration are probably larger in the tracheal lumen than in the lumen of distal airways with associated larger swings in intracellular pH with each respiratory cycle. Immunohistochemical staining for AE2 protein demonstrated localization to the epithelial cells of human bronchial mucosa.

  4. Inhalation pathways in relation to infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respiratory tract is part of a system that conducts oxygen from outside air to the mitochondria in the cells throughout our body. It is, however, also one of the most common entry routes for highly toxic radionuclides from the environment. It consists of the nose, part of the pharynx, larynx, trachea and the lungs with the bronchi, bronchioli, alveolar ducts and alveoli. The complete inhalation pathway from the nose to the last generation of alveolar ducts is probably present at birth. The airways of the conducting zone, i.e. from the nose to the terminal bronchioli, grow in proportion to body mass. In the gas exchange region, however, a tremendous structural transformation occurs, the alveolization, which takes place during the first 18 postnatal months. From then on this region grows in proportion to body mass too. The connective tissue fraction in both regions is reduced during this period of time and perhaps continues to be reduced later in the conductive zone. Alveolar deposition and retention may be the same in infants and in children as in adults due to structural transformations and changes in the breathing pattern during growth. 21 refs.; 13 figs

  5. Clinical analysis of bronchial foreign bodies in 580 children%580例小儿气管支气管异物临床特点与诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 王晋; 徐幼; 臧丽格; 余晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characters of bronchial foreign bodies in children and the utilization of bfon-choscope in the treatment of bronchial Foreign bodies. Methods A total of 580 children were diagnosed with bronchial foreign bodies at our hospital during April 2001 until April 2011. Under local mucosal anesthesia,a bronchoscope was inserted through oral cavity into bronchi. After identifying the site of foreign body, grasping forceps was guided through bronchoscope to remove the foreign body from airway. Results CAmong 580 cases,hard nut and skin of melon seed were found(517,89. 3%). Most common site of foreign body was in fight lower lobe bronchi(318,54. 8%). Average operative frequency Was 1. 1 and one-time extraction ratio 94. 5%. The after treatment of children with cough, dyspnea, pneumoni-a, emphysema, unilateral breathing sounds disappeared, wheezing, atelectasis, mediastinal swing significantly improved (P<0. 05). Conclusion Rapid diagnosis, preoperative evaluation, and implementation of timely and effective surgical and perioperative treatment, Pediatric tracheobronchial foreign body can effectively reduce the complication rate and reduce mortality.%目的 探讨儿童支气管异物的临床特点以及支气管镜在诊断治疗儿童支气管异物中的作用,总结气管异物诊治规律.方法 经支气管镜诊断和手术的支气管异物患儿580例,均在全麻条件下经口腔插入支气管镜逐级观察支气管结构,使用花生米异物钳或鳄鱼齿状钳钳取异物,并对治疗前后临床症状改善情况进行对比分析.结果 580例患儿中,支气管异物以果仁或果壳类最为常见[517例(89.3%)],异物嵌顿位置以右下叶支气管开口为最多[318例(54.8%)].钳取异物手术次数平均1.1次,一次取出率为94.5%.治疗后患儿咳嗽、呼吸困难、肺炎、肺气肿、单侧呼吸音消失、喘鸣、肺不张、纵膈摆动等有明显改善(P<0.05).结论 快速诊断,术前评估,实施

  6. Incidência de mortalidade por câncer no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Cancer: incidente and mortality in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

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    Lucio Borges Barcelos

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se estudo dos casos e óbitos de câncer notificados à Unidade de Informática da Secretaria da Saúde e do Meio Ambiente do do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil no ano de 1979. A distribuição etária da morbimortalidade apresentou tendência, acentuadamente crescente com a idade. No sexo masculino, as localizações anatômicas de maior mortalidade, em ordem decrescente, foram: traquéia, brônquios e pulmão; estômago; esôfago; próstata e leucemias. Na incidência repetiram-se as mesmas localizações com introdução da pele em segundo lugar e saída das leucemias. No sexo feminino, mama; estômago; útero, outras localizações especificadas e as não especificadas; traquéia, brônquios e pulmão; e colo do útero, foram as cinco primeiras localizações de maior mortalidade. As neoplasias malignas da mama foram as que apresentaram maior incidência. Seguiram-se as neoplasias malignas da pele, do colo do útero, das outras localizações especificadas e as não especificadas do útero e do estômago. A distribuição geográfica mostrou uma morbimortalidade maior na 1ª, 3ª, 7ª, 10ª e 13ª Delegacia Regional de Saúde, em regiões caracterizadas ou por um elevado índice de industrialização ou pela existência de grandes propriedades rurais onde é praticada a pecuária extensiva. Uma vez feita a padronização, as neoplasias malignas de esôfago e laringe, apresentaram-se com coeficientes elevados, superando, no caso do esôfago, os coeficientes de outros países.A study of the incidence of, and deaths from, cancer as reported to the Welfare Ministry of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1979, is presented. The distribution of morbimortality showed an accentuated increase with age. In males the anatomic sites associated with higher mortality were (in decreasing order: trachea, bronchi and lungs, stomach, esophagus, prostate and leukemias. In incidence related to the same sites, however, skin cancer moved into second place and

  7. Treatment of intrathoracic grass awn migration with video-assisted thoracic surgery in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Shelly; Mayhew, Philipp D; Zwingenberger, Allison; Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old sexually intact male Vizsla and a 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog were examined because of suspected intrathoracic grass awn migration. CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic CT revealed focal areas of pulmonary infiltration in the right caudal lung lobe in one dog and in the left caudal lung lobe in the other. In 1 patient, bronchoscopy revealed 2 grass awns in the bronchi. Results of thoracic radiography and bronchoscopy were unremarkable in the second patient; however, a grass awn was recovered from the tonsillar crypt during oropharyngeal examination. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In both dogs, grass awns were successfully retrieved from the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery during 1-lung ventilation. In one patient, a grass awn was recovered bronchoscopically from the left caudal lung lobe bronchus and another was visualized distally in an accessory lung lobe bronchus but could not be retrieved. This dog underwent accessory lung lobectomy. The second dog underwent left caudal lung lobectomy. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery, were discharged from the hospital, and had no apparent recurrence of clinical signs at telephone follow-up 31 months and 18 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE With careful case selection, successful management of intrathoracic grass awn migration in dogs can be achieved by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including both computed tomography and bronchoscopy is suggested. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate whether treatment of this condition with video-assisted thoracic surgery is as effective as with traditional open thoracotomy. PMID:27379598

  8. Exposure to culturable and total microbiota in cultural heritage conservation laboratories

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    Rafał L. Górny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To date, the scientific source materials usually focus on microbial contamination of the museum or library collections themselves, while the exposure of persons who professionally deal with this type of objects in cultural heritage conservation laboratories is ignored. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in 9 naturally ventilated conservation laboratories with no history of water damage. Viable (understood as culturable bioaerosol stationary samples were collected in both outdoor and indoor environments using 6-stage Andersen impactor. Simultaneously, stationary and personal indoor bioaerosol measurements were carried out using both Gesamtstaubprobenahme an der Person (GSP and Button filter samplers. These measurements were complemented by evaluation of microbial content in the dust settled on conserved works of art. All impactor, filter, and settled dust samples were quantitatively examined to obtain viable and total concentrations of bacteria and fungi. All isolated microbial strains were taxonomically identified. Results: At workplaces, the concentrations of viable microorganisms in air were below 2000 cfu/m3 and accounted for not more than 5.5% of total microbiota. The study showed that quantitative assessment of viable bioaerosol can be made with an Andersen impactor as well as by using Button and GSP filter samplers, irrespective of whether they are applied for personal or stationary measurements. Compared to the impactor, however, the use of filter samplers for microbial contamination monitoring substantially limits the scope of qualitative information which can be obtained. Size distribution analysis revealed that the largest “load” of microorganisms can penetrate into the respiratory tract between the trachea and terminal bronchi, and thereby may be responsible for allergic inflammations in exposed workers. Conclusions: The precise assessment of microbial hazards in conservation laboratories should comprise

  9. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes in the regulation of β2-adrenoceptor function: an in vitro model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese Manlio

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response to β2-adrenoceptor agonists is reduced in asthmatic airways. This desensitization may be in part due to inflammatory mediators and may involve cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs. Cysteinyl-LTs are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. We tested the hypothesis that leukotriene D4 (LTD4 and allergen challenge cause β2-adrenoceptor desensitization through the activation of protein kinase C (PKC. Methods The isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation was evaluated in human airway smooth muscle cell cultures challenged with exogenous LTD4 or the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate with or without pretreatments with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X or the CysLT1R antagonist montelukast. The relaxant response to salbutamol was studied in passively sensitized human bronchial rings challenged with allergen in physiological salt solution (PSS alone, or in the presence of either montelukast or GF109203X. Results In cell cultures, both LTD4 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate caused significant reductions of maximal isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation, which were fully prevented by montelukast and GF109203X, respectively. More importantly, GF109203X also prevented the attenuating effect of LTD4 on isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation. In bronchial rings, both montelukast and GF109203X prevented the rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to salbutamol induced by allergen challenge. Conclusion LTD4 induces β2-adrenoceptor desensitization in human airway smooth muscle cells, which is mediated through the activation of PKC. Allergen exposure of sensitized human bronchi may also cause a β2-adrenoceptor desensitization through the involvement of the CysLT1R-PKC pathway.

  10. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  11. Liver hydatid cyst ruptured into the thorax: CT angiography findings of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Intrathoracic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is a rare but severe condition causing a spectrum of lesions to the pleura, lung parenchyma, and bronchi. Pulmonary complications result from the proximity of hydatid cysts in the liver and the diaphragm. Objectives and tasks: In this report we aimed to present computed tomography (CT) angiography findings of a case with liver hydatid cyst ruptured into the thorax. The patient underwent CT angiography examination with suspicion of pulmonary embolism. Materials and methods: A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our emergency department with complaints of severe and persistent cough. Basal region of the right hemithorax could not get breath sounds on physical examination. Chest radiography revealed the presence of consolidation-effusion. The patient was treated with antibiotherapy for pneumonia and parapneumonic effusion. Because of the clinical symptoms and chest radiograph findings persisted the patient underwent CT angiography examination with suspicion of pulmonary embolism. Results: On CT angiography images pulmonary artery and its branches were normal. There were subtotal collapse in the right middle and lower lung lobes and complicated cystic lesion that has air densities in the basal interlobar space. Another thick walled complicated cystic lesion with multiple septations and air densities was detected in the right posterior liver lobe. The right hemidiaphragm was interrupted and the right liver lobe partially herniated into the thorax cavity. Serologic tests were positive for Echinococcus granulosus and there were prior therapy history for liver cyst hydatid. The diagnostic aspiration findings were consistent with hydatid cyst lesion. Conclusion: In patients with hepatic hydatid cyst associated with persistent and severe cough, thoracic rupture of the cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis. CT angiography is fast, non-invasive and effective method in the detection of

  12. Study of cyclic and steady particle motion in a realistic human airway model using phase-Doppler anemometry

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    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in human airways has been of research interest for many years. Various experimental methods such as constant temperature anemometry, particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler based techniques were employed for study of aerosol transport in the past. We use Phase-Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA for time resolved size and velocity measurement of liquid aerosol particles in a size range 1 to 8 μm. The di-2ethylhexyl sabacate (DEHS particles were produced by condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. A thin-wall transparent model of human airways with non-symmetric bifurcations and non-planar geometry containing parts from throat to 3rd-4th generation of bronchi was fabricated for the study. Several cyclic (sinusoidal breathing regimes were simulated using pneumatic breathing mechanism. Analogous steady-flow regimes were also investigated and used for comparison. An analysis of the particle velocity data was performed with aim to gain deeper understanding of the transport phenomena in the realistic bifurcating airway system. Flows of particles of different sizes in range 1 – 10 μm was found to slightly differ for extremely high Stokes numbers. Differences in steady and cyclic turbulence intensities were documented in the paper. Systematically higher turbulence intensity was found for cyclic flows and mainly in the expiration breathing phase. Negligible differences were found for behaviour of different particle size classes in the inspected range 1 to 8 μm. Possibility of velocity spectra estimation of air flow using the P/DPA data is discussed.

  13. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  14. Dose to tissues and effective dose equivalent by inhalation of radon-222, radon-220 and their short-lived daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the results of a sensitivity analysis are described which shows the influence of relevant physical and biological parameters on the dose from inhaled Rn-222, Rn-220 and their daughters to the basal cell layer of the bronchi, to the pulmonary tissues and to other body tissues. The used models for deposition, retention and dosimetry of inhaled daughters take into regard the variation of following parameters: The AMAD of inhaled radioactive particles; the fraction of unattached daughters atoms; the velocity of ciliary transport; the desorption rate of attached daughter atoms from their particles; the absorption rate to blood; and the depth of the basal cell layer in the bronchial generations. A computer programme was set-up for the calculation of the activity and dose distribution in the lungs as function of these parameters. For the evaluation of the effective dose from inhaled mixtures of Rn-222- and Rn-220-daughters three different alternatives for the weighting of the mean doses to the target tissues in the lungs are described, taking into regard possible differences between the cancerogenic sensitivity of the target cells in the bronchial and alveolar region. On the basis of the results of this sensitivity analysis mean values for the effective dose to adults per unit of inhaled potential α-energy (in Joule) and per unit of potential α-energy (in WLM) of daughters mixtures are derived as function of the unattached fraction of potential α-energy in air and the desorption half-life time of attached daughter atoms in the lungs. In addition the effective dose from inhaled Rn-222 and Rn-220 (+ Po-216) is estimated and compared with the effective dose from inhaled daughters. Finally the consequences for the assessment of intake and exposure limits for workers and for members of the public are outlined. (orig.)

  15. Rhinosporidiosis of Parotid Duct Presenting as Consecutive Bilateral Facial Swelling: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Santanu; Panja, Soumyajyoti; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Roy, Shreosee; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Sporadic cases of rhinosporidiosis has been reported from many countries but is endemic in Southern India (Madurai, Ramnad, Rajapalayam and Sivaganga), Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This disease commonly affects the mucous membrane of the nose or naso-pharynx and presents as a leafy, polypoidal mass. The reported extranasal sites include the oro-pharynx, eye, ear, larynx, trachea, bronchi, skin and genital mucosa. It may also become disseminated to present as a generalized form. In our case a 40-year-old female from rural West Bengal (Eastern India) presented with right sided facial swelling. Our provisional diagnosis was parotid duct cyst on the basis of careful history, scrupulous clinical examination and relevant investigations comprising CECT scan of face. Although Rhinosporidiosis was not taken into consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis, it was eventually diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination of surgical specimen. Two months later in follow-up, the same patient presented to us with left sided facial swelling. We managed the left facial swelling successfully with minimally invasive surgery and 100mg twice daily dapsone for 6 months. We present this case firstly because Rhinosporidiosis of parotid duct (stensen's duct) is a rare entity and secondly non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are also uncommon and represent only 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. Furthermore our case emphasizes that the clinicians should aware of this rare clinical entity specially in endemic areas, because minimally invasive techniques and medications might solve the problem while helping patients to avoid surgical excision. PMID:27134935

  16. Estimation of specific absorbed fractions for selected organs due to photons emitted by activity deposited in the human respiratory tract using ICRP/ICRU male voxel phantom in FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP/ICRU adult male reference voxel phantom incorporated in Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used for estimating specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for photons due to the presence of internal radioactive contamination in the human respiratory tract (RT). The compartments of the RT, i.e. extra-thoracic (ET1 and ET2) and thoracic (bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar interstitial) regions, lymph nodes of both regions and lungs are considered as the source organs. The nine organs having high tissue weighting factors such as colon, lungs, stomach wall, breast, testis, urinary bladder, oesophagus, liver and thyroid and the compartments of the RT are considered as target organs. Eleven photon energies in the range of 15 keV to 4 MeV are considered for each source organ and the computed SAF values are presented in the form of tables. For the target organs in the proximity of the source organ including the source organ itself, the SAF values are relatively higher and decrease with increase in energy. As the distance between source and target organ increases, SAF values increase with energy and reach maxima depending on the position of the target organ with respect to the source organ. The SAF values are relatively higher for the target organs with smaller masses. Large deviations are seen in computed SAF values from the existing MIRD phantom data for most of the organs. These estimated SAF values play an important role in the estimation of equivalent dose to various target organs of a worker due to intake by inhalation pathway. (authors)

  17. Growth, essential oil content, and content of coumarin in young plants of guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlene Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine, mainly to treat respiratory disorders, which acts by dilating the bronchi, being coumarin one of the substances associated with this effect. Therefore, understanding the physiological behavior of this species and its responses to the environmental conditions is necessary to improve the cultivation methods. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of light spectrum control on growth, the essential oil content, and the content of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel. Plants were grown for four months under nets with 50% shading in gray, red, blue, and exposed to full sunlight (0%. The essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves through hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The identification and quantification of coumarin were performed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed the blue fabric allowed an increase in total dry matter accumulation and leaf area, as plants under red shading presented higher dry matter allocation to the roots. The smallest quantity of dry leaves was observed in plants grown under full sun exposure. Changes were not observed, however, in leaf weight ratio and in root/shoot proportion. The essential oil content of plants grown under blue net was 0.14%, which corresponded to an increase of 142% over the level found in plants grown under full sun exposure, as the coumarin content was not influenced by the net color. These results show that light can be modulated during cultivation, in order to obtain desirable morphological characteristics and maximize the production of active principles in this species.

  18. [The randomized study of efficiency of preoperative photodynamic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Rusanov, A A; Molodtsova, V P; Gerasin, A V; Kazakov, N V; Urtenova, M A; Chistiakov, I V

    2013-01-01

    The authors made a prospective randomized comparison of results of preoperative photodynamic therapy (PhT) with chemotherapy, preoperative chemotherapy in initial unresectable central non-small cell lung cancer in stage III. The efficiency and safety of preoperative therapy were estimated as well as the possibility of subsequent surgical treatment. The research included patients in stage IIIA and IIIB of central non-small cell lung cancer with lesions of primary bronchi and lower section of the trachea, which initially were unresectable, but potentially the patients could be operated on after preoperative treatment. The photodynamic therapy was performed using chlorine E6 and the light of wave length 662 nm. Since January 2008 till December 2011,42 patients were included in the research, 21 patients were randomized in the group for photodynamic therapy and 21--in group without PhT. These groups were compared according to their sex, age, stage of the disease and histological findings. After nonadjuvant treatment the remissions were reached in 19 (90%) patients of the group with PhT and in 16 (76%) patients without PhT and all the patients were operated on. The explorative operations were made on 3 patients out of 16 operated on in the group without PhT (19%). In the group PhT 14 pneumonectomies and 5 lobectomies were perfomed opposite 10 pneumonectomies and 3 lobectomies in group without PhT. The degree of radicalism of resection appears to be reliably higher in the group PhT (RO-89%, R1-11% as against RO-54%, R1-46% in group without PhT), p = 0.038. The preoperative endobronchial PhT conducted with chemotherapy was characterized by efficiency and safety, allowed the surgical treatment and elevated the degree of radicalism of this treatment in selected patients, initially assessed as unresectable. PMID:23808222

  19. Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PDA data allow to estimate PSD of particle velocity fluctuations in realistic model. ► PSD of micron-sized particles is independent of their size up to 700 Hz. ► Such particles follow air flow and turb. diffusion contributes to their deposition. ► Cyclic flow PSDs contain more TKE at high freq. than equivalent steady-flow PSDs. ► Exp. breathing phase differs from insp. phase at high frequency part of the spectra. - Abstract: Motion of monodispersed aerosol particles suspended in air flow has been studied on realistic transparent model of human airways using Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA). Time-resolved velocity data for particles in size range 1–8 μm were processed using Fuzzy Slotting Technique to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations. The optimum processing setup for our data was found and recommendations for future experiments to improve PSD quality were suggested. Typical PSD plots at mainstream positions of the trachea and the upper bronchi are documented and differences among (1) steady-flow regimes and equivalent cyclic breathing regimes, (2) inspiration and expiration breathing phase and (3) behaviour of particles of different sizes are described in several positions of the airway model. Systematically higher level of velocity fluctuations in the upper part of the frequency range (30–500 Hz) was found for cyclic flows in comparison with corresponding steady flows. Expiratory flows in both the steady and cyclic cases produce more high-frequency fluctuations compared to inspiratory flows. Negligible differences were found for flow of particles in the inspected size range 1–8 μm at frequencies below 500 Hz. This finding was explained by Stokes number analysis. Implied match of the air and particle flows thereby indicates turbulent diffusion as important deposition mechanism and confirms the capability to use the P/DPA data as the air flow velocity estimate.

  20. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min-1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min-1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  1. Analysis of basic flow regimes in a human airway model by stereo-scanning PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodt, Thomas; Pott, Desirée; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    The detailed understanding of the human lung flow is of high relevance for the optimization of mechanical ventilation. Therefore, the spatial and temporal development of the flow field in a realistic human lung model is investigated for several oscillatory flow regimes using stereo-scanning particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The flow in the right primary bronchus is always measured for a complete sinusoidal ventilation cycle. Three Reynolds and Womersley number sets describing viscous ( Re = 10; α = 1.5), unsteady ( Re = 40; α = 5), and convective ( Re = 150; α = 1.5) regimes are defined to cover various dominating fluid mechanical effects. In addition, multi-plane PIV measurements are performed to analyze steady laminar ( Re = 150) and turbulent ( Re = 2,650) flow at inspiration and expiration. The steady results show that the maximum velocity is shifted to the outer wall at inspiration and toward the inner wall of the bronchial bend at expiration. At inhalation, a U-shaped high-speed velocity profile develops only inside the left primary bronchus, whereas both primary bronchi contain one vortex pair. During expiration, the vortex pairs from each main bronchus merge into a two-vortex-pair system inside the trachea. From the oscillatory findings, it is evident that an undersupply for the right upper lobe is noticed at low ventilatory frequencies, whereas high-frequency flow leads to a more homogeneous ventilation. The analysis of the temporal development of the absolute velocity in the center plane shows a variable phase lag. Unlike the flow in the unsteady regime, the flow of the viscous flow domain ( α = 1.5) is in phase with the applied pressure gradient. Additionally, a premature outflow of the upper right lung lobe can be observed in the unsteady flow regime.

  2. Risk considerations related to lung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved lung models provide a more accurate assessment of dose from inhalation exposures and, therefore, more accurate dose-response relationships for risk evaluation and exposure limitation. Epidemiological data for externally irradiated persons indicate that the numbers of excess respiratory tract carcinomas differ in the upper airways, bronchi, and distal lung. Neither their histogenesis and anatomical location nor their progenitor cells are known with sufficient accuracy for accurate assessment of the microdosimetry. The nuclei of sensitive cells generally can be assumed to be distributed at random in the epithelium, beneath the mucus and tips of the beating cilia and cells. In stratified epithelia, basal cells may be considered the only cells at risk. Upper-airway tumors have been observed in both therapeutically irradiated patients and in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. The current International Commission on Radiological Protection Lung-Model Task Group proposes that the upper airways and lung have a similar relative risk coefficient for cancer induction. The partition of the risk weighting factor, therefore, will be proportional to the spontaneous death rate from tumors, and 80% of the weighting factor for the respiratory tract should be attributed to the lung. For Weibel lung-model branching generations 0 to 16 and 17 to 23, the Task Group proposes an 80/20 partition of the risk, i.e., 64% and 16%, respectively, of the total risk. Regarding risk in animals, recent data in rats indicate a significantly lower effectiveness for lung-cancer induction at low doses from insoluble long-lived alpha-emitters than from Rn daughters. These findings are due, in part, to the fact that different regions of the lung are irradiated. Tumors in the lymph nodes are rare in people and animals exposed to radiation.44 references

  3. Evaluation of contrast media for bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Bronchography is occasionally needed for the evaluation and management of some congenital pulmonary anomalies as well as some acquired diseases, usually of the tracheo- bronchial tree. There is currently no effective, approved contrast agent for this imaging tech- nique. Objective. We evaluated five agents (barium sulfate, iohexol, propyliodone oily, propyliodone aqueous, and perflubron) in terms of image quality, histologic changes, and effects on hemodynamics, blood gases, and standard laboratory tests in New Zealand White rabbits. Materials and methods. Animals were anesthetized and intubated. Each contrast agent (0.25 ml/kg) was administered intratracheally. Three animals in each group had intravenous lines placed for blood sampling and blood pressure monitoring and were sacrificed at 1 h. An additional three animals for each agent were sacrificed at 24 h and 1 week after imaging. Blood samples were taken immediately before contrast instillation and at 1 h postbronchography. Fluoroscopic images were recorded on standard VHS video tape and evaluated in blind fashion. Segments of lung tissue and bronchi were obtained for histologic examination. Results. Necrosis and/or inflammatory infiltrates were noted in 78 % of the bronchograms performed with propyliodone aqueous, 67 % with propyliodone oily, 55 % with perflubron, and 33 % with iohexol 120, 240 and 350. No histologic damage was observed with barium. The propyliodones gave the best-quality imaging results and the most histologic changes. Iohexol, in any concentration, gave the least acceptable images and a moderate number of histologic changes. Barium sulfate demonstrated acceptable images with virtually no histologic changes. Conclusion. From the histologic and imaging results, barium is the best available contrast material for bronchography. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy for assessment of the upper airways of head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian; Heusner, Till A. [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Treffert, Jon [Siemens Health Care, Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lehnerdt, Goetz; Mattheis, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Essen (Germany); Geiger, Bernhard [Siemens Corporate Research Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Bockisch, Andreas [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT panendoscopy is feasible and can be used for noninvasive imaging of the upper airways and pharyngeal/laryngeal tumours. From {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT data sets of 40 patients (29 men, 11 women; age 61 {+-} 9 years) with pharyngeal or laryngeal malignancies virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies were reconstructed and the image processing time was measured. The feasibility of assessing the oral cavity, nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, piriform sinus, postcricoid space, glottis, subglottis, trachea, bronchi and oesophagus and of detecting primary tumours was tested. Results of fibre-optic bronchoscopy and histology served as the reference standard. The nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, subglottis and the tracheobronchial tree were accessible in all 40, and the aryepiglottic folds, posterior hypopharyngeal wall, postcricoid space, piriform sinus, glottis, oral cavity and oesophagus in 37, 37, 37, 37, 33, 16 and 0 patients, respectively. In all 12 patients with restricted fibre-optic evaluation due to being primarily intubated, the subglottis was accessible via virtual panendoscopy. The primary tumour was depicted in 36 of 40 patients (90 %). The mean processing time for virtual {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies was 145 {+-} 98 s. Virtual {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy of the upper airways is technically feasible and can detect pharyngeal and laryngeal malignancies. This new tool can aid in the complete evaluation of the subglottic space in intubated patients and may be used for planning optical panendoscopies, biopsies and surgery in the future. (orig.)

  5. Airway inflammatory markers in individuals with cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin DA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available David A Bergin, Killian Hurley, Adwait Mehta, Stephen Cox, Dorothy Ryan, Shane J O’Neill, Emer P Reeves*, Noel G McElvaney*Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland*These authors share joint senior authorshipAbstract: Bronchiectasis is an airway disease characterized by thickening of the bronchial wall, chronic inflammation, and destruction of affected bronchi. Underlying etiologies include severe pulmonary infection and cystic fibrosis (CF; however, in a substantial number of patients with non-CF-related bronchiectasis (NCFB, no cause is found. The increasing armamentarium of therapies now available to combat disease in CF is in stark contrast to the limited tools employed in NCFB. Our study aimed to evaluate similarities and differences in airway inflammatory markers in patients with NCFB and CF, and to suggest potential common treatment options. The results of this study show that NCFB bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples possessed significantly increased NE activity and elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01; however, the levels detected were lower than in CF (P < 0.01. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 concentrations were significantly elevated in NCFB and CF compared to controls (P < 0.05, but in contrast, negligible levels of IL-18 were detected in both NCFB and CF. Analogous concentrations of IL-10 and IL-4 measured in NCFB and CF were statistically elevated above the healthy control values (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. These results indicate high levels of important proinflammatory markers in both NCFB and CF and support the use of appropriate anti-inflammatory therapies already employed in the treatment of CF bronchiectasis in NCFB.Keywords: bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, proteases, inflammation

  6. Epidemiological evaluation of occupational diseases in Poland, 2002; Sytuacja epidemiologiczna w zakresie chorob zawodowych w Polsce w roku 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplonska, B.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Szymczak, W. [Instytutu Medycyny Pracy, Lodzi (Poland). Z Zakladu Epidemiologii Srodowiskowej

    2003-07-01

    This paper shows the data of the Central Register of Occupational Diseases presenting the incidence in the year 2002. All cases of the occupational diseases reported to the Registry on the special individual form by the sanitary-hygienic stations were analyzed. 4915 cases of occupational diseases were registered in 2002 with the incidence rate of 53.6 per 100000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for 7 groups of occupational diseases: vocal organ diseases due to an excessive voice effort (13.4 per 100000 employees); noise-induced hearing loss (10.0); pneumoconioses (7.5); contagious and invasive diseases (7.5); dermatoses (3.5); chronic diseases of bronchi (2.5); and vibration syndrome (2.4). Most occupational diseases were induced by a long-term exposure to pathogenic factors occurring in the occupational environment. As much as 93.5% of these diseases were manifested after a 10-year exposure duration. The highest incidence levels were found to occur in forestry (707.65), mining and quarrying (348.46), coal mining (405.43), manufacture of metals (267.34), manufacture of transport equipment (156.08), and education (123.0). Occupational diseases in males represents 60.5% of new cases. The data of the Registry indicate a decreasing number of the registered occupational diseases that could be observed in Poland. Four types of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic vocal organ diseases, contagious and invasive diseases, and dermatoses. The vocal organ diseases are the most frequently recorded with the highest incidence since the year 1997. 8 refs.

  7. Invasive procedure for clarification of pulmonary nodules; Invasive Verfahren zur Abklaerung pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H. [Universitaetsklinikum, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Marburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The management of solitary lung nodules poses a common clinical problem and biopsy is often required. Several guidelines provide slightly different recommendations and there are no uniform recommendations regarding the ideal technique of puncture guidance (e.g. percutaneous versus bronchoscopic or thoracoscopic). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and core biopsy are well established techniques. Both can be performed under CT and to some extent ultrasound guidance. Diagnostic accuracies of FNA and core biopsy for malignant lesions are around 95 %. Core biopsy is superior to FNA for establishing a specific diagnosis with a diagnostic yield of 81-88 % versus 17-21 %. In clinical routine practice core biopsy is the superior tool when compared to FNA. Central lesions in close proximity to bronchi may be biopsied with endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided bronchoscopy. In all other lesions percutaneous, ideally CT-guided biopsy should be the method of first choice. (orig.) [German] Solitaere Lungenrundherde stellen ein haeufiges differenzialdiagnostisches Problem dar, das oftmals mit der Bildgebung alleine nicht endgueltig zu loesen ist und eine Biopsie erfordert. Die Indikation zur Biopsie variiert zwischen den Leitlinien, und die beste Technik der Biopsie (perkutan vs. bronchoskopisch vs. thorakoskopisch) ist oftmals nicht eindeutig. Feinnadelaspirations- (FNA) und Stanzbiopsie stehen als lange etablierte Standardtechniken zur Verfuegung. Beide koennen CT- und bedingt ultraschallgesteuert durchgefuehrt werden. Die diagnostische Aussagekraft fuer die Diagnose maligner Tumoren liegt fuer beide Techniken bei 95 %. Die Stanzbiopsie ist jedoch der FNA fuer die spezifische Diagnose benigner Prozesse mit einer Genauigkeit von 82-88 vs. 17-21 % ueberlegen. Die Stanzbiopsie ist gegenueber der FNA das in der klinischen Routine ueberlegene Werkzeug. Bei sehr zentralen Herden in Nachbarschaft zu einem Bronchus kann primaer eine bronchoskopische EBUS-gesteuerte (endobronchialer

  8. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions with, an ultrathin bronchoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphic data processed from thin-section chest CT images have enabled virtual bronchoscope image (VB), navigation which has also enabled short-time and accurate biopsy of small peripheral lung lesions by ultrathin bronchoscopes. However, the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic method have not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to clarify limits and problems in diagnostic procedures by virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN). Forty-six cases in which peripheral small lung lesions could not be recognized by conventional fluoroscopy were examined. From thin-section CT images, VB images to bronchi reaching lesions directly or as nearly as possible, were processed using workstation software (ZIO M900 Quadra). Then, transbronchial biopsy (TBB) with ultrathin bronchoscope was performed by VBN under real time CT-radiography. The correlation between diagnostic accuracy by these procedures and other factors, such as the size of the lesion, identification of the bronchus involved with the lesion on CT, and ability of forceps to biopsy the lesion were analyzed. In 27 cases, a bronchus directly involved with the lesion could be identified on CT. In 21 (77.8%), a diagnosis of lung carcinoma was established. In all cases in which the lesions were less than 10 mm, neither pulmonary artery nor the involved bronchus could be identified on CT, thus VB for the involved bronchus or accurate biopsy was not successful. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of TBB with VBN were 64.1%, 100%, and 65.9%, respectively. TBB with VBN is highly efficient for the accurate biopsy of a small lesion in the periphery of the lung, when the bronchus directly involved with the lesion is identified on CT. The existing virtual endoscopic software which has not been specified to airways is also practical for processing VB. However, this diagnostic method is limited when either the pulmonary artery or the bronchus involved with the lesion cannot be identified. (author)

  9. The detection of pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration by radiosalivagram in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, G.; Reddihough, D.; Olinsky, A.; South, M.J.; Bowe, J.; Cook, D.J. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Parkville, VIC, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) may have abnormal respiratory function because of aspiration pneumonitis, chest deformity, upper airways obstruction or central respiratory control abnormalities. The diagnosis of aspiration has long confounded clinicians and is often made indirectly after exclusion of other causes of respiratory disease in susceptible individuals. The radiosalivagram is a technique which permits the demonstration of aspiration of pharyngeal contents in individuals with pharyngeal incoordination. It is a simple procedure which provides both qualitative and quantitative evidence of aspiration. Over an hour and while supine, 20 mL of {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid is instilled into the pharynx via a thin plastic tube using a syringe pump. The neck, thorax and upper abdomen are imaged continuously In normal individuals, radioactivity is demonstrated in the pharynx, oesophagus and stomach; in the presence of pharyngeal incoordination, radioactivity is seen within one or both main bronchi and adjacent lung fields. The rate of clearance from the lungs varies and can be quantified. We have studied 31 children with severe non-ambulant CR The time to first aspiration, maximum quantity aspirated, and retention of aspirated material at 2h have been determined. These data have been compared with measurements of respiratory function. Preliminary results of this ongoing study reveal a broad range of outcomes. Seventeen children (17/31) had aspiration, in 15/17 aspiration was unilateral and in 14/17 there was spontaneous early clearance. The investigation was well tolerated by patients. The radiosalivagram is a simple, quantifiable investigation for demonstrating or excluding pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration in children with unexplained respiratory disease.

  10. Positive Association between Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma and Genetic Polymorphisms of FSIP1: a Case-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Inseon S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA, which is caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as aspirin, causes lung inflammation and reversal bronchi reduction, leading to difficulty in breathing. Aspirin is known to affect various parts inside human body, ranging from lung to spermatogenesis. FSIP1, also known as HDS10, is a recently discovered gene that encodes fibrous sheath interacting protein 1, and is regulated by amyloid beta precursor protein (APP. Recently, it has been reported that a peptide derived from APP is cleaved by α disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33, which is an asthma susceptibility gene. It has also been known that the FSIP1 gene is expressed in airway epithelium. Objectives Aim of this study is to find out whether FSIP1 polymorphisms affect the onset of AIA in Korean population, since it is known that AIA is genetically affected by various genes. Methods We conducted association study between 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the FSIP1 gene and AIA in total of 592 Korean subjects including 163 AIA and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA patients. Associations between polymorphisms of FSIP1 and AIA were analyzed with sex, smoking status, atopy, and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Results Initially, 18 SNPs and 4 haplotypes showed associations with AIA. However, after correcting the data for multiple testing, only one SNP showed an association with AIA (corrected P-value = 0.03, OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.23-2.16, showing increased susceptibility to AIA compared with that of ATA cases. Our findings suggest that FSIP1 gene might be a susceptibility gene for aspirin intolerance in asthmatics. Conclusion Although our findings did not suggest that SNPs of FSIP1 had an effect on the reversibility of lung function abnormalities in AIA patients, they did show significant evidence of association between the variants in FSIP1 and AIA occurrence among asthmatics in a Korean population.

  11. Tissue engineering and the use of stem/progenitor cells for airway epithelium repair

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    GM Roomans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells can be used to repair defects in the airway wall, resulting from e.g., tumors, trauma, tissue reactions following long-time intubations, or diseases that are associated with epithelial damage. Several potential sources of cells for airway epithelium have been identified. These can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of endogenous progenitor cells present in the respiratory tract. This group can be subdivided according to location into (a a ductal cell type in the submucosal glands of the proximal trachea, (b basal cells in the intercartilaginous zones of the lower trachea and bronchi, (c variant Clara cells (Clarav-cells in the bronchioles and (d at the junctions between the bronchioles and the alveolar ducts, and (e alveolar type II cells. This classification of progenitor cell niches is, however, controversial. The second group consists of exogenous stem cells derived from other tissues in the body. This second group can be subdivided into: (a embryonic stem (ES cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, or amniotic fluid stem cells, (b side-population cells from bone marrow or epithelial stem cells present in bone marrow or circulation and (c fat-derived mesenchymal cells. Airway epithelial cells can be co-cultured in a system that includes a basal lamina equivalent, extracellular factors from mesenchymal fibroblasts, and in an air-liquid interface system. Recently, spheroid-based culture systems have been developed. Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema.

  12. Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scan-ning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary le-sions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis ofbone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the mostpossible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitarylesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on wholebone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patientswith primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis is 6.3% in 64 patients withoutprimary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis ofsolitary lesions is as follows respectively: bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18):G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant differ-ence in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) ofsolitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, we found the diagnos-tic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull;10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concludedthat: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) Themost possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic andskull. (3) Special attention to "cold" and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) Aclinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized outhere.``

  13. Pathogenesis of Intrapulmonary Haemorrhage in Dogs Exposed to Pulsed Fission-Spectrum Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous comparison in this laboratory of tissue alterations in dogs produced by exposure to 250 kVp X-rays and pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons has shown general similarity of response. However, the lungs of animals exposed to fission-spectrum neutrons are considerably more susceptible to peribronchial and perivascular pulmonary haemorrhage. An attempt has been made to define the pathogenesis of this lesion by exposing five beagles to 400 rad (MAD) fast neutrons from a bare GODIVA-type reactor and serially sacrificing the animals at periodic intervals. Gross pathologic alterations consisting of occasional small peripheral-pulmonary haemorrhages were discernible at +5 d post-irradiation. These became progressively more numerous by the ninth day. The most striking changes occurred at +13 d, consisting of extensive perivascular haemorrhage around pulmonary-arterial branches from the hilum to the pleural suríace. The earliest histologic changes observed in the lungs occurred at +5 d, consisting of focal well-demarcated areas of alveolar congestion, swelling of capillary-endothelial cells and slight alveolar extravasation of red blood cells. These changes became more generalized by + 9 d and in addition there were focal areas of peribronchial extravasation of blood involving the right and left main-stem bronchi. Animals necropsied on the thirteenth day post-irradiation revealed extensive perivascular haemorrhage involving large and small pulmonaryarterial vessels. The blood appeared within the advential-connective tissue and periarterial-lymphatic spaces. Endothelial swelling was extremely marked in affected vessels, but the media appeared essentially unremarkable. Peribronchial haemorrhage was also present adjacent to affected pulmonary-arterial branches. The pathogenesis of these alterations appears to be related to primary endothelial damage produced by pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons. An additional contributing factor is probably thrombocytopenia as the number of

  14. HCY-2在正常人胚呼吸系统中的表达%The Expression of HCY-2 in Normal Human Embryonic Trachea and Lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元元; 李耀康; 王光明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of homocysteine induced gene(HCY-2)in the normal human embryonic trachea and lung and to reveal the effects of HCY-2 on the development of respiration system. Methods: The immunohistochemistry ABC method was used to detect the HCY-2 expression in the normal human embryonic trachea and lung. Results:HCY-2 expressed during the whole development of the human embryonic trachea and lung and mainly in the epitheliums of trachea and pulmonary bronchi and glandular epitheliums. Conclusion:HCY-2 expression protein could be closely related to the development of trachea and lung.%目的:研究同型半胱氨酸诱导基因(HCY-2)在发育不同时期的正常人胚气管和肺中的表达,揭示HCY-2基因在呼吸系统发育中的作用.方法:取正常人胚气管和肺,采用免疫组织化学ABC法对气管和肺内HCY-2表达变化进行分析.结果:HCY-2在人胚气管和肺发育的整个时期均表达,其表达部位主要在气管及其各级支气管的上皮和气管腺腺细胞内.结论:HCY-2表达蛋白可能与人胚气管及肺的发育密切相关.

  15. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

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    Hiroki Tashiro

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2, resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation.BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes.The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung.IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation.

  16. Early and late effects of fission-neutron or gamma irradiation on the clearance of bacteria from the lungs of B6CF1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced susceptibility to experimental respiratory infection following chronic exposure to low-level gamma radiation has been reported, but no comparable information exists for neutron-irradiated animals. Such information is needed in view of the apparently greater additivity of repeated low fission-neutron doses. Consequently altered susceptibility to respiratory infection is being examined in the JANUS Neutron and Gamma-Ray Toxicity Program. Some B6CF1 mice of various ages were challenged with Pasteurella pneumotropica either by intranasal instillation or by aerosol inhalation following single or fractionated doses of neutrons or 60Co gamma radiation. Clearance of the bacteria from the lungs was assessed 4 days after challenge by a culture technique and by histological and immunofluorescence staining. From 5 to 21 days after a single dose of 288 neutron rads or 740 gamma rads, a ratio equal to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell killing, there was little repair of the radiation-damaged clearance mechanism evident in neutron-irradiated mice; 85% were unable to clear the organism as long as 21 days after irradiation. Over the same period only 25% of gamma-irradiated mice failed to eliminate P. pneumotropica. Immunofluorescent-stained lung sections at all time intervals between 5 and 21 days were strikingly similar among neutron- and gamma-irradiated mice and unirradiated mice. Alveolar macrophages were swollen with fluorescent P. pneumotropica cells, and macrophages surrounding the bronchi and in the bronchial exudate were also intensely fluorescent. These data, coupled with the culture data, indicate that pulmonary macrophages in the irradiated host are capable of engulfing P. pneumotropica cells but that the ability to kill them is impaired

  17. Indoor aerosol size distributions in a gymnasium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amaya; Calvo, Ana I; Alves, Célia; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Coz, Esther; Marques, Liliana; Nunes, Teresa; Fernández-Guisuraga, Jose Manuel; Fraile, Roberto

    2015-08-15

    In this study, an indoor/outdoor monitoring program was carried out in a gymnasium at the University of Leon, Spain. The main goal was a characterization of aerosol size distributions in a university gymnasium under different conditions and sports activities (with and without magnesia alba) and the study of the mass fraction deposited in each of the parts of the respiratory tract. The aerosol particles were measured in 31 discrete channels (size ranges) using a laser spectrometer probe. Aerosol size distributions were studied under different conditions: i) before sports activities, ii) activities without using magnesia alba, iii) activities using magnesia alba, iv) cleaning procedures, and v) outdoors. The aerosol refractive index and density indoors were estimated from the aerosol composition: 1.577-0.003i and 2.055 g cm(-3), respectively. Using the estimated density, the mass concentration was calculated, and the evolution of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 for different activities was assessed. The quality of the air in the gymnasium was strongly influenced by the use of magnesia alba (MgCO3) and the number of gymnasts who were training. Due to the climbing chalk and the constant process of resuspension, average PM10 concentrations of over 440 μg m(-3) were reached. The maximum daily concentrations ranged from 500 to 900 μg m(-3). Particle size determines the place in the respiratory tract where the deposition occurs. For this reason, the inhalable, thoracic, tracheobronchial and respirable fractions were assessed for healthy adults and high risk people, according to international standards. The estimations show that, for healthy adults, up to 300 μg m(-3) can be retained by the trachea and bronchi, and 130 μg m(-3) may reach the alveolar region. The different physical activities and the attendance rates in the sports facility have a significant influence on the concentration and size distributions observed. PMID:25897726

  18. Plasma antibodies against heat shock protein 70 correlate with the incidence and severity of asthma in a Chinese population

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    Wei Qingyi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heat shock proteins (Hsps are induced by stresses such as allergic factors and inflammatory responses in bronchi epithelial cells and therefore may be detectable in patients with asthma. However, the etiologic link between anti-Hsps and asthma (its severity and related inflammatory responses such as interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin E has not been established. We determined whether antibodies against Hsp60 and Hsp70 were present in patients with asthma and evaluated their associations with risk and severity of asthma. Methods We determined the levels of anti-Hsp60 and anti-Hsp70 by immunoblot and their associations with risk and symptom severity of asthma in 95 patients with asthma and 99 matched non-symptomatic controls using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the controls, asthma patients were more likely to have detectable anti-Hsp60 (17.2% vs 5.1% and anti-Hsp70 (33.7% vs 8.1% (p ≤ 0.001. In particular, the presence of anti-Hsp70 was associated with a greater than 2 fold risk for asthma (adjusted OR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.35~3.59. Furthermore, both anti-Hsp60 and anti-Hsp70 levels were positively correlated with symptom severity (p Conclusions These data suggest that anti-Hsp60 and especially anti-Hsp70 correlate with the attacks and severity of asthma. The underlying molecular mechanisms linking antibodies to heat shock proteins and asthma remain to be investigated.

  19. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/106/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/106/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/106/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/106/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/106/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/106/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  20. Airway shape assessment with visual feed-back in asthma and obstructive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetita, Catalin; Ortner, Margarete; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Ould Hmeidi, Yahya; Pr"teux, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Airway remodeling in asthma patients has been studied in vivo by means of endobronchial biopsies allowing to assess structural and inflammatory changes. However, this technique remains relatively invasive and difficult to use in longitudinal trials. The development of alternative non-invasive tests, namely exploiting high-resolution imaging modalities such as MSCT, is gaining interest in the medical community. This paper develops a fullyautomated airway shape assessment approach based on the 3D segmentation of the airway lumen from MSCT data. The objective is to easily notify the radiologist on bronchus shape variations (stenoses, bronchiectasis) along the airway tree during a simple visual investigation. The visual feed-back is provided by means of a volumerendered color coding of the airway calibers which are robustly defined and computed, based on a specific 3D discrete distance function able to deal with small size structures. The color volume rendering (CVR) information is further on reinforced by the definition and computation of a shape variation index along the airway medial axis enabling to detect specific configurations of stenoses. Such cases often occur near bifurcations (bronchial spurs) and they are either missed in the CVR or difficult to spot due to occlusions by other segments. Consequently, all detected shape variations (stenoses, dilations and thickened spurs) can be additionally displayed on the medial axis and investigated together with the CVR information. The proposed approach was evaluated on a MSCT database including twelve patients with severe or moderate persistent asthma, or severe COPD, by analyzing segmental and subsegmental bronchi of the right lung. The only CVR information provided for a limited number of views allowed to detect 78% of stenoses and bronchial spurs in these patients, whereas the inclusion of the shape variation index enabled to complement the missing information.

  1. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Lauzon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway.

  2. Endobronchial Ultrasound Reliably Quantifies Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in an Equine Asthma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Bullone

    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS revealed differences in the thickness of the layer representing subepithelial tissues (L2 between human asthmatics and controls, but whether this measurement correlates with airway smooth muscle (ASM remodeling in asthma is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the ability of EBUS to predict histological ASM remodeling in normal and equine asthmatic airways. We studied 109 isolated bronchi from the lungs of 13 horses. They underwent EBUS examination using a 30 MHz radial probe before being processed for histology. ASM remodeling parameters were evaluated in EBUS images (L2 thickness, L2 area, L2 area/internal perimeter [Pi] and L2 area/Pi2 and histological cuts (ASM area/Pi2, and compared. EBUS was then performed ex vivo on the lungs of 4 horses with heaves, an asthma-like condition of horses, and 7 controls to determine whether central bronchial remodeling could be detected with this technique. An optimized approach was developed based on data variability within airways, subjects, and groups, and then validated in 7 horses (3 controls, 4 with heaves that underwent EBUS in vivo. L2 area was significantly associated to ASM area in isolated lungs (p<0.0001, in the absence of significant bias related to the airway size. Bronchial size significantly affected EBUS ASM-related parameters, except for L2 area/Pi2. L2 area/Pi2 was increased in the airways of asthmatic horses compared to controls, both ex vivo and in vivo (p<0.05. Bronchial histology confirmed our findings (AASM/Pi2 was increased in asthmatic horses compared to controls, p<0.05. In both horses with heaves and controls, L2 was composed of ASM for the outer 75% of its thickness and by ECM for the remaining inner 25%. In conclusion, EBUS reliably allows assessment of asthma-associated ASM remodeling of central airways in a non-invasive way.

  3. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Martin, James G

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway. PMID:26998246

  4. Endobronchial Ultrasound Reliably Quantifies Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in an Equine Asthma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullone, Michela; Beauchamp, Guy; Godbout, Mireille; Martin, James G; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) revealed differences in the thickness of the layer representing subepithelial tissues (L2) between human asthmatics and controls, but whether this measurement correlates with airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling in asthma is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the ability of EBUS to predict histological ASM remodeling in normal and equine asthmatic airways. We studied 109 isolated bronchi from the lungs of 13 horses. They underwent EBUS examination using a 30 MHz radial probe before being processed for histology. ASM remodeling parameters were evaluated in EBUS images (L2 thickness, L2 area, L2 area/internal perimeter [Pi] and L2 area/Pi2) and histological cuts (ASM area/Pi2), and compared. EBUS was then performed ex vivo on the lungs of 4 horses with heaves, an asthma-like condition of horses, and 7 controls to determine whether central bronchial remodeling could be detected with this technique. An optimized approach was developed based on data variability within airways, subjects, and groups, and then validated in 7 horses (3 controls, 4 with heaves) that underwent EBUS in vivo. L2 area was significantly associated to ASM area in isolated lungs (pBronchial size significantly affected EBUS ASM-related parameters, except for L2 area/Pi2. L2 area/Pi2 was increased in the airways of asthmatic horses compared to controls, both ex vivo and in vivo (pBronchial histology confirmed our findings (AASM/Pi2 was increased in asthmatic horses compared to controls, pasthma-associated ASM remodeling of central airways in a non-invasive way. PMID:26348727

  5. Modified full-field optical coherence tomography: A novel tool for rapid histology of tissues

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    Manu Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Here, we report the first use of a commercial prototype of full-field optical coherence tomography called Light-CT TM . Based on the principle of white light interferometry, Light-CT TM generates quick high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed tissues. Its advantage over the current intra-surgical diagnostic standard, i.e. frozen section analysis, lies in the absence of freezing artifacts, which allows real-time diagnostic impressions, and/or for the tissues to be triaged for subsequent conventional histopathology. Materials and Methods: In this study, we recapitulate known normal histology in nine formalin fixed ex vivo rat organs (skin, heart, lung, liver, stomach, kidney, prostate, urinary bladder, and testis. Large surface and virtually sectioned stacks of images at varying depths were acquired by a pair of 10x/0.3 numerical aperture water immersion objectives, processed and visualized in real time. Results: Normal histology of the following organs was recapitulated by identifying various tissue microstructures. Skin: epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and hair follicles with surrounding sebaceous glands in the dermis. Stomach: mucosa with surface pits, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa. Liver: hepatocytes separated by sinusoidal spaces, central veins and portal triad. Kidney: convoluted tubules, medullary rays (straight tubules and collecting ducts. Prostate: acini and fibro-muscular stroma. Lung: bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli and pleura. Urinary bladder: urothelium, lamina propria, muscularis propria, and serosa. Testis: seminiferous tubules with intra-tubular sperms. Conclusion: Light-CT TM is a powerful imaging tool to perform fast histology on fresh and fixed tissues, without introducing artifacts. Its compact size, ease of handling, fast image acquisition and safe incident light levels makes it well-suited for various intra-operative and intra-procedural triaging and

  6. Role of cellular effectors in the emergence of ventilation defects during allergic bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layachi, Skander; Porra, Liisa; Albu, Gergely; Trouillet, Nathalie; Suhonen, Heikki; Peták, Ferenc; Sevestre, Henri; Suortti, Pekka; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Habre, Walid; Bayat, Sam

    2013-10-01

    It is not known whether local factors within the airway wall or parenchyma may influence the emergence and spatial distribution of ventilation defects (VDs), thereby modulating the dynamic system behavior of the lung during bronchoconstriction. We assessed the relationship between the distribution of cellular effectors and the emergence of defects in regional ventilation distribution following allergen challenge. We performed high-resolution K-edge subtraction (KES) synchrotron imaging during xenon inhalation and measured the forced oscillatory input impedance in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown-Norway rats (n = 12) at baseline and repeatedly following OVA challenge. Histological slices with best anatomic matching to the computed tomographic images were stained with a modified May-Grunwald Giemsa and immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal anti-rat CD68, in six rats. Slides were digitized and total cells and eosinophils were counted in the walls of bronchi and vessels randomly selected within and outside of VDs on the basis of xenon-KES images. Ventilated alveolar area decreased and ventilation heterogeneity, Newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and elastance increased following OVA challenge. Eosinophil, total cell, and CD68+ counts were significantly higher in the bronchial and vascular walls within vs. outside of the VDs. The minimal central airway diameters during OVA-induced bronchoconstriction were correlated with eosinophil (R = -0.85; P = 0.031) and total cell densities (R = -0.82; P = 0.046) in the airway walls within the poorly ventilated zones. Our findings suggest that allergic airway inflammation is locally heterogeneous and is topographically associated with the local emergence of VDs following allergen challenge. PMID:23887899

  7. Influence of sulfur dioxide on metabolism and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in isolated perfused rabbit lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated perfused lung (IPL) preparation was used to investigate the effects of SO2 (1 to 2 ppM) on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous potent carcinogen that has been associated with the increased incidence of human brochiogenic carcinoma in occupational and urban populations. [14C]BaP, with and without crude air particulate (CAP), was administered intracheally to the IPL in conjunction with SO2 or after pretreatment of the whole animal with SO2. Metabolites were isolated from serial blood samples up to 3 h after the administration of [14C]BaP to the IPL. Metabolites were also isolated from lung tissue, washout fluid, macrophage, and trachea and bronchi at the end of the perfusion at 180 min. Patterns of BaP metabolites were determined by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. SO2 given in conjunction with BaP on the IPL or given to the whole animal followed by BaP on the IPL, in comparison with BaP only on the IPL, resulted in a twofold increase in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood with changes in the metabolic pattern. SO2 given in conjunction with BaP and CAP on the IPL, in comparison with BaP plus SO2 on the IPL, resulted in a threefold decrease in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood with changes in the metabolic pattern

  8. Critical influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: imaging manifestations and histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; LI Ning; LI Yun-fang; ZHANG Hui-mao

    2012-01-01

    Background The global outbreak of influenza A (H1N1 ) has led to the Ministry of Health of China listing it as one of the A-class infectious diseases.Pneumonia is the most serious complication of influenza A,commonly causing death.Populations are ordinarily susceptible to influenza A.This study aimed to investigate the imaging manifestation features of cdtical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia and to improve its diagnostic techniques.Methods A total of seven death cases from critical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed on their imaging manifestations and autopsy data.Pulmonary CT scanning was performed for five cases,with one receiving additional chest X-ray and chest CT scanning,and chest postero-anterior position X-ray examination was performed for other two.Autopsy was performed for five cases and postmortem examinations were performed for other two cases.Results The seven cases of influenza A showed critical manifestations in 4-7 days after symptoms onset,with two having basic diseases of diabetes and one being pregnant.Extensive blurry high-density shadows of bilateral lungs were found in three cases,which were most obvious in middle and infedor parts of lungs.Pulmonary CT scanning revealed bilateral flaky parenchymal shadows in peripheral,dorsal and fundus segments of the middle-inferior parts of lungs,with one case of complicated pneumothorax,atelectasis and pleural effusion and another case of thin-walled cavity and dilated bronchi shadows in the superior parts of lungs.Conclusions Diagnostic imaging is an important assessing tool for cdtical influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia The imaging manifestations are characteristic instead of being specific.The definitive diagnosis can be made in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests.

  9. Age-dependence and intersubject variability of tracheobronchial particle clearance

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    Robert Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY.Background: The detailed study of tracheobronchial clearanceof inhaled particles represents one of the basic research questionsin lung medicine. The clearance efficiency varies in different agegroups and between males and females.The differences can bepartly clarified by the application of a well validated theoreticalapproach. This study applied a relevant model to children (1 year,5 years, 10 years, juveniles (15 years, and adults of different ages(18, 21, 25, 34, 50, and 60 years and to both sexes. Methods: Themathematical model used for clearance simulation is based on theconcept of a stochastic lung structure and considers both early fastmucociliary clearance and a later, slow clearance fraction, fs, effectedby particular uptake by tracheobronchial cells, e.g., macrophagesand epithelial cells. According to this model, the calculated mucusvelocities for each airway generation of the tracheobronchial compartmentare normalized to a respective tracheal mucus velocitythat is estimated for each of the age groups studied from an allometricfunction. Results: In general, tracheobronchial clearanceefficiency undergoes a significant increase from childhood to youngadulthood, reaching a maximum at 25-30 years and decreasingagain from about 30 years to 60 years. Conversely to the improvementof clearance, the continuous change of airway morphometrywith increasing age causes a decrease of the filtering effect in thetrachea and main bronchi, which is of marked importance in infants.The modelling results demonstrate differences in tracheobronchialclearance between males and females, generally in the range from0 to 5%, which are exclusively determined by the individual lunggeometry. Conclusions: Based on theoretical computations itcan be concluded that tracheobronchial clearance is a phenomenonthat depends on both age and sex. Biological studies are necessaryto determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlyingthe age-dependent development of

  10. Cell counting in human endobronchial biopsies--disagreement of 2D versus 3D morphometry.

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    Vlad A Bratu

    Full Text Available QUESTION: Inflammatory cell numbers are important endpoints in clinical studies relying on endobronchial biopsies. Assumption-based bidimensional (2D counting methods are widely used, although theoretically design-based stereologic three-dimensional (3D methods alone offer an unbiased quantitative tool. We assessed the method agreement between 2D and 3D counting designs in practice when applied to identical samples in parallel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies from segmental bronchi were collected from healthy non-smokers (n = 7 and smokers (n = 7, embedded and sectioned exhaustively. Systematic uniform random samples were immunohistochemically stained for macrophages (CD68 and T-lymphocytes (CD3, respectively. In identical fields of view, cell numbers per volume unit (NV were assessed using the physical disector (3D, and profiles per area unit (NA were counted (2D. For CD68+ cells, profiles with and without nucleus were separately recorded. In order to enable a direct comparison of the two methods, the zero-dimensional CD68+/CD3+-ratio was calculated for each approach. Method agreement was tested by Bland-Altmann analysis. RESULTS: In both groups, mean CD68+/CD3+ ratios for NV and NA were significantly different (non-smokers: 0.39 and 0.68, p<0.05; smokers: 0.49 and 1.68, p<0.05. When counting only nucleated CD68+ profiles, mean ratios obtained by 2D and 3D counting were similar, but the regression-based Bland-Altmann analysis indicated a bias of the 2D ratios proportional to their magnitude. This magnitude dependent deviation differed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: 2D counts of cell and nuclear profiles introduce a variable size-dependent bias throughout the measurement range. Because the deviation between the 3D and 2D data was different in the two groups, it precludes establishing a 'universal conversion formula'.

  11. Role of growth factors in molecular pathogenetic mechanism of radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the role of growth factors and their receptors in radiation pulmonary fibrosis(RPF). Methods: Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used. Results: The normal rat lung tissue weakly expressed TGFβ1 and TGFβ receptor (TGFβR).The expression of TGFβ1 in rat lung increased at 2 weeks after irradiation and its highest level maintained from 8 weeks to 3 months. The positive localization of TGFβ1 in lung was the epithelial cells of bronchi, alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells of the bronchial and arteriolar wall and fibroblasts. The expression of TGFβ2 was similar to that of TGFβ1. The time of increased expression of TGFβR was later than that of TGFβ1.i,e. It increased at 8 weeks and kept a higher level of expression throughout one year. Stronger expressions of the bFGF and PDGF were also observed in 2-3 months postirradiation. The expression of TGFβ1 in the cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was investigated. The results showed that macrophages were one of the earliest cells showing positive reaction,i,e. they presented positive at 1 week. For the cultured Wistar rat lung fibroblasts, TGFβ1 expression was stronger at 3 months postirradiation. By means of in situ hybridization with TGFβ1 probe and α1(I) oligonucleotide probe, the expression of TGFβ1 mRNA was increased at 2-8 weeks and α1(I) pro-collagen mRAN was increased at 6 weeks, but the expression peak appeared at 3 months postirradiation. The expressions of TGFβ1 and α1(I) pro-collagen were mutually connected and overlapped both in time and space. Conclusion: TGFβ1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RPF. TGFβ2, TGFβR, bFGF and PDGF-A also participate in the pathogenetic process

  12. Pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and bronchial reactivity in formaldehyde-exposed rats are modulated by mast cells and differentially by neuropeptides and nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a pharmacological approach to study the mechanisms underlying the rat lung injury and the airway reactivity changes induced by inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) (1% formalin solution, 90 min once a day, 4 days). The reactivity of isolated tracheae and intrapulmonary bronchi were assessed in dose-response curves to methacholine (MCh). Local and systemic inflammatory phenomena were evaluated in terms of leukocyte countings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, blood, bone marrow lavage and spleen. Whereas the tracheal reactivity to MCh did not change, a significant bronchial hyporesponsiveness (BHR) was found after FA inhalation as compared with naive rats. Also, FA exposure significantly increased the total cell numbers in BAL, in peripheral blood and in the spleen, but did not modify the counts in bone marrow. Capsaicin hindered the increase of leukocyte number recovered in BAL fluid after FA exposure. Both compound 48/80 and indomethacin were able to prevent the lung neutrophil influx after FA, but indomethacin had no effect on that of mononuclear cells. Following FA inhalation, the treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG), but not with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, significantly reduced the total cell number in BAL. Compound 48/80, L-NAME and SCG significantly prevented BHR to MCh after FA inhalation, whereas capsaicin was inactive in this regard. On the other hand, indomethacin exacerbated BHR. These data suggest that after FA inhalation, the resulting lung leukocyte influx and BHR may involve nitric oxide, airway sensory fibers and mast cell-derived mediators. The effect of NO seemed to be largely restricted to the bronchial tonus, whereas neuropeptides appeared to be linked to the inflammatory response, therefore indicating that the mechanisms responsible for the changes of airway responsiveness caused by FA may be separate from those underlying its inflammatory lung effects

  13. Postnatal remodeling of the neural components of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit in the proximal airways of infant rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone and allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerves and neuroendocrine cells located within the airway epithelium are ideally situated to sample a changing airway environment, to transmit that information to the central nervous system, and to promote trophic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cellular and acellular components. We tested the hypothesis that the environmental stresses of ozone (O3) and house dust mite allergen (HDMA) in atopic infant rhesus monkeys alter the distribution of airway nerves. Midlevel bronchi and bronchioles from 6-month-old infant monkeys that inhaled filtered air (FA), house dust mite allergen HDMA, O3, or HDMA + O3 for 11 episodes (5 days each, 0.5 ppm O3, 8 h/day followed by 9 days recovery) were examined using immunohistochemistry for the presence of Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a nonspecific neural indicator, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Along the axial path between the sixth and the seventh intrapulmonary airway generations, there were small significant (P 3, while in monkeys exposed to HDMA + O3 there was a greater significant (P 3 or HDMA + O3 there was a significant increase in the number of PGP 9.5 positive/CGRP negative cells that were anchored to the basal lamina and emitted projections in primarily the lateral plain and often intertwined with projections and cell bodies of other similar cells. We conclude that repeated cycles of acute injury and repair associated with the episodic pattern of ozone and allergen exposure alter the normal development of neural innervation of the epithelial compartment and the appearance of a new population of undefined PGP 9.5 positive cells within the epithelium

  14. Outdoor particulate matter and childhood asthma admissions in Athens, Greece: a time-series study

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    Roma Eleftheria S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter with diameter less than 10 micrometers (PM10 that originates from anthropogenic activities and natural sources may settle in the bronchi and cause adverse effects possibly via oxidative stress in susceptible individuals, such as asthmatic children. This study aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor PM10 concentrations on childhood asthma admissions (CAA in Athens, Greece. Methods Daily counts of CAA from the three Children's Hospitals within the greater Athens' area were obtained from the hospital records during a four-year period (2001-2004, n = 3602 children. Mean daily PM10 concentrations recorded by the air pollution-monitoring network of the greater Athens area were also collected. The relationship between CAA and PM10 concentrations was investigated using the Generalized Linear Models with Poisson distribution and logistic analysis. Results There was a statistically significant (95% CL relationship between CAA and mean daily PM10 concentrations on the day of exposure (+3.8% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations, while a 1-day lag (+3.4% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations and a 4-day lag (+4.3% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations were observed for older asthmatic children (5-14 year-old. High mean daily PM10 concentration (the highest 10%; >65.69 μg/m3 doubled the risk of asthma exacerbations even in younger asthmatic children (0-4 year-old. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of the adverse effect of PM10 on the rates of paediatric asthma exacerbations and hospital admissions. A four-day lag effect between PM10 peak exposure and asthma admissions was also observed in the older age group.

  15. A Clinicopathological Analysis of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

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    Jun GAO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (PLAM is a rare tumor with unique clinicopathological features. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathological features, the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Methods Three cases of PLAM were analyzed by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and their clinical data, and the relative literatures were reviewed. Results Three cases of patients suffered from PLAM were the women in their reproductive aged, from 27 years to 45 years (mean 37.7 years, two cases of the HRCT showed bilateral diffuse cystic airspaces changed, and one case was the pneumothorax. The histopathological examination revealed the tumor was composed of the variably sized cystic spaces are lined by plaque-like or nodular aggregates of endothelial cells and the hyperplasia, smooth-muscle-like spindle cells which was along with the bronchi and the vessels. The immunohistochemistry showed that Des, Caldes, SMA, MSA, HMB-45, CD63, Vim, ER and PR were positive in the hyperplasia spindle cells, and there was no expression of MRAT-1. The FVIII, CD34 were positive in the capillary endothelial cells, and the D2-40 was positive in the lymphatic vessels. All the patients were alive without the recrudescence of the PLAM since the diagnosis, about 3 months to 25 months, and there was no LAM in their other systems. Conclusion The most significant histopathological feature of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis was the progressive invasion of smooth muscle cells into the lymphatic vessels, and the blood vessels. The majority of the cases occur in the lungs of the women in the predominantly premenopausal and middle-age. It is a poor prognosis due to the progressive respiratory failure.

  16. Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 enhances experimental asthma by promoting Th2 and Th17 and limiting regulatory T cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Yong; Jing, Xuefang; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2013-04-01

    Asthma is a common inflammatory disease involving cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity. We reveal that antibacterial innate immunity protein, peptidoglycan recognition protein (Pglyrp)1, is involved in the development of allergic asthma. Pglyrp1(-/-) mice developed less severe asthma than wild-type (WT) mice following sensitization with house dust mite (allergen) (HDM). HDM-sensitized Pglyrp1(-/-) mice, compared with WT mice, had diminished bronchial hyperresponsiveness (lung airway resistance); numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs; inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lungs around bronchi, bronchioles, and pulmonary arteries and veins; lung remodeling (mucin-producing goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and smooth muscle hypertrophy and fibrosis); levels of IgE, eotaxins, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 in the lungs; and numbers of Th2 and Th17 cells and expression of their marker genes in the lungs. The mechanism underlying this decreased sensitivity of Pglyrp1(-/-) mice to asthma was increased generation and activation of CD8α(+)β(+) and CD8α(+)β(-) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and increased recruitment and activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs. In vivo depletion of pDC in HDM-sensitized Pglyrp1(-/-) mice reversed the low responsive asthma phenotype of Pglyrp1(-/-) mice to resemble the more severe WT phenotype. Thus, Pglyrp1(-/-) mice efficiently control allergic asthma by upregulating pDC and Treg cells in the lungs, whereas in WT mice, Pglyrp1 is proinflammatory and decreases pDC and Treg cells and increases proasthmatic Th2 and Th17 responses. Blocking Pglyrp1 or enhancing pDC in the lungs may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:23420883

  17. A volumetric pulmonary CT segmentation method with applications in emphysema assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Santos, Beatriz S.

    2006-03-01

    A segmentation method is a mandatory pre-processing step in many automated or semi-automated analysis tasks such as region identification and densitometric analysis, or even for 3D visualization purposes. In this work we present a fully automated volumetric pulmonary segmentation algorithm based on intensity discrimination and morphologic procedures. Our method first identifies the trachea as well as primary bronchi and then the pulmonary region is identified by applying a threshold and morphologic operations. When both lungs are in contact, additional procedures are performed to obtain two separated lung volumes. To evaluate the performance of the method, we compared contours extracted from 3D lung surfaces with reference contours, using several figures of merit. Results show that the worst case generally occurs at the middle sections of high resolution CT exams, due the presence of aerial and vascular structures. Nevertheless, the average error is inferior to the average error associated with radiologist inter-observer variability, which suggests that our method produces lung contours similar to those drawn by radiologists. The information created by our segmentation algorithm is used by an identification and representation method in pulmonary emphysema that also classifies emphysema according to its severity degree. Two clinically proved thresholds are applied which identify regions with severe emphysema, and with highly severe emphysema. Based on this thresholding strategy, an application for volumetric emphysema assessment was developed offering new display paradigms concerning the visualization of classification results. This framework is easily extendable to accommodate other classifiers namely those related with texture based segmentation as it is often the case with interstitial diseases.

  18. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

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    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  20. Not asthma,but GERD:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhonggao

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the lungs characterized by increased responsiveness of the airways,as manifested by episodes of wheezing and increased resistance to expiratory airflow because of varying degrees of smooth muscle contraction,edema of the mucosa,and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles.The stimuli vary widely and include antigens,infection,air pollutants,respiratory tract irritants,exercise,and emotional factors.This condition is completely different from distress breathing because of laryngotracheal spasm.One of its causes is the gastric content reflux through the pharynx to the larynx because of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),in addition to the typical human avian flu that may cause immediate suffocation by laryngospasm owing to acute larygotrachitis.A patient suffered from GERD without esophageal symptoms,which was diagnosed and treated as bronchial asthma during his five emergency admissious.The admissions were because of episodic attacks of severe air hunger owing to an extreme throat tightening.The patient was being treated for as long as two years.After the correct diagnosis was made and treatment of laporascopic fundaplication was performed,the longstanding "bronchial asthma",after all,completely disappeared.The concept of "not asthma,but GERD" seems undervalued,unappreciated,even misunderstood among patients with intractable asthma.Therefore,such a case is reported in detail,similar cases are mentioned briefly as well,and a mechanism responsible for GERD-originated larryngo- or laryngotracho-spasm is proposed.

  1. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  2. Pathologic-HRCT correlation of pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the ability of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to detect pneumoconiotic changes, HRCT findings were correlated with pathologic features of 14 inflation-fixed postmortem lungs. The most common pathological feature in all the lungs was irregular peribronchiolar and interlobular fibrosis. This corresponded to an area of hazy increased density or reticular density on HRCT. Although the reticular density on HRCT became coarser with the progression of fibrosis. HRCT failed to detect mild fibrosis. Subpleural curvilinear line, as seen on HRCT in 5 lungs, corresponded to band-like zone of fibrosis containing bronchioles or zone of collapsed alveoli with fibrotic thickening. A subpleural band-like zone of organized pneumonia was recognized in 2 cases. Subpleural patchy density was seen on HRCT in 8 cases, pathologically corresponding to fibrosis in 5, and localized edema, organized pneumonia, and atelectasis without fibrosis in the other one each. Overall, HRCT was capable of detecting nodules in 71% (182/256); however, it failed to show nodules smaller than 1.5 mm in 63% (52/83). Enlarged air space at the periphery of the nodules was seen on HRCT in 78% (122/156). A total of 12 lesions of progressive massive fibrosis were found in 5 lungs. An irregular border, as seen on HRCT in all lesions, was pathologically based on the fibrosis extending into the surrounding alveoli and partially confluencing pneumoconiotic micronodules. Patent residual bronchi, spared from destructive fibrotic change, were seen as strand-like air density on HRCT in 4 of 6 lesions. Focal emphysema, found in 9 lungs, appeared as non-peripheral, small low-attenuation area with a central dot on HRCT. The detectable size on HRCT was 2.0 mm. Emphysema comlicated by pneumonia was seen as honeycomb appearance on HRCT. Thus, HRCT proved to be useful in detecting and quantifying various pneumoconiotic changes of the lung. (N.K.)

  3. Asian sand dust enhances ovalbumin-induced eosinophil recruitment in the alveoli and airway of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian sand dust (ASD) containing sulfate (SO42-) reportedly causes adverse respiratory health effects but there is no experimental study showing the effect of ASD toward allergic respiratory diseases. The effects of ASD and ASD plus SO42- toward allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated in this study. ICR mice were administered intratracheally with saline; ASD alone (sample from Shapotou desert); and ASD plus SO42- (ASD-SO4); OVA+ASD; OVA+ASD-SO4. ASD or ASD-SO4 alone caused mild nutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli. ASD and ASD-SO4 increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). ASD and ASD-SO4 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. However, a further increase of eosinophils by addition of SO42- was not observed. The two sand dusts synergistically increased interleukin-5 (IL-5) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which were associated with OVA, in BALF. However, the increased levels of IL-5 were lower in the OVA+ASD-SO4 group than in the OVA+ASD group. ASD caused the adjuvant effects to specific-IgG1 production by OVA, but not to specific-IgE. These results suggest that the enhancement of eosinophil recruitment in the lung is mediated by synergistically increased IL-5 and MCP-1. IgG1 antibodies may play an important role in the enhancement of allergic reaction caused by OVA and sand dust. However, extra sulfate may not contribute to an increase of eosinophils

  4. HRCT-pathologic correlation of nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancers, shown as nodules on conventional chest radiographs, are detected easily. However, nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), usually located at the periphery of the lung, are faint and poorly defined on conventional chest radiographs, it is thus difficult to detect and make the diagnosis. On the other hand, these lesions are clearly depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), therefore HRCT is effective in assessing these faint pulmonary nodules. We retrospectively investigated preoperative HRCT of thirteen patients (8 men and 5 women, 53-80 years old) with pathologically proven nodular BACs of 2.2 (±0.43) cm in mean diameter by two radiologists. All the lesions were located periphery of the lung. In 11 cases (85%), HRCT showed a zone of ground-glass attenuation surrounding the nodule, which correlated pathologically with papillary tumor growth without disrupting the overall lung architecture along the framework of normal alveoli containing air-spaces, alveolar spaces filled with fluid, blood, and infiltration of macrophages. In 10 cases (77%), bubblelike radiolucencies of focal areas of air attenuation peripherally or centrally were observed and correlated pathologically with intratumoral patent air-containing bronchi and cystic glandular spaces within papillary tumor growth. Notches were demonstrated in 12 cases (92%), air bronchogram in 11 cases (85%), convergence of vessels in 10 cases (77%), pleural tags in 9 cases (69%), and spiculations in 6 cases (46%). Calcification was not seen in any cases. A zone of ground-glass attenuation and bubblelike radiolucencies were observed frequently among the CT findings of BAC, and are considered to be characteristic enough to suggest BAC. (author)

  5. Tritiated thymidine-labeled bronchioloalveolar cells and radiation dose following inhalation of plutonium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to show the relationship of inhaled Pu particle distribution and alveolar-bronchiolar target-cell response with respect to the formation of pulmonary carcinoma. The proliferation of type 2 alveolar epithelium and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium appears critical in the induction of lung tumors associated from inhaled 239PuO2. Female, Wistar rats were either sham-exposed (40 rats) or given a single inhalation to 169Yb-239PuO2 (99 rats, ILB, 3.9 +/- 1.2 kBq) and examined at 20 time intervals from 1 day to 700 days postexposure for Pu particle distribution in airways by SEM quantitative autoradiography and for cell labeling with tritiated thymidine. Initially, deposited Pu particles were rapidly cleared from the surface of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles within a few days. Thereafter, about 5 times more alpha track exposure to the bronchiolar epithelium was delivered from Pu particles found in peribronchiolar alveoli than from Pu particles being cleared from bronchiolar surfaces. Exposure of bronchiolar epithelium at later times was due mostly to the formation of peribronchiolar Pu particle aggregates. A maximal increase in labeled alveolar wall cells was seen at 60 days after exposure, decreasing gradually to control levels by 400 days. Cell labeling in focal alveolar regions of Pu aggregation was about 5 fold higher. Increased bronchiolar epithelium labeling appeared in two phases. The first phase was seen 15 days after exposure, associated with initial deposition and clearance of Pu particles. The second phase slowly reached a maximum at 250 days and was associated with peribronchiolar Pu aggregate formation. The temporal-spatial dose-distribution pattern for inhaled Pu particles is an important aspect of Pu-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis

  6. The histopathologic reaction of rabbit lungs after intrabronchial application of contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine a safe gastrointestinal contrast agent that could be used in various clinical situations where there is a risk of aspiration using a rabbit model. 30 healthy white rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups containing six animals each, one control group (anesthesia only) and 4 groups receiving various contrast agents [Solotop (Barium sulphate suspension), Gastrografin (sodium and meglumine amidotrizoate), and Telebrix (Meglumine ioxitalamate), Visipaque (Iodixanol)]. The contrast agents were injected selectively into a main bronchus via a catheter inserted under fluoroscopy guidance. The rabbits were sacrificed either 1 day or 7 days after injecting the contrast agents, and the tissue reaction of the bronchi and lungs were examined both macro-and microscopically. The level of alveolar septal thickening, peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli or bronchiolar lumina, microabscess formation, necrosis, pigmentation of materials injected, and fibropurulent pleurisy were evaluated and graded according to the severity as follows: no change, mild, moderate, marked in degree. The common microscopic findings were alveolar septal thickening and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration. Pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli of bronchiolar lumina were observed in 21 out of 24 rabbits receiving the contrast agents. Pigmentation of the materials injected was observed only in the group receiving Solotop. An inflammatory exudate in the alveoli and bronchiolar/bronchial lumina, microabscess formation, and necrosis were noted in most groups, but was more frequent and severe in the group receiving Gastrografin. The histopathological reactions of the rabbit lungs after the intrabronchial application of a contrast agent showed variable degrees of inflammatory reaction. Gastrografin produced most severe and extensive reaction, Solotop

  7. Biodistribution of co-exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Zhan, Li; Juanjuan, Bi; Jing, Wang; Jianjun, Wang; Taoli, Sun; Yi'an, Guo; Wangsuo, Wu

    2012-08-01

    In this work, technetium-99 (99mTc) was used as the radiolabeling isotope to study the biodistribution of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) and/or nanodiamonds (NDs) in mice after intravenous administration. The histological impact of non-radiolabeled oMWCNTs or NDs was investigated in comparison to the co-exposure groups. 99mTc-labeled nanomaterials had high stability in vivo and fast clearance from blood . After a single injection of oMWCNTs, the highest distribution was found in the lungs, with lower uptake in the liver/spleen. As for NDs injected alone, high distribution in the liver, spleen, and lungs was observed right after. However, uptake in the lungs was decreased obviously after 24 h, while high accumulation in the liver or spleen continued. After co-injection of oMWCNTs and NDs, oMWCNTs significantly affected the distribution pattern of NDs in vivo. Meanwhile, the increasing dose of oMWCNTs decreased the hepatic and splenic accumulation of NDs and gradually increased lung retention. On the contrary, the NDs had no significant effects on the distribution of oMWCNTs in mice. Histological photographs showed that oMWCNTs were mainly captured by lung macrophages, and NDs were located in the bronchi and alveoli after co-administration. oMWCNTs and NDs had different modes of micro-cells. In conclusion, the behavior and fate of NDs in mice depended strongly on oMWCNTs, but NDs had a small influence on the biodistribution and excretion pattern of oMWCNTs.

  8. The histopathologic reaction of rabbit lungs after intrabronchial application of contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Shen, Yu Lan; Oh, Jeong Won; Chang, Nam Kyu; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine a safe gastrointestinal contrast agent that could be used in various clinical situations where there is a risk of aspiration using a rabbit model. 30 healthy white rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups containing six animals each, one control group (anesthesia only) and 4 groups receiving various contrast agents [Solotop (Barium sulphate suspension), Gastrografin (sodium and meglumine amidotrizoate), and Telebrix (Meglumine ioxitalamate), Visipaque (Iodixanol)]. The contrast agents were injected selectively into a main bronchus via a catheter inserted under fluoroscopy guidance. The rabbits were sacrificed either 1 day or 7 days after injecting the contrast agents, and the tissue reaction of the bronchi and lungs were examined both macro-and microscopically. The level of alveolar septal thickening, peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli or bronchiolar lumina, microabscess formation, necrosis, pigmentation of materials injected, and fibropurulent pleurisy were evaluated and graded according to the severity as follows: no change, mild, moderate, marked in degree. The common microscopic findings were alveolar septal thickening and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration. Pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli of bronchiolar lumina were observed in 21 out of 24 rabbits receiving the contrast agents. Pigmentation of the materials injected was observed only in the group receiving Solotop. An inflammatory exudate in the alveoli and bronchiolar/bronchial lumina, microabscess formation, and necrosis were noted in most groups, but was more frequent and severe in the group receiving Gastrografin. The histopathological reactions of the rabbit lungs after the intrabronchial application of a contrast agent showed variable degrees of inflammatory reaction. Gastrografin produced most severe and extensive reaction, Solotop

  9. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels was readily identified with FFOCT. Using FFOCT images alone, the study pathologists were able to correctly identify all tumor specimens and in many cases, the histological subtype of tumor (e.g., adenocarcinomas with various patterns. However, benign diagnosis was provided with high confidence in roughly half the tumor-free specimens (others were diagnosed as equivocal or false positive. Further analysis of these images revealed two major confounding features: (a Extensive lung collapse and (b presence of smoker′s macrophages. On a closer inspection, however, the smoker′s macrophages could often be identified as distinct from tumor cells based on their relative location in the alveoli, size and presence of anthracosis. We posit that greater pathologist experience, complemented with morphometric analysis and color-coding of image components, may help minimize the contribution of these confounders in the future. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for the potential utility of FFOCT in identifying and differentiating lung tumors from non-neoplastic lung tissue. We foresee its potential as an adjunct to intra-surgical frozen section analysis for margin assessment, especially in limited lung

  10. Virtual 3-D 18F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy for assessment of the upper airways of head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a virtual 3-D 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT panendoscopy is feasible and can be used for noninvasive imaging of the upper airways and pharyngeal/laryngeal tumours. From 18F-FDG PET/CT data sets of 40 patients (29 men, 11 women; age 61 ± 9 years) with pharyngeal or laryngeal malignancies virtual 3-D 18F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies were reconstructed and the image processing time was measured. The feasibility of assessing the oral cavity, nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, piriform sinus, postcricoid space, glottis, subglottis, trachea, bronchi and oesophagus and of detecting primary tumours was tested. Results of fibre-optic bronchoscopy and histology served as the reference standard. The nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, subglottis and the tracheobronchial tree were accessible in all 40, and the aryepiglottic folds, posterior hypopharyngeal wall, postcricoid space, piriform sinus, glottis, oral cavity and oesophagus in 37, 37, 37, 37, 33, 16 and 0 patients, respectively. In all 12 patients with restricted fibre-optic evaluation due to being primarily intubated, the subglottis was accessible via virtual panendoscopy. The primary tumour was depicted in 36 of 40 patients (90 %). The mean processing time for virtual 18F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies was 145 98 s. Virtual 18F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy of the upper airways is technically feasible and can detect pharyngeal and laryngeal malignancies. This new tool can aid in the complete evaluation of the subglottic space in intubated patients and may be used for planning optical panendoscopies, biopsies and surgery in the future. (orig.)

  11. Evidence for the "midline" hypothesis in associated defects of laterality formation and multiple midline anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Barness, E; Debich-Spicer, D; Cohen, M M; Opitz, J M

    2001-07-15

    A male infant was liveborn at 38 weeks of gestation to a G4P1AB2, 22-year-old, mother. Polyhydramnios and multiple congenital anomalies were noted by ultrasonography; the infant died 5 min after birth. At autopsy, the infant had multiple defects of blastogenesis including midline anomalies with asplenia and abnormalities of laterality formation. The laterality defects were unusual in that they combined asplenia with hypoplastic, symmetrically unilobate lungs and bilateral hyparterial bronchi more consistent with polysplenia, abdominal situs inversus with midline stomach, symmetric liver, and left gallbladder. No intracardiac abnormalities were present, but there was azygous continuation of the inferior vena cava. Additional multiple midline defects included bronchoesophageal fistula, duodenal atresia, absence of posterior leaf of diaphragm; horseshoe adrenal gland; microcephaly; Dandy-Walker anomaly with agenesis of cerebellar vermis and occipital encephalocele; holoprosencephaly with orbital encephalocele, midline defect of the orbital plate of the skull, bilateral anophthalmia, double proboscis with bilateral choanal atresia, midline upper lip and palatal cleft; single-lobed thyroid; hypoplastic external genitalia with midline cleft of scrotum, long tapering fingers, and defects of the cranium at the sites of orbital and occipital encephaloceles. Defects of laterality frequently are associated with other complex midline anomalies, which both result from a disturbance of pattern formation during blastogenesis, i.e., the induction of the progenitor fields. The latter are the result of the establishment of upstream expression domains of growth and transcription factors and other morphogens. Many of these and other genetic systems, expressed asymmetrically around the midline, are responsible for laterality formation and are the result of upstream and subsequent downstream gene expression cascades through the expression of genes such as HOX genes; bFGF; transforming

  12. Improved accuracy of markerless motion tracking on bone suppression images: preliminary study for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of bone suppression image processing in image-guided radiation therapy. We demonstrated the improved accuracy of markerless motion tracking on bone suppression images. Chest fluoroscopic images of nine patients with lung nodules during respiration were obtained using a flat-panel detector system (120 kV, 0.1 mAs/pulse, 5 fps). Commercial bone suppression image processing software was applied to the fluoroscopic images to create corresponding bone suppression images. Regions of interest were manually located on lung nodules and automatic target tracking was conducted based on the template matching technique. To evaluate the accuracy of target tracking, the maximum tracking error in the resulting images was compared with that of conventional fluoroscopic images. The tracking errors were decreased by half in eight of nine cases. The average maximum tracking errors in bone suppression and conventional fluoroscopic images were 1.3   ±   1.0 and 3.3   ±   3.3 mm, respectively. The bone suppression technique was especially effective in the lower lung area where pulmonary vessels, bronchi, and ribs showed complex movements. The bone suppression technique improved tracking accuracy without special equipment and implantation of fiducial markers, and with only additional small dose to the patient. Bone suppression fluoroscopy is a potential measure for respiratory displacement of the target. (note)

  13. Feasibility of internal irradiation of a lobe of the lung with P-32 loaded microspheres: I. stability of microspheres in animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical removal, the preferred treatment for lung cancer, is not tolerated by many patients. To test feasibility of treating these cases with high dose isotope irradiation, an occlusion balloon catheter was introduced into a branch of the pulmonary artery in dogs. Ten million (1 g) ion exchange resin microspheres (d. 53-63 μm) labelled with 10-20 mCi P-32 (and 5-10 mCi Tc-99m for imaging) were delivered into the selected lobar artery. After 60 minutes the catheter was withdrawn and a lung scintigraph obtained. Microspheres were prepared by converting cation exchange resin beads to the chromic form, labelling with P-32 phosphate at pH 2 to 4 and stabilizing at pH 9. Quality control testing in boiling physiologic saline confirmed in vitro stability. Since the radiation dose (rad) from total P-32 decay is 733 times the tissue concentration (μCi/g), the injected P-32 distributed in one lobe (ca. 100 g) of canine lung delivers ca. 75,000-150,000 rad. Serial lung scintigraphs were obtained for 8 weeks. Blood level of P-32 was negligible throughout. Following an anesthetic overdoes, dramatic necrosis of the irradiated lobe was observed. Microspheres were visualized histologically in the precapillary beds and never in alveoli or bronchi. Radioactive levels were negligible and no major alterations were discernible in adjacent lung lobes and organs. Thus, large doses of radiation to a selected pulmonary lobe may be delivered without systemic leakage of radioactivity or damage to other organs. This procedure may be useful to destroy inoperable cancer of the lung and other organs

  14. Pathology of post primary tuberculosis of the lung: an illustrated critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post primary tuberculosis occurs in immunocompetent adults, is restricted to the lungs and accounts for 80% of all clinical cases and nearly 100% of transmission of infection. The supply of human tissues with post primary tuberculosis plummeted with the introduction of antibiotics decades before the flowering of research using molecular methods in animal models. Unfortunately, the paucity of human tissues prevented validation of the models. As a result, it is a paradigm of contemporary research that caseating granulomas are the characteristic lesion of all tuberculosis and that cavities form when they erode into bronchi. This differs from descriptions of the preantibiotic era when many investigators had access to thousands of cases. They reported that post primary tuberculosis begins as an exudative reaction: a tuberculous lipid pneumonia of foamy alveolar macrophages that undergoes caseation necrosis and fragmentation to produce cavities. Granulomas in post primary disease arise only in response to old caseous pneumonia and produce fibrosis, not cavities. We confirmed and extended these observations with study of 104 cases of untreated tuberculosis. In addition, studies of the lungs of infants and immunosuppressed adults revealed a second type of tuberculous pneumonia that seldom produces cavities. Since the concept that cavities arise from caseating granulomas was supported by studies of animals infected with Mycobacterium bovis, we investigated its pathology. We found that M. bovis does not produce post primary tuberculosis in any species. It only produces an aggressive primary tuberculosis that can develop small cavities by erosion of caseating granulomas. Consequently, a key unresolved question in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis is identification of the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis establish a localized safe haven in alveolar macrophages in an otherwise solidly immune host where it can develop conditions for formation of cavities and

  15. Two forensic autopsy cases of death from unexpected lesions of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hayashi, Kino; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the findings of 2 forensic autopsy cases, in which unexpected pituitary lesions were the underlying cause of death. Case 1: A 56-year-old woman was found dead at her home during a cold winter spell. Macroscopic autopsy findings included a difference in the color of blood that filled her left and right cardiac chambers (deep red and dark red, respectively), collapse of both lungs, atrophy of the thyroid gland, and a large tumor arising from the sella turcica. Microscopic examination revealed a pituitary adenoma along with extensive bleeding. The cause of death was considered to be hypothermia, resulting from dysregulation of thermogenesis due to the pituitary adenoma. Case 2: An 86-year-old man with a history of pollakiuria was found dead in a bathtub, with his face and chest submerged in bathwater and his legs positioned outside the bathtub. The macroscopic findings of the autopsy included hyper-inflated lungs, fluid collection in the thoracic cavity, and aspiration of gastric contents in the bronchi. The atherosclerotic changes of the man's coronary and cerebral arteries were considered mild for his age. Microscopic examination showed a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the posterior pituitary gland, as well as in the liver, pancreas, and submandibular gland. Considering the results of the autopsy and the findings from the investigation conducted at the death scene, we concluded that the man probably lost consciousness following a neurally mediated syncope, which was induced by diabetes insipidus (lymphocytic hypophysitis). After losing consciousness, the man likely fell in the filled bathtub and then drowned. These 2 cases highlight the need for a thorough post-mortem investigation, including a microscopic examination of the pituitary gland. In addition, forensic pathologists should carefully study the pituitary gland in cases where the cause of death is thought to be related to dysfunction of thermoregulation or

  16. Distribution of cigarette smoking in the lungs and its efect upon 99mTc DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of submicronic particles during cigarette smoking was demonstrated by means of an insoluble (sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid) aerosol in eleven habitual smokers with no evidence of impaired lung function. Considerable pains were taken to simulate precisely the conditions of their usual smoking. The distribution of aerosol during smoking was compared with that during normal tidal breathing in the same subjects. All subjects showed a shift towards greater apical and central (tracheo bronchial) deposition during smoking as compared with quiet respiration. These findings may be relevant to the apical predominance of centrilobular emphysema and bronchial carcinoma. In a second study the differential clearance of a submicronic sup(99m)Tc DTPA aerosol was studied in a population of habitual smokers immediately after smoking two cigarettes and in a control population. Differential clearance was studied continuously for a period of 60 minutes at several peripheral sites in both lung fields. In non smokers the clearance curve was monoexponential over the study period. In smokers the curve was biexponential and clearance overall was more rapid than in non smokers as expected. No difference in clearance was seen between the apices and the bases in smokers to correspond to the predominent apical distribution of cigarette smoke particles in either the erect or the supine position. The biexponential clearance curve in smokers may be due to diffusion of the aerosol from both alveoli and bronchi reflecting the greater central deposition in smokers even though this may not be evident on visual inspection of the aerosol lung scan. (Author)

  17. Metallic Stents for Tracheobronchial Pathology Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.serrano@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Surgical Pathology Unit, Animal Pathology Department (Spain); Laborda, Alicia, E-mail: alaborda@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Minimally Invasive Techniques Research Group (GITMI) (Spain); Lozano, Juan M., E-mail: juamauloz@gmail.com [Marly Clinic, Radiology Department (Colombia); Caballero, Hugo, E-mail: hugocaballero2007@gmail.com [Marly Clinic, Pulmonology Department (Colombia); Sebastian, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.sebastian@ono.es [Lozano Blesa Clinical University Hospital, Pulmonology Department (Spain); Lopera, Jorge, E-mail: lopera@uthscsa.edu [Health Science Center, Interventional Radiology Deparment (United States); Gregorio, Miguel Angel de, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Minimally Invasive Techniques Research Group (GITMI) (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To present the 7-year experience of the treatment of benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenoses using metallic stents. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-three stents were inserted in 86 patients (74 benign and 12 malignant stenoses). Ninety-seven stents were placed in the trachea and 26 in the bronchi. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance with the patient under light sedation. In cases of severe stenotic lesions or obstructions, laser resection was performed before stent placement. Clinical and functional pulmonary data were recorded before and 3 months after the procedure. Follow-up involved clinical data and radiographic techniques at 48 h and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. Results: The technical success was 100 %. Dyspnea disappearance, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and pulmonary functional data improvement was observed in all patients (p < 0.001). Complications were detected in 23 patients (26.7 %). Mean follow-up time was 6.3 {+-} 1.2 months in patients with malignant lesions and 76.2 {+-} 2.3 months patients with in benign lesions. By the end of the study, 100 % of patients with malignant pathology and 6.7 % of patients with benign lesions had died. Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis with metallic stents is a therapeutic alternative in patients who are poor candidates for surgery. In unresectable malignant lesions, the benefit of metallic stenting is unquestionable. In benign lesions, the results are satisfactory, but sometimes other interventions are required to treat complications. New stent technology may improve these results.

  18. Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera: I. clinical features, hematology, histology, and immunopathology in long-term chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, pathology, and immunopathology of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developing in the long-term rat radiation chimera are described. At 6 to 12 months post-transplant, the previously stable ACI/LEW chimeras developed patchy to diffuse severe hair loss and thickened skin folds, and had microscopic features resembling scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis. Skin histology showed dermal inflammation and acanthosis with atrophy of the appendages, with progression to dermal sclerosis. The liver revealed chronic hepatitis with bile duct injury and proliferation and periportal piecemeal necrosis. The tongue had considerable submucosal inflammation, muscular necrosis, and atrophy and arteritis. The serous salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and bronchi had lymphocytic inflammation and injury to duct, acinar, and mucosal columnar epithelium. The thymus had lymphocyte depletion of the medulla with prominent epithelium. The spleen and lymph nodes had poorly developed germinal centers but increased numbers of plasma cells. IgM was observed along the basement membrane and around the basal cells of the skin and tongue and along the basement membrane of the bile ducts. IgM was present also in the arteries of the tongue. Immunoglobulins eluted from the skin, cross-reacted with the bile duct epithelium and usually with both ACI and Lewis skin. Increased titers of speckled antinuclear antibodies were present in the serum of rats with chronic (GVHD). Chronic GVHD in the long-term rat radiation chimera is very similar to human chronic GVHD and is a potentially excellent model for autoimmune disorders including scleroderma, Sjorgren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis

  19. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings in commercial laying hens and in backyard chickens naturally infected with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IS Preis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-eight chickens from a very high poultry density (approximately eight million region and twelve backyard chickens from neighboring areas were analyzed by histopathology and additional techniques for the presence of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The virus distribution was determined in different tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed in 41.0% (32/78 of the commercial layers. Lesions were mainly characterized by syncytial cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion body formed from the hyperplastic epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, primary and secondary bronchi, and conjunctiva. IHC showed 70% (21/30 positive signal in the larynx/trachea and, 53.8% (14/26 in the lungs, either in epithelial cells or syncytia. In the turbinates and paranasal sinuses, 29.6% (8/27 of samples showed positive signal. PCR detected the following gallid herpesvirus 1-positive percentages: conjunctiva 63.2% (31/49, lungs 57.6% (30/52, turbinates and paranasal sinuses 56% (28/50, and larynx/trachea 50% (39/78. IHC showed to be a useful additional tool for definitive ILT diagnosis, especially during the subacute phase of the disease when syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies are no longer observed. PCR using specific primers from ICP4 gene, generating a product of 237 base pairs, was sensitive for ILT diagnosis, and very useful for rapid detection of GaHV-1 in chickens. Fixed tissues allowing histopatological examination and detection of GaHV-1 by PCR, are a good option in areas where farms are located several hundred kilometers away from a diagnostic center, reducing problems with conservation of fresh samples and the risk of virus spread.

  20. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts; Tchernobyl: quelques faits derangeants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeach, B

    2005-07-01

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/10{sup 6}/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/10{sup 6}/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/10{sup 6}/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/10{sup 6}/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/10{sup 6}/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/10{sup 6}/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  1. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in advanced inoperable bronchial carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Stringer, Mark R.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1996-12-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of PDT to: Palliate symptoms, control disease and extend survival in patients with advanced inoperable cancer. Subject and Method: 55 Males and 23 females aged between 45-81 years (mean 66 years) with inoperable and advanced lung cancer with > 5O. obstructive lesions of the main, lobar or segmental bronchi. Patients had pre-treatment routine clinical radiological, functional and endoscopic assessment with proven histological diagnosis. Protocol of PDT was; Intravenous injection of 2 mg/Kg bodyweight Polyhaematoporphyrin (equivalent to Photofrin) or Photofrin followed 24-72 hours later by illumination of tumour using 630 nm light (Oxford Laser) delivered via an optical fibre with end diffuser. Treatments were carried out under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. Patients were rebronchoscoped for debridement/retreatment 4-7 days later. Results: There was no treatment related mortality. Two patients developed mild photosensitivity reaction. All patients showed symptomatic improvement with good initial functional and radiological amelioration. Every patient responded to treatment. Seven patients had complete response and negative histology for 3-12 months. After the first treatment average Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) improvement was 0.5 litres and 0.4 litres respectively. Twenty five percent of patients (nr 19) survived more than 2 years, 10'. (nr=8) between 1-2 years and the remaining 51 patients less than a year. Conclusion: PDT should be considered as a therapeutic modality for all stages of lung cancer and is an excellent treatment modality for palliation in advanced bronchial malignancies.

  2. CT findings of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of 22 cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) were evaluated on 1 cm slices. All cases were diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy and clinical information. The study population included 8 men and 14 women with a mean age of 43 years. The causative antigens were considered to be so-called summer type in 17 cases, air humidifier in 1, pigeon in 1 and paint spray (isocyanate was suspected) in 3. CT examinations were performed at a mean of 1.5 weeks after admission. In conclusion, characteristic CT findings of HP include combination of small nodular shadows and slight elevation of lung density. The size of nodular shadows was usually within 1 cm diameter, and their distribution was considered to be a centrilobular pattern, representing alveolitis and granuloma formation in a secondary lobule. It was thought that the slight elevation of lung density developed when the disease extended all over the secondary lobule and the nodules developed when the disease was limited to the centrilobular lesion. In most cases, significant changes in proximal bronchi and pulmonary vasculatures could not be detected. The presence of segmental or lobar distribution of the shadows was also suggested. In addition to the typical findings, various other findings were also revealed; irregular shaped dense shadows, subpleural curvilinear shadow and honeycombing formation, especially in chronic cases. These findings have caused some difficulty in distinguishing HP from other interstitial diseases. More precise information can probalty be obtained by thin slice CT than by 1 cm slice thicknesses, nevertheless, the standard method of CT should yield a useful diagnostic imaging. (author)

  3. CT appearance of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT appearance of the hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP), its pathological basis and diagnostic value for CWR complicated with lung cancer. Methods: (1) Twelve isolated lungs with CWP obtained at autopsy were inflated and fixed. CT scan was performed. The pathologic findings of enlarged lymph nodes were identified. (2) CT findings of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of 71 cases with CWP and 22 cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer were analyzed. Results: (1) Most of the enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in simple CWR was in third stage of fibrosis. The fourth stage of fibrosis was only seen in lymph nodes of a case with complicated CWP. In this case the necrotic materials of lymph nodes eroded adjacent bronchi and vessels, and coalesced with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). (2) The average number of lymph nodes in cases of complicated CWP was more than that of simple CWP (P 2 cm was 7.4%. (3) The prevalence of lymph nodes calcification in CWP was 61.1%, but egg shell calcification was only 14.7%. (4) In the cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer, lymph node > 2 cm was 20.8%, that was more than CWP (P3 cm was 7.6%. Conclusion: Lymph nodes up to 1 cm may have dust fibrosis and coal silicosis nodules. The lymph nodes >2 cm is more common in CWP complicated with lung cancer than in simple CWP. The lymph nodes > 3 cm indicates higher probability of CWP with lung cancer than PMF

  4. Pathophysiology of Bronchoconstriction: Role of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Repair

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    Bacsi, Attila; Pan, Lang; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview on the present understanding of roles of oxidative DNA damage repair in cell signaling underlying bronchoconstriction common to, but not restricted to various forms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Recent findings Bronchoconstriction is a tightening of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles with consequent wheezing and shortness of breath. Key stimuli include air pollutants, viral infections, allergens, thermal and osmotic changes, and shear stress of mucosal epithelium, triggering a wide range of cellular, vascular and neural events. Although activation of nerve fibers, the role of G-proteins, protein kinases and Ca++, and molecular interaction within contracting filaments of muscle are well defined, the overarching mechanisms by which a wide range of stimuli initiate these events are not fully understood. Many, if not all, stimuli increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are signaling and oxidatively modifying macromolecules, including DNA. The primary ROS target in DNA is guanine, and 8-oxoguanine is one of the most abundant base lesions. It is repaired by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1) during base excision repair processes. The product, free 8-oxoG base, is bound by OGG1 with high affinity, and the complex then functions as an activator of small GTPases, triggering pathways for inducing gene expression and contraction of intracellular filaments in mast and smooth muscle cells. Summary Oxidative DNA damage repair-mediated cell activation signaling result in gene expression that “primes” the mucosal epithelium and submucosal tissues to generate mediators of airway smooth muscle contractions. PMID:26694039

  5. Mechanisms of airway responses to esophageal acidification in cats.

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    Lang, Ivan M; Haworth, Steven T; Medda, Bidyut K; Forster, Hubert; Shaker, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Acid in the esophagus causes airway constriction, tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and a decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport rate. This study was designed to investigate the neuropharmacological mechanisms controlling these responses. In chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 72), we investigated the effects of vagotomy or atropine (100 μg·kg(-1)·30 min(-1) iv) on airway responses to esophageal infusion of 0.1 M PBS or 0.1 N HCl at 1 ml/min. We quantified 1) diameter of the bronchi, 2) tracheobronchial mucociliary transport rate, 3) tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and 4) mucous content of the tracheal epithelium and submucosa. We found that vagotomy or atropine blocked the airway constriction response but only atropine blocked the increase in mucous output and decrease in mucociliary transport rate caused by esophageal acidification. The mucous cells of the mucosa produced more Alcian blue- than periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained mucosubstances, and the mucous cells of the submucosa produced more PAS- than Alcian blue-stained mucosubstances. Selective perfusion of the different segments of esophagus with HCl or PBS resulted in significantly greater production of PAS-stained mucus in the submucosa of the trachea adjacent to the HCl-perfused esophagus than in that adjacent to the PBS-perfused esophagus. In conclusion, airway constriction caused by esophageal acidification is mediated by a vagal cholinergic pathway, and the tracheobronchial transport response is mediated by cholinergic receptors. Acid perfusion of the esophagus selectively increases production of neutral mucosubstances of the apocrine glands by a local mechanism. We hypothesize that the airway responses to esophageal acid exposure are part of the innate, rather than acute emergency, airway defense system. PMID:26846551

  6. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

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    Tashiro, Hiroki; Takahashi, Koichiro; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Kato, Go; Kurata, Keigo; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-33 (IL-33) activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation. Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM) preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes. Results The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung. Conclusion IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation. PMID:27310495

  7. Simple X-ray findings of airway foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a foreign body in the respiratory tract is a serious and, on occasion, fatal condition. The early diagnosis and removal of the aspirated material may save the patient's chronic illness, invalidation, or possibly death. Chest X-ray plays an important role in the diagnosis of airway foreign bodies in children. This retrospective study was performed to detect the lodgment site of aspirated foreign bodies, roentgenographic findings, and changes in chest X-ray pattern according to time interval following aspiration. We reviewed the record and X-ray findings of 63 patients examined at the department of Radiography, Catholic University, Medical College, from January 1983 to December 1988. The results are as follows; 1. The laterality of the occurrence of foreign body aspiration was right bronchial tree 26 cases (41.2%), left bronchial tree 22 cases (34.9%), trachea 8 cases (12.7%), coughed out 6 cases (9.5%), bilateral lower lobe bronchi 1 case (1.6%). The relatively equal incidence of right (41.2%), and left (34.9%) sided bronchial aspiration of foreign body was noted. 2. The roentgenographic findings after bronchial foreign body aspiration were unilateral hyperlucent lung 32 cases (52.4%), mixed pattern 10 cases (16.3%), normal 8 cases (13.1%), atelectasis 7 cases (11.4%), pneumonia 3 cases (4.9%), subcutaneous emphysema 1 case (1.6%). The most common findings was unilateral hyperlucent lung (52.4%), regardless of time interval between foreign body aspiration to hospitalization. 3. Pneumonia and mixed pattern were increased with long time interval between the inhalation of foreign body and admission to the hospital. 4. A follow-up chest film should be performed, even if there were no abnormal findings on the initial film

  8. Silicone Modeling of the Interior Spaces of Hollow Organs: Use in Dog and Manatee Respiratory Tract and in a Beef Heart

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    Charles J. Grossman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The mechanism, by which the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris vocalizes, remains unknown because the manatee larynx does not contain true vocal cords. Since sound can be generated when air passes through a narrow respiratory structure we needed to visualize the internal anatomy of manatee respiratory tract to locate any candidate regions for study. Approach: To visualize the internal anatomy of upper and lower manatee respiratory tract we have developed a rapid but accurate method of modeling these structures using liquid silicone. We first tested this technique on the respiratory structure of a cadaver dog and then applied it to two small manatees which had died through natural causes. Incisions were made in the trachea of both dog and manatees and commercially available liquid silicone was then forced into the upper and lower respiratory tracts used a slightly modified common automobile grease gun. The animals were then refrigerated overnight and the silicone was allowed to cure for a period of 24 h. Results: In dog, we removed cured silicone model by applying mild force to it after surgically opening the nasal cavity. In the manatees some dissection was necessary for release of mold from the upper nasal cavity, but only mild force was necessary with no dissection to release silicone model from the lower tract. Because the models created exhibited great accuracy and fine structure, including presence of tertiary bronchi in the manatee respiratory tract, we realized that the technique was applicable for use in other hollow organs. We applied this method to the visualization of internal structure of a fresh beef heart and were pleased with the accuracy and detail of model produced. Conclusion: We suggest that this technique can be adopted for three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure and volume estimation of many hollow organs in a wide variety of organisms with both minimal

  9. The Role of the T lymphocytes and Remodeling in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kawa

    2016-08-01

    In allergic asthma (AA), inflammatory changes in the airway epithelium may contribute to the characteristic pathophysiology and symptoms. The presence of T lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages, the presence of cytokines, and also structural changes in the airway mucous membrane are characteristic for asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 33 AA, 25 nonallergic asthma (NAA), and 20 healthy controls (HC). This study used immunohistochemical techniques for identified monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, ECP, MBP, tenascin, and laminin) in the bronchi. The highest number of eosinophils and T lymphocyte cells in bronchial biopsies was found in AA, and NAA. The number of T lymphocytes in AA was significantly higher than in NAA and HC. The degree of epithelial damage was higher in the AA group compared to the other groups. The tenascin- and laminin-positive layers in AA were thicker than other groups. In AA, a significant negative correlation was found between epithelial integrity and the count for eosinophils or T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes and eosinophils in AA were found in the area of epithelial and lamina propria damage. This article suggests that T lymphocytes may not only contribute to the chronic airway inflammatory response, airway remodeling, and symptomatology but may also have a central role at the initiation of the allergic immune response. Th-targeted therapy would be of considerable interest in controlling AA. Having more knowledge on the roles of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation highlights the contributions of these cells in regulating and may lead to a new therapeutic target-AA. PMID:27221139

  10. Insulin modulates cytokine release and selectin expression in the early phase of allergic airway inflammation in diabetic rats

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    Vianna Elcio O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest that the inflammatory response is impaired in diabetics and can be modulated by insulin. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of insulin on the early phase of allergic airway inflammation. Methods Diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/Kg, i.v., 10 days and controls were sensitized by s.c. injection of ovalbumin (OA in aluminium hydroxide 14 days before OA (1 mg/0.4 mL or saline intratracheal challenge. The following analyses were performed 6 hours thereafter: a quantification of interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, b expression of E- and P- selectins on lung vessels by immunohistochemistry, and c inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways and lung parenchyma. NPH insulin (4 IU, s.c. was given i.v. 2 hours before antigen challenge. Results Diabetic rats exhibited significant reduction in the BALF concentrations of IL-1β (30% and TNF-α (45%, and in the lung expression of P-selectin (30% compared to non-diabetic animals. This was accompanied by reduced number of neutrophils into the airways and around bronchi and blood vessels. There were no differences in the CINC-1 levels in BALF, and E-selectin expression. Treatment of diabetic rats with NPH insulin, 2 hours before antigen challenge, restored the reduced levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and P-selectin, and neutrophil migration. Conclusion Data presented suggest that insulin modulates the production/release of TNF-α and IL-1β, the expression of P- and E-selectin, and the associated neutrophil migration into the lungs during the early phase of the allergic inflammatory reaction.

  11. Posture influences patient cough rate, sedative requirement and comfort during bronchoscopy: An observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate differences between semi-recumbent and supine postures in terms of cough rate, oxygen desaturation, sedative use, and patient comfort during the initial phase of bronchoscopy. Methods Consecutive bronchoscopy patients (n = 69) participated in this observational cohort study. Posture was determined by the bronchoscopist's usual practice. Patient demographics, spirometry, pulse, and SpO2 were recorded. The initial phase was defined as the time from bronchoscopy insertion to visualisation of both distal main bronchi. Cough rate, peak pulse, nadir SpO2, oxygen supplementation, and sedative use during the initial phase were recorded. A post-procedure questionnaire was administered to the patient and the attending nurse. Results 36 patients had bronchoscopy in the semi-recumbent posture, 33 in the supine posture. 3 of 5 bronchoscopists performed in both postures. There were no differences in baseline parameters between the groups. The semi-recumbent posture resulted in significantly less cough (mean (SD) 3.6 (2.3) vs. 6.1 (4.5) coughs/min, p = 0.007) and less fentanyl use (70 (29) vs. 88 (28) mcg, p = 0.011) in the initial phase. There were no significant differences in the nadir SpO2, fall in SpO2, oxygen supplementation, or increase in pulse rate between the groups. On 100 mm visual analogue scale, nurse perception of patient discomfort was lower in the semi-recumbent position (23 (21) vs. 39 (28) mm, p = 0.01), and there was a trend towards less patient perceived cough in the semi-recumbent group (28 (25) vs. 40 (28) mm, p = 0.06). Conclusions Bronchoscopy performed in the semi-recumbent posture results in less cough and sedative requirement, and may improve patient comfort. PMID:22074355

  12. Extended Staphylococcus aureus persistence in cystic fibrosis is associated with bacterial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Block, Desiree; Bianconi, Irene; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Birtel, Johannes; Lee, Jean C; Dübbers, Angelika; Küster, Peter; Kahl, Janina; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus often persists in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. There is only limited knowledge about bacterial persistence in and adaptation to this new ecological environment. Therefore, we used S. aureus isolates from a unique strain collection, in which all S. aureus isolates recovered from CF patients from two CF centers were stored from more than 150 CF patients for more than a decade. S. aureus early and late isolates from 71 CF patients with long-term staphylococcal colonization of the airways (≥ 5 years) were preselected by genotyping of agr and cap. Identical pairs were subjected to spa-typing and MLST. S. aureus strain pairs of individual patients with the same or closely related spa-type and identical MLST were compared for adaptive changes in important phenotypic and virulence traits. The virulence of three S. aureus strain pairs (early and late isolates) was analyzed in a murine chronic pneumonia model. Strain pairs of 29 individual patients belonged to the same MLST and same or closely related spa-types. The mean persistence of the same clone of S. aureus in 29 CF patients was 8.25 years. Late compared to early isolates were altered in production of capsule (48%), hemolysis (45%), biofilm formation (41%), as well as antibiotic susceptibility (41%), cytotoxicity (34%), colony size (28%), and spa-type (17%). Adaptive changes positively correlated with the length of S. aureus persistence. For seven patients from whom the initial colonizing isolate was recovered, staphylococcal adaptation was most apparent, with capsule production being reduced in five of seven late isolates. In a mouse chronic pneumonia model, all tested isolates strongly induced chronic pneumonia with severe lesions in bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma. Adaptive changes in S. aureus accumulated with the length of persistence in the CF airways, but differed in patients infected with the same S. aureus clonal lineage indicating that individual host factors have an

  13. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

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    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  14. The detection of pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration by radiosalivagram in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) may have abnormal respiratory function because of aspiration pneumonitis, chest deformity, upper airways obstruction or central respiratory control abnormalities. The diagnosis of aspiration has long confounded clinicians and is often made indirectly after exclusion of other causes of respiratory disease in susceptible individuals. The radiosalivagram is a technique which permits the demonstration of aspiration of pharyngeal contents in individuals with pharyngeal incoordination. It is a simple procedure which provides both qualitative and quantitative evidence of aspiration. Over an hour and while supine, 20 mL of 99mTc-sulphur colloid is instilled into the pharynx via a thin plastic tube using a syringe pump. The neck, thorax and upper abdomen are imaged continuously In normal individuals, radioactivity is demonstrated in the pharynx, oesophagus and stomach; in the presence of pharyngeal incoordination, radioactivity is seen within one or both main bronchi and adjacent lung fields. The rate of clearance from the lungs varies and can be quantified. We have studied 31 children with severe non-ambulant CR The time to first aspiration, maximum quantity aspirated, and retention of aspirated material at 2h have been determined. These data have been compared with measurements of respiratory function. Preliminary results of this ongoing study reveal a broad range of outcomes. Seventeen children (17/31) had aspiration, in 15/17 aspiration was unilateral and in 14/17 there was spontaneous early clearance. The investigation was well tolerated by patients. The radiosalivagram is a simple, quantifiable investigation for demonstrating or excluding pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration in children with unexplained respiratory disease

  15. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner.

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    Ryutaro Kakinuma

    Full Text Available The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT scanners.This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner.The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU] was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001. The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001 for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures.Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners.

  16. Gammaherpesvirus infection modulates the temporal and spatial expression of SCGB1A1 (CCSP) and BPIFA1 (SPLUNC1) in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Gail H; Kipar, Anja; Hughes, David J; Bingle, Lynne; Bennett, Elaine; Moyo, Nathifa A; Tripp, Ralph A; Bigley, Alison L; Bingle, Colin D; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2015-06-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an established model of γ-herpesvirus infection. We have previously developed an alternative system using a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and shown that the MHV-68 M3 chemokine-binding protein contributes significantly to MHV-68 pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate in A. sylvaticus using high-density micro-arrays that M3 influences the expression of genes involved in the host response including Scgb1a1 and Bpifa1 that encode potential innate defense proteins secreted into the respiratory tract. Further analysis of MHV-68-infected animals showed that the levels of both protein and RNA for SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 were decreased at day 7 post infection (p.i.) but increased at day 14 p.i. as compared with M3-deficient and mock-infected animals. The modulation of expression was most pronounced in bronchioles but was also present in the bronchi and trachea. Double staining using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology demonstrated that much of the BPIFA1 expression occurs in club cells along with SCGB1A1 and that BPIFA1 is stored within granules in these cells. The increase in SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 expression at day 14 p.i. was associated with the differentiation of club cells into mucus-secreting cells. Our data highlight the role of club cells and the potential of SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 as innate defense mediators during respiratory virus infection. PMID:25531566

  17. Numerical investigation of inspiratory airflow in a realistic model of the human tracheobronchial airways and a comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, Jakub; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav; Chovancova, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the results of numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry are presented. The simulations and experiments were conducted in a realistic model of the human airways, which comprised the throat, trachea and tracheobronchial tree up to the fourth generation. A full inspiration/expiration breathing cycle was used with tidal volumes 0.5 and 1 L, which correspond to a sedentary regime and deep breath, respectively. The length of the entire breathing cycle was 4 s, with inspiration and expiration each lasting 2 s. As a boundary condition for the CFD simulations, experimentally obtained flow rate distribution in 10 terminal airways was used with zero pressure resistance at the throat inlet. CCM+ CFD code (Adapco) was used with an SST k-[Formula: see text] low-Reynolds Number RANS model. The total number of polyhedral control volumes was 2.6 million with a time step of 0.001 s. Comparisons were made at several points in eight cross sections selected according to experiments in the trachea and the left and right bronchi. The results agree well with experiments involving the oscillation (temporal relocation) of flow structures in the majority of the cross sections and individual local positions. Velocity field simulation in several cross sections shows a very unstable flow field, which originates in the tracheal laryngeal jet and propagates far downstream with the formation of separation zones in both left and right airways. The RANS simulation agrees with the experiments in almost all the cross sections and shows unstable local flow structures and a quantitatively acceptable solution for the time-averaged flow field. PMID:26163996

  18. Expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of using expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea. Under fluoroscopic and bronchoscopic guidance, seven patients with malignant airway stenosis were treated with ten expandable metallic stents. The cause of stenosis was metastasis from esophageal cancer in five patients, recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea in one, and primary lung cancer in one. The major sites of obstruction were the trachea in four patients, the left main bronchus in one, the trachea and left main bronchus in one, and the trachea and both bronchi in one. Chest radiography (n=7), bronchoscopy (n=5), pulmonary function test (PFT)(n=3), and spirometry(n=1) were performed before and after stent placement. In all seven patients, the stent was successfully placed at the lesion sites and dyspnea began to improve immediately. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After stent placement, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) improved 53% and 56%, respectively. Peak flow velocity also changed from 46 L/min to 200 L/min. During median follow-up of 67 (41-1565) days, one stent migration occurred. In one patient, proximal tumor overgrowth occurred, and in one, tumor ingrowth was treated with balloon dilatation. For in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea, placement of expandable metal stents is safe and effective. (author). 21 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Ryong; Kim, Hyun Sook; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of using expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea. Under fluoroscopic and bronchoscopic guidance, seven patients with malignant airway stenosis were treated with ten expandable metallic stents. The cause of stenosis was metastasis from esophageal cancer in five patients, recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea in one, and primary lung cancer in one. The major sites of obstruction were the trachea in four patients, the left main bronchus in one, the trachea and left main bronchus in one, and the trachea and both bronchi in one. Chest radiography (n=7), bronchoscopy (n=5), pulmonary function test (PFT)(n=3), and spirometry(n=1) were performed before and after stent placement. In all seven patients, the stent was successfully placed at the lesion sites and dyspnea began to improve immediately. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After stent placement, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) improved 53% and 56%, respectively. Peak flow velocity also changed from 46 L/min to 200 L/min. During median follow-up of 67 (41-1565) days, one stent migration occurred. In one patient, proximal tumor overgrowth occurred, and in one, tumor ingrowth was treated with balloon dilatation. For in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea, placement of expandable metal stents is safe and effective. (author). 21 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Improved accuracy of markerless motion tracking on bone suppression images: preliminary study for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Sakuta, Keita; Kawashima, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of bone suppression image processing in image-guided radiation therapy. We demonstrated the improved accuracy of markerless motion tracking on bone suppression images. Chest fluoroscopic images of nine patients with lung nodules during respiration were obtained using a flat-panel detector system (120 kV, 0.1 mAs/pulse, 5 fps). Commercial bone suppression image processing software was applied to the fluoroscopic images to create corresponding bone suppression images. Regions of interest were manually located on lung nodules and automatic target tracking was conducted based on the template matching technique. To evaluate the accuracy of target tracking, the maximum tracking error in the resulting images was compared with that of conventional fluoroscopic images. The tracking errors were decreased by half in eight of nine cases. The average maximum tracking errors in bone suppression and conventional fluoroscopic images were 1.3   ±   1.0 and 3.3   ±   3.3 mm, respectively. The bone suppression technique was especially effective in the lower lung area where pulmonary vessels, bronchi, and ribs showed complex movements. The bone suppression technique improved tracking accuracy without special equipment and implantation of fiducial markers, and with only additional small dose to the patient. Bone suppression fluoroscopy is a potential measure for respiratory displacement of the target. This paper was presented at RSNA 2013 and was carried out at Kanazawa University, JAPAN.

  1. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  2. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue: CT findings 7 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Song, Jae Woo; Chae, Eun Jin; Choi, Chang Min; Jang, Se Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To investigate CT and 1{sup 8F}-fluorodeoxyglucose (1{sup 8F}-FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT findings of primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). From June 2006 through April 2012, seven patients (six female, one male; age range, 21-61 years; mean age, 49 years) were examined who were pathologically diagnosed with the primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of BALT. We evaluated the locations and characteristics of the lesions on CT and 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT scans. The lesions were classified into the following three patterns: 1) solitary intraluminal nodule; 2) several tiny nodular protrusions; and 3) diffuse wall thickening. A solitary intraluminal nodule was observed in four patients (57.1%), several tiny nodular protrusion in two patients (28.6%), and diffuse wall thickening in one patient (14.3%). The lesions were categorized into 3 major locations: confined to the trachea (n 3), confined to the lobar bronchus (n = 2), and diffuse involvement of the trachea and both main bronchi (n = 2). All lesions demonstrated homogeneous iso-attenuation as compared with muscle on pre- and post-enhancement scans. Secondary findings in the lungs (n = 3; 42.9%) included postobstructive lobar atelectasis (n = 1), air trapping (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). On 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT (n = 5), 4 lesions showed homogeneous uptake with maximum standardized uptake values (mSUV), ranging 2.3-5.7 (mean mSUV: 3.3). One lesion showed little FDG uptake. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the BALT manifests as three distinct patterns on CT, with the solitary intraluminal nodule presenting as the main pattern. Most lesions demonstrate homogeneous but weak FDG uptake on 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT.

  3. The use of depleted uranium in II Gulf War and its impact on Iraq and the perspective of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the piece radioactive depleted uranium is a mineral density of 1.7 times heavier than lead a radiation active low level remains on the uranium used as fuel in nuclear reactors or after the manufacture of atomic bombs, and when it enters this dust into the body either by breathing or eating it causes harm caused by toxic chemotherapy and radiation in each of the bronchi and bronchial lung damage and also damage to the kidneys, liver, bone and the incidence of cancer and the potential for causing damage to the gene, Americans and British used between 300-800 tons of depleted uranium irradiated in ammunition were distributed in the deserts of Kuwait and southern Iraq in the 1991 II Gulf War when it began U.S. tanks, planes and Warthog A-10 using this ammunition against the Iraqi army Russian was measured by the level of radiation in the region by the Environmental Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Baghdad and found equal to that between several hundred to a thousand times the natural level of radiation to the soil of lraq, which is (70 bq/kg) of the soil and congenital malformations of newborns has increased 7 times the rate in 1990 as the use of depleted uranium in the war against Iraq caused thousands of cancer cases among civilians in the Iraq and the so-called symptoms of Gulf War illness or disease, the curse of Iraq suffered by many soldiers, members of the U.S. and Europe are due to exposure to radiation from depleted uranium, in addition to this has started to show thousands of cases of deformity among Iraqi children who were born after the war and the high proportion of children of war veterans were born and their distortions or suffering from acute illness. The Piece Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter of Human Rights and the Treaty of the Organization of Armed Conflict, Conventions and Protocols to the Four Geneva and UN Resolution 1540, for the year 2004, and the principles of international law are

  4. Differential inhibitory effects of CysLT(1 receptor antagonists on P2Y(6 receptor-mediated signaling and ion transport in human bronchial epithelia.

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    Wendy Ka-hoi Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT is one of the proinflammatory mediators released by the bronchi during inflammation. CysLTs exert their biological effects via specific G-protein-coupled receptors. CysLT(1 receptor antagonists are available for clinical use for the treatment of asthma. Recently, crosstalk between CysLT(1 and P2Y(6 receptors has been delineated. P2Y receptors are expressed in apical and/or basolateral membranes of virtually all polarized epithelia to control the transport of fluid and electrolytes. Previous research suggests that CysLT(1 receptor antagonists inhibit the effects of nucleotides acting at P2Y receptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition remains unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, western blot analysis confirmed that both CysLT(1 and P2Y(6 receptors were expressed in the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-. All three CysLT(1 antagonists inhibited the uridine diphosphate (UDP-evoked I(SC, but only montelukast inhibited the UDP-evoked [Ca(2+](i increase. In the presence of forskolin or 8-bromoadenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP, the UDP-induced I(SC was potentiated but was reduced by pranlukast and zafirlukast but not montelukast. Pranlukast inhibited the UDP-evoked I(SC potentiated by an Epac activator, 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, while montelukast and zafirlukast had no such effect. Pranlukast inhibited the real-time increase in cAMP changes activated by 8-CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP as monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging. Zafirlukast inhibited the UDP-induced I(SC potentiated by N(6-Phenyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-6-Phe-cAMP; a PKA activator and UDP-activated PKA activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our data strongly suggest for the first time that in human airway epithelia, the three specific CysLT(1 receptor

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in sheep bronchial explants is associated with enhanced ETB receptor-mediate contractile functional and autoradiographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important precipitant of asthma in children. The impact of RSV infection on endothelin (ET) receptor density and function in airways is unknown. In the present study, sheep bronchial rings were maintained as explants in culture for up to 48 h. During this time, both the structural integrity of the epithelium and carbachol responsiveness were preserved. Bronchial rings in culture were exposed to non-infected culture medium or to RSV (1/50 TCID50) for 0, 24 and 48 h which caused marked damage to and loss of the epithelium. RSV infection did not significantly alter responsiveness to ET-1 at either 24 (Control EC40 = 102 nM, 95% confidence limits, 76-138 nM vs RSV EC40 = 66 nM, 95% confidence limits, 48-91 nM, n=5-6, P>0.05) or 48 h (Control EC40 35 nM, 95% confidence limits, 19-66 nM vs RSV EC40 = 55 nM, 95% confidence limits, 32-93 nM, n=8, P>0.05). As seen previously (Goldie et al., 1994), sarafotoxin S6c (StxS6c, ETB-selective) did not cause contraction in non-infected sheep bronchial explants. In contrast, StxS6c (300 nM) increased tone by 8±3% carbachol Emax (n=6-8) in explants exposed to RSV for 24 or 48 h. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to determine the relative distribution of ETA and ETB receptors using [125I]-ET-1, BQ-123 (ETA-selective) and StxS6c. Sheep airway smooth muscle contains a homogeneous population of ETA receptors (Goldie et al., 1994). Since StxS6c caused significant contraction in RSV-infected bronchial explants, it was surprising that autoradiographic techniques failed to detect airway smooth muscle ETB receptors in these preparations. It is likely that ETB receptors fell below the level of detection of autoradiography. The significant StxS6c-induced contraction of sheep bronchi suggests the novel expression of ETB receptors triggered by RSV which might be relevant to RSV-associated asthma. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and

  6. Pigmentation of the viscera and carcasses (chromatosis in sheep in the Brazilian northeastern region Pigmentação das vísceras e carcaças (cromatose em ovinos na região Nordeste do Brasil

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    Luciano da Anunciação Pimentel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report exogenous pigmentation in sheep grazing in native pastures in northeastern Brazil. The sheep carcasses from a farm were condemned at the slaughterhouse due to pigmentation of the carcasses and viscera. In visits to the farm, bluish-purple pigmentation of the mucosa was observed in the sheep. In two necropsied sheep, a bluish-purple pigment was observed in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscles, cartilage, bones, serous membranes of the forestomachs, kidneys, adrenal glands, and the mucosa of the uterus, urinary bladder, urethra, vagina, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Some bone surfaces, the intima of large arteries, tendons, muscle insertions, and ligaments had a yellow-brown or light brown pigment. However, the pigment was not observed upon histologic examination of tissues, suggesting that the pigmentation is caused by a plant. Two plants, Rhamnidium molle and Pereskia bahiensis, were fed to experimental sheep and rabbits, but did not cause pigmentation.Descreve-se pigmentação exógena em ovinos, pastejando numa área de pastagem nativa da região nordeste do Brasil. Os ovinos de uma fazenda, destinados ao abate, tiveram as carcaças rejeitadas pelo frigorífico em virtude da pigmentação apresentada nos tecidos. Em visitas à fazenda, foi observada pigmentação azul-violeta nas mucosas de ovelhas. Em dois ovinos necropsiados, pigmento azul-violeta foi observado na pele, tecido subcutâneo, gordura, músculos, cartilagens, ossos, serosa dos pré-estômagos, rins, glândulas adrenais, mucosa do útero, bexiga urinária, uretra, vagina, traqueia, brônquios e bronquíolos. Algumas superfícies ósseas, íntima de grandes artérias, tendões, inserções musculares e ligamentos tinham pigmento castanho-amarelo ou castanho claro. No entanto, o pigmento não foi observado nos tecidos após processamento para o exame histológico, o que sugere que a pigmentação é causada por uma substância exógena, provavelmente presente

  7. Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedelsky, Jan, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Lizal, Frantisek, E-mail: lizal@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Jicha, Miroslav, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDA data allow to estimate PSD of particle velocity fluctuations in realistic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PSD of micron-sized particles is independent of their size up to 700 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such particles follow air flow and turb. diffusion contributes to their deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic flow PSDs contain more TKE at high freq. than equivalent steady-flow PSDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exp. breathing phase differs from insp. phase at high frequency part of the spectra. - Abstract: Motion of monodispersed aerosol particles suspended in air flow has been studied on realistic transparent model of human airways using Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA). Time-resolved velocity data for particles in size range 1-8 {mu}m were processed using Fuzzy Slotting Technique to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations. The optimum processing setup for our data was found and recommendations for future experiments to improve PSD quality were suggested. Typical PSD plots at mainstream positions of the trachea and the upper bronchi are documented and differences among (1) steady-flow regimes and equivalent cyclic breathing regimes, (2) inspiration and expiration breathing phase and (3) behaviour of particles of different sizes are described in several positions of the airway model. Systematically higher level of velocity fluctuations in the upper part of the frequency range (30-500 Hz) was found for cyclic flows in comparison with corresponding steady flows. Expiratory flows in both the steady and cyclic cases produce more high-frequency fluctuations compared to inspiratory flows. Negligible differences were found for flow of particles in the inspected size range 1-8 {mu}m at frequencies below 500 Hz. This finding was explained by Stokes number analysis. Implied match of the air and particle flows thereby indicates turbulent diffusion as important deposition

  8. Clinical Application of Photodynamic Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-long; LIU Duan-qi

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy(PDT) is a new medical technology, the study on photodynamic therapy was in full swing in the past two decade. Scientists have made great progress in it. Photosensitizer,oxygen and light source play important role in photodynamic therapy.PDT is a light activated chemotherapy. A photon is adsorbed by a photosensitizer which moves the drug into an excited state. The excited drug can then pass its energy to oxygen to create a chemical radical called "singlet oxygen". Singlet oxygen attacks cellular structures by oxidation. Such oxidative damage might be oxidation of cell membranes or proteins. When the accumulation of oxidative damage exceeds a threshold level,the cell begins to die.Photodynamic therapy allows selective treatment of localized cancer. PDT involves administration of a photosensitizer to the patients, followed by delivery of light to the cancerous region. The light activates the agent which kills the cancer cells. Without light,the agent is harmless.As a new therapy,photodynamic Therapy has great Advantage in treating cancers. 1. PDT avoids systemic treatment. The treatment occurs only where light is delivered, hence the patient does not undergo go needless systemic treatment when treating localized disease. Side-effects are avoided, from losing hair or suffering nausea to more serious complications. 2. PDT is selective. The photosensitizing agent will selectively accumulate in cancer cells and not in surrounding normal tissues.Hence ,there is selective targeting of the cancer and sparing of surrounding tissues.3. when surgery is not possible. PDT kills cancer cells but does not damage collagenous tissue structures,and normal cells will repopulate these structures. Hence,if a patient has cancer in a structure that cannot be removed surgically(eg. ,the upper bronchi of the lung) ,PDT can still treat the site. 4. PDT is repeatable. Unilke radiation therapy, PDT can be used again and again. Hence,it offers a means of longterm management

  9. Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a prospective, multicenter, observational study (AVANTI

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    Chuchalin Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, represent a substantial patient burden. Few data exist on outpatient antibiotic management for AECB/AECOPD in Eastern/South Eastern Europe, in particular on the use of moxifloxacin (Avelox®, although moxifloxacin is widely approved in this region based on evidence from international clinical studies. Methods AVANTI (AVelox® in Acute Exacerbations of chroNic bronchiTIs was a prospective, observational study conducted in eight Eastern European countries in patients > 35 years with AECB/AECOPD to whom moxifloxacin was prescribed. In addition to safety and efficacy outcomes, data on risk factors and the impact of exacerbation on daily life were collected. Results In the efficacy population (N = 2536, chronic bronchitis had been prevalent for > 10 years in 31.4% of patients and 66.0% of patients had concomitant COPD. Almost half the patients had never smoked, in contrast to data from Western Europe and the USA, where only one-quarter of COPD patients are non-smokers. The mean number of exacerbations in the last 12 months was 2.7 and 26.3% of patients had been hospitalized at least once for exacerbation. Physician compliance with the recommended moxifloxacin dose (400 mg once daily was 99.6%. The mean duration of moxifloxacin therapy for the current exacerbation (Anthonisen type I or II in 83.1%; predominantly type I was 6.4 ± 1.9 days. Symptom improvement was reported after a mean of 3.4 ± 1.4 days. After 5 days, 93.2% of patients reported improvement and, in total, 93.5% of patients were symptom-free after 10 days. In the safety population (N = 2672, 57 (2.3% patients had treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and 4 (0.15% had serious TEAEs; no deaths occurred. These results are in line with the known safety profile of moxifloxacin. Conclusions A significant number of patients in this

  10. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  11. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in

  12. The Value of Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in Demonstrating the Relationship between Bronchial and Peripheral Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwei Qiang; Kangrong Zhou; Yaping Jiang; Xuanguang Ye; Qun Wang; Songtao Xu; Lijie Tan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECITVE To investigate the value of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in demonstrating the relationship between bronchial and peripheral lung cancer.METHODS MSCT was used to conduct volumetric targeted scans of 0.5 mm collimation for 53 cases of peripheral lung cancer and to demonstrate the relationship between bronchial and peripheral lung cancer by multiplanar reconstrUctions(MPR) images, curved multiplanar reformations(CMPR) and surface shaded display(SSD). The results were compared with macroscopic and microscopic specimens.RESULTS 1) All the bronchi at the 3rd to 7th order were displayed clearly and completely with this CT protocol. The tumors that were related to the bronchus included 29 (96.7%) adenocarcinomas and 13 (76.5%) squamous-cell carcinomas. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 =2.8, P >0.05). 2) The tumorbronchus relationship was divided into four subtypes, i.e. type Ⅰ: the bronchus was obstructed by a tumor, type Ⅱ: the bronchus was obstructed when penetrated by a tumor with tapered narrowing; type Ⅲ: the bronchial lumen shown within the tumor was unobstructed and intact, type Ⅳ: the bronchus ran at the periphery of a tumor, with an intact or narrowed lumen.3) Type Ⅰ occurred in 58.5% (31 cases), in which squamous-cell carcinoma was slightly more common than adenocarcinoma. Both type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ were seen in 15.1%(eight cases of each), of which all were adenocarcinomas. The incidence rate of type Ⅳ was 28.3% (15 cases), of which adenocarcinoma was slightly more frequent than squamous-cell carcinoma. 4)Squamous-cell carcinoma was more common than adenocarcinoma in the tumors in the fourth-order bronchus, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common than squamous-cell carcinoma in tumors with a relationship to the sixth-order bronchus.CONCLUSION MSCT with volumetric targeted scans of ultra-thin sections were conducted followed by MPR,CMPR and SSD reconstruction

  13. Effects of a cocarcinogen, ferric oxide, on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in the isolated perfused lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated perfused New Zealand rabbit lung preparation was used to investigate the effects of a cocarcinogen, ferric oxide (Fe2O3), on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous potent carcinogen that has been associated with the increased incidence of human bronchiogenic carcinoma in occupational and urban settings. [14C]-BaP was administered intratracheally to an isolated perfused lung (IPL) preparation with and without Fe2O3 after intraperitoneal pretreatment of the whole animal with BaP or intratracheal pretreatment of the whole animal with Fe2O3 and/or BaP. BaP and its metabolites were isolated from serial blood samples up to 180 min after administration of [14C]BaP to the IPL. BaP and its metabolites were also isolated from lung tissue, washout fluid, macrophage, and trachea bronchi at the end of the perfusion at 180 min. Patterns of BaP metabolites were determined by chromatographic techniques and liquid scintillation counting. Fe2O3 pretreatment to the whole animal or administration of Fe2O3 to the IPL altered BaP metabolism by the perfused lung. Fe2O3 pretreatment to the whole animal resulted in an increase in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood, while Fe2O3 administration to the IPL resulted in a decrease in the total rate of appearance of BaP metabolites in the blood and inhibited the effect of pretreatment. These data suggest that pulmonary exposure to a known cocarcinogen, Fe2O3, in the presence of BaP results in increased production of dihydrodiols of BaP, which may be further metabolized to the ultimate carcinogenic form(s) of BaP. Therefore, Fe2O3 can enhance the metabolic activation of BaP by the lung, as well as act as a carrier for penetration and retention of BaP in the lung. 49 references, 6 tables

  14. Regional bronchodilator response assessed by computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kaoruko; Makita, Hironi; Hasegawa, Masaru; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fuke, Satoshi; Nagai, Katsura; Yoshida, Takayuki; Suzuki, Masaru; Konno, Satoshi [First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Department of Biostatistics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishimura, Masaharu, E-mail: ma-nishi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, N-15 W-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Background and objective: The reliability of CT assessment of regional bronchodilation is not universally accepted. In this study, using our proprietary 3D-CT software, we first examined airway inner luminal area (Ai) before and after inhalation of SFC in a group of COPD patients and then evaluated the same parameters for two sets of CT data obtained from clinically stable subjects with no intervention. Methods: We conducted CT at deep inspiration and pulmonary function tests before and one week after inhalation of SFC in 23 COPD patients. As a non-intervention group, we used two sets of CT data obtained with one-year interval in another group of subjects who demonstrated stable pulmonary function (n = 8). We measured Ai at the mid-portions of 3rd to 6th generation in 8 bronchi of the right lung, a total of 32 identical sites before and after intervention. Results: The average bronchodilation at all sites (ΔAi%: 28.2 ± 4.1 (SE)%) (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of each generation significantly correlated with % improvement of FEV1 (ΔFEV1%), which increased from 1.40 ± 0.10 L to 1.58 ± 0.10 L. When subjects were classified into two groups in terms of mean ΔFEV1%, even the poor responders (ΔFEV1% <14% above baseline, n = 13) displayed significantly larger ΔAi% compared with the non-intervention group (19.1 ± 4.6% versus 2.1 ± 3.9%). Inter-observer variability for overall ΔAi% was within acceptable levels. Conclusions: CT can reliably detect the regional bronchodilation in 3rd to 6th generation airways when ΔFEV1 is as small as 180 ml on average. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) system ( (http://www.umin.ac.jp/). No. UMIN 000002668)

  15. Central airways remodeling in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura Pini,1 Valentina Pinelli,2 Denise Modina,1 Michela Bezzi,3 Laura Tiberio,4 Claudio Tantucci1 1Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 3Department Bronchoscopy, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 4Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Background: The contribution to airflow obstruction by the remodeling of the peripheral airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients has been well documented, but less is known about the role played by the large airways. Few studies have investigated the presence of histopathological changes due to remodeling in the large airways of COPD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the presence of airway remodeling in the central airways of COPD patients, quantifying the airway smooth muscle (ASM area and the extracellular matrix (ECM protein deposition, both in the subepithelial region and in the ASM, and to verify the possible contribution to airflow obstruction by the above mentioned histopathological changes. Methods: Biopsies of segmental bronchi spurs were performed in COPD patients and control smoker subjects and immunostained for collagen type I, versican, decorin, biglycan, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. ECM protein deposition was measured at both subepithelial, and ASM layers. Results: The staining for collagen I and versican was greater in the subepithelial layer of COPD patients than in control subjects. An inverse correlation was found between collagen I in the subepithelial layer and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. A statistically significant increase of the ASM area was observed in the central airways of COPD patients versus controls. Conclusion: These findings indicate that airway remodeling also affects

  16. Evolution of surface-based deformable image registration for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the performance of surface-based deformable image registration (DR) for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, CT images acquired at treatment planning, midway and the end of the radio- (n = 1) or radiochemotherapy (n = 12) course were used for evaluation of DR. All CT images were manually [gross tumor volume (GTV)] and automatically [organs-at-risk (OAR) lung, spinal cord, vertebral spine, trachea, aorta, outline] segmented. Contours were transformed into 3D meshes using the Pinnacle treatment planning system and corresponding mesh points defined control points for DR with interpolation within the structures. Using these deformation maps, follow-up CT images were transformed into the planning images and compared with the original planning CT images. A progressive tumor shrinkage was observed with median GTV volumes of 170 cm3 (range 42 cm3 - 353 cm3), 124 cm3 (19 cm3 - 325 cm3) and 100 cm3 (10 cm3 - 270 cm3) at treatment planning, mid-way and at the end of treatment. Without DR, correlation coefficients (CC) were 0.76 ± 0.11 and 0.74 ± 0.10 for comparison of the planning CT and the CT images acquired mid-way and at the end of treatment, respectively; DR significantly improved the CC to 0.88 ± 0.03 and 0.86 ± 0.05 (p = 0.001), respectively. With manual landmark registration as reference, DR reduced uncertainties on the GTV surface from 11.8 mm ± 5.1 mm to 2.9 mm ± 1.2 mm. Regarding the carina and intrapulmonary vessel bifurcations, DR reduced uncertainties by about 40% with residual errors of 4 mm to 6 mm on average. Severe deformation artefacts were observed in patients with resolving atelectasis and pleural effusion, in one patient, where the tumor was located around large bronchi and separate segmentation of the GTV and OARs was not possible, and in one patient, where no clear shrinkage but more a decay of the tumor was observed. The surface-based DR performed accurately

  17. Dimorfismo sexual da traquéia e siringe de periquito (Touist sp. Sexual dimorphism of the parakeet (Touist sp. trachea and syrinx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bottino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se as diferenças morfológicas da siringe do periquito Touist sp, cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. A traquéia e a siringe foram dissecadas com o auxílio de uma lupa estereoscópia e avaliaram-se o número de anéis, o comprimento da traquéia e da siringe e o comprimento e espessura do músculo traqueolateral. A traquéia do macho apresentou maior número de anéis e maior comprimento que a das fêmeas. O músculo traqueolateral dos machos é mais vigoroso e origina-se no 43º anel traqueal enquanto o das fêmeas origina-se no 30º anel traqueal e se insere no primeiro anel bronquial. A siringe do piriquito é constituída por anéis craniais, cinco nos machos e três nas fêmeas, anéis intermediários, com formato semelhante a uma bolha sulcada ventralmente, anéis caudais, quatro em ambos os sexos, e pessulo. O dimorfismo sexual está presente na morfometria da musculatura e das cartilagens, o que reflete no canto mais vigoroso dos machos.The morphologic differences of the trachea and syrinx of five male and five female Touist sp. parakeets were studied. Trachea and syrinx were dissected with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass and the number of rings, the length of trachea and syrinx were evaluated, as well as the length and thickness of the tracheolateral muscle. Trachea of male parakeets had larger amount of rings and was lengther than the female. Tracheolateral muscle of the males was more vigorous and arised in the 43rd tracheal ring while in the females it originated in the 30th tracheal and inserted in first bronchi ring. The syrinx was constituted by cranial rings (five in males and three in females, intermediate rings (resembly a bubble furrowed ventrally, caudal rings (four in both sexes and the pessule. Sexual dimorphism directly influenced on the syrinx, concerning the morfometry of the musculature and cartilages, making males sound more vigorously.

  18. Inhibition of urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation in CYP2E1-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffler, Undi [Department of Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN (United States); Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Dixon, Darlene [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Peddada, Shyamal [Biostatics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Ghanayem, Burhan I. [Department of Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN (United States) and Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: ghanayem@niehs.nih.gov

    2005-05-02

    Urethane is a multi-site animal carcinogen and was classified as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.' Urethane is a fermentation by-product and found at appreciable levels in alcoholic beverages and foods such as bread and cheese. Recent work in this laboratory demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism. The current studies were undertaken to assess the relationships between CYP2E1-mediated metabolism and urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation as determined by induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and expression of Ki-67, respectively, using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Urethane was administered at 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day (p.o.), 5 days/week for 6 weeks. A significant dose-dependent increase in MN was observed in wild-type mice; however, a slight increase was measured in the MN-polychromatic erythrocytes in CYP2E1-null mice treated with 100 mg/kg. A significant increase in the expression of Ki-67 was detected in the livers and the lungs (terminal bronchioles, alveoli, and bronchi) of wild-type mice administered 100 mg urethane/kg in comparison to controls. In contrast, CYP2E1-null mice administered this dose exhibited negligible alterations in Ki-67 expression in the livers and lungs compared to controls. Interestingly, while Ki-67 expression in the forestomach decreased in wild-type mice, it increased in CYP2E1-null mice. Subsequent comparative metabolism studies demonstrated that total urethane-derived radioactivity in the plasma, liver, and lung was significantly higher in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice and un-metabolized urethane constituted greater than 83% of the radioactivity in CYP2E1-null mice. Un-metabolized urethane was not detectable in the plasma, liver, and lung of wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of urethane, presumably via epoxide formation, is necessary for the induction

  19. The experimental study of intra-bronchus embolization of bleomycin-lipiodol emulsion in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of using bleomycin-lipiodol emulsion (BLE) as an agent for functional pulmonary lobectomy. Methods: The bilateral lungs of sixteen healthy mongrel dogs were randomly divided into the Control group and the FPLT group. In FPLT group the target pulmonary, lobes were filled with BLE and then the target bronchi were occluded. In Control group the pulmonary lobes were done with nothing. The dogs were took X-ray films pre-procedure and post-procedure and then on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day, respectively, some of them were sacrificed after procedure for histopathologieal examination. Results: Histopathologically in the early time the target pulmonary lobes were mainly inflammatory effusion. After seven days the alveoli collapsed, pulmonary interstitium widened and fibrous connective tissue proliferated. After twenty-eight days the target pulmonary lobes were atelectasis and entirely fibrosis. The fibrosis grade based on Ashcroft's semiquantitative grading system. The grade of pulmonary fibrosis was 0.66±0.06, 2.76±0.24, 4.70±0.22, 6.74±0.25 and 7.69±0.23 in FPLT group and 0.62±0.05, 0.63±0.10, 0.63±0.07, 0.62±011 and 0.63±0.10 in control group separately at 1st, 7th, 14th, 2lst and 28th day after procedure. There was significant difference in the corresponding period between the FPLT group and the control group (P<0.01) and between first day (0.66±0.06) and fourteenth day(4.70 ± 0.22) (P<0.01) and fourteenth day and twenty-eighth day (7.69±0.23) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Intra-bronchus embolization of bleomycin-lipiodol emulsion can result in atelectasis and fibrosis of the target pulmonary, lobes can achieve FPLT. (authors)

  20. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  1. Regional bronchodilator response assessed by computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: The reliability of CT assessment of regional bronchodilation is not universally accepted. In this study, using our proprietary 3D-CT software, we first examined airway inner luminal area (Ai) before and after inhalation of SFC in a group of COPD patients and then evaluated the same parameters for two sets of CT data obtained from clinically stable subjects with no intervention. Methods: We conducted CT at deep inspiration and pulmonary function tests before and one week after inhalation of SFC in 23 COPD patients. As a non-intervention group, we used two sets of CT data obtained with one-year interval in another group of subjects who demonstrated stable pulmonary function (n = 8). We measured Ai at the mid-portions of 3rd to 6th generation in 8 bronchi of the right lung, a total of 32 identical sites before and after intervention. Results: The average bronchodilation at all sites (ΔAi%: 28.2 ± 4.1 (SE)%) (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of each generation significantly correlated with % improvement of FEV1 (ΔFEV1%), which increased from 1.40 ± 0.10 L to 1.58 ± 0.10 L. When subjects were classified into two groups in terms of mean ΔFEV1%, even the poor responders (ΔFEV1% <14% above baseline, n = 13) displayed significantly larger ΔAi% compared with the non-intervention group (19.1 ± 4.6% versus 2.1 ± 3.9%). Inter-observer variability for overall ΔAi% was within acceptable levels. Conclusions: CT can reliably detect the regional bronchodilation in 3rd to 6th generation airways when ΔFEV1 is as small as 180 ml on average. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) system ( (http://www.umin.ac.jp/). No. UMIN 000002668)

  2. Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeyer Kathrin

    2012-02-01

    that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins.

  3. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  4. Evaluation of effects of ozone exposure on influenza infection in mice using several indicators of susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgrade, M K; Illing, J W; Starnes, D M; Stead, A G; Ménache, M G; Stevens, M A

    1988-07-01

    Mice were exposed to 1 ppm O3, 3 hr/day, for 5 consecutive days. Separate groups of mice were infected with influenza following each of the individual exposures. A twofold increase in the incidence of mortality and a 3-day decrease in mean survival time were observed in mice infected after the second exposure. There were no effects on percentage mortality or mean survival time due to exposure to 1 ppm O3 in mice infected after the first, third, fourth, or fifth exposure. When the exposure concentration was lowered to 0.5 ppm, there were no effects on mortality in mice infected after the second exposure. Five, daily, 3-hr exposures to 1 ppm O3 had no effect on virus titers in the lungs of mice infected after either the second or fifth exposure. In contrast, wet lung weights were significantly enhanced over infected air controls in mice infected after the second O3 exposure at both 1 and 0.5 ppm but not at 0.25 ppm exposure concentrations. This effect on lung wet weight was observed in mice infected with a dose of virus which produced 7-33% mortality in controls as well as in mice infected with a sublethal dose of virus. Histopathologic changes due to sublethal influenza infection, including nonsuppurative pneumonitis and necrosis, squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia of the epithelium lining the bronchi and bronchioles, were more severe in mice infected after the second of five, 1 ppm O3 exposure than in comparable air controls. Sublethal infection caused a loss of lung volume with secondary reduction in diffusing capability and homogenity of ventilation distribution. These latter two effects were also exacerbated in mice infected after the second of five, 1 ppm O3 exposures as compared to air controls. When mice were infected after the fifth, 1 ppm O3 exposure, there was no effect due to ozone on either lung wet weight or histopathology. The data indicate that O3 has little if any effect on antiviral defense mechanisms since virus titers in the lungs were not

  5. Differential expression of tenascin-C in the developing human lung: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulou, M; Limberis, V; Koutlaki, N; Simopoulou, M; Ntanovasilis, D; Vandoros, G P; Tatsidou, P; Kekou, I; Koutsikogianni, I; Papadopoulos, N

    2009-12-01

    Much of the specification for the basic embryonic body plan is the result of a hierarchy of developmental decisions at different developmental times. The extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to be a very dynamic structure during embryogenesis. One of the mesenchymal ECM proteins, tenascin, is reported to be transiently expressed during embryonic tissue development, and is absent or much reduced in most fully developed organs. The respiratory system is an outgrowth of the ventral wall of the foregut, and the epithelium of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoli is of endodermal origin. The cartilaginous and muscular components are of mesodermal origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tenascin-C (TNC) in the developing human lung, during the pseudoglandular, canalicular and saccular stage of lung maturation. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from the lungs of 30 embryos (10 corresponding to the 10th to the 16th gestational week (pseudoglandular stage), 10 to the 17th to the 23rd gestational week (canalicular stage), and 10 to the 24th to the 27th gestational week (saccular stage), were investigated by conventional histology and immunohistology for the expression levels of TNC. The changes observed in the distribution patterns suggest that during embryogenesis, the rate of tenascin synthesis changes significantly. During the pseudoglandular stage, the density of cells expressing TNC was higher in the condensing mesenchyme surrounding the epithelial glands than in the epithelial cells, whereas the inverse result was observed during the canalicular stage. During the saccular stage the pattern of immunoreactivity with TNC was lower than those of the pseudoglandular and canalicular stage, either in epithelial or mesenchymal cells, but it was highly expressed in the basement membranes. This restricted spatiotemporal distribution suggests that tenascin has a key role (1) in mesenchymal tissue remodeling during the pseudoglandular stage, a period

  6. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor; Radiotherapie et recepteur de l'Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deberne, M. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in

  7. [Benign endobronchial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhtianov, Kh

    1980-01-01

    Endobronchial localizations of benign neoplasms are met with in 24.5 per cent of the cases. Right lung localizations are more frequent. More than half of them are broadly based (57.5 per cent). In most of the cases it is a matter of nonepithelial tumours of which a greater intensity is displayed by hamartomas /7/, vascular /4/ and neurogenic /3/ neoformations. The size of endobronchial tumours varies from 1 to 10 cm. Cases measuring 1-3 cm are the most numerous. Those of the "iceberg" type appear to be larger. The size per se has a relative importance for the clinical picture. Endobronchial tumours exhibit a clear cut clinical picture, and run a clinical course in three stages, determined by the degree of bronchial obturation and longstanding of the condition. The most common symptoms are coughing /80.7 per cent/, expectoration /50.0 per cent/, rales /57.6 per cent/, dullness /38.4 per cent/ and lacking respiration /38.4 per cent/. The nosological entity by itself is less conclusive for the clinical course. The X-ray data have orientation and by no means decisive significance for the diagnosis. The "crab pincers" sign in the bronchial lumen during bronchography has a definite importance. Bronchoscopy in conjunction with biopsy is a dependable method of preoperative diagnosing. It contributes greatly to the nosological diagnosis. Even nowadays, the diagnosis of endobronchial tumours is difficult. A rather exact diagnosis can be made intraoperatively, whereas the most accurate diagnosis is established only after histological study. The treatment of endobronchial benign neoplasms is operative. The number of medium /lobectomies/ and extensive /pulmonectomies/ pulmonary resections is considerable. In case of early diagnosis and intervention, sparing resection is the naturally indicated size of operation - mainly resection and plasty of the bronchi without lobectomy. The advantages of circular resection are substantial. Reconstructive operations of "clarinet" and

  8. Functional significance of air trapping detected in moderate asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, F. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Latrabe, V. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Raherison, C. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, R. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France); Tunon-de-Lara, J.M. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial and lung abnormalities in patients suffering from moderate asthma as defined by international guidelines, with special attention to air trapping on CT in comparison with that detected in smoking and non-smoking normal subjects. Twenty-two patients classified as moderate asthma and control subjects including healthy volunteers, smokers (n = 10) or non-smokers (n = 12) were prospectively explored by high-resolution CT (HRCT) performed at suspended full inspiration and expiration. The same expiratory protocol was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 {mu}g of salbutamol. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests within the same week and bronchodilator response was assessed following inhalation of salbutamol. Abnormalities of bronchi and lung parenchyma on inspiratory CT and air trapping on expiratory CT, in dependent and non-dependent areas, were assessed and scored semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. Comparison of score mean values between the different groups was performed using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between CT findings and pulmonary function tests were calculated. Mosaic perfusion was observed in 23 % of asthmatics. Air-trapping scores were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in non-smoking control subjects (p = 0.003), but not than in smokers. This difference was ascribed to non-dependent zones of the lung for which air-trapping scores were also higher in asthmatic patients (p = 0.003) and in smoking subjects (p = 0.004) than in normal controls. In the asthmatic group, a significant positive correlation was found between airways resistance and bronchial dilatation score (p = 0.01), and between small airways obstruction index and mosaic perfusion score (p = 0.05). In addition, both FEV1 and reversibility of small airways obstruction values correlated with air-trapping score (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). No change could be detected in air-trapping score

  9. Similarity of Crocodilian and Avian Lungs Indicates Unidirectional Flow Is Ancestral for Archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C G

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of airflow and pulmonary anatomy were studied in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus), the dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), and Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). In addition, anatomy was studied in the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius). Airflow was measured using heated thermistor flow meters and visualized by endoscopy during insufflation of aerosolized propolene glycol and glycerol. Computed tomography and gross dissection were used to visualize the anatomy. In all species studied a bird-like pattern of unidirectional flow was present, in which air flowed caudad in the cervical ventral bronchus and its branches during both lung inflation and deflation and craniad in dorsobronchi and their branches. Tubular pathways connected the secondary bronchi to each other and allowed air to flow from the dorsobronchi into the ventrobronchi. No evidence for anatomical valves was found, suggesting that aerodynamic valves cause the unidirectional flow. In vivo data from the American alligator showed that unidirectional flow is present during periods of breath-holding (apnea) and is powered by the beating heart, suggesting that this pattern of flow harnesses the heart as a pump for air. Unidirectional flow may also facilitate washout of stale gases from the lung, reducing the cost of breathing, respiratory evaporative water loss, heat loss through the heat of vaporization, and facilitating crypsis. The similarity in structure and function of the bird lung with pulmonary anatomy of this broad range of crocodilian species indicates that a similar morphology and pattern of unidirectional flow were present in the lungs of the common ancestor of crocodilians and birds. These data suggest a paradigm shift is needed in our understanding of the evolution of this

  10. Development of the Stochastic Lung Model for Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The Stochastic Lung Model is a state-of-the-art tool for the investigation of the health impact of atmospheric aerosols. This model has already been tested and applied to calculate the deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the human respiratory tract. The health effects of inhaled aerosols may strongly depend on the distribution of deposition within the respiratory tract. In the current study three Asthma Models have been incorporated into the Stochastic Lung Deposition Code. A common new feature of these models is that the breathing cycle may be asymmetric. It means that the inspiration time, the expiration time and the two breath hold times are independent. And the code can simulate the mucus blockage, too. The main characteristics of the models are the followings: a) ASTHMA MODEL I: One input bronchial asthma factor is applied for the whole tracheobronchial region. The code multiplies all tracheobroncial diameters with this single value. b) ASTHMA MODEL II: Bronchial asthma factors have to be given for each bronchial generation as input data (21 values). The program multiplies the diameter of bronchi with these factors. c) ASTHMA MODEL III: Here, only the range of bronchial asthma factors are presented as input data and the code selects randomly the exact factors in pre-described airway generations. In this case the stochastic character appears in the Asthma Model, as well. As an example, Figure 1 shows the deposition fractions in the tracheobronchial and acinar regions of the human lung in the case of healthy and asthmatic adults at sitting breathing conditions as a function of particle size computed by Asthma Model I where the bronchial asthma factor was 30%. These models have been tested and compared for different types of asthma at various breathing conditions and in a wide range of particle sizes. The distribution of deposition in the characteristic regions of the respiratory tract have been computed

  11. Functional significance of air trapping detected in moderate asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial and lung abnormalities in patients suffering from moderate asthma as defined by international guidelines, with special attention to air trapping on CT in comparison with that detected in smoking and non-smoking normal subjects. Twenty-two patients classified as moderate asthma and control subjects including healthy volunteers, smokers (n = 10) or non-smokers (n = 12) were prospectively explored by high-resolution CT (HRCT) performed at suspended full inspiration and expiration. The same expiratory protocol was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 μg of salbutamol. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests within the same week and bronchodilator response was assessed following inhalation of salbutamol. Abnormalities of bronchi and lung parenchyma on inspiratory CT and air trapping on expiratory CT, in dependent and non-dependent areas, were assessed and scored semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. Comparison of score mean values between the different groups was performed using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between CT findings and pulmonary function tests were calculated. Mosaic perfusion was observed in 23 % of asthmatics. Air-trapping scores were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in non-smoking control subjects (p = 0.003), but not than in smokers. This difference was ascribed to non-dependent zones of the lung for which air-trapping scores were also higher in asthmatic patients (p = 0.003) and in smoking subjects (p = 0.004) than in normal controls. In the asthmatic group, a significant positive correlation was found between airways resistance and bronchial dilatation score (p = 0.01), and between small airways obstruction index and mosaic perfusion score (p = 0.05). In addition, both FEV1 and reversibility of small airways obstruction values correlated with air-trapping score (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). No change could be detected in air-trapping score

  12. Computed tomography of the mediastinal lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Joon; Suh, Jung Hyek; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kosin Mediacal College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of mediastinal lesions in surgically or clinically confirmed 37 cases at Kosin Medical College during recent 4 years from September 1979 to August 1983. 1. Among 37 caes, malignant lymphoma were 7 cases, thymoma and vascular lesion or anomaly were 5 cases respectively, benign teratoma and tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis and neurogenic tumor were 4 cases respectively, pericardial cyst were 2 cases, bronchogenic cyst, non-specific cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, mesothelioma, Bochdalek hernia was 1 case respectively. 2. The sex ratio between male and female was about 1 : 1 and the majority of the patients with malignant lymphoma and teratoma was under 20 years old. 3. CT findings of the each mediastinal lesion. 1) Primary mediastinal malignant lymphoma. (1) A large, matted, continuous and midline-crossing mass was observed in the superior and the anterior mediastinums in all cases. (2) In 3 cases, irregular lower densities were seen in the center of the mass, representing the tumor necrosis. (3) CT was also able to show involvement of other mediastinal lymph nodes and adjacent structures such as pleura, anterior chest wall and lung parenchyma. (4) Involving pleura, homogeneous band-like shadows were seen along the pleura, appearing denser than the associated pleural effusion. (5) Involving lung parenchyma, irregular- shaped nodules and band-like densities were seen along the courses of the bronchi and the vessels. 2) Thyoma. (1) A discrete, soft tissue mass was seen in the superior and the anterior mediastinums (mainly posterior to manubrium and anterior to aortic arch) replacing the normal mediastinal fat. (2) In benign thymoma, the margin of the mass was smooth and the normal fat plane between the mass and the vascular structures was well preserved, but invasive thymoma showed obliteration of the normal fat plane, irregular and ragged tumor-lung interface, and irregular thickening of pleura and pericardium by

  13. [The new possibility for the treatment of acute cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachkina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Acute cough associated with influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is one of the most common complaints prompting the patient to visit a general practitioner or an otorhinolaryngologist based at the outpatient clinic. Acute cough during ARVI in the practically healthy subjects is as a rule non-productive, frequently dry, and becomes resolved within 2-3 weeks. In certain cases, however, the cough during ARVI can be productive with the well apparent abnormal expectoration of sputum especially in the aged and elderly subjects, young children, and patients suffering from the chest injuries, dry pleuritis, and other disorders. The early prescription of mucoactive preparations can prevent the development of subacute cough. In such cases, it is recommended to use the mucokinetic ambroxol that improves the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and does not require strong exertion for sputum expectoration. An important aspect in the mechanism of action of ambroxol is the stimulation of surfactant production, antioxidation effect, the improvement of rheological properties of bronchial mucus, ant-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The application of the new pharmaceutical dose form of ambroxol, neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets), produces a very rapid effect (within 1 day after the intake) due to the fast absorption of this medication in the oral cavity, its rapid penetration into the circulatory system and achievement of the high concentration in blood plasma. The volatile metabolites of ambroxol that form as a result of tablet disintegration, such as ambroxol itself, menthol, and cineol, exert the mucolytic, antiseptic, and antibacterial actions, after they reach the trachea and bronchi. Irrigation of the receptors present in the inflamed mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity, with these volatile substances produces an immediate cough-suppressive effect. It is concluded that the preparations of neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets

  14. Vascular rings and sling in children imaging with multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    also: a.) concomitant common trunk for innominate artery and left common carotid artery and b.) persistent left vena cava superior. The compressions and stenoses of the tracheobronchial tree and/or esophagus were visualized in all patients. The radiation dose reduction was obtained due to the diminishing of the current values in the study protocol e.g. to 40 mA (20 mAs) in neonates and infants. MSCT, with low dose protocol, allows for accurate and comprehensive display of the vessels, trachea with main bronchi and esophagus in vascular rings in children. This visualization is significant and adequate for preoperative surgical planning. (author)

  15. Inhibition of urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation in CYP2E1-null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urethane is a multi-site animal carcinogen and was classified as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.' Urethane is a fermentation by-product and found at appreciable levels in alcoholic beverages and foods such as bread and cheese. Recent work in this laboratory demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism. The current studies were undertaken to assess the relationships between CYP2E1-mediated metabolism and urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation as determined by induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and expression of Ki-67, respectively, using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Urethane was administered at 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day (p.o.), 5 days/week for 6 weeks. A significant dose-dependent increase in MN was observed in wild-type mice; however, a slight increase was measured in the MN-polychromatic erythrocytes in CYP2E1-null mice treated with 100 mg/kg. A significant increase in the expression of Ki-67 was detected in the livers and the lungs (terminal bronchioles, alveoli, and bronchi) of wild-type mice administered 100 mg urethane/kg in comparison to controls. In contrast, CYP2E1-null mice administered this dose exhibited negligible alterations in Ki-67 expression in the livers and lungs compared to controls. Interestingly, while Ki-67 expression in the forestomach decreased in wild-type mice, it increased in CYP2E1-null mice. Subsequent comparative metabolism studies demonstrated that total urethane-derived radioactivity in the plasma, liver, and lung was significantly higher in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice and un-metabolized urethane constituted greater than 83% of the radioactivity in CYP2E1-null mice. Un-metabolized urethane was not detectable in the plasma, liver, and lung of wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of urethane, presumably via epoxide formation, is necessary for the induction of

  16. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  17. 幽门螺杆菌感染慢性阻塞性肺病模型的建立及特征分析%The establishment and characteristic analysis of Helicobacter pylori infection induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 季尚玮; 李岩; 张永贵; 李红艳; 斯庆图娜拉; 王江滨

    2011-01-01

    and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF),Hp related genes expression in bronchial and lung tissue were detected.And Hp in bronchial and lung tissue was isolated and cultured.Results The lung tissue of both COPD group and double modeling group accorded with COPD pathological characteristics,and the latter was more apparent.The lung function of COPD group and double modeling group decreased more significantly than that of control group and Hp infected group (all P<0.05),and which was more obvious in double modeling group than that of COPD group (P<0.05).Along with the Hp colonization density increased,Ri and Re value of double modeling group increased (r=0.785 and 0.905),the value of Gdyn,PEF and FEV0.3/FVC decreased (r=-0.975,-0.959and -0.976).Compared with control group,IL-6,IL-8 and TNF-a cytokines levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of other groups increased significantly (all P<0.05),and within the groups,double modeling group increased most significantly (all P<0.05).Hp UreC gene was only amplified in part of bronchi and lung tissue of double modeling group,no Hp and suspicious bacteria colonies were isolated and cultured.Conclusions Hp not directly colonized in bronchi and lung tissue,which aggravated inflammation through increasing the serum and bronchoalveolar cytokines level of COPD rat model.Which caused the deterioration in lung function of COPD group.

  18. Diagnósticos de enfermagem respiratórios para crianças com infecção respiratória aguda Diagnósticos de enfermería respiratorios para niños con infección respiratoria aguda Respiratory nursing diagnoses for children with acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade

    2012-01-01

    las características definidoras más prevalentes. Los ruidos adventicios respiratorios aumentan en 80% la oportunidad para la DIVA. Entre los factores relacionados, se destacaron: secreciones en los bronquios y secreciones retenidas. Las secreciones en los bronquios favorecen en 80% la ocurrencia del PRI y en 60% la DIVA. Se verificó la asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las características y factores relacionados con los diagnósticos estudiados. CONCLUSIÓN: Los cuatro diagnósticos fueron identificados en niños con infecciones respiratorias agudas, presentando distintas prevalancias.OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of nursing diagnoses: ineffective breathing pattern (IBP (00032, ineffective airway clearance (IAC (00031, impaired gas exchange (IGE (00030 and impaired spontaneous ventilation (ISP (00033, their defining characteristics and related factors, in children with acute respiratory infection. METHODS: A quantitative, transversal approach with 151 children. Data were collected by means of interviews and pulmonary evaluation. For data analysis, we used descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The most prevalent diagnosis was IBP. Adventitious breath sounds and ineffective cough were the most prevalent defining characteristics. Adventitious breath sounds increased by 80% the chance for IAC. Among the related factors, the highlights were: secretions in the bronchi and retained secretions. Secretions in the bronchi favored in 80% the occurrence of IBP and in 60% of IAC. This verified a statistically significant association between the defining characteristics and related factors of the diagnoses studied. CONCLUSION: The four diagnoses were identified in children with acute respiratory infections, with different prevalences.

  19. Ultrastructural observation of the airways of recovered and susceptible pigs after inoculation with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Observação ultra-estrutural das vias aéreas de suínos recuperados e suscetíveis após inoculação com Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Irigoyen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the morphological differences in the epithelium of the airways of recovered and susceptible pigs after Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae challenge, twenty-four 4-week-old M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were intratracheally inoculated with 107ccu/ml of a pure low-passaged culture of the P5722-3 strain of M. hyopneumoniae challenge material. Eight pigs (group I were challenged at the beginning of the experiment and rechallenged 3 months later. Group II pigs were also challenged at the beginning of the experiment and necropsied 3 months later. Group III pigs were challenged at the same time as the rechallenge of group I pigs. Eight nonchallenged pigs served as controls (group IV. Three days after the second challenge of group I and the first challenge of group III, and every 3 and 4 days thereafter, two pigs from each group were euthanatized by electrocution and necropsied. Samples of bronchi and lung tissue were examined using light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM. Macroscopic lesions were observed in the lungs of all group III pigs (average = 4.74% and were characterized by purple-red areas of discoloration and increased firmness affecting the cranioventral aspect of the lungs. Macroscopic lesions of pneumonia in groups I and II were minimal (less than 1%. There were no gross lesions of pneumonia in control (group IV pigs. Microscopic lesions were characterized by hyperplasia of the peribronchial lymphoid tissue and mild neutrophilic infiltrates in alveoli. Electron microscopy showed patchy areas with loss of cilia and presence of leukocytes and mycoplasmas in bronchi of susceptible pigs (group III. The bronchial epithelium of rechallenged (group I, recovered (group II, and control (group IV pigs was ultrastructurally similar indicating recovery of the former two groups. Although mycoplasmas were seen among cilia, a second challenge on pigs of group I did not produce another episode of the disease nor did it enhance morphological changes

  20. Endoscopia respiratória em 89 pacientes com neoplasia pulmonar Respiratory endoscopy in 89 patients of lung neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO JOSÉ LORENZONI

    2001-03-01

    . The objective of this survey is to evaluate the diagnosis of these neoplasms using fiberoptics bronchoscopy. Methods: 89 patients were analyzed retrospectively in a period of five years. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 53 -- the presence of visible lesion on endoscopy, Group 2 (n = 36 -- the absence of visible lesion on endoscopy. Epidemiological elements, endoscopic discoveries, cytopathologic and anatomopathologic examination were performed in the review, as well the examination that provided the final diagnosis. Results: The findings of indirect endoscopies of neoplasms corresponded to 59.5% and the presence of tumor inside bronchi was 48.8%. The most frequent histologic type was the epidermoid carcinoma (59.5%, followed by adenocarcinoma (15.7%, small-cell carcinoma (10.1%, and others (14.7%. In endoscopically visible or not visible tumors, the anatomopathologic study of bronchial biopsy and/or the cytopathologic examination of the bronchial washing and brushing showed a sensitivity of 83.1% in the diagnosis of lung neoplasms. When the lesion was visible on endoscopy, the sensitivity was 96.2%: positive biopsy was 94.2%, and cytology was 43.75%. When the lesion in the bronchi is not observed, its addition was significantly small (63.8%, namely: biopsy registered 72.7% and cytopathology 38.4%. Not significant complications resulting from the endoscopic examination occurred in 11.2% of patients and there were no serious complications. Conclusion: The fiberoptics bronchoscopy was an excellent method to investigate patients with suspicion of lung neoplasms, with 83.1% of sensitivity. This sensitivity was higher in visible lesions and in non-visible lesions when endobronchial biopsy was used.