WorldWideScience

Sample records for bromus cartharticus vahl

  1. Nota sobre el Ejemplar Tipo de "Bromus catharticus" Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available EI agrostólogo inglés C. E. Hubbard y simultáneamente el agrostólogo argentino Lorenzo Parodi en sendas notas (1956 concluyeron en declarar dudosa la especie Bromus catharticus Vahl y restablecer para la planta conocida como "rescue grass" en USA y "cebadilla criolla" en la Argentina el nombre Bromus unioloides H. B. K. Este trabajo presenta nuevas evidencias que permiten restablecer la validez de Bromus catharticus Vahl.

  2. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luís Artico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  3. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus , meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  4. Nota sobre Bromus Willdenowii Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedente de Suramérica fue introducida en Norteamérica una planta que es utilizada como buen forraje y que corresponde a una especie del género Bromus de la sección Ceratochloa (Gramineae referida a Bromus unioloides Kunth. HITCHCOCK (1934 después de examinar fragmentos del ejernplar de Commerson "ex agro bonaerinsi" (C, considerado como tipo nomenclatural y asumir que el ejemplar había sido obtenido en Lima (Perú, 10 asignó a Bromus catbarticus Yah!. Posteriormente PARODI (1956 Y HUBBARD (1956, rechazaron el nornbre de Bromus catbarticus Yah 1 como nomen confussum y propusieron la validez de Bromus unioloides Kunth.

  5. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  6. Plant community resistance to invasion by Bromus species: The roles of community attributes, Bromus interactions with plant communities, and Bromus traits [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew J. Germino; Jayne Belnap; Cynthia S. Brown; Eugene W. Schupp; Samuel B. St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species (Bromus hereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental factors, in...

  7. Regional variation in Argentinean populations of Bromus catharticus (Poaceae as measured by morphological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturi, Miguel J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one populations of Bromus catharticus Vahl., collected from the Pampean Dominion (Argentina, were classified using twenty four highly heritable traits by numerical taxonomic methods. After implementing a stepwise discriminant analysis, 18 traits were chosen as classificatory variables. Eight population groups were classified in two main clusters. Different morphotypes, primarily associated with panicle architecture and micro floral traits, were found. The patterns in the morphological variation seem to correspond to a gradient of humidity and temperature that diminishes from the NE to the SW. This pattern of classification reflects the geographical origin for most of the sampled populations, although there was some noise. Our results fit the patchy variation model, where populations are genetically selected for macro and micro environmental conditions.Treinta y una poblaciones de Bromus catharticus Vahl., recolectadas en el dominio Pampeano (Argentina, fueron clasificadas utilizando 24 caracteres altamente heredables por métodos de taxonomía numérica. Tras implementar el análisis discriminante del paso a paso (Stepwise, 18 variables fueron seleccionadas como variables clasificatorias. Ocho grupos de poblaciones fueron clasificadas en dos clusters principales. Diferentes morfotipos, principalmente asociados a la arquitectura de las panojas y a variables microflorales, fueron encontrados. El patrón de variación morfológico parece responder a un gradiente de humedad y temperatura que disminuye desde el NE al SW. Además, dicho patrón de clasificación refleja un origen geográfico para la mayoría de las poblaciones, aunque hubo algo de ruido. Nuestros resultados se ajustan a un modelo de variación en parches, donde las poblaciones están genéticamente seleccionadas por condiciones micro y macro ambientales.

  8. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  9. Bromus interruptus (Hack.) Druce (Poaceae) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Tim C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Bromus interruptus is a grass which was endemic to England but is now extinct in the wild. Attention is drawn to the two historic records from the Netherlands, where it was probably introduced with agricultural seed, in case it still survives in the wild. It is readily recognised from the contracted

  10. Plant community resistance to invasion by Bromus species – the roles of community attributes, Bromus Interactions with plant communities, and Bromus traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne; Germino, Matthew; Belnap, Jayne; Brown, Cynthia; Schupp, Eugene W.; St. Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species (Bromushereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental factors, in particular ambient and soil temperatures, have significant effects on the ability of Bromus to establish and spread. Seasonality of precipitation relative to temperature influences plant community resistance toBromus through effects on soil water storage, timing of water and nutrient availability, and dominant plant life forms. Differences among plant communities in how well soil resource use by the plant community matches resource supply rates can influence the magnitude of resource fluctuations due to either climate or disturbance and thus the opportunities for invasion. The spatial and temporal patterns of resource availability and acquisition of growth resources by Bromus versus native species strongly influence resistance to invasion. Traits of Bromus that confer a “priority advantage” for resource use in many communities include early-season germination and high growth and reproductive rates. Resistance to Bromus can be overwhelmed by high propagule supply, low innate seed dormancy, and large, if short-lived, seed banks. Biological crusts can inhibit germination and establishment of invasive annual plants, including several annual Bromus species, but are effective only in the absence of disturbance. Herbivores can have negative direct effects on Bromus, but positive indirect effects through decreases in competitors. Management strategies can be improved through increased understanding of community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species.

  11. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the genus Bromus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Germino; Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Edith B Allen; Benjamin Rau

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems...

  12. Cytogenetic studies in some species of Bromus L., section Genea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    test performed between chromosome number and relative chiasmata values in Bromus species also did not show a significant correlation. Sticky chromosomes. Sticky chromosomes were observed from early stages of prophase and continued to the final stages of meiosis in. Table 1. Meiotic characters in Bromus species ...

  13. Introduction: Exotic annual Bromus in the western USA [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Germino; Jeanne C. Chambers; Cynthia S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to...

  14. Seed ecology of Bromus sterilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žďárková, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus sterilis L. (barren brome has become a troublesome weed of winter cereals in reduced tillage systems, mainly in South and North America, middle and Western Europe. In the Czech Republic, its importance has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Barren brome is reported as a problem weed in other winter crops such as oil seed rape, in vineyards and in other cultivated places. In this study, the dormancy and germination under different temperatures, water and light regimes were investigated. Emergence from different depths and persistence in the soil profile were investigated under field conditions. The seeds of Bromus sterilis showed broad ecological valence to hydrothermal factors germinating in the wide range of 5 to 35 °C. Similarly, no strong effect on the germination in an environment with low water potential was observed. The response to light at various temperatures showed that seeds germinated better in darkness. The emergence declined significantly with burial depth (under 40 mm. The loss of primary dormancy was rapid in time and only 50% of the seeds germinated within 8 weeks after collecting from maternal plants. The seeds were not able to survive in the soil seed bank for a longer time and fall seeds lost viability 1 year after burial in a soil profile.

  15. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the Genus Bromus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.; Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John M.; Allen, Edith B.; Rau, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems they dominate. Experiments that prove cause-and-effect impacts of Bromus are rare, yet inferences can be gleaned from the combination of Bromus-ecosystem associations, ecosystem condition before/after invasion, and an understanding of underlying mechanisms. Bromus typically establishes in bare soil patches and can eventually replace perennials such as woody species or bunchgrasses, creating a homogeneous annual cover. Plant productivity and cover are less stable across seasons and years when Bromus dominates, due to a greater response to annual climate variability. Bromus’ “flash” of growth followed by senescence early in the growing season, combined with shallow rooting and annual habit, may lead to incomplete use of deep soil water, reduced C sequestration, and accelerated nutrient cycling. Litter produced by Bromus alters nearly all aspects of ecosystems and notably increases wildfire occurrence. Where Bromus has become dominant, it can decrease soil stability by rendering soils bare for months following fire or episodic, pathogen-induced stand failure. Bromus-invaded communities have lower species diversity, and associated species tend to be generalists adapted to unstable and variable habitats. Changes in litter, fire, and soil properties appear to feedback to reinforce Bromus’ dominance in a pattern that portends desertification.

  16. Introduction: Exotic Annual Bromus in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brown, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to synthesize current knowledge, research needs, and management implications for Bromus. Exotic plant invasions are multifaceted problems, and understanding and managing them requires the biological, ecological, sociological, and economic perspectives that are integrated in this book. Knowing how well information from one geographic or environmental setting can transfer to another is a key need for broadly distributed Bromus species especially given ongoing climate change. Thus, the chapters in the book compare and contrast invasibility of different ecoregions and invasiveness of different Bromus species. A universal theme is managing for ecosystems that are resilient to disturbance and resistant to invasion which will be essential for adaptation to the human-caused problem of Bromus in the Western USA.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  18. Hydrothermal emergence model for ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model that describes the emergence of ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus) was developed using a two-season data set from a no-tilled field in northeastern Spain. The relationship between cumulative emergence and hydrothermal time (HTT) was described by a sigmoid growth function (Chapman equation). HTT ...

  19. Community ecology of fungal pathogens on Bromus tectorum [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Julie Beckstead; JanaLynn Pearce

    2016-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass or downy brome) presents a rich resource for soil microorganisms because of its abundant production of biomass, seeds, and surface litter. Many of these organisms are opportunistic saprophytes, but several fungal species regularly found in B. tectorum stands function as facultative or obligate pathogens. These organisms interact...

  20. Factors affecting Bromus tectorum seed bank carryover in western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of...

  1. Ecological genetics of floret mass variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass, downy brome) is a highly invasive inbreeding annual grass that dominates millions of hectares of former shrubland in interior western North America. Factors contributing to its success include strong genetic regulation of key adaptive traits coupled with high phenotypic plasticity in response to resource availability (Meyer and Allen...

  2. Land uses, fire, and invasion: Exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Mealor, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Human land uses are the primary cause of the introduction and spread of exotic annual Bromusspecies. Initial introductions were likely linked to contaminated seeds used by homesteading farmers in the late 1880s and early 1900s. Transportation routes aided their spread. Unrestricted livestock grazing from the 1800s through the mid-1900s reduced native plant competitors leaving large areas vulnerable to Bromus dominance. Ecosystems with cooler and moister soils tend to have greater potential to recover from disturbances (resilience) and to be more resistant to Bromusinvasion and dominance. Warmer and drier ecosystems are less resistant to Bromus and are threatened by altered fire regimes which can lead to Bromus dominance, impacts to wildlife, and alternative stable states. Native Americans used fire for manipulating plant communities and may have contributed to the early dominance of Bromus in portions of California. Fire as a tool is now limited to site preparation for revegetation in most ecosystems where Bromus is a significant problem. Once Bromus dominates, breaking annual grass/fire cycles requires restoring fire-tolerant perennial grasses and forbs, which can compete with Bromus and resist its dominance. Current weed management policies often lack regulations to prevent further expansion of Bromus. Research is needed on how and where livestock grazing might help increase perennial grass and forb cover and density to create ecosystems that are more resistant to Bromus. Also, studies are needed to ascertain the role, if any, of oil and gas development in contributing to the spread of Bromus.

  3. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl: From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Majorie Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl belongs to the family of Verbenaceae and is commonly known as Gervao, Brazilian tea, verbena cimarrona, rooter comb, or blue porter weed. It is one of the important plants with high medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. S. jamaicensis contains various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems, with cures for several diseases. Objective. The objective of this review paper is to collect information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, biological activities, and safety data of S. jamaicensis. Materials and Methods. The information was obtained from literature search through electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar on S. jamaicensis. Results and Conclusion. The high medicinal properties of this plant, for instance, antimicrobial and antifungal effect as the main activities, but verbascoside as the main active chemical component, make it a valuable source of the medicinal compound. This review paper summarizes all information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, pharmacological activities, and toxicological studies of S. jamaicensis.

  4. Mechanisms controlling the distribution of two invasive Bromus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bykova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict future range shifts for invasive species it is important to explore their ability to acclimate to the new environment and understand physiological and reproductive constraints controlling their distribution. My dissertation studied mechanisms by which temperature may affect the distribution of two aggressive plant invaders in North America, Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens. I first evaluated winter freezing tolerance of Bromus species and demonstrated that the mechanism explaining their distinct northern range limits is different acquisition time of freezing tolerance. While B. rubens has a slower rate of freezing acclimation that leads to intolerance of sudden, late-autumn drops in temperature below -12°C, B. tectorum rapidly hardens and so is not impacted by the sudden onset of severe late-autumn cold. In addition, the analysis of male reproductive development and seed production showed that neither species produces seed at or above 36°C, due to complete pollen sterility, which might trigger climate-mediated range contractions at B. tectorum and B. rubens southern margins. Finally, a detailed gas-exchange analysis combined with biochemical modelling demonstrated that both species acclimate to a broad range of temperatures and photosynthetic response to temperature does not explain their current range separation.

  5. Phytochemical composition of the essential oil of different populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Maryam Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the chemical variability in inflorescences of wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (S. lavandulifolia) collected throughout two provinces (Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary), Southwest Iran. Methods: The essential oils of S. lavandulifolia Vahl from seven locations were obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The results revealed that distinct differences in the content of compounds depending on region of sample collection. The main constituents of the essential oils were α-thujone (0.3%-32.3%), α-pinene (trace to 37.3%), myrcene (0.5%-15.9%),β-phellandrene (1.1%-37.9%), germacrene D (0.4%-11.3%),∆-cadinene (trace to 11.6%) and 1, 4-methano-1 H-indene (trace to 10.1%). Conclusions:The results of the present study indicated that essential oil components of S. lavandulifolia Vahl can be varied with genetic (ecotype), environmental conditions and geographic origin. In general, the essential oils of various populations of S. lavandulifolia Vahl were rich in monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.

  6. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  7. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: Comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Cynthia S. Brown; Jeanne C. Chambers; Carla M. D' Antonio; Jon E. Keeley; Jayne Belnap

    2016-01-01

    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion...

  8. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Benjamin M. Rau; Edith B. Allen; Susan Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromus occurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan...

  9. Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Hidayati, Dewi; Hartanti, Sylviana Rosyda; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Rachman, Rizka Yuanita; Wikanta, Wiwi

    2017-06-01

    Piper retrofractum Vahl., which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is geographically dispersed in tropical region including Indonesia. They are well-known spice possessing high medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of P. retrofractum fruit, extracted with different solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This research was carried out using different concentrations of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts, (0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 ppm). Ascorbic acid was also used as positive antioxidant control. The percentage of inhibition and IC50 were measured. The results showed that the DPPH free radicals were scavenged by all plant extracts in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the IC50 values for DPPH radicals with methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract of the P. retrofractum Vahl. were found to be 101.74; 66.12 and 57.66 ppm, respectively. Interestingly, the IC50 value of n-hexane extract (57.66 ppm) was lower than ascorbic acid (66.12 ppm), indicating that n-hexane extract was a more potent scavenger of free radicals than methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Taken together, our results suggested that n-hexane extract of P. Retrofractum Vahl. might contain potential antioxidant compounds.

  10. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion potential and threats in terms of ecosystem resistance to Bromus invasion and ecosystem resilience to disturbance with an emphasis on the importance of fi re regimes. We also explain how soil temperature and moisture regimes can be linked to patterns of resistance and resilience and provide a conceptual framework that can be used to evaluate the relative potential for invasion and ecological impact of the dominant exotic annual Bromus species in the western United States.

  11. Obtención de pilocarpina a partir de Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Payo Hill

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia el trabajo fitoquímico en Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. (Rutaceae con la finalidad de conocer el contenido de pilocarpina en esta especie. Se extrajeron 1,4 kg de tallos y 1 kg de hojas por los métodos convencionales, y se cromatografiaron los crudos alcaloidales en columnas, de las cuales se obtuvo 2,3036 y 0,6871 g de pilocarpina pura respectivamente. La identificación del alcaloide se realizó por espectroscopia infrarroja contra patrón y cromatografía de capa fina.

  12. Oxidative stress in bromus seedlings treated with Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur, J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Knowledge on allelopathic interactions could provide effective tools for a better exploitation of natural resources in the management of weeds without using herbicides. One of highly resistant weed species is bromus. The effects of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in leaves and roots of bromus (Bromus mollis L. seedlings, were examined. Our results showed that both concentrations of the extract used (0.1% and 0.2% stimulated the significant increase of the superoxide dismutase activity in leaves and roots of bromus 72 hours and 120 hours after the treatment. The significant increase of the catalase activity was recorded in roots of bromus 72 h after the treatment. Two tested extract concentrations affected activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the same way, but the higher activity was observed in the roots treated with higher concentration (0.2%. The increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in response to stress induced by S. sclarea aqueous extract, indicate that the plant extract possesses allelopathic activity on treated plant.

  13. Ecological Genetics of Vernalization Response in Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEYER, SUSAN E.; NELSON, DAVID L.; CARLSON, STEPHANIE L.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an exotic annual grass that is dominant over large areas of former shrubland in western North America. To flower in time for seed production in early summer, B. tectorum plants generally require vernalization at winter temperatures, either as imbibed seeds or as established seedlings. • Methods Variation in response to increasing periods of vernalization as seeds or seedlings for progeny of ten full‐sib families from each of four B. tectorum populations from contrasting habitats was studied. • Key Results As vernalization was increased from 0 to 10 weeks, the proportion of plants flowering within 20 weeks increased, weeks to initiation of flowering decreased, and seed yield per plant increased, regardless of whether plants were vernalized as seeds or seedlings. Most of the variation was accounted for by differences among populations. Plants of the warm desert population flowered promptly even without vernalization, while those of the cold desert, foothill and montane populations showed incremental changes in response variables as a function of vernalization period. Populations differed in among‐family variance, with the warm desert population generally showing the least variance and the cold desert population the most. Variation among populations and among families within populations decreased as vernalization period increased, whereas the non‐genetic component of variance showed no such pattern. • Conclusions Variation in vernalization response was found to be adaptively significant and apparently represents the result of contrasting selection regimes on a range of founder genotypes. PMID:15087300

  14. Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Leger; Erin K. Espeland; Keith R. Merrill; Susan E. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is an invasive weed in western North America found primarily growing at elevations less than 2200 m. We asked whether cheatgrass is capable of becoming adapted to a marginal habitat, by investigating a population at a high elevation invasion edge. We used a combination of methods, including reciprocal field transplants, controlled...

  15. Inbreeding, Genetic Variation, and Invasiveness: The Strange Case of Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Elizabeth A. Leger

    2010-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, downy brome) is arguably the most common plant in the western United States, dominating literally millions of acres of degraded rangeland; yet it is a relative newcomer, having arrived on the scene only a little over a century ago. It first entered the West as an unknown but probably small number of seeds in contaminated grain or packing...

  16. Bromus tectorum L. invasion: Changes in soil properties and rates of bioturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass, downy brome), an exotic annual grass of Eurasian origin, has replaced native Artemisia/bunchgrass communities on millions of hectares throughout the Intermountain West. Using Jenny’s (1941) framework that specific vegetation can differentially affect soil development; we...

  17. Evidence for resistance polymorphism in the Bromus tectorum/Ustilago bullata pathosystem: implications for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; D. L. Nelson; S. Clement

    2001-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an important exotic weed in natural ecosystems as well as in winter cereal cropland in semiarid western North America. The systemic, seedling-infecting head smut pathogen Ustilago bullata Berk. commonly infects cheatgrass stands, often at epidemic levels. We examined factors...

  18. Population genetic structure of Bromus tectorum in the mountains of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer Arnesen; Craig E. Coleman; Susan E. Meyer

    2017-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Invasive species are often initially restricted to a narrow range and may then expand through any of multiple mechanisms including phenotypic plasticity, in situ evolution, or selection on traits preadapted for new habitats. Our study used population genetics to explore possible processes by which the highly selfing invasive annual grass Bromus...

  19. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  20. Ecological significance of microsatellite variation in western North American populations of Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisa P. Ramakrishnan; Susan Meyer; Daniel J. Fairbanks; Craig E. Coleman

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an exotic annual weed that is abundant in western USA. We examined variation in six microsatellite loci for 17 populations representing a range of habitats in Utah, Idaho, Nevada and Colorado (USA) and then intensively sampled four representative populations, for a total sample size of approximately 1000 individuals. All...

  1. Land uses, fire, and invasion: Exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Matthew L. Brooks; Brian A. Mealor

    2016-01-01

    Human land uses are the primary cause of the introduction and spread of exotic annual Bromus species. Initial introductions were likely linked to contaminated seeds used by homesteading farmers in the late 1880s and early 1900s. Transportation routes aided their spread. Unrestricted livestock grazing from the 1800s through the mid-1900s reduced native plant competitors...

  2. Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany G. Johnson; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank

    2011-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the southwestern United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the same soil type but different fire histories: 1) an area that burned in...

  3. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) - Ustilago Bullata (Ustilaginaceae): A role for frequency dependent selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; David L. Nelson; Suzette Clement; Alisa Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary processes that maintain genetic diversity in plants are likely to include selection imposed by pathogens. Negative frequency-dependent selection is a mechanism for maintenance of resistance polymorphism in plant - pathogen interactions. We explored whether such selection operates in the Bromus tectorum - Ustilago bullata pathosystem. Gene-for-gene...

  4. Identification of the infection route of a Fusarium seed pathogen into nondormant Bromus tectorum seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanaLynn Franke; Brad Geary; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium has a wide host range and causes many different forms of plant disease. These include seed rot and seedling blight diseases of cultivated plants. The diseases caused by Fusarium on wild plants are less well-known. In this study, we examined disease development caused by Fusarium sp. n on nondormant seeds of the important rangeland weed Bromus...

  5. Does Fusarium-caused seed mortality contribute to Bromus tectorum stand failure in the Great Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; J.-L. Franke; O. W. Baughman; J. Beckstead; B. Geary

    2014-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass, downy brome) is an important invader in western North America, dominating millions of hectares of former semi-arid shrubland. Stand failure or 'die-off' is relatively common in monocultures of this annual grass. The study reported here investigated whether soil-borne pathogens could be causal agents in die-offs. Soils from two die...

  6. Bromus carinatus Hook. et Arn. en Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl. in Midden-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floristenclub Gelderse Vallei,

    1979-01-01

    The authors mention the occurrence of two grasses, Bromus carinatus Hook, et Arn. (fig. 1) and Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl. (fig. 2) in the central part of the Netherlands. The first is a naturalised adventitious plant, the other a species of saline habitats and is spreading through this part of

  7. Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectoreum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea Condon; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Native sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin (western USA) are often invaded following fire by exotic Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a highly flammable annual grass. Once B. tectorum is established, higher fire frequencies can lead to local extirpation of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush) and have cascading effects on sagebrush ecosystems and...

  8. Isolation and Identification of Secondary Metabolites from the Aerial Parts of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Ghanadian, Seyed Mustafa; Rabbani, Mohammad; Tahmasbi, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl is an herbaceous wild plant native to Iran which is traditionally used in Iranian folk medicine as a mild sedative tea for reducing anxiety and for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Our previous study on ethyl acetate extract of S. lavandulifolia proved anti-anxiolytic activity and so the present study was designed to determine chemical components of this biologically active fraction. The extract was prepared using maceration method. Column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) was used respectively to separate the fractions. Finally, some evaluated fractions were used for high pressure liquid (HPLC) and peak shaving recycle technique to achieve more purification. Separated compounds were determined using NMR analysis and mass spectroscopy. Six compounds have been isolated from ethylacetate extract of aerial parts of S. lavandulifolia including four flavonoids (apigenin, kumatakenin, penduletin and 4', 7-dihyroxy- 3, 5, 6-trimethoxy flavon), a labdan diterpenoid (labda-13-en-8, 15-diol), and an iridoid.

  9. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  10. In vitro regeneration of Drosera burmannii Vahl.: a carnivorous plant of north-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, J Sureni; Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2017-06-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol has been developed from shoot tips of Drosera burmannii Vahl., a carnivorous plant of north-east India. Various plant growth regulators were used to study their efficacy in the induction of multiple shoots and roots. Of the various treatments, the maximum number of shoots (28.8 ± 1.5) and roots (9.7 ± 0.6) was observed in one-fourth strength standard medium (MS with 50 mg/l citric acid and 10 mg/l ascorbic acid) supplemented with 4 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 4 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) followed by 26.8 ± 1.4 shoots in one-fourth strength SM fortified with 4 mg/l kinetin (KN) and 4 mg/l NAA. The well-developed plantlets with shoots and roots were potted in small plastic glasses filled with a mixture of sand and farmyard manure (3:1); these plantlets when transferred to a glasshouse for hardening and acclimatization showed 90% survival.

  11. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  13. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Temunović

    Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  14. Phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl (Meliaceae in subtropical riparian forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit. Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.

  15. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  16. α-Mangostin from Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl Blume Demonstrates Anti-Ulcerogenic Property: A Mechanistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyam M. A. Sidahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl Blume is an Asian herbal medicine with versatile ethnobiological properties including treatment of gastric ulcer. This study evaluated the antiulcerogenic mechanism(s of α-mangostin (AM in a rat model of ulcer. AM is a prenylated xanthone derived through biologically guided fractionation of C. arborescens. Rats were orally pretreated with AM and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Following treatment, ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological and immunohistochemical analyses, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH were evaluated. The anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitory effect, and antioxidant activity of AM were also investigated in vitro. AM (10 and 30 mg/kg inhibited significantly (P<0.05 ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 66.04% and 74.39 %, respectively. The compound induces the expression of Hsp70, restores GSH levels, decreases lipid peroxidation, and inhibits COX-2 activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AM showed an effective in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The efficacy of the AM was accomplished safely without presenting any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the antioxidant properties and the potent anti-H. pylori, in addition to activation of Hsp70 protein, may contribute to the gastroprotective activity of α-mangostin.

  17. Composition and cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the oil of Piper aequale Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Pinto, Laine C; Burbano, Rommel M R; Montenegro, Raquel C; Andrade, Eloísa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2016-10-07

    Piper aequale Vahl is a small shrub that grows in the shadow of large trees in the Carajás National Forest, Municipality of Parauapebas, Para state, Brazil. The local people have used the plant against rheumatism and inflammation. The essential oil of the aerial parts was extracted and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to measuring the cytotoxic activity of the oil against human cancer lines. The determination of antioxidant activity of the oil was conducted by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The main constituents were δ-elemene (18.92 %), β-pinene (15.56 %), α-pinene (12.57 %), cubebol (7.20 %), β-atlantol (5.87 %), and bicyclogermacrene (5.51 %), totalizing 65.63 % of the oil. The oil displayed a strong in vitro cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines HCT-116 (colon) and ACP03 (gastric) with IC 50 values of 8.69 μg/ml and 1.54 μg/ml, respectively. The oil has induced the apoptosis in a gastric cancer cells in all tested concentration (0.75-3.0 μg/ml), after 72 h of treatment, when compared to negative control (p < 0.001). Also, the oil showed a significant antioxidant activity (280.9 ± 22.2 mg TE/ml), when analyzed as Trolox equivalent, and a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibition, with a detection limit of 100 ng, when compared to the physostigmine standard (1.0 ng). The higher cell growth inhibition induced by the oil of P. aequale is probably due to its primary terpene compounds, which were previously reported in the proliferation inhibition, in stimulation of apoptosis and induction of cell cycle arrest in malignant cells.

  18. Multiple pharmacological targets, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical profile of Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Marie Carene Nancy; Bender, Onur; Atalay, Arzu; Zengin, Gokhan; Loffredo, Loïc; Hadji-Minaglou, Francis; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2017-05-01

    Aphloia theiformis (Vahl.) Benn. (AT) is traditionally used in Sub-Saharan African countries including Mauritius as a biomedicine for the management of several diseases. However, there is a dearth of experimental studies to validate these claims. We endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory effects of crude aqueous extract as traditionally used together with the crude methanol extracts of AT leaves on urease, angiotensin (I) converting enzyme (ACE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cholesterol esterase (CEase), glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa), and glycation in vitro. The crude extract showing potent activity against the studied enzymes was further partitioned using different solvents of increasing polarity. The enzyme inhibitory and antiglycation activities of each fraction was assessed. Kinetic of inhibition of the active crude extract/fractions on the aforementioned enzymes was consequently determined using Lineweaver-Burk plots. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV/MS) system was used to establish the phytochemical profile of AT. The real time cell analysis system (iCELLigence™) was used to monitor any cellular cytotoxicity of AT. Crude methanolextract (CME) was a potent inhibitor of the studied enzymes, with IC 50 ranging from 696.22 to 19.73μg/mL. CME (82.5%) significantly (p20μg/mL) according to the U.S National Cancer Institute plant screening program. This study has established baseline data that tend to justify the traditional use of AT and open new avenues for future biomedicine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological variability of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in the north-western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Jarni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl is a species native in the north-western Balkans, where it has a divided range. Most of its range is located in flood-prone riparian sites in the Pannonian plain but the species is also found on humid sites along some rivers in the Submediterranean region. We analysed morphologic variation within and between five populations (14 trees/population located in the Subpannonian and Submediterranean region of Slovenia. Thirty two characters were assessed on ca. 80 leaves from each tree which were divided depending on exposure to sunlight (sun and shade leaves, and 8 traits on each fruit (ca. 50 fruits/tree. A hierarchically designed experiment using analysis of variance confirmed the significant contribution of all the analysed hierarchical levels of variation to the total variation. The results show that the differences between the trees in a single population are the greatest factor of variability of leaves, followed by differences between populations and differences which are the result of variation in exposure to sunlight. Leaves in shade positions are typically larger than those in sunny positions, and they have broader and shorter-pointed leaflets; in this feature they are very similar to the leaves of F. excelsior. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the traits which refer to the leaflet number and length are the best differentiating traits between individual populations. The Submediterranean population Dragonja stands out with the smallest leaves and the population Lijak from the same region is the most similar to Dragonja for most morphological traits. In general, phenotypic differences between the Subpannonian and the Submediterranean populations of F. angustifolia are minor and indistinct. Based on the differences ascertained by the study, we can only confirm the presence of F. angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. ex Willd. Franco et Rocha Alfonso in this part of its natural range.

  20. Germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds under simulated drought and different thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Haliniarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds and the initial growth of seedlings under simulated drought and different thermal conditions. The study included two experiments carried out under laboratory conditions in the spring of 2012. The first experiment involved an evaluation of the speed of germination as well as of the biometric characters and weight of seedlings in polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 8000 in which the water potential was: -0.2; -0.4; -0.65; -0.9 MPa, and in distilled water as the control treatment. The experiment was conducted at the following temperatures: 25/22oC and 18/14oC day/night, at a relative air humidity of 90%. The other experiment, in which lessive soil was used as a germination substrate, was carried out in a plant growth chamber at two levels of air humidity (55–65% and 85–95% and temperature (22/10oC and 16/5oC. The soil moisture content was determined by the gravimetric method and the water potential corresponding to it was as follows: -0.02, -0.07, -0.16, -0.49, -1.55 MPa. The germination capacity and emergence of Bromus secalinus as well as the weight of sprouts produced were significantly dependent on the water potential of the polyethylene glycol solution and on the soil water potential. The emergence of Bromus secalinus was completely inhibited by reducing the soil water potential below -0.16 MPa (the point of strong growth inhibition. The emergence and biometric characters of rye bro- me seedlings were significantly dependent on temperature and air humidity.

  1. Mapping genetic variation and seed zones for Bromus carinatus in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Nancy L. Mandel; J. Bradley St. Clair; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland

    2010-01-01

    Seed transfer zones ensure that germplasm selected for restoration is suitable and sustainable in diverse environments. In this study, seed zones were developed for mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. Plants from 148 Blue Mountain seed source locations were...

  2. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  3. Strong genetic differentiation in the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum across the Mojave-Great Basin ecological transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Elizabeth A. Leger; Desiree R. Eldon; Craig E. Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, an inbreeding annual grass, is a dominant invader in sagebrush steppe habitat in North America. It is also common in warm and salt deserts, displaying a larger environmental tolerance than most native species. We tested the hypothesis that a suite of habitat-specific B. tectorum lineages dominates warm desert habitats. We sampled 30 B....

  4. Population genetic analysis of Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) indicates recent range expansion may be facilitated by specialist genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith R. Merrill; Susan E. Meyer; Craig E. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms for range expansion in invasive species depend on how genetic variation is structured in the introduced range. This study examined neutral genetic variation in the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum in the Intermountain Western United States. Patterns of microsatellite (SSR) genotype distribution in this highly inbreeding species were used to make...

  5. Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. and Guarea macrophylla Vahl. (Meliaceae Morfo-anatomia da flor de Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. e de Guarea macrophylla Vahl. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Souza

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. and G. macrophylla Vahl. belong to Meliaceae, an arboreal family that occurs in forest fragments in the Northwest of Paraná, Brazil. The flowering time for G. kunthiana is from November to December and for G. macrophylla is from September to November. Flowers of the species are unisexual and they present similar structure. The male flowers present pistillode and anthers with epidermis, endothecium, two median layers and binucleate secretory tapetum. The female flowers present antherode and pistil, whose stigma has secretory lateral portion, the style is solid and the ovary presents parenchymatous mesophyll and meristematic inner epidermis; the ovules are hemianatropous, bitegmic and crassinucelate. The flowers are nectar-secreting.Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. e G. macrophylla Vahl. são espécies pertencentes à família Meliaceae, de hábito arbóreo que ocorrem em remanescentes florestais da região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A primeira floresce de novembro a dezembro e a segunda, de setembro a novembro. As flores das espécies são diclinas e apresentam semelhança estrutural. As flores masculinas têm pistilódio e anteras com epiderme, endotécio, duas camadas médias e tapete secretor com células binucleadas. As femininas apresentam anteródio e pistilo, cujo estigma tem porção secretora lateral; o estilete é sólido; o ovário apresenta mesofilo parenquimático e epiderme interna meristemática; os óvulos são hemianátropos, bitegumentados e crassinucelados. As flores são nectaríferas.

  6. Towards the sustainable management of thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests in Tunisia: models for main tree attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Garchi, S.; Ammari, Y.; Canellas, I.; Tahar, S.

    2012-11-01

    The thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests are one of the most important ecosystems in semiarid environments in north-western Africa, providing important economic profit and social services to local populations. However, lack of tools aiding sustainable management of these forests is detected. In the present work models for the main tree attributes as total height, crown diameter, height to crown base and stem form are developed for the species, using data from a net of plots installed in JbelLattrech region, in the NE Tunisia. Presented models allow characterizing the actual state and timber production of forests by using variables measured in typical forest inventories and conform a preliminary step for the future development of dynamic growth models. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  8. Essential Oil Variability and Biological Activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Wood According to the Extraction Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil (EO) extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses showed significant differences between the extracted EOs, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α-acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select EOs to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of EO in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.

  10. Potent antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Tamarix articulata Vahl. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebi, Morad; Farid, Omra; Ajebli, Mohammed; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose and daily oral administration for seven days of the aerial part aqueous extract (A.P.A.E) of Tamarix articulata Vahl. (T. articulata) (5mg/kg) on blood glucose levels in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). Single oral administration of T. articulata A.P.A.E reduced blood glucose levels 6h after administration in normal rats (pTamarix articulata was evaluated by the method of trapping of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Tamarix articulata revealed inhibitory concentrations of 50% of free radicals (IC50) of 203.15μg/ml. In contrast, the synthetic antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) has showed an IC50 equal to 13.71μg/ml. In conclusion, this study demonstrates antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of T. articulata in severe diabetic state thus warrants further investigation on its major compounds as well as mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic variation and correlation of agronomic traits in meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Marcelo Renato Alves de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm. is a recently introduced pasture grass in western Canada. Its leafy production and rapid regrowth have made it a major grass species for pasturing beef animals in this region. As relatively little breeding work has been done on this species, there is little information on its breeding behaviour. The main objective of this study was to estimate total genetic variability, broad-sense heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations. Forty-four meadow bromegrass clones were evaluated for agronomic characters. Genetic variation for dry matter yield, seed yield, fertility index, harvest index, plant height, plant spread, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, was significant. Broad-sense heritability estimates exceeded 50% for all characters. Heritability estimates were at least 3.5 times greater than their standard errors. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between all possible characters were measured. There was general agreement in both sign and magnitude between genetic and phenotypic correlations. Correlations between the different characters demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously improve seed and forage yield. Based on the results, it appears that the development of higher yielding cultivars with higher crude protein, and lower acid and neutral detergent fibers concentration should be possible.

  12. First record of target-site-resistance of poverty brome (Bromus sterilis to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 reduced efficacy of grass weed herbicides to poverty brome (Bromus sterilis was observed in oilseed rape on a site in East Hessen. The field was cultivated by using the ploughless tillage system more than 25 years. The site showed high densities of poverty brome (>1000 plants/m² prior to herbicide treatment. Poverty brome seeds were collected in 2012 in the hessian oilseed rape field and from a site in East Westphalia, where poverty brome appeared at low densities (10 plants/m² and was not suspected to resistance. The seeds were sown in to pots and plants cultivated. The plants were treated with two application rates (normal dose, double dose with herbicides of different HRAC-classes. The time of treatment was adjusted to the best expectable treatment/efficiency conditions of the individual herbicides (see chapter 3. Clear differences in efficacy that were caused by herbicide, the origins of poverty brome and the dosages were recorded via visual rating eight weeks after spraying. The herbicides Agil and Focus Ultra were able to control about 90% of the poverty brome plants of the East Westphalia site origin. However, only 20-30% of the Hessian plants could be knocked out by the same herbicides. The ACCase-gene of single powerty brome leaf samples from the hessian site was analyzed after resistance assessment. A molecular genetic analysis on 7 variable positions identified target site resistance: Isoleucine (Ile was replaced by asparagine (Asn at position 2041.

  13. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  14. Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: Possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Although invasions by exotic plants have increased dramatically as human travel and commerce have increased, few have been comprehensively described. Understanding the patterns of invasive species spread over space and time will help guide management activities and policy. Tracing the earliest appearances of an exotic plant reveals likely sites of introduction, paving the way for genetic studies to quantify founder events and identify potential source populations. Red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded even relatively undisturbed areas of western North America, where it threatens native plant communities. This study used herbarium records and contemporary published accounts to trace the early introductions and subsequent spread of red brome in western North America. The results challenge the most frequently cited sources describing the early history of this grass and suggest three possible modes for early introductions: the California Gold Rush and Central Valley wheat, southern California shipping, and northern California sheep. Subsequent periods of most rapid spread into new areas, from 1930 to 1942, and of greatest spread into new regions, during the past 50 years, coincide with warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation regimes, which are linked to increased winter precipitation in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Global environmental change, including increased atmospheric CO2 levels and N deposition, may be contributing to the success of red brome, relative to native species.

  15. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  16. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  17. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (ipê amarelo, cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Foram utilizadas plântulas mantidas por 43 dias em sala de crescimento, com 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias de aclimatização e mudas de 90 dias cultivadas em viveiro. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura de embriões em meio MS e transplantadas para tubetes contendo plantmax®, para aclimatização em viveiro, sob 50% de sombreamento. Nas mesmas condições da aclimatização, foram produzidas as mudas in vivo. Cortes transversais e paradérmicos foram preparados de acordo com técnicas usuais em microtecnia vegetal. As plântulas in vitro apresentam os tecidos foliares pouco diferenciados e estômatos maiores e mais abertos, exigindo maiores cuidados na etapa inicial de aclimatização. Aos 60 dias de aclimatização as novas folhas produzidas possuem alguns aspectos anatômicos que podem conferir maior eficiência fotossintética e maior capacidade de regulação hídrica das plantas.The seedlings spread by micropropagation techniques, usually show significant alterations induced by the conditions in vitro, which decrease the survival capacity after the transfer to conditions ex vitro. The evaluation of the structural change during the acclimatization is necessary for the understanding of this adaptation process. The objective of this research was to identify the anatomical differences among the seedlings cultivated in vitro, in vivo and acclimatized plants of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (yellow ipe, species with great

  18. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  19. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 μM proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content.

  20. Growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. cultivated in different rhizosphere soils collected from Tetraclinis stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five representative plant species (Withania frutescens Pauquy, Lavandula multifida L., Pistacia atlantica Desf., Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link Negodi and Tetraclinis articulata [Vahl] Mast. were selected from Moroccan Tetraclinis woodland in order to evaluate their mycorrhizal potential and to compare the impact of their rhizosphere soil on growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata seedlings. We observed that roots of selected plants were highly colonized by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi. Lavandula multifida roots showed the highest colonization percentage (100%. We recovered AM fungal spores from the rhizosphere soils of the five plant species and we found that the spores number from L. multifida and T. articulata rhizosphere was significantly different from that of other plants. We assessed the mycorrhizal potential of the indigenous soils by using the Most Probable Number (MPN approach. We found that MPN in soils collected near the five plant species was significantly higher than the one in the bare soil. The average of MPN per 100 g of dry soil was 11.8 (from 5.6 to 25.0 in the bare soil and 228.5 (from 108.0 to 476.0 in L. multifida rhizosphere. This result indicates that the soil surrounding the target plants can be used as inoculum for mycorrhization. We conducted a nursery experiment in which L. multifida soil yielded a high mycorrhizal percentage in T. articulata plants, thus contributing to improve the plant growth. However, the highest formation of arbuscules in T. articulata grown in Lavandula soil did not significantly affect the growth or the nutrition of plants compared to Tetraclinis soil, except for potassium concentration. Our investigation clearly showed that L. multifida soil can be used as biofertilizer to inoculate nurseries for T. articulata production. This will greatly contribute to sustain Tetraclinis woodland.

  1. In vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Activities and Chemical Constituents of the Endemic Thymus laevigatus (Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Thymus laevigatus (Vahl, Lamiaceae (Labiatae, an endemic species of Yemen, are traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and respiratory system. In a first biological and chemical study of this endemic species we investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the leaves of this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts composition was performed by TLC while the composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Twelve constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted 99.6 % of the total amount. The major constituents of the oil were: carvacrol (84.3 %, p-cymene (4.1 % p-mentha-1, 4-diene (4.0 % and trans-anethole (3.6%. The main active components were identified by TLC as carvacrol and anethole for dichloromethane extract and as non-volatile phenols and flavonoids for the methanol extract. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five bacteria strains and six human pathogenic fungi. Both methanol and dichloromethane showed strong activities against most human pathogenic strains. In the contrast, methanol extract showed broader and stronger antibacterial activities than the dichloromethane extract, especially against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extract showed the same strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (14.9mg/ml, when compared to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. In contrast, the cytotoxic activity of the methanol against FL cells, a human amniotic epithelial cell line, was only moderate (IC50 298, 8 mg/ml. On the contrary, the water extract did not show any biological activity. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil and extracts of Thymus laevigatus possess strong antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient

  2. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Villalba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different herbicides against a new weed Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Houtt. in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asghar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different post emergence herbicides for the control of monocot weed the Japanese broom (Bromus japonicus in wheat crop. Five herbicides viz., metribuzin, isoproturon, metribuzin plus isoproturon, Atlantis and sulfosulfuron were used at their recommended doses in RCBD with three replications. The weedy check was kept as control where no herbicide was sprayed. All the herbicides were applied as post-emergence after second irrigation at 60 days after sowing the crop. The lowest weed counts per m2 (0.583 and highest percent of weed mortality (99.07% were observed where metribuzin plus isoproturon was used. This was followed by Atlantis with 3.26 weeds per m2 with 95.14% mortality of weeds. However, significantly higher 1000 grain weight was noted with Atlantis (29.50 g and metribuzin plus isoproturon (28.58 g. The treatments did not differ significantly with respect to 1000 grain weight. All the herbicide helped to increase the yield from 16 to 22%, but did not differ significantly with respect to yield gain. The highest yield (3759.40 kg ha-1 was produced by Atlantis followed by sulfosulfuron (3757.20 kg ha-1 . On the basis of cost benefit ratio sulfosulfuron (34.95 proved to be the best followed by metribuzin (16.78. Therefore, sulfosulfuron and metribuzin are recommended for the control of Bromus weed in wheat crop.

  4. Spirostaphylotrichin W, a spirocyclic γ-lactam isolated from liquid culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a potential mycoherbicide for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masia; Susan Meyer; Suzette Clement; Anna Andolfi; Alessio Cimmino; Antonio. Evidente

    2014-01-01

    A novel spirocyclic γ-lactam, named spirostaphylotrichin W (1), was isolated together with the well known and closely related spirostaphylotrichins A, C, D, R and V, as well as triticone E, from the liquid cultures of Pyrenophora semeniperda (anamorph: Drechslera), a seed pathogen proposed for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) biocontrol. Spirostaphylotrichin W was...

  5. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  6. Effects of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl on tumor angiogenesis and on tumor growth in nude mice implanted with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasiripanth, Taksanee; Hokputsa, Sanya; Niruthisard, Somchai; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the crude extract of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl (AE) on tumor growth and angiogenesis by utilizing a tumor model in which nude mice were implanted with cervical cancer cells containing human papillomavirus 16 DNA (HPV-16 DNA). The growth-inhibitory effect of AE was investigated in four different cell types: CaSki (HPV-16 positive), HeLa (HPV-18 positive), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs). The cell viabilities and IC 50 values of AE were determined in cells incubated with AE for different lengths of time. To conduct studies in vivo, female BALB/c nude mice (aged 6–7 weeks, weighing 20–25 g) were used. A cervical cancer-derived cell line (CaSki) with integrated HPV-16 DNA was injected subcutaneously (1 × 10 7 cells/200 μL) in the middle dorsum of each animal (HPV group). One week after injection, mice were fed orally with AE crude extract at either 300 or 3000 mg/kg body weight/day for 14 or 28 days (HPV-AE groups). Tumor microvasculature and capillary vascularity were determined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Tumor tissue was collected from each mouse to evaluate tumor histology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunostaining. The time-response curves of AE and the dose-dependent effect of AE on growth inhibition were determined. After a 48-hour incubation period, the IC 50 of AE in CaSki was discovered to be significantly different from that of HDFs (P < 0.05). A microvascular network was observed around the tumor area in the HPV group on days 21 and 35. Tumor capillary vascularity in the HPV group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). High-dose treatment of AE extract (HPV-3000AE group) significantly attenuated the increase in VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis in mice that received either the 14- or 28-day treatment period (P < 0.001). Our novel findings demonstrated that AE crude extract could

  7. Verification of the systematic position of California brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. and Arn., Poaceae, cv. 'Broma', on the basis of analysis of issr markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sutkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Broma’ is a grass cultivar belonging to the species Bromus carinatus. In the Lists of Agricultural Plant Varieties of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU, it is shown as Bromus willdenowii (= B. catharticus, B. unioloides (List of Agricultural Plant Varieties 1989-2009, whereas already in 1984 Mirek demonstrated on the basis of morphological analysis that this was a different closely related species – B. carinatus. The aim of the present study was to verify the species affiliation of cv. ‘Broma’. The conducted analysis of ISSR molecular markers included representatives of cv. ‘Broma” as well as of B. carinatus and B. willdenowii. The method used allowed the identification of molecular markers of the above-mentioned taxa. The numerical analysis of the obtained results suggests that cv. ‘Broma’ should be classified in the species B. carinatus, not B. willdenowii.

  8. Soil Seed Bank Responses to Postfire Herbicide and Native Seeding Treatments Designed to Control Bromus tectorum in a Pinyon–Juniper Woodland at Zion National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Hondo Brisbin, graduate student; Andrea Thode, Associate Professor; Karen Weber, graduate student

    2013-01-01

    The continued threat of an invasive, annual brome (Bromus) species in the western United States has created the need for integrated approaches to postfire restoration. Additionally, the high germination rate, high seed production, and seed bank carryover of annual bromes points to the need to assay soil seed banks as part of monitoring programs. We sampled the soil seed bank to help assess the effectiveness of treatments utilizing the herbicide Plateau® (imazapic) and a perennial native seed mix to control annual Bromus species and enhance perennial native plant establishment following a wildfire in Zion National Park, Utah. This study is one of few that have monitored the effects of imazapic and native seeding on a soil seed bank community and the only one that we know of that has done so in a pinyon–juniper woodland. The study made use of untreated, replicated controls, which is not common for seed bank studies. One year posttreatment, Bromus was significantly reduced in plots sprayed with herbicide. By the second year posttreatment, the effects of imazapic were less evident and convergence with the controls was evident. Emergence of seeded species was low for the duration of the study. Dry conditions and possible interactions with imazapic probably contributed to the lack of emergence of seeded native species. The perennial grass sand dropseed outperformed the other species included in the seed mix. We also examined how the treatments affected the soil seed bank community as a whole. We found evidence that the herbicide was reducing several native annual forbs and one nonnative annual forb. However, overall effects on the community were not significant. The results of our study were similar to what others have found in that imazapic is effective in providing a short-term reduction in Bromus density, although it can impact emergence of nontarget species.

  9. Use of AFLP and RAPD molecular genetic markers and cytogenetic analysis to explore relationships among taxa of the Patagonian Bromus setifolius complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromus setifolius var. pictus (Hook Skottsb., B. setifolius var. setifolius Presl. and B. setifolius var. brevifolius Ness are three native Patagonian taxa in the section Pnigma Dumort of the genus Bromus L. AFLP and RAPD analysis, in conjunction with genetic distance measurements and statistical techniques, revealed variation within this group and indicated that B. setifolius var. brevifolius was closely related to B. setifolius var. pictus, with both taxa being more distantly related to B. setifolius var. setifolius. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the chromosomal number of B. setifolius var. pictus (2n = 70 and B. setifolius var. setifolius (2n = 28 and showed for the first time that B. setifolius var. brevifolius had 2n = 70. The combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic evidence supported a species status for two of the three taxa and suggested hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of these complex taxa. Species status was also indicated for B. setifolius var. setifolius. Based on these findings, we suggest that B. setifolius var. pictus be referred to as B. pictus Hook var. pictus, and B. setifolius var brevifolius as B. pictus Hook var brevifolius. The correlation between AFLP diversity and variation in ecological parameters suggested that this marker system could be used to assess breeding progress and to monitor the domestication of Patagonian Bromus species for agronomic use.

  10. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  11. Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum Invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  12. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  13. Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, R.R.; Young, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil nitrogen and favor native species. We studied the interaction of labile carbon addition (sucrose), with soil invasion status and fertilizer addition on the growth of B. tectorum. Soils were non invaded (BNI) and B. tectorum invaded (BI). Treatments were control, sucrose, combined fertilizer, and sucrose + fertilizer. The greenhouse experiment continued for 3 growth-cycles. After the 1st growth-cycle, sucrose addition reduced B. tectorum aboveground mass almost 70 times for the BI soil but did not significantly reduce growth in the BNI soil. B. tectorum aboveground mass, after the 1st growth-cycle, was over 27 times greater for BI control soils than BNI control soils. Although sucrose addition reduced soil-solution NO 3 , tissue N was not significantly lowered, suggesting that reduction of soil available N may not be solely responsible for reduction in B. tectorum growth. Non invaded soil inhibits growth of B. tectorum. Understanding this mechanism may lead to viable control strategies.

  14. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M West

    Full Text Available National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass, which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park, Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211, current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2 and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  15. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  16. Effects of Bromus tectorum invasion on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in two adjacent undisturbed arid grassland communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Sean M.; Ziegler, Susan E.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) is an important component in maintaining ecosystem stability, and the introduction of non-native plants can alter N cycling by changing litter quality and quantity, nutrient uptake patterns, and soil food webs. Our goal was to determine the effects of Bromus tectorum (C3) invasion on soil microbial N cycling in adjacent non-invaded and invaded C3 and C4 native arid grasslands. We monitored resin-extractable N, plant and soil δ13C and δ15N, gross rates of inorganic N mineralization and consumption, and the quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipid biomarkers. In invaded C3 communities, labile soil organic N and gross and net rates of soil N transformations increased, indicating an increase in overall microbial N cycling. In invaded C4 communities labile soil N stayed constant, but gross N flux rates increased. The δ13C of phospholipid biomarkers in invaded C4 communities showed that some portion of the soil bacterial population preferentially decomposed invader C3-derived litter over that from the native C4 species. Invasion in C4 grasslands also significantly decreased the proportion of fungal to bacterial phospholipid biomarkers. Different processes are occurring in response to B. tectorum invasion in each of these two native grasslands that: 1) alter the size of soil N pools, and/or 2) the activity of the microbial community. Both processes provide mechanisms for altering long-term N dynamics in these ecosystems and highlight how multiple mechanisms can lead to similar effects on ecosystem function, which may be important for the construction of future biogeochemical process models.

  17. Essential Oil Variability of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Parts During Its Phenological Cycle and Incidence on the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Lamari, Lynda; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2017-02-01

    The impact of phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) on chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. parts essential oils were investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (16.38 ± 0.19 - 31.78 ± 0.35%) and limonene (3.41 ± 0.07 - 9.49 ± 0.14%) as major components, predominate at the vegetative stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by camphor (16.11 ± 0.23 - 26.17 ± 0.29%) and bornyl acetate (15.21 ± 0.21 - 27.33 ± 0.33%) as major components, predominate at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that the plant parts collected at the fruiting stage possess the highest antioxidant activity and the best antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms, than plant parts collected at the vegetative and flowering stages. This highlighted variability reflects the high impact of phenological cycle on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on phenological stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Effective population size estimation in seed orchards: A case study of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./ F. angustifolia VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machanská Eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size as a parameter closely correlating with the genetic and genotypic diversity of the seed orchard output is an important indicator of seed orchard functioning. It is determined by the variation of male and female gametic contributions of parental genotypes (including those outside the seed orchard, influenced by the variation in male and female gamete production, reproductive phenology, pollen dispersal within seed orchard and other factors. We assessed male and female fecundity, as well as temporal course of male and female flowering in two seed orchards of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./F. angustifolia VAHL. in Slovakia. In both cases, male and female gametic contributions of plus-tree clones were modeled on the basis of fecundity and flowering phenology, and were used to calculate status number as an estimator of effective population size. In the seed orchard of Pinus nigra, marker-aided verification of clonal fidelity revealed unexpectedly high proportion of misplaced ramets (29.9% and alien genotypes (44.4%. Monitoring of reproductive processes in 2002 and 2003 showed high variation in both male and female fecundity, and pollen shedding preceding female receptivity in Pinus nigra. All these factors contributed to a very low relative status effective number, representing 8.6% to 38.6% of the population census (depending from the management option in relation to misplaced and alien genotypes. In the mixed seed orchard of Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia, the proportion of misplaced and alien genotypes was much lower (22.4% and 12.3%, respectively. However, a high fecundity variation and protogyny resulted in a low relative status number (18.8% to 29.5% of the census number of clones also in this seed orchard. Practical implications of these findings are shortly discussed and practical management options are proposed.

  19. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38 cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a

  20. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl., a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy

    Full Text Available Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl. is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG, Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG and Gene Ontology (GO. Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0% and 36349 (97.7% from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf and 32077 (mature leaf transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7% CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in

  1. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  2. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae Avalição da atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e fototóxica dos extratos e compostos isolados de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular brasileira contra úlceras e lesões de pele. Internamente é usada contra inflamações, febre, doenças renais e aterosclerose. Essa planta foi estudada com o objetivo de identificar os compostos bioativos majoritários que possam justificar seu uso terapêutico contra lesões de pele e arteriosclerose. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto etanólico, partições e os compostos majoritários isolados

  4. Evaluation of amentoflavone isolated from Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) on production of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, I O; Chaturvedi, J P; Rai, S; Rajasekar, N; Adeyemi, O O; Shukla, R; Narender, T

    2013-03-27

    Cnestisferruginea (CF) Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) is a shrub widely used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of various psychiatric illness and inflammatory conditions. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of amentoflavone isolated from methanolic root extract of CF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory cascade of events associated to the oxidative and nitrative stress, and TNF-α production in rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1), respectively. Rat astrocytoma cells (C6) were stimulated with LPS (10μg/ml) alone and in the presence of different concentrations of amentoflavone (0.1-3μg/ml) for 24h incubation period. Nitrite release, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced-glutathione (GSH) in C6 cells were estimated; while the TNF-α level was estimated in THP-1 cell lysate. In vivo analgesic activity was evaluated using mouse writhing and hot plate tests while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan-induced oedema test. LPS (10μg/ml) significantly (PTHP-1 cells. Amentoflavone (6.25-50mg/kg) significantly (Ptest. It produced time course significant (P<0.05) decrease in oedema formation in rodents. Findings in this study demonstrate the anti-neuroinflammatory and antinoceptive effects of amentoflavone which may suggest its beneficial roles in neuroinflammation associated disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  6. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  7. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  8. Fire and grazing influence site resistance to Bromus tectorum through their effects on shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities in the Great Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea A.; Pyke, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Shrubs, bunchgrasses and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are believed to contribute to site resistance to plant invasions in the presence of cattle grazing. Although fire is a concomitant disturbance with grazing, little is known regarding their combined impacts on invasion resistance. We are the first to date to test the idea that biotic communities mediate the effects of disturbance on site resistance. We assessed cover of Bromus tectorum, shrubs, native bunchgrasses, lichens and mosses in 99 burned and unburned plots located on similar soils where fires occurred between 12 and 23 years before sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships between environmental and disturbance characteristics, the biotic community and resistance to B. tectorum cover. Characteristics of fire and grazing did not directly relate to cover of B. tectorum. Relationships were mediated through shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities. Increased site resistance following fire was associated with higher bunchgrass cover and recovery of bunchgrasses and mosses with time since fire. Evidence of grazing was more pronounced on burned sites and was positively correlated with the cover of B. tectorum, indicating an interaction between fire and grazing that decreases site resistance. Lichen cover showed a weak, negative relationship with cover of B. tectorum. Fire reduced near-term site resistance to B. tectorum on actively grazed rangelands. Independent of fire, grazing impacts resulted in reduced site resistance to B. tectorum, suggesting that grazing management that enhances plant and biocrust communities will also enhance site resistance.

  9. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ilai N; Menalled, Fabian D; Weaver, David K; Robison-Cox, James F

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  10. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilai N Keren

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly in wheat (Triticum aestivum systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the

  11. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  12. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  13. Radiobiological and genetic effects of Bromus inermis seed progeny from populations of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (Russia, Kyshtym accident) - Radiobiological and genetic effects for Bromus inermis Leyss. Populations at the East-Ural radioactive trace (Russia, Kyshtym accident in 1957)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, Elena V.; Pozolotna, Vera N. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta str. 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Karimullina, Elina M. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta str. 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, 2011 Biological Sciences III, Irvine, CA 92697-2300 (United States); Roeder, Marion S. [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstrasse 3, D-06466, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This investigation dedicates the problem of remote consequences of radiation impact on plant populations. This is a part of a complex research, which includes the classic triad of radioecology (Timofeev-Ressovsky 1963): 'accumulation and migration of radionuclides in different components of ecosystems - assessment of radiation dose - investigation of radiobiological effects'. We used the populations of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) as a model system for the investigation of radiobiological and genetic effects. It is radiosensitive plant (Preobrazhenskaya 1971). These species may be used as objects for bio-indication at the radioactive contaminated areas, and as well as large-scale radioecological studies, because the adaptation processes are faster for radiosensitive species (Shevchenko et al., 1992; Pozolotina et al. 2005). We calculated external and internal whole-body dose rates by ERICA Tool (Karimullina et al., 2013). The total dose rate for brome was under 100 mGy h{sup -1} at the most polluted site but 43-110 times (Tier 3) exceeded the background along the pollution gradient. Therefore it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low level chronic exposure at the EURT area. During seven years we have studied variability of viability, mutability and radioresistance of brome seed progeny. The combined effects of radiation exposure and weather conductions at the EURT area were absent. It may be connect with wide variability of inter-population test parameters. At the same time the weather conductions had an influence on the quality of seed progeny at the background area. We analyzed also correlation between original viability and radioresistance of seed progeny from the all plots. This dependence was positive. It was shown negative dependence between original viability of seed progeny and low weight molecular antioxidants content too. Ionizing radiation is a mutagenic factor and, accordingly, elevated mutation

  14. Allelopathic effects of leaf and corm water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L. on germination and seedling growth of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications at research laboratory of faculty of agriculture in University of Birjand in 2013. Factors included saffron organs at 2 levels (leaves and corms and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent.The allelopathic effects of saffron leaves and corms on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. were studied in two separate experiments. Results indicated lowest seed germination percentage of downy brome and flixweed were observed at concentration of 2% of corm extract (by 65% and 66% reduce compared to control, respectively. The rate of germination of downy brome decreased (by 71% compared to control with concentration of 2% of leaf extract but the rate of germination on flixweed was not significantly affected by extract concentrations. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased length and weight of plumule and radicals of two weeds. A logistic model provided a successful estimation of relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibition effects of saffron leaves and corms were more on downy brome and flixweed, respectively.

  15. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  16. Cryopreservation of Tetraclinis articulata (vahl.) Masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martinez, Francisco; Casas, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tetraclinis articulata shoot tips excised from in vitro grown shoots were cryopreserved using a modified PVS2-based vitrification protocol. Preliminary experiments with non-cryostored shoot tips showed that the high concentrations of sucrose in loading (LS), vitrification (PVS2) and unloading (US) solutions employed in the protocol were very toxic for the explants. Replacement of sucrose by sorbitol in equal molar concentration in all these solutions enhanced survival of shoot tips after all treatments. However, cold-hardening of donor shoots before shoot tip excision was strictly required to obtain post-rewarming survival. Therefore, the protocol was outlined as follows: pre-conditioning of explants at 4 degree C for 3 weeks in the dark; excision of 1 mm long shoot tips; loading for 20 min in modified LS at room temperature; dehydration in modified PVS2 at 0 degree C for 60 min; immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN); rewarming at 40 degree C for 2 min and subsequent transfer of shoot tips in modified US for 20 min.

  17. Chemical constituents of Carissa edulis Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the biologically active ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the aerial parts of Carissa edulis afforded 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acid (I, along with four known flavonol glucosides including, kaempferol 3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (II, quercetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (III, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (IV and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (V from ethyl acetate fraction. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2″→1″′-rhamnopyranoside (VI, Caredulis, 1-{1-[2-(2 hydroxypropoxy propoxy] propan-2-yloxy} propan-2-ol (VII and (+ butyl-O-α-l-rhamnoside (VIII were isolated from butanol fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved by various spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and through comparison with published data. Compounds I–VIII were isolated from C. edulis for the first time, while compounds VII and VIII were isolated for the first time from nature.

  18. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  19. Meiosis in untreated and irradiated cyperus eragrostis vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A cytological investigation of meiosis is seed irradiated Cyperus eragrostis has shown that the diffuse centromeric type of chromosome organisation leads to the formation of inviable chromosome complements, in which complex configurations resulting from stickiness as well as pairing of homologous regions, and numerous fragments, persist to the formation of pollen grains. At the higher doses, however, there is complete sterility, and low fertility even at the lower doses. The small numbers of M 2 and M 3 plants produced at lower doses show much reduced chromosomal abnormalities, indicating severe selection among the gametes and zygotes formed. There is little advantage in terms of survival from radiation damage, resulting from the possession of the diffuse centromere. (auth.)

  20. Morphophysiological development of Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Nery, M.C.; Oliveira, L.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Guimaraes, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tabebuia serratifolia is used for the reforestation of degraded areas. Despite protection by law for permanent preservation, the species is in danger of extinction due to improper exploitation. With the objective to aid preservation and long term storage of the species we evaluated

  1. Efeito leishmanicida in vitro de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene C.R. Moreira

    Full Text Available A atividade anti-Leishmania do extrato hidroalcoólico de Stachytarpheta cayennensis, espécie utilizada popularmente no tratamento de lesões cutâneas causadas por Leishmania sp, foi testado em ensaios in vitro utilizando formas promastigotas de Leishmania braziliensis e L. amazonensis. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi preparado a partir das folhas secas e utilizado em culturas de L. amazonensis e L. braziliensis nas concentrações de 500 a 32,5 µg/mL. Após 24 horas as formas promastigotas foram quantificadas para o cálculo da CI50. A citotoxicidade do extrato foi avaliada também em culturas de macrófagos peritoneais. O extrato apresentou efeito leishmanicida dose e espécie-dependente para promastigotas de Leishmania sendo mais eficaz para L. braziliensis. O extrato não apresentou efeito citotóxico quando utilizado nas culturas de macrófagos. Concluiu-se que o extrato hidroalcoólico de S. cayennensis inibe formas promastigotas de Leishmania in vitro o que poderia justificar, pelo menos parcialmente, o uso popular dessa espécie no tratamento de úlceras causadas por Leishmania.

  2. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Michael D.; Grace, James B.; Pyke, David A.; Doescher, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecosystem invasibility is determined by combinations of environmental variables, invader attributes, disturbance regimes, competitive abilities of resident species and evolutionary history between residents and disturbance regimes. Understanding the relative importance of each factor is critical to limiting future invasions and restoring ecosystems.

  3. Studies on the reproductive biology of downy brome (Bromus tectorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of downy brome to successfully infest crop lands is partially due to its prolific nature. To better understand its reproductive biology, studies investigating (1) effects of temperature and photoperiod on flowering, (2) prevention of downy brome seed information with herbicides, and (3) effects of drought on reproduction, were conducted. Seedling vernalization was more effective than seed vernalization in promoting downy brome flowering. Vernalizing imbibed downy brome caryopses at 3 C for 0 to 30 days did not induce rapid flowering. Downy brome seedlings were exposed to six photoperiod/temperature treatments. After transfer to long days, plants from the short da/3 C treatment flowered within 30 days. DPX-Y6202 and fluazifop-butyl were tested for their ability to prevent seed formation in downy brome. Fluazifop-butyl prevented seed formation over a wider range of application rates and growth stages than did DPX-Y6202. Seed production was prevented most readily by herbicide applications made early in the reproductive cycle. Translocation of radiolabel was greater with 14 C-fluazifop-butyl than with 14 C-DPX-Y6202, particularly into developing spikelets. Microautoradiographic techniques were used to identify mechanisms involved in the prevention of downy brome seed formation by these herbicides. Tissue localization of both herbicides was similar. The highest concentration of radiolabel was found in developing pollen grains, suggesting that the herbicides prevented seed formation by interrupting pollen development or function. Water stress reduced apparent photosynthesis and increased diffusive resistance of flag leaves

  4. Morphophysiological development of Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich. seeds Desenvolvimento morfofisiológico de sementes de ipê-amarelo (Tabeluia serratifolia Vahl Nich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia serratifolia is used for the reforestation of degraded areas. Despite protection by law for permanent preservation, the species is in danger of extinction due to improper exploitation. With the objective to aid preservation and long term storage of the species we evaluated morphophysiological alterations of T. serratifolia seeds during the maturation process in order to identify markers that can be used for harvesting and storage. Fruits were collected at anthesis and seven developmental stages from trees growing in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. At each harvest, fruits and seeds were evaluated for color and size, moisture content, dry matter, internal morphology (by X-ray analysis, germination parameters (in vitro and ex vitro, as well as sugar and polyphenol content and heat resistant proteins. During the maturation process the initially green fruits changed to a brownish color and grew from a length of 7 to 18 cm; cracks appeared at the beginning of seed dispersal. The seed color varied from leaf-green to brownish and the length from 1 to 3 cm. The first indicatior of physiological maturity should be observed at 39 days post-anthesis, when variations the color and size of both fruits and seeds were observed. Increase in the moisture content, dry matter and germination, percentage of seeds and embryos in vitro, as well as a reduction in sugar content and LEA proteins were also observed. The physiological maturity of T. serratifolia seeds was reached 53 days after anthesis, coinciding with a maximum of dry matter accumulation and germination (and index of germination speed ex vitro, decrease in phenol levels, higher intensity of heat-resistant protein bands and the beginning of fruit opening.Tabebuia serratifolia é utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas. Devido à sua exploração indevida, encontra-se em perigo de extinção, apesar de protegida por lei para preservação permanente. Foram investigadas as alterações morfofisiológicas de sementes de ipê-amarelo ao longo do desenvolvimento, para fins de auxiliar a conservação dessa espécie. Os frutos foram coletados a partir da antese, em sete estádios de desenvolvimento, em árvores localizadas na região de Lavras, MG, Brasil. Em cada coleta, as sementes foram submetidas às análises radiográficas e microscópicas, avaliando-se as colorações e tamanho, o grau de umidade e matéria seca tanto dos frutos como das sementes, a germinação in vitro e ex vitro, bem como os teores de açúcares, polifenóis e proteínas resistentes ao calor. Durante o desenvolvimento os frutos que inicialmente eram verdes passaram para amarronzados e o comprimento de 7 para 18 cm, apresentando fendas que iniciam a dispersão de suas sementes. As sementes tiveram sua cor variando de verde-folha a amarronzado e comprimento de 1 a 3 cm. As alterações iniciais indicativas da maturidade fisiológica de sementes de ipê-amarelo ocorreram a partir dos 39 dias após a antese, quando ocorreram variações na coloração, no tamanho de frutos e sementes e na visualização das estruturas internas, além de aumentos nos teores de água, matéria seca e porcentagem de germinação de sementes e embriões e ainda, redução dos açúcares redutores e das proteínas resistentes ao calor. A maturidade fisiológica das sementes de Tabebuia serratifolia é alcançada aos 53 dias após a antese, coincidindo com o acúmulo máximo de matéria seca, germinação (e índice de velocidade de germinação, além de decréscimo no teor de polifenóis e maior intensidade de bandas inidicadoras de proteínas resistentes ao calor e o início da abertura dos frutos.

  5. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevine Kamga Silihe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg and methanol (50 mg/kg extracts significantly (p < 0.001 reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%, total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively, average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  6. Impact of gamma radiations on phytochemistry of senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Sunita; Vyas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia (senna) is native to India, and is cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the leaves Senna is also known by the names Alexandrian Senna and and the pods. The leaves have a purging quality, but afterwards may have a binding effect. Both the leaves and pods are used in many over-the-counter pharmaceutical laxative preparations. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have used Senna as a natural laxative for centuries. Senna is a powerful cathartic used primarily in the treatment of constipation, working through a stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. The primary chemical Constituents of Senna include anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein), beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, mucin, essential oil, mucilage, tannin and resin. The sennosides are irritating to the large intestine lining, causing peristaltic action and bowel evacuation. Senna is often combined with aromatic, carminative herbs such as cardamom, ginger root, peppermint and fennel to increase its palatability. Other historical applications of this herb have included support for inflammatory skin conditions, hypertension and weight control. Although the biological effects of large doses of ionizing radiation are predominantly harmful, low-to-intermediate doses have been observed to enhance growth and survival, augment the immune response, and increase resistance to the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of further irradiation in plants, bacteria, insects, and mammals. The existence of these stimulatory, or adaptive responses implies that the dose-response relationships for genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation may be similarly biphasic or hermetic in nature. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material, is an excellent source of sennosides. To investigate the effect of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the dry seeds of senna were treated with different doses of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide for 22 hours duration at 25 ± 2 deg C. The treated population in M 1 generation exhibited different degree of stimulation in growth. Other parameters were also affected by all the three mutagenic treatments. Seeds collected from M 1 generation were sown and M 2 plant progenies were raised. Morphological mutations with desirable characters were further investigated. Biochemical estimation of sennoside from the leaflets in vegetative and blooming phases was carried out. Of the three mutagens, 0.007% sodium azide yielded maximum sennoside in the vegetative phase. In the flowering phase, it was highest with 25 kR of gamma radiations. Seeds of these plant types hold promise for enhancing the sennoside yields per gram of tissue. (author)

  7. Roosting patterns in a captive colony of short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopukumar, N; Manikandan, M; Arivarignan, G

    2002-10-01

    Development of roosting patterns under a limited resource was studied in the short-nosed fruit bat C. sphinx in captivity. Spatial fidelity during the resting period (day time) and the individual male bat's presence/absence in the roost (occupancy index) were estimated during the active period (night time). Results show the presence of three groups on the basis of spatial fidelity. The first group was associated with the tent consisting of a harem male and seven females. The second group stayed near to the harem. The third group consisting of two males showed little occupancy index and no spatial fidelity. Female turnover between the first and second groups, and harem male replacement were observed. These findings of male groupings and female loyalty on the basis of "resource", suggest that resource defence polygyny is the primary mating strategy in C. sphinx.

  8. Flavonoids and Ellagitannins Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of leaves from Phyllanthus acuminatus L., a plant commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicine, was studied using UPLC-ESI-MS on an enriched phenolic extract. A total of 20 phenolic compounds were identified, comprising eight flavonoids (two flavanones—pinocembrin isomers and six derivatives from apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, and kaempferol; seven ellagitannins, two flavan-3-ols (prodelphinidin B dimer and (epigallocatechin; and three phenolic acids (ellagic acid, trimethylellagic acid, and ferulic acid. All of these compounds are reported for the first time in P. acuminatus, while previously reported in the genus Phyllanthus. Antioxidant evaluation was performed for P. acuminatus phenolic extract obtaining DPPH results with a remarkably low IC50 value of 0.15 μg/mL. Also, cytotoxicity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines was evaluated, and highly promising results were obtained, with IC50 values of 11.3 μg/mL and 10.5 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, selectivity index values obtained when comparing cytotoxicity on normal Vero cells was SI > 20 for both cancer cell lines, indicating a particularly high selectivity. Additionally, Justicidin B, a metabolite extensively studied for its antitumoral activity, was isolated from a non-polar extract of P. acuminatus, and comparatively evaluated for both bioactivities. The DPPH value obtained for Justicidin B was moderate (IC50 = 14.28 μg/mL, while cytotoxicity values for both AGS (IC50 = 19.5 μg/mL and SW620 (IC50 = 24.8 μg/mL cell lines, as well as selectivity when compared with normal Vero cells (SI = 5.4 and 4.2 respectively, was good, but lower than P. acuminatus extract. These preliminary results suggest that P. acuminatus enriched phenolic extract containing flavonoids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids, reported for the first time in this plant, could be of interest for further cancer cytotoxicity studies to elucidate structure–bioactivity relationships, and the molecular mechanisms and pathways.

  9. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  10. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management dueto their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shadingon the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resultedin higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison tothe other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to maintain high herbage production.

  11. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management due to their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shading on the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resulted in higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison to the other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to maintain high herbage production. 

  12. Antidiabetic potentials of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolade, Jubril Olayinka; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Okereke, Omoaruemike Ebele; Muhammad, Nasir Olarewaju

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120 min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessoun Konaté

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica. Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activity of Ipomoea imperati (Vahl Griseb (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea imperati (Convolvulaceae lives on the sandy shores of the Brazilian coast and in other areas of the world. The anti-inflammatory activity of a methanol-water extract of the leaves of I. imperati was investigated in experimental models of acute and subchronic inflammation. Topical application of the extract (10 mg/ear inhibited mouse ear edema induced by croton oil (89.0 ± 1.3% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.97 mg/ear and 57.0 ± 1.3% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.5 mg/ear and arachidonic acid (42.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.98 mg/ear and 31.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.72 mg/ear. Phospholipase A2, purified from Apis mellifera bee venom, was also inhibited by the extract (5.0 mg/ml lipid and aqueous fraction in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (85% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.22 mg/ml and 25% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml. The methanol-water extract of I. imperati (1000 mg/kg administered by the oral route also inhibited the formation of cotton pellet-induced granulomas (73.2 ± 1.2% by the lipid fraction and 56.14 ± 2.7% by the aqueous fraction and did not cause gastric mucosal lesions. I. imperati extracts (10 mg/ml also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the muscle contractions of guinea pig ileum induced by acetylcholine and histamine (IC50 of 1.60 mg/ml for the lipid fraction and 4.12 mg/ml for the aqueous fraction. These results suggest the use of I. imperati as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agent in traditional medicine.

  15. Post-fire Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) invasion at high elevation in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive annual grass downy brome is the most ubiquitous weed in sagebrush systems of western North America. The center of invasion has largely been the Great Basin region, but there is an increasing abundance and distribution in the Rocky Mountain States. We evaluated post-fire vegetation chang...

  16. Enhanced fire-related traits may contribute to the invasiveness of Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several invasive species have induced changes to the fire regime of invaded ecosystems, potential intraspecific shifts in fire-related traits that might enhance their invasion success, have never been addressed. We assumed that traits conferring persistence and competitiveness in post-fire ...

  17. Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Downy brome is an introduced Mediterranean annual grass that now dominates millions of hectares of western U.S. rangelands. The presence of this grass has eliminated many native species and accelerated wildfire cycles. The objective of this study was to identify soil additives that allowed germination but inhibited emergence of downy brome, while not affecting germination or emergence of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii. On the basis of data from previous studies, we focused on additives that altered the availability of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Most water-soluble treatments inhibited downy brome germination and emergence. We attribute the inhibitory effects of these treatments to excessive salinity and ion-specific effects of the additives themselves. An exception to this was oxalic acid, which showed no effect. Most water-insoluble treatments had no effect in soils with high P but did have an effect in soils with low P. Zeolite was effective regardless of P level, probably due to the high amounts of Na+ it added to the soil solution. Most treatments at higher concentrations resulted in lower downy brome emergence rates in soils currently dominated by downy brome than in uninvaded (but theoretically invadable) Hilaria soils. This difference is possibly attributable to inherent differences in labile soil P. In Stipa soils, where Stipa spp. grow, but which are generally considered to be uninvadable by downy brome, additions of high amounts of N resulted in lower emergence. This may have been an effect of NH4 + interference with uptake of K or other cations or toxicity of high N. We also saw a positive relationship between downy brome emergence and pH in Stipa soils. Hilaria development parameters were not as susceptible to the treatments, regardless of concentration, as downy brome. Our results suggest that there are additions that may be effective management tools for inhibiting downy brome in calcareous soils, including (1) high salt applications, (2) K-reducing additions (e.g., Mg), and (3) P-reducing additions.

  18. Soil engineering facilitates Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) growth - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some exotic plants are able to engineer new host soils and engender characteristics that potentially increase their growth. We hypothesized that this positive feedback may be a facet in the competitiveness of the exotic annual grass downy brome. Using rhizotrons in the greenhouse, we compared the gr...

  19. Populations dynamics of red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. Rubens): Times for concern, opportunities for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, L.F.

    2004-01-01

    Red brome is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded south-western USA deserts. Unlike native annuals, it does not maintain a soil seed bank, but exhibits early and uniform germination. Above-average winter precipitation in these regions allows red brome to reach high density and biomass. These are time for concern, as large numbers of easily dispersed seeds increase the likelihood that it may spread into new areas. However, early and uniform germination can also lead to population crashes when drought precludes seed production. Winter droughts dramatically reduce densities of red brome, but provide opportunities for management of this exotic grass.

  20. Mapping and spatial-temporal modeling of Bromus tectorum invasion in central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyu

    Cheatgrass, or Downy Brome, is an exotic winter annual weed native to the Mediterranean region. Since its introduction to the U.S., it has become a significant weed and aggressive invader of sagebrush, pinion-juniper, and other shrub communities, where it can completely out-compete native grasses and shrubs. In this research, remotely sensed data combined with field collected data are used to investigate the distribution of the cheatgrass in Central Utah, to characterize the trend of the NDVI time-series of cheatgrass, and to construct a spatially explicit population-based model to simulate the spatial-temporal dynamics of the cheatgrass. This research proposes a method for mapping the canopy closure of invasive species using remotely sensed data acquired at different dates. Different invasive species have their own distinguished phenologies and the satellite images in different dates could be used to capture the phenology. The results of cheatgrass abundance prediction have a good fit with the field data for both linear regression and regression tree models, although the regression tree model has better performance than the linear regression model. To characterize the trend of NDVI time-series of cheatgrass, a novel smoothing algorithm named RMMEH is presented in this research to overcome some drawbacks of many other algorithms. By comparing the performance of RMMEH in smoothing a 16-day composite of the MODIS NDVI time-series with that of two other methods, which are the 4253EH, twice and the MVI, we have found that RMMEH not only keeps the original valid NDVI points, but also effectively removes the spurious spikes. The reconstructed NDVI time-series of different land covers are of higher quality and have smoother temporal trend. To simulate the spatial-temporal dynamics of cheatgrass, a spatially explicit population-based model is built applying remotely sensed data. The comparison between the model output and the ground truth of cheatgrass closure demonstrates that the model could successfully simulate the spatial-temporal dynamics of cheatgrass in a simple cheatgrass-dominant environment. The simulation of the functional response of different prescribed fire rates also shows that this model is helpful to answer management questions like, "What are the effects of prescribed fire to invasive species?" It demonstrates that a medium fire rate of 10% can successfully prevent cheatgrass invasion.

  1. Composted manure application promotes long-term invasion of semi-arid rangeland by Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted organic matter derived from sewage treatment facilities or livestock manure from feedlots is often applied to rangelands of western North America to increase soil fertility, forage production, forage quality, and soil carbon (C) storage. This practice can have a number of undesirable side ...

  2. Bromus response to climate and projected changes with climate change [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany A. Bradley; Caroline A. Curtis; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2016-01-01

    A prominent goal of invasive plant management is to prevent or reduce the spread of invasive species into uninvaded landscapes and regions. Monitoring and control efforts often rely on scientific knowledge of suitable habitat for the invasive species. However, rising temperatures and altered precipitation projected with climate change are likely to shift the...

  3. Is Pyrenophora semeniperda the cause of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) die-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen W. Baughman; Susan E. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Downy brome (cheatgrass) is a highly successful, exotic, winter annual invader in semi-arid western North America, forming near-monocultures across many landscapes. A frequent but poorly understood phenomenon in these heavily invaded areas is periodic 'die-off' or complete stand failure. The fungal pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda is abundant in cheatgrass...

  4. The mathematical method of studying the reproduction structure of weeds and its application to Bromus sterilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Hansen, P.K.; Christensen, S.; Qi, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the structure of weed reproduction incorporating the application of a mathematical model. This mathematical methodology enables the construction, testing and application of distribution models for the analysis of the structure of weed reproduction and weed ecology. The

  5. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) response to concrete grinding residue application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concrete grinding residue (CGR) is a slurry byproduct created by concrete pavement maintenance operations. The application of CGR to roadside soils is not consistently regulated by state agencies across the United States. Much of this variability in regulation may be due to the lack of science-base...

  6. Rehabilitating downy brome (Bromus tectorum)-invaded scrublands using imazapic and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Catherine A. Gehring

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation of downy brome-infested shrublands is challenging once this invasive grass dominates native communities. The effectiveness of imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty about the impacts of imazapic on native species. We used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) field experiment and greenhouse studies to...

  7. Conteúdo alimentar em macrófitas aquáticas carnívoras: Utricularia foliosa L. e U. hydrocarpa Vahl. (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae Feeding contents of Urticularia foliosa L. and U. hydrocarpa Vahl. (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antônio Rodrigues Barbosa

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram considerados os aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos do conteúdo alimentar de Utricularia foliosa e U. hydrocarpa (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae, para uma avaliação do impacto dessas plantas no controle de populações de organismos aquáticos. As plantas foram coletadas em dois lagos situados no entorno do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais (lagoa Amarela e lagoa da Barra. O conteúdo alimentar dos utrículos foi comparado com o perifíton (microalgas e com o zooplâncton associados aos talos das macrófitas e ao fitoplâncton da coluna de água. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as duas espécies de Utricularia utilizaram exclusivamente o recurso alimentar disponível no perifíton associado, não fazendo uso das partículas alimentares disponíveis na coluna de água. As elevadas densidades do perifíton no interior dos utrículos (U. foliosa = 362 a 1062org/mm2 e U. hydrocarpa = 79 a 968 org/mm2 sugerem que essas plantas podem exercer um controle potencial sobre as populações de organismos sésseis, com pouca influência sobre as populações planctônicas limnéticas.Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the feeding contents of Utricularia foliosa and U. hydrocarpa (Tubiflorae, Lentibulariaceae were studied in order to assess the impact of these macrophytes in the control of the aquatic organisms populations. The macrophytes were collected in Lagoa Amarela and Lagoa da Barra around Parque Estadual do Rio Doce in the state of Minas Gerais. The feeding contents of the utricle were compared to the perifiton (microalgae and zooplankton associated to the macrophytes stems and the phytoplankton free in the water column. The obtained results indicated that the two species of Utricularia used exclusively the periphyton and did not use the food particles available in the water column. The high densities of the periphyton inside the utricle (U. foliosa = 362 to 1062 org/mm2 and U. hydrocarpa = 79 to 968 org/mm2 suggest that the plants can play a potential control on the population of sessile organisms but probably have little influence on the plankton limnetics populations.

  8. Lepidópteros visitantes florais de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepidopterans visiting the flowers of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae in Atlantic Forest remnants, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fonseca

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a composição e sazonalidade da comunidade de lepidópteros visitantes florais de S. cayennensis na Estação Ambiental de Peti. Registrou-se a visita de 445 lepidópteros pertencentes a 98 espécies, distribuídos em 6 famílias: Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3% e Sesiidae (0,3%. Os hesperídeos também apresentaram a maior riqueza, com 70 espécies amostradas. Das espécies amostradas, apenas quatro tiveram abundância relativa acima de 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 e Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. De acordo com a classificação de Palma, duas espécies foram comuns, 12 intermediárias e 84 foram consideradas raras. Os valores de diversidade e uniformidade foram altos (H'= 3,98 e E = 0,87. Existe nítida diferença na composição e abundância das espécies ao longo do ano, onde foi observado que a maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos estiveram concentrados na estação chuvosa. A similaridade entre as duas estações foi relativamente baixa, 25 ocorreram na estação seca, 93 na chuvosa e apenas 18 ocorreram nas duas estações. Os lepidópteros apresentaram maior atividade de forrageamento em temperaturas entre 23 e 32 ºC, sendo a maior abundância registradas por volta das 10:00 horas.The composition and seasonality of the lepidopteran community visiting inflorescences of S. cayennensis at Estação Ambiental de Peti, were analyzed. The visits of 445 lepidopterans belonging to 98 species, distributed in 6 families, were registered. Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3%, and Sesiidae (0,3%. Skippers presented the highest species richness, with 70 species. Only four of these had a relative abundance above 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 and Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. According to Palma classification, two species were common, 12 intermediary and 84 were considered rare. Diversity and evenness value were high (H'= 3.98 and E = 0.87. There was a sharp difference in the composition and abundance of the species throughout the year, attributed mainly to a higher richness and abundance during the rainy season. Accordingly, the similarity between rainy and dry season was relatively low, with 18 common species, 25 present only in the dry season and 93 during the wet season. The period of highest foraging activity corresponded to temperatures between 23 and 32ºC and the highest abundance were registered about 10:00h.

  9. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L), KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L) DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Widyo Wartono; Ahmad Ainurofiq; Maya Ismaniar

    2014-01-01

    Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS). Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle) 1,4% (v/b), cabe jawa ...

  10. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  11. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  12. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  13. Studies on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and extract of Tunisian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemia, Mariem Ben; Chaabane, Sana; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and the 80% aqueous acetone extract of Tetraclinis articulata leaves. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 66 components that comprise 93.5% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil are: bornyl acetate (31.4%), α-pinène (24.5%) and camphor (20.3%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using four different test systems, namely DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid, reducing power and metal chelating activity assay. Test results from the DPPH system showed the strongest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the 80% aqueous acetone extract (IC₅₀ = 5.5 µg mL⁻¹), which was two times higher than the positive control (BHT). The amount of the total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high in the 80% aqueous acetone extracts. The correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was noted.

  14. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Evidence of the gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of β-mangostin isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens (vahl blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidahmed HMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heyam Mohamed Ali Sidahmed,1 Najihah Mohd Hashim,1 Syam Mohan,2 Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab,2 Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha,2 Firouzeh Dehghan,3 Maizatulakmal Yahayu,4 Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee,5 Mun Fai Loke,6 Jamuna Vadivelu6 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Exercise Science, Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Bioproduct Research and Innovation, Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, Johor Bahru, 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: β-Mangostin (BM from Cratoxylum arborescens demonstrated various pharmacological activities such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we aimed to investigate its antiulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats. Materials and methods: BM was isolated from C. arborescens. Gastric acid output, ulcer index, gross evaluation, mucus production, histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff staining and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and Bax proteins were investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2, antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, radical scavenging, nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds, and anti-Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Results: BM showed antisecretory activity against the pylorus ligature model. The pretreatment with BM protect gastric mucosa from ethanol damaging effect as seen by the improved gross and histological appearance. BM significantly reduced the ulcer area formation, the submucosal edema, and the leukocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control. The compound showed intense periodic acid–Schiff staining to the gastric mucus layer and marked amount of alcian blue binding to free gastric mucus. BM significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of prostaglandin E2 glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds. The compound inhibited the lipid peroxidation revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde. Moreover, BM upregulate HSP70 expression and downregulate Bax expression. Furthermore, the compound showed interesting anti-H. pylori activity. Conclusion: Thus, it could be concluded that BM possesses gastroprotective activity, which could be attributed to the antisecretory, mucus production, antioxidant, HSP70, antiapoptotic, and anti-H. pylori mechanisms. Keywords: gastric ulcer, reactive oxygen species, heat shock protein 70

  16. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the extracts from Piper grande Vahl (Piperaceae) using the biological model Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados N, Hillmer; Saez V, Jairo; Robles, Carolina; Vasquez, Luis F; Moreno, Maria E; Acevedo, Jose M; Pelaez, Carlos A; Callejas, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    In this study, using the life cycle interruption test with the Drosophila melanogaster model, under (in-vitro conditions), the n-Hexane (roots and stems) and the EtOAc (roots and leaves) extracts were evaluated as insecticides and the results were promising. The larvae instars showed a significant activity reflected in the reduction of pupae population with respect to the control. The step from Pupae to adult did no show inhibition because in all cases the average of the relation pupae adult is found in values very near 1. The n-Hexane and the EtOAc extracts from roots were the most active with LC50 of 698.2 ppm and 1210.7 ppm. The n-Hexane (stems) and EtOAc (leaves) extracts showed a moderate activity with LC50 of 1654.1 ppm and 2376.0 ppm

  17. Predicting seed dormancy loss and germination timing for Bromus tectorum in a semi-arid environment using hydrothermal time models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen

    2009-01-01

    A principal goal of seed germination modelling for wild species is to predict germination timing under fluctuating field conditions. We coupled our previously developed hydrothermal time, thermal and hydrothermal afterripening time, and hydration-dehydration models for dormancy loss and germination with field seed zone temperature and water potential measurements from...

  18. Effect of repeated burning on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Jones; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dale W. Johnson; Robert R. Blank; David I. Board

    2015-01-01

    Fire has profound effects on ecosystem properties, but few studies have addressed the effect of repeated burns on soil nutrients, and none have been conducted in cold desert ecosystems where invasion by exotic annual grasses is resulting in greater fire frequency. In a 5 year study, we examined effects of repeated burning, litter removal, and post-fire seeding on...

  19. Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; D'Antonio, Carla; Germino, Matthew J.; Grace, James B.; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alien grass invasions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are resulting in grass–fire cycles and ecosystem-level transformations that severely diminish ecosystem services. Our capacity to address the rapid and complex changes occurring in these ecosystems can be enhanced by developing an understanding of the environmental factors and ecosystem attributes that determine resilience of native ecosystems to stress and disturbance, and resistance to invasion. Cold desert shrublands occur over strong environmental gradients and exhibit significant differences in resilience and resistance. They provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these concepts. Herein, we examine a series of linked questions about (a) ecosystem attributes that determine resilience and resistance along environmental gradients, (b) effects of disturbances like livestock grazing and altered fire regimes and of stressors like rapid climate change, rising CO2, and N deposition on resilience and resistance, and (c) interacting effects of resilience and resistance on ecosystems with different environmental conditions. We conclude by providing strategies for the use of resilience and resistance concepts in a management context. At ecological site scales, state and transition models are used to illustrate how differences in resilience and resistance influence potential alternative vegetation states, transitions among states, and thresholds. At landscape scales management strategies based on resilience and resistance—protection, prevention, restoration, and monitoring and adaptive management—are used to determine priority management areas and appropriate actions.

  20. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed byfractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl,respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.O baixo padrão de qualidade outrora declarado da heparina (HEP para o uso em cirurgias cardíacas tem levado preocupação nos mercados nacional e internacional. Os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs de algasmarinhas têm sido considerados como promissores substitutos para HEP. Objetivou-se a extrair sequencialmente PSs totais (PSTs da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, fracionar por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante das frações de PS por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, utilizando plasma humano normal e comparando-se à HEP padrão (193 IU mg-1. As frações obtidas foram caracterizadas quimicamente em composição química e por eletroforese em gel de agarose. O rendimento de PSTs foi 4,61% e os perfis cromatográficos, em DEAE-celulose, indicaram a separação de três frações de PS (F I; F II e F III eluídas nas concentrações 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, diferenças em termos de densidade de cargas e graude resolução. Os PSs foram capazes de modificar o TTPA somente nas frações eluídas com 0,75 M de NaCl, cujas atividades foram 23,37 e 25,76 IU mg-1, respectivamente, quando a densidade de cargas foi pré-requisito para atividade. Portanto, C. cupressoides é uma fonte de PSs com baixos potenciais anticoagulantes comparados à HEP.

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Nigeria Grown Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Dried Leaves and Its Bioactivity against Cowpea Seed Bruchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2017-06-01

    Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using Gas Chromatography (GC)/MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 h after exposure (HAE), 0.78 ml EO/l air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT 50 ) at concentration of 0.78 ml/l air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT 50 at 3.15 and 6.25 ml/l air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced Callosobruchus maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42 - 25.73) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 51.56 observed in control. The results confirm H. opposita EO's potentials for control of cowpea bruchids. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Influence of water level fluctuation on the mortality and aboveground biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis interstincta (VAHL roemer et schults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Anderson Medeiros dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to study the biometric alterations of Eleocharis interstincta in response to water level fluctuations in Cabiúnas Lagoon, located on the northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in the municipality of Macaé. Three quadrats of 0.0625 m² were harvested every two weeks from June/1997 to June/1998; samples were separated into stems, dead stems (detritus and rhizome; lenghted, dried and weighted. The water level fluctuated seasonally in the macrophyte stand with two periods of drawdown. The first period occurred naturally at the end of winter and beginning of spring, when rainfall in the area was normally lowest. The second period of drawdown was the result of an artificial breaching of the sandbar that isolate the lagoon from the sea. The breach was made in the summer, at the time of highest rainfall, when the water level in the lagoon reached the maximum value recorded during the study (1.35 m. There was a strongly positive correlation of the water level with stems mean height and aboveground biomass, indicating that water level played an important role in the determination of these parameters. There was a significant difference between stem height (ANOVA; p < 0.001 and biomass (ANOVA; p < 0.001 in each sampling period, ranging from 143.9 cm and 338.8 g dry wt.m-2, before the sandbar opening, to 16.3 cm and 20.2 g dry wt.m-2 respectively after the sandbar breaching. The drastic variation of the water level, leading mass mortality of the stems, together with the lowest mean biomass/stem (0.057 g dry wt.individual-1, recorded after the sandbar breaching, did not represent a strong disturbance for E. interstincta, since the resilience time estimated for this population was about 30 days.

  3. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In pasture-based dairy herds where silage is a widely adopted supplement, optimized feeding requires reliable estimations of nutritional quality of this conserved forage. Metabolizable energy, an important nutritional fraction, can be predicted from digestibility-related traits, such as the digestible organic matter contained in the dry matter (D-value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of D-value and dry matter digestibility (DMD of grass silages made from four different pastures and maturity stages, using the pepsin-cellulase method. Fungal cellulase was used, applying different enzyme concentrations, incubation times and types of final wash. The silages were prepared from permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. and Holcus lanatus L., rotation pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, oats (Avena sativa L., and mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. These were harvested at three different physiological stages (vegetative, ear emergence and dough grain. The treatment using an incubation time of 24 h, a cellulase concentration of 6.25 g L-1 and final wash with water (Treatment 3 presented the best prediction capacity of the in vivo D-value (R² = 0.78 and in vivo DMD (R² = 0.71. In vivo D-value prediction improved (R² = 0.8 when a chemical determination (crude fibre, gross energy, neutral detergent fibre, total ash or acid detergent fibre was included in addition (multiple regression to D-value obtained with cellulases (Treatment 3. Results of DMD obtained with cellulases show good precision, but underestimate in vivo values, and are closer to those obtained with ruminal fluid. Suitable equations could be used to improve accuracy.En sistemas lecheros pastoriles que utilizan ensilaje como suplemento, se requiere conocer el valor nutricional de éste para optimizar la alimentación del ganado. La energía metabolizable, importante fracci

  4. Pepsin-Cellulase Digestibility of Pasture Silages: Effects of Pasture Type, Maturity Stage, and Variations in the Enzymatic Method Digestibilidad mediante Pepsina-Celulasa de Ensilajes de Pradera: Efectos del Tipo de Pradera, Estado de Madurez y Variaciones en el Método Enzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic in vitro digestibility has been studied as a method to predict energy values of forages for ruminants, although results have been affected by type of forage and methodological details of the technique. This work was performed to evaluate the effects of cellulase concentration (0.75, 1.0 and 6.25 g L-1, incubation time (24 or 48 h and type of final washing of the residue (water or acetone on the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DMD, organic matter (OMD and content of digestible organic matter in the DM (D value of silages made at three maturity stages from three types of pastures: a permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus; b Italian ryegrass ley (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c oats (Avena sativa L. and d mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. Regression equations among cellulase results and in vitro values obtained with rumen fluid were also developed. Higher enzyme concentration, longer incubation time and final washing with acetone, resulted in a significant (P La digestibilidad enzimática in vitro ha sido estudiada para predecir el valor energético de forrajes para rumiantes, aunque el tipo de forraje y los detalles metodológicos han afectado los resultados obtenidos. Este trabajo pretende evaluar los efectos de la concentración de celulasa (0,75; 1,0 y 6,25 g L-1, tiempo de incubación (24 o 48 h y tipo de lavado final (agua o acetona del residuo, sobre la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DMD, materia orgánica (OMD y el contenido de materia orgánica digestible en la materia seca, o valor D (D value de ensilajes hechos con tres estados de madurez, de diferentes praderas: a pradera permanente (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens y Holcus lanatus; b ballica Italiana (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c avena (Avena sativa L.; y d pradera mixta (L. perenne

  5. Floral biology and a pollinator effectiveness test of the diurnal floral visitors of Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae in the understory of Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Biologia floral e teste da efetividade de polinização dos visitantes florais diurnos de Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae no sub-bosque da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaysa Nogueira de Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the floral biology, per-visit effectiveness, frequency of visits and relative abundance of the diurnal floral visitor taxa of T. undulata (Apocynaceae at two populations located in the primary forest and in a disturbed area connected to the continuous forest. Its hermaphrodite flowers show a long and narrow floral tube and introrse anthers form a cone around the apex of the style head where the pollen is deposited. The stigmatic head has three functional regions, in a complex pollination mechanism favoring cross-pollination. In the pollinator censuses conducted in the primary forest population we registered Eulaema bombiformis. In the disturbed area Euglossa sp. was responsible for visits on T. undulata fl owers. Eulaema bombiformis was not absent in the disturbed area, but preferred to forage on pollen and nectar-rich flowers of two neighboring flowering species. In the primary forest, T. undulata was the only fl owering treelet at the end of the dry season. Signifi cant differences were not observed regarding the frequency of visits and relative abundance among the diurnal flower visitors at both sites. In the per-visit effectiveness experiment among flower visitors, we observed one fruit produced aft er E. bombiformis' visits. Due to the complex breeding system of T. undulata in that it is characterized by very low fruit production even under natural conditions, an indirect measure of pollinator effectiveness is needed in at a future stage of this study in order to clarify the role of these bee species as pollinators of T. undulata.Neste estudo foi examinada a biologia floral, a efetividade da polinização, freqüência de visitas e abundância relativa dos visitantes florais diurnos de T. undulata (Apocynaceae em duas populações localizadas em floresta primária e em uma área perturbada conectada à mata contínua. Suas flores hermafroditas apresentam um longo e estreito tubo floral. Anteras introrsas formam um cone logo acima da cabeça estigmática, onde o pólen é depositado. A cabeça estigmática apresenta três regiões funcionais, em um mecanismo que favorece a polinização cruzada. Nos censos de polinizadores conduzidos na floresta primária registraram-se apenas visitas de Eulaema bombiformis. Na área perturbada apenas Euglossa sp. realizou visitas às flores de T. undulata. Na área perturbada E. bombiformis preferiu forragear em flores ricas em pólen e néctar de duas espécies vizinhas em floração. Na floresta primária T. undulata foi a única arvoreta em flor no fim da estação seca. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com rela��ão à freqüência de visitas e abundância relativa entre os visitantes florais diurnos em ambas as áreas. No experimento de efetividade da polinização dos visitantes florais, foi observada a produção de um único fruto após visita de E. bombiformis a uma flor. Devido ao complexo sistema reprodutivo de T. undulata, onde há baixa produção de frutos mesmo em condições naturais, uma medida indireta da efetividade do polinizador se faz necessária em um estágio posterior deste estudo a fim de esclarecer o papel desempenhado por essas espécies de abelhas na polinização de T. undulata.

  6. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  7. Histopatología de Ustilaginales (carbones) en Poaceas de los géneros Sorghum, Bromus y Glyceria

    OpenAIRE

    Astiz Gassó, Marta Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Sporisorium cruentum (Kühn.), es el agente causal de enfermedades en el género Sorghum incluyendo Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.. El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto analizar el desarrollo y la evolución del patógeno en los tejidos del hospedante, y evaluar las implicancias de la enfermedad en el crecimiento vegetativo de los rizomas del sorgo de alepo. Para determinar la presencia del hongo se realizaron cortes histológicos del hospedante que se observaron por medio de microscopía óptica (MO) ...

  8. Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum LBromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Bethany A. Bradley; Cynthia S. Brown; Carla D' Antonio; Matthew J. Germino; James B. Grace; Stuart P. Hardegree; Richard F. Miller; David A. Pyke

    2014-01-01

    Alien grass invasions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are resulting in grass-fire cycles and ecosystem-level transformations that severely diminish ecosystem services. Our capacity to address the rapid and complex changes occurring in these ecosystems can be enhanced by developing an understanding of the environmental factors and ecosystem attributes that determine...

  9. Ecophysiological aspects of the interactions between Bromus kopetdaghensis and two nurse shrubs, Astragalus meschedensis and Acantholimon raddeanam in a semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankju, M; Maghamnia, A

    2010-07-01

    Plant-plant interactions are known as the main biotic drivers of the vegetation dynamics. Therefore, understanding such processes is beneficial for the applied vegetation management. The aim of this research was to investigate the type and intensity of plant-plant interaction during the time course of a growth season. We studied ecophysiological aspects of facilitation and competition between two aridland shrubs, A. meschedensis Bunge and A. raddeanam Czernjak and one perennial grass, B. kopetdaghensis Krasch. Soil and plant sampling were carried out for shrubs and the grass that were either growing alone or the grass was growing under the canopy of shrubs. In Spring (May), soil humidity weight was higher under the shrubs+grass than the grass-only site. By the beginning of Summer (July) grass consumed the common soil water and rapidly terminated its yearly growth. Therefore, in August and September, soil humidity weight was lower under the shrubs+grass than shrub-only sites. Photosynthesis rate of B. kopetdaghensis was sharply reduced from the beginning towards the end of growth season, but was not varied between the different plant combinations. Leaf proline measurement in July indicated higher stress for B. kopetdaghensis that were growing under shrubs than those of open areas. In conclusion, we found facilitation effects of shrubs on the grass at the early times of growth season, but it shifted into the competition for water during summer times. The outcome of plant interaction was positive for the grass but negative for the shrubs, especially A. meschedensis.

  10. Nitrogen limitation, 15N tracer retention, and growth response in intact and Bromus tectorum-invaded Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Annual grass invasion into shrub-dominated ecosystems is associated with changes in nutrient cycling that may alter nitrogen (N) limitation and retention. Carbon (C) applications that reduce plant-available N have been suggested to give native perennial vegetation a competitive advantage over exotic annual grasses, but plant community and N retention responses to C addition remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the degree of N limitation of plant biomass in intact versus B. tectorum-invaded sagebrush communities, (2) determine if plant N limitation patterns are reflected in the strength of tracer 15N retention over two growing seasons, and (3) assess if the strength of plant N limitation predicts the efficacy of carbon additions intended to reduce soil N availability and plant growth. Labile C additions reduced biomass of exotic annual species; however, growth of native A. tridentata shrubs also declined. Exotic annual and native perennial plant communities had divergent responses to added N, with B. tectorum displaying greater ability to use added N to rapidly increase aboveground biomass, and native perennials increasing their tissue N concentration but showing little growth response. Few differences in N pools between the annual and native communities were detected. In contrast to expectations, however, more 15N was retained over two growing seasons in the invaded annual grass than in the native shrub community. Our data suggest that N cycling in converted exotic annual grasslands of the northern Intermountain West, USA, may retain N more strongly than previously thought.

  11. Exotic Annual Grasses in Western Rangelands: Predicting Resistance and Resilience of Native Ecosystems to Invasion (Draft)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. D; Phillips, Susan L; Reheis, Merith; Reynolds, Rich; Sanford, Robert; Webb, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (hereafter referred to as Bromus) is a non-native annual grass from the Mediterranean region that arrived in the United States in the late 19th century and soon spread throughout the western states...

  12. Soil nitrogen mineralization not affected by grass species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica

    2007-01-01

    Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...

  13. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM. This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  14. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae) a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A; Naidoo, Y; Nicholas, A

    2010-01-01

    The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  15. Estudio de la interacción entre el hongo formado de micorrizas arbusculares "Glomus intraradices" Schenck y Smith y el hongo patógeno "Armillaria mellea (Vahl:fr)" P.Kuhn en vid

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales García, Amaia Miren

    2009-01-01

    El síndrome de replante es consecuencia de una explotación continua y repetida del terreno en el que los problemas de estrés, principalmente de origen patogénico, juegan un papel importante. En los viñedos españoles, el hongo Armillaria mellea que produce la podredumbre blanca de raíz, está considerado como una de sus principales causas. Existen pocas medidas de control disponibles, puesto que no hay portainjertos comerciales que confieran resistencia frente a A. mellea, y la fumigación del s...

  16. Investigating South African plants as a source of new antimalarial drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available such as Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. Ex. Endl. (Celastraceae) and Ocimum americanum L. var. americanum (Lamiaceae), were not previously reported to show antiplasmodial activity. In addition to identifying further species within genera viz. Vernonia...

  17. Page 1 713 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... 19 climbers, 98 forbs, 9 sedges, 9 shrubs, 152 trees and 14 epiphytes were classified. Plant diversity ..... Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana ... Ficus polita Vahl. Moraceae. Tree. +. Not Assessed. Ficus sp. Linn. Moraceae. Tree.

  18. composition and size class structure of tree species in ihang'ana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest ... assess tree species composition, structure and diversity in Ihang'ana FR (2982 ha), one of the ..... Dombeya rotundifolia. (Hochst) ... Ficus lutea. Vahl.

  19. Dynamika przyrostu masy i produktywność stokłosy bezostnej i stokłosy uniolowatej przy zróżnieowanym nawożeniu azotem w doświadczeniu polowym. Cz. II. Jakość plonu [Dynamics of mass increase and productivity of smooth brome grass and rescue grass with different nitrogen fertilization in field experiments. Part II. Quality of yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Skrabka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contents of protein, amino acids, reducing sugars, fibre (ADF, lignin (ADL and mineral components in tissues of smooth brome grass – Bromus inermis and rescue grass – Bromus unioloides were determined. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the nutritive value of either species of grass.

  20. Cheatgrass and red brome; the history and biology of two invaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad R. Reid; Sherel Goodrich; James E. Bowns

    2008-01-01

    In recent history, there has not been a more ecologically important event than the introduction of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens) into the Intermountain West. These grasses are very similar in ecology and history and are separated mostly by function of elevation. Both species are from the Mediterranean...

  1. Pyrenophoric acids B and C, two new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoids produced by Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Alessio Cimmino; Suzette Clement; Beth Black; Antonio Evidente

    2014-01-01

    Two new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid acids, named pyrenophoric acids B and C, were isolated together with the related pyrenophoric and abscisic acids from solid Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) seed culture of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda. This fungus has been proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), a Eurasian annual grass...

  2. Hyperspectral predictors for monitoring biomass production in Mediterranean mountain grasslands: Majella national park, Italy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available species include Brachypodium genuense, Briza media, Bromus erectus and 101 Festuca sp. Herbs include Helichrysum italicum, Galium verum, Trifolium pratense, Plantago 102 lanceolata, Sanguisorba officinalis and Ononis spinosa. 103 104 2.2. Field data...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezeja, Maxwell I. Vol 53, No 3 (2017) - Articles Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2090-2948. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  4. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background of study: Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim: The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods: The acute ...

  5. Alexandria Journal of Medicine - Vol 53, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Samuel O. Onoja, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Yusuf N. Omeh, Beatrice C. Onwukwe, 207-213.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc, Abstract PDF. M Bourkhiss, M Hnach, B Bourkhiss, M Ouhssine, A Chaouch. Vol 11, No 1 (2015), Composition chimique et qualité bactériologique des laits crus et ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bourkhiss, M. Vol 3, No 2 (2007) - Articles Composition chimique et propriétés antimicrobiennes de l'huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1813-548X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  9. New megastigmane glycoside and aromadendrane derivative from the aerial part of Piper elongatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Chikako; Ono, Masateru; Ito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A new megastigmane glycoside, called pipeloside A, and a new aromadendrane type sesquiterpenoid, pipelol A, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper elongatum VAHL. along with a known megastigmane glycoside, byzantionoside B. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  10. Omslaget - hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redergør for den historiske baggrund for den illustration (tavle 994 fra Flora Danica, udgivet i 1790) af hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare), der er anvendt som illustration på festskriftets omslag. De illustratorer, der blev anvendt af Martin Vahl, udgiver af Flora Danica da tavle 994...

  11. 1731-IJBCS-Article-Ngbolua K. N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    anthocyanin extract from Justicia secunda Vahl on the solubility of haemoglobin S and membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes. Blood Transfus., 8: 248-254. Mpiana PT, Mudogo V, Kabangu YF,. Tschibangu DST, Ngbolua KN, Atibu,. EK, Mangwala KP, Mbala MB, Makelele. LK, Bokota MT. 2009a. Antisickling activity and.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihyperglycemic activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn) in rats. Abstract · Vol 16, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet anti-ulcereux de l'extrait hydroalcoolique D'ecorce de tronc et de racine de Ficus polita vahl. (Moraceae) Abstract · Vol 17, No 2 (2015) - Articles Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome ...

  13. Publications | Page 53 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 521 - 530 of 6335 ... ... of a high value spice, Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retro Fractum VahL.) ... Working students and students from large families are more ... If a student works even one additional hour more than average work hours, ...

  14. Résumé Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    2001) 241-250. [13] A. F. BARRERO, M.M HERRADOR, P.ARTEAGA, J.QUILEZ, M.AKSSIRA, F. MELLOUKI. & S. AKKAD « Chemical composition of the essential oïl of leaves and wood of. Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters », J .Ess. Oil. Res.

  15. Population genetic structure and gene flow of Forsythia suspensa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, is a climbing plant belonging to Oleaceae, which is widely distributed in China, North and South Korea and Japan. In this study, the genetic diversity of F. suspensa was analyzed using two noncoding chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and nuclear ribosomal internal ...

  16. Publications | Page 54 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 531 - 540 of 6389 ... ... of a high value spice, Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retro Fractum VahL.) ... Working students and students from large families are more ... If a student works even one additional hour more than average work hours, ...

  17. PENGARUH INFUS BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP TEKANAN DARAH DAN FAAL JANTUNG KUCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 10 percent infusion of Sericoccalyx crispus BL administered intravenously at dose 1 ml/kg did not alter the cardiovascular system of the anaesthetized cat. Piper betle LINN and Euphatorium triplinerve VAHL at the same dose of administration decreased the blood pressure with short onset and duration. One milliliter of a 10 percent infusion of Curcuma domestica VAHL decreased the blood pressure of the anaesthetized cat slowly and lasting about 3 hours reaching its maximal depression at one hour after injection. The action on the heart rate, contractility and autonomic ganglion is not clear. A direct action, after reaction of substance or after formation of a substance, on the blood vessels is sugested to be the most probable mechanism of action of this crude infusion of Curcuma domestica.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 1 (2006) - Articles Caractérisation, transformation et valorisation de déchets d'éviscération de volaille de Kénitra, Maroc Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2007) - Articles Composition chimique et propriétés antimicrobiennes de l'huile essentielle extraite des feuilles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) du Maroc

  19. Response of mycorrhizal grapevine to Armillaria mellea inoculation: disease development and polyamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, A. (Amaia); Aguirreolea, J. (Jone); Santa-Maria, E. (Eva); Camprubi, A. (Amalia); Calvet, C. (Cinta)

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted with the vine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch. x Vitis rupestris L.) in order to assess whether the colonisation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) can delay the disease development in plants inoculated with the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) Kummer, and to elucidate if the levels of polyamines (PAs) are modified in response to G. intraradices, A. mellea or by the dual infection. Four treatments were consi...

  20. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strydom

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f. Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  1. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Strydom; J. J. Spies

    1994-01-01

    Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f.) Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl) Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle) Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  2. Changes in mycorrhiza development in maize induced by crop management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    (Zea mays L.) or with the original plant species in the field site, bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leys.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The delay in mycorrhiza development after cropping with canola was also observed in samples taken from the field and in a bioassay, both conducted at the beginning...

  3. Allelotoxicity of Oudneya africana R. Br. aqueous leachate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study was conducted to investigate the possible allelopathic effect of Oudneya africana (donor species) on Bromus tectorum (weed species) and Triticum aestivum (cv. Sahel1; crop species) through germination bioassay experiment. B. tectorum is a winter annual grass that grows in winter wheat and other ...

  4. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  5. Allelochemicals Effect of Aqueous Leachate from Oudneya Africana R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nesrine

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... This present study was conducted to investigate the possible allelopathic effect of Oudneya africana. (donor species) on Bromus tectorum (weed species) and Triticum aestivum (cv. Sahel1; crop species) through germination bioassay experiment. B. tectorum is a winter annual grass that grows in winter.

  6. Mycelial growth rate and toxin production in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda: Resource trade-offs and temporally varying selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; M. Masi; S. Clement; T. L. Davis; J. Beckstead

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda, an important pathogen in Bromus tectorum seed banks in semi-arid western North America, exhibits >4-fold variation in mycelial growth rate. Host seeds exhibit seasonal changes in dormancy that affect the risk of pathogen-caused mortality. The hypothesis tested is that contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes select for contrasting strategies...

  7. Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Heyzen, van S.; Szabo, L.J.; Alemu, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity and identity was studied of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elymus repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus). We

  8. The ghost of outcrossing past in downy brome, an inbreeding annual grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Sudeep Ghimire; Samuel Decker; Keith R. Merrill; Craig E. Coleman

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of outcrossing in downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), a cleistogamous weedy annual grass, in both common garden and wild populations, using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. In the common garden study, 25 lines with strongly contrasting genotypes were planted in close proximity. We fingerprinted 10 seed progeny...

  9. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  10. Phenology of exotic invasive weeds associated with downy brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic and highly invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum) has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Downy brome increases the chance, rate, season and spread of wildfires, resulting in the destruction of native plant communities and the wildli...

  11. Controlling cheatgrass in winter range to restore habitat and endemic fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Vollmer; Joseph G. Vollmer

    2008-01-01

    Habitat managers can better prepare a program for prescribed burns, wildfire management, and maximum forage biomass by understanding the response of key shrubs to the tools utilized to reduce cheatgrass (Bromus spp.) competition. Application of Plateau® herbicide, prior to annual brome germination, at rates up to 8 oz/acre with or without surfactant...

  12. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  13. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  14. Germination timing and rate of locally collected western wheatgrass and smooth brome grass: the role of collection site and light sensitivity along a riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological integrity of riparian areas is reduced by biological plant invaders like smooth brome grass (Bromus inermis). Smooth brome actively invades recently disturbed riparian zones by its high seed production and fast seedling establishment. Restoring native perennial grasses to these regio...

  15. Evaluation of regionally-collected sideoats grama and big galleta grass for wildfire revegetation in the Eastern Upper Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased wildfires in the western U.S. are due to the cyclic accumulation and burning of invasive annual plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (B. rubens), which reduces native rangeland species and results in servere economic losses and land degradation. Fire was not prevalent...

  16. Returning succession to downy brome dominated rangelands: roadblocks to perennial grass establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common cause of successional retrogression in the Great Basin is wildfires fueled by downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Downy brome invasion has reduced fire intervals from an estimated 60-100 years down to 5-10 years. Our previous research found that establishment of long-lived perennial grass...

  17. Integrated management of downy brome in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), also known as cheatgrass, was introduced into North America from the Mediterranean area of Europe. It was first identified in the eastern United States in 1861, and by 1914 this invasive weed had spread throughout the continent. Downy brome is adapted to climates wi...

  18. Large-scale downy brome treatments alter plant-soil relationships and promote perennial grasses in salt desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interrelationship between invasive annual grass abundance and soil resource availability varies spatially and temporally within ecosystems and may be altered by land treatments. We evaluated these relationships in two salt desert landscapes where the local abundance of Bromus tectorum L. (downy...

  19. Competition for soil nitrate and invasive weed resistance of three shrub-steppe growth forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamonn D. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Determining mechanisms responsible for weed resistance and invasion success are two issues that have potential in aiding successful land management decisions. The first experiment evaluates the competitive effects of an invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive biennial forb dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria...

  20. Evaluation of regionally-collected sideoats grams and big galleta grass for wildfire revegetation in the Eastern Upper Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased wildfires in the western U.S. are due to the cyclic accumulation and burning of invasive annual plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (B. rubens), which reduces native rangeland species and results in severe economic losses and land degradation. Fire was not prevalent ...

  1. Soil sulfur amendments suppress Selenium uptake by alfalfa and western wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Mackowiak; M. C. Amacher

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a potential soil contaminant in many parts of the world where it can pose a health risk to livestock and wildlife. Phosphate ore mining in Southeast Idaho has resulted in numerous waste rock dumps revegetated with forages to stabilize the dumps and support grazing. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis...

  2. Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenicity and identity of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elytrigia repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus) was studied. We fo...

  3. Treating downy brome with herbicide and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Owen; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most invasive and widespread exotic plants in North America. Downy brome can reduce soil nutrient availability, alter native plant community composition, and increase fire frequencies. The effectiveness of Plateau® imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty...

  4. Downy Brome: evidence for soil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromus tectorum L. (downy brome, cheatgrass) is an invasive Eurasian grass largely responsible for landscape level conversion of sagebrush/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance. We tested the hypothesis that B. tectorum alters or “engineers” the soil to favor its growth. The hypothesis wa...

  5. Ecology, genetics, and biological control of invasive annual grasses in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several annual grass species native to Eurasia, including cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (B. rubens), and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) have become invasive in the western USA. These invasive species degrade rangelands by compromising forage, outcompeting native flora, and exacerb...

  6. Downy brome seed ecology: From flower to emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed is very common in seed banks throughout Great Basin rangelands. Previously, using a soil bioassay method, we tested 100 separate sites within the Great Basin (1000 samples) to measure downy brome seed bank densities. The locations differed greatly by precipitation,...

  7. Learning to live with cheatgrass: Giving up or a necessary paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2014-01-01

    Natural ecosystems in the semiarid West face many stressors. Among the most challenging are those associated with invasive plant species. One invader that has had great impact over the last 100 years is the annual grass known as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). A few years ago, I made two observations that both confirmed and broadened my perception of this plant. In the...

  8. The weed infestation of extensively managed grass stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourková, Daniela; Fuksa, R.; Hakl, J.; Hlavičková, D.; Mrkvička, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, Sp.Iss.21 (2008), s. 561-564 ISSN 1861-3829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Bromus inermis * Festuca arundinacea * Festulolium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.566, year: 2008

  9. Pyrenophoric acid, a phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid produced by a potential mycoherbicide, Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Alessio Cimmino; Anna Andolfi; Antonio Evidente

    2014-01-01

    A new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4- dienoic acid, named pyrenophoric acid, was isolated from solid wheat seed culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a fungal pathogen proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual bromes. These bromes are serious weeds in winter cereals and also on temperate semiarid rangelands....

  10. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  11. Cheating cheatgrass: New research to combat a wily invasive weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail. Wells

    2012-01-01

    Cheatgrass and its cousin, red brome, are exotic annual grasses that have invaded and altered ecosystem dynamics in more than 41 million acres of desert shrublands between the Rockies and the Cascade-Sierra chain. A fungus naturally associated with these Bromus species has been found lethal to the plants' soil-banked dormant seeds. Supported by the Joint Fire...

  12. grain and biomass yield reduction due to russian wheat aphid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... farmers' management is far lower than under on- station and on-farm ... of seeds for improved varieties and insect pests and diseases. .... the control of D. noxia infestation by. Fenitrothion 50 ... International Education (SRF) and Rutgers. Foundation. ... wheat, related cereals and a Bromus grass species. pp.

  13. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  14. Growth and nutrient content of herbaceous seedlings associated with biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Biological soil crusts of arid and semiarid lands contribute significantly to ecosystem stability by means of soil stabilization, nitrogen fixation, and improved growth and establishment of vascular plant species. In this study, we examined growth and nutrient content of Bromus tectorum, Elymus elymoides, Gaillardia pulchella, and Sphaeralcea munroana grown in soil...

  15. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  16. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  17. No effect of ploidy level in plant response to competition in a common garden experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2007), s. 211-219 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : adaptation * Asteraceae * Bromus erectus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  18. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume II. Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Arctium mimus Schk. (burdock) 3 3 Leonurus cardiaca L. 3 (motherwo-3 Oenothera biennia L. 3 3 (evening pri-rose) Galium AM ine L. 2 (bedstaw) Asclapias...Wild carrot Bromus japonicus Thumb. Japanese brome , Oenothera biennis L. Evening primrose Clematis virginiana Virgin’ s bower Bidens tripartita Beggar

  19. De novo genome assembly of the fungal plant pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus M. Soliai; Susan E. Meyer; Joshua A. Udall; David E. Elzinga; Russell A. Hermansen; Paul M. Bodily; Aaron A. Hart; Craig E. Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda (anamorph Drechslera campulata) is a necrotrophic fungal seed pathogen that has a wide host range within the Poaceae. One of its hosts is cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), a species exotic to the United States that has invaded natural ecosystems of the Intermountain West. As a natural pathogen of cheatgrass, P. semeniperda has potential as a...

  20. Process-based management approaches for salt desert shrublands dominated by downy brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome grass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion has severely altered key ecological processes such as disturbance regimes, soil nutrient cycling, community assembly, and successional pathways in semi-arid Great Basin salt desert shrublands. Restoring the structure and function of these severly alte...

  1. Composition selected by Llamas intake (Lama glama, Linnaeus 1758 of José Manuel Pando Province, municipality of Santiago De Machaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia Animal y Tecnología (IICAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the municipality of Santiago de Machaca is the first section of the province José Manuel Pando, is located southeast of the department of La Paz, a distance of 205 km, from the city of La Paz, the research objectives were to determine the consumption Flames selected a native pasture and determine the nutritional quality selected (% PC, % NDF,% FDA Burning of native pasture. The results were: 18 native grasses consumed by the four camels, fodder were identified that more quantity than was consumed Trifolium pratensis (layu layu No.1 consumed camel, camel No. 2 (473 (462.93 gr. , 6 g, camel No. 3 (544.43 g and the camel No. 4 (477.87 g, native grassland and Bromus catharticus (Cebadilla camélido No.1 consumed (357.12 gr., camel No. 2 (409,6gr., camel No. 3 (445,44gr. and camel No. 4 ( 310,61gr.. The total consumption of 18 forage species based on live weight (Kg. was next, camel No.1 consumed (1,323 Kg. (62 Kg. PV, camel No. 2 (1,280Kg. (60 Kg. PV, camel No. 3 (1,237Kg. (58 Kg. PV and camel No. 4 (1,195 Kg. (56 Kg. PV. The statistical analysis of the four camels, by completely randomized design (ANOVA, is indicating no significant difference (p ≥0.05 with respect to consumption of native grasslands. The samples sent to the laboratory of the Institute of Diagnostic Laboratory Services and Health Research Institute SELADIS were: maximum concentration crude protein found in the pasture Trifolium pratensis (layu layu 15.93% and is lower Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla 15.33%; The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla has 65.66% and the pasture Trifolium pratensis (layu layu 45.21%, the concentration is directly related to the type of pasture and composition flora, being the Bromus grassland catharticus (Cebadilla is enhanced by the structure of cell walls. Grasslands who consume more camels on the geographic location and area of ​​study is the Trifolium

  2. El mático de la Región de Cuyo (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Espinar, Luis; Bonzani, Norma

    1992-01-01

    Se estudiaron los caracteres morfoanatómicos de valor diagnóstico de dos especies conocidas en la Argentina con el nombre vulgar de "mático" o "matico": una piperácea andina (Piper elongatum Vahl) y una asterácea (Artemisia douglasiana Bess.) asilvestrada y cultivada en la región de Cuyo (Provincia de San Juan, La Rioja, San Luis y Mendoza). Esta última ha despertado el interés de los fitoquímicos y es utilizada como antiulcerosa en medicina popular.

  3. Actividad antiparasitaria de extractos de plantas colombianas de la familia Euphorbiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Fernanda Neira; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La familia Euphorbiaceae es un grupo heterogéneo de plantas distribuidas en el territorio colombiano utilizadas algunas de ellas, como plantas medicinales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad tóxica de aceites esenciales (AE) y extractos de plantas obtenidos de la familia Euphorbiaceae contra tripanosomátidos. Materiales y métodos: Los AE de Croton pedicellatus Kunth (AE1) y C.leptostachyus Kunth (AE2) y el extracto de Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilac...

  4. Taxonomy of the genus Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, José Iranildo Miranda de; Semir, João

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho trata do estudo taxonômico do gênero Heliotropium L. no Brasil. Foram encontradas nove espécies e duas variedades: H. amplexicaule Vahl, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. curassavicum var. argentinum I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum (Lehm.) I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum var. burchellii I.M. Johnst., H. indicum L., H. leiocarpum Morong, H. nicotianaefolium Poir.,H. phylicoides Cham. e H. transalpinum Vell. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre afinidades...

  5. A new host record and a new combination in Cotesia Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cotesia tiracolae (=Apanteles tiracolae, new combination proposed, is redescribed and illustrated. It is recorded as a larval parasitoid of Phaedyma columella (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae feeding on the host plant Grewia tiliifolia Vahl from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. This is the first record of larval parasitism associated with P. columella from India. P. columella, the Short Banded Sailer, is a species of nymphalid butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The present study also represents host range extension of the parasitoid C. tiracolae to Nymphalidae.

  6. PENGARUH EKSTRAK TANAMAN OBAT ASLI TERHADAP SUHU NORMAL MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of screening of the medicinal plants efficacy, 19 plants have been tested to see their influence to the normal body temperature of mice. Among the 19 plants there are some medicinal plants which are used as antipyretic by the Indonesian people. Those are Ageratum conyzoides L, Brasica rugosa Prain, Euphatorium triplinerve Vahl, Messua ferrea L and Oroxylum indicum Vent. The administration is intra-peritoneally. Some extract at test dose (1/3 - 1/2 LD 50 decrease the normal body temperature more than 2°C. Most of them happened to be known as antipyretic in traditional medicines.

  7. Determination of nutritional value of native prairie José Manuel Pando Province, Municipality of Santiago de Machaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia Animal y Tecnología (IICAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in the municipality of Santiago de Machaca which is the first section of the province, José Manuel Pando, it is located at the southeast of the Department of La Paz, at a distance of 205 km, from the city of La Paz. The objectives of this research were to: determine the biomass and floristic composition according to vegetative site, the stocking of native grasslands and the chemical composition of native prairie. The results were the following: the biomass composition and floristic composition is diverse, (35 native forrage species were identified in the vegetative site pampa, Marsh (11, hillside (18 and Hill (33. The capacity of stocking ability of (DC a stocking of native grasslands, Urtica flabellata (Itapallu (2.46; Bromus catharticus (bromus (1.26; Trifolium pratensis (Layulayu (1.38; Iberis sp. (tears of Virgin (1.55 and Hordium muticum (tail of mouse (1.64. Regarding chemical composition, the forage species with higher crude protein content of (% is Urtica flabellata (Itapallu, Bromus catharticus (bromus, 181,66 is 25.77%, forage species with higher energy content Kcal100/g Kcal100/g. and forage specie with higher content of iron mg / 100 g was Iberis sp. (Tears of Virgin, 20,97 mg / 100g. These identified species should be preserved and disseminated, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals. The conservation of these native species identified improve weight gain, consumption of native forage throughout the year, the chemical content, these native species studied, improve quality and cover the requirements from consumption of dry matter and nutrients required by animals. Finally this condition will positively affect the economy of the producers. It is recommended that these native species should be preserved and disseminated on the Prairies, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals.

  8. State-and-transition models: Conceptual versus simulation perspectives, usefulness and breadth of use, and land management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Czembor, Christina; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    State-and-Transition Simulation Modeling (STSM) is a quantitative analysis method that can consolidate a wide array of resource management issues under a “what-if” scenario exercise. STSM can be seen as an ensemble of models, such as climate models, ecological models, and economic models that incorporate human dimensions and management options. This chapter presents STSM as a tool to help synthesize information on social–ecological systems and to investigate some of the management issues associated with exotic annual Bromus species, which have been described elsewhere in this book. Definitions, terminology, and perspectives on conceptual and computer-simulated stochastic state-and-transition models are given first, followed by a brief review of past STSM studies relevant to the management of Bromus species. A detailed case study illustrates the usefulness of STSM for land management. As a whole, this chapter is intended to demonstrate how STSM can help both managers and scientists: (a) determine efficient resource allocation for monitoring nonnative grasses; (b) evaluate sources of uncertainty in model simulation results involving expert opinion, and their consequences for management decisions; and (c) provide insight into the consequences of predicted local climate change effects on ecological systems invaded by exotic annual Bromus species.

  9. Soils mediate the impact of fine woody debris on invasive and native grasses as whole trees are mechanically shredded into firebreaks in piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanderud, Zachary T.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Rigby, Deborah; Bybee, Jordon; Campbell, Tayte; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    To stem wildfires, trees are being mechanically shredded into firebreaks with the resulting fine woody debris (FWD) potentially exerting immense control over soil and plants. We linked FWD-induced changes in microbial activity and nutrient availability to the frequency of Bromus tectorum and three native, perennial grasses across 31 piñon-juniper woodlands, UT, USA. Using a series of mixed models, we found that FWD increased the frequency of three of the four grasses by at least 12%. Deep, as opposed to shallow, soils mediated frequencies following FWD additions but only partially explained the variation in Bromus and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Although fertile areas associated with tree-islands elicited no response, FWD-induced increases in nitrogen mineralization in deep soils (15–17 cm) caused the frequency of the exotic and Pseudoroegneria to rise. Higher phosphorus availability in FWD-covered surface soils (0–2 cm) had no impact on grasses. FWD altered deep soil respiration, and deep and shallow microbial biomass structuring Pseudoroegneria frequencies, suggesting that microorganism themselves regulated Pseudoroegneria. The positive effects of FWD on grass frequencies intensified over time for natives but diminished for Bromus. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms in deeper soils helped mediate species-specific responses to disturbance both facilitating exotic invasion and promoting native establishment.

  10. Germination, seed diameter and pregerminative treatments in species with different purposes of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of vegetal species germination consents to know its characteristics and permits to understand the factors that influence this process. The aim of this research was to know the germination’s characteristics of some species, such as Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, Inga edulis Mart, Inga spectabilis (Vahl Wild, Piptocoma discolor (Kunth Pruski, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, and Verbena officinalis L., and also their reaction to pregerminative treatments depending on the seed’s diameter. This study was carried out in Pastaza, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador, between February and June, 2014. Different diameters of seeds and pregerminative treatments were used in species, which did not present germination percentages higher than 40%. In the first practice I. edulis and I. spectabilis exceeded this value without treatment. Other species had lower values. Seeds were classified considering two diameters and two doses of gibberellin acid, this was applied to, and evaluated in the E. stipitata. In addition, scarification with sulfuric acid was done. After 45 days of its application, 100 ppm of gibberellic acid with larger seed diameter reported higher percentages of germination in S. cayenennsis, and in E. stipitata, which also interacted with the scarification. V. officinalis and P. discolor, did not present any response to the applications made. I. edulis and I. spectabilis presented high germination percentages without pregerminative treatments, E. stipitata and S. cayenennsis showed response to seed diameter and the applied treatments, while P discolor and V. officinalis did not show any response.

  11. Taxonomia do gênero Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae no Brasil Taxonomy of the genus Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do estudo taxonômico do gênero Heliotropium L. no Brasil. Foram encontradas nove espécies e duas variedades: H. amplexicaule Vahl, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. curassavicum var. argentinum I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum var. burchellii I.M. Johnst., H. indicum L., H. leiocarpum Morong, H. nicotianaefolium Poir.,H. phylicoides Cham. e H. transalpinum Vell. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre afinidades baseados na morfologia e dados de distribuição para as espécies.The taxonomy of the genus Heliotropium L. in Brazil was studied, revealing nine species and two varieties: H. amplexicaule Vahl, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. curassavicum var. argentinum I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum var. burchellii I.M. Johnst., H. indicum L., H. leiocarpum Morong, H. nicotianaefolium Poir., H. phylicoides Cham. and H. transalpinum Vell. Descriptions, illustrations, comments on relationships based on morphology and data on species distribution are presented.

  12. O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsi Iob Boldrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo taxonômico do gênero Eleocharis R. Br. para o Rio Grande do Sul foi desenvolvido através dos métodos tradicionais em taxonomia. Os dados foram obtidos através da bibliografia, revisão de herbários regionais e coleta de exemplares a campo. O gênero está representado no Rio Grande do Sul por 27 espécies: Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., E. bonariensis Nees, E. contracta Maury, E. dunensis Kük., E. elegans (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. filiculmis Kunth, E. flavescens (Poir. Urb., E. geniculata (L. Roem. & Schult., E. interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. laeviglumis R. Trevis. & Boldrini, E. loefgreniana Boeck., E. maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. minima Kunth var. minima, E. montana (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. montevidensis Kunth, E. nudipes (Kunth Palla, E. obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees Steud., E. parodii Barros, E. quinquangularis Boeck., E. rabenii Boeck., E. radicans (Poir. Kunth, E. sellowiana Kunth, E. squamigera Svenson, E. subarticulata (Nees Boeck., E. viridans Kük. ex Osten, Eleocharis sp.1 e Eleocharis sp.2. O trabalho apresenta descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica, habitat e períodos de floração e frutificação das espécies, além de uma chave dicotômica para diferenciá-las.

  13. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  14. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  16. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  17. KANADA’DA YETİŞEN İKİ Thuja L. (CUPRESSACEAE) TÜRÜNÜN UÇUCU YAĞ KOMPOZİSYONU

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Kanada’da yetişen Thuja occidentalis L. ve Tetraclinis articulate (Vahl) Masters (synonym: Thuja articulate) türlerinin ibrelerinden elde edilen yağlar HS-SPME / GC-MS tekniği ile analiz  edildi. Sırasıyla %92.30 and %93.42’lik toplam yağ miktarında otuzbir ve ellibir bileşen tespit edildi. Thuja occidentalis’in ana bileşenleri bornilasetat (%30.00), limonen (%7.56), kamfor (%7.33), α-pinen (%7.18) ve δ-kadinen (%6.01) olarak belirlendi; Tetraclinis articulata’da ise α pinen (%32.67), 3-karen...

  18. Mechanical behavior of wood subjected to mode II fracture, using an energetic criterion: Application on THUJA of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saoud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shear strength is one of the properties often used to qualify a wood species for use in industry. But until now there is no standardized test which allows understanding this phenomenon. This paper constitutes a new approach to study the behavior of the wood material subjected to the mode II fracture. For that we designed and realized a new prototype of a wooden specimen that we tested in our laboratory which gives rise to an evaluation of the fracture until separation by pure shear of the specimen in the TL plane. The experimental data from a first series of tests on Thuja wood (Tetraclinis Articulata (Vahl Masters as a test material as well as the calculation of mode II initiation fracture toughness and the critical stress intensity factor are presented in this paper

  19. Floristic diversity in agro-ecosystem livestock bovine of the Canton “El Carmen” in Manabi’s province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo A. Rojas Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 2013 the species that are part of the diversity of flora in agroecosystems cattle ranching bovine in Canton El Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador were determined. A total of 13 botanical species of which Sida acuta Burm. had the highest records with 29.7 % of dominance and a frequency of 51.0 %, followed by the species Senna obtusifolia (L. H. S. Irwin & Barneby, Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC, Pavonia sidifolia Kunth and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl. These five species were found to be the most dominant and frequent with respect to all the species found. The Jaccard coefficient showed 53,8 % similarity regarding diversity of plant species.

  20. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  1. Some Boletes of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect and identify some Boletes of Thailand. Through periodical excursions in woodland area in the north, northeast and south of Thailand, and regular visits to markets inthe areas during 1995-2005, 20 species of Boletes were collected and identified. These were Boletellus ananas (M.A.Curtis Murrill, Boletellus emodensis (Berk. Singer, Boletellus sp. 1, Boletellus sp. 2, Boletellus sp. 3,Boletinus sp., Boletus griseipurpureus Corner, Boletus bicolor Peck, Boletus nanus (Massee. Singer, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2, Boletus sp. 3, Heimiella retispora (Pat. & C.F. Baker Boedijn, Phlebopus colossus (R.Heim Singer, Phylloporus pelletieri (Lev. Quel., Pulveroboletus ravenelii (Berk. & M.A.Curtis Murrill, Pulveroboletus sp., Strobilomyces confusus Singer, Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl P. Karst., and Tylopilusalbo - ater (Schwein Murrill.

  2. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  3. Detection of Poisonous Herbs by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Z.; Chen, T.; Liu, J.-J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques to distinguish poisonous and non-poisonous herbs which both have a similar appearance. Spectra of one poisonous and two non-poisonous herbs (Gelsemium elegans, Lonicera japonica Thunb, and Ficus Hirta Vahl) were obtained in the range 0.2-1.4 THz by using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for feature extraction. The prediction accuracy of classification is between 97.78 to 100%. The results demonstrate an efficient and applicative method to distinguish poisonous herbs, and it may be implemented by using THz spectroscopy combined with chemometric algorithms.

  4. Potential for seed bank formation of two weed species from Brazilian Amazonia Potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies de plantas daninhas da Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr B. Dias-Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential for seed bank formation of two perennial weed species, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, both common in Amazonia , was evaluated in a degraded pasture area in eastern Brazilian Amazonia . Seeds were enclosed in nylon mesh packets and placed at the soil surface or buried at 5 or 10 cm deep. The number of viable seeds was recorded at 6, 10, 14 and 18 months after burial. Results showed that S. cayennensis has the ability to form persistent soil seed bank, while I. asarifolia seeds do not build up in the soil seed bank. For S. cayennensis and, to some extent, for I. asarifolia, seed survival was highest at greater burial depths.O potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies perenes de plantas daninhas, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, ambas comuns na Amazônia, foi avaliado em uma área de pastagem degradada na Amazônia oriental brasileira. As sementes foram inseridas em envelopes de tela de nylon e colocadas na superfície do solo ou enterradas a cinco ou 10 cm de profundidade. O número de sementes viáveis foi avaliado aos 6, 12, 14 e 18 meses após o início do ensaio. Os resultados mostraram que S. cayennensis tem o potencial para formar banco de sementes persistente, enquanto que as sementes de I. asarifolia não apresentam esse potencial. Em S. cayennensis e, de certo modo, em I. asarifolia, a sobrevivência de sementes foi maior nas maiores profundidades.

  5. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  6. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  7. Temporal priority effects on competition are not consistent among intermountain grassland species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Li, Hongli; Ma, Yongqing; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2016-08-01

    Previous work indicates that priority effects exist, but mechanisms are not well understood. So we explored shifts in competitive outcomes and intensities as a potential general mechanism. In a standard greenhouse experiment the temporal priority effects of the target species Pseudoroegneria spicata and its competitive responses to five receptor species, i.e., Bromus ciliatus, Bromus marginatus, Coreopsis tinctoria, Senecio atratus, and Solidago canadensis were evaluated. P. spicata adults with a high root: shoot ratio had a significant inhibitory priority effect on B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria. Compared with the target species, under later and simultaneous sowing, B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, C. tinctoria, and S. atratus exhibited an increasing trend in terms of competition. However, S. canadensis did not display priority effects. In addition, the gram per gram competitive effect of P. spicata depended on the receptor species in the following order: B. marginatus > B. ciliatus > C. tinctoria > S. atratus. There were positive relationships between the relative interaction indices and the root: shoot ratios in B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria, thereby suggesting that the early germination or emergence of P. spicata may reduce the root: shoot ratios of these receptors. The results of this study indicate that priority effects occurred in early colonizers with high root: shoot ratios and greater competitive capacities.

  8. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  9. Adaptive restoration of river terrace vegetation through iterative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Michelle P.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Decker, Cheryl E.; O’Neil, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Restoration projects can involve a high degree of uncertainty and risk, which can ultimately result in failure. An adaptive restoration approach can reduce uncertainty through controlled, replicated experiments designed to test specific hypotheses and alternative management approaches. Key components of adaptive restoration include willingness of project managers to accept the risk inherent in experimentation, interest of researchers, availability of funding for experimentation and monitoring, and ability to restore sites as iterative experiments where results from early efforts can inform the design of later phases. This paper highlights an ongoing adaptive restoration project at Zion National Park (ZNP), aimed at reducing the cover of exotic annual Bromus on riparian terraces, and revegetating these areas with native plant species. Rather than using a trial-and-error approach, ZNP staff partnered with academic, government, and private-sector collaborators to conduct small-scale experiments to explicitly address uncertainties concerning biomass removal of annual bromes, herbicide application rates and timing, and effective seeding methods for native species. Adaptive restoration has succeeded at ZNP because managers accept the risk inherent in experimentation and ZNP personnel are committed to continue these projects over a several-year period. Techniques that result in exotic annual Bromus removal and restoration of native plant species at ZNP can be used as a starting point for adaptive restoration projects elsewhere in the region.

  10. Dated tribe-wide whole chloroplast genome phylogeny indicates recurrent hybridizations within Triticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Nadine; Brassac, Jonathan; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R

    2017-06-16

    Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing. The read data was used to assemble the plastid locus ndhF for 194 individuals and the whole chloroplast genome for 183 individuals, representing 53 Triticeae species and 15 genera. We conducted Bayesian and multispecies coalescent analyses to infer relationships and estimate divergence times of the taxa. We present the most comprehensive dated Triticeae chloroplast phylogeny and review previous hypotheses in the framework of our results. Monophyly of Triticeae chloroplasts could not be confirmed, as either Bromus or Psathyrostachys captured a chloroplast from a lineage closely related to a Bromus-Triticeae ancestor. The most recent common ancestor of Triticeae occurred approximately between ten and 19 million years ago. The comparison of the chloroplast phylogeny with available nuclear data in several cases revealed incongruences indicating past hybridizations. Recent events of chloroplast capture were detected as individuals grouped apart from con-specific accessions in otherwise monopyhletic groups.

  11. Composição e distribuição da vegetação herbácea em três áreas com fisionomias distintas na Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brasil Composition and distribution of herbaceous vegetation in three areas of different aspect in Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a distribuição da vegetação herbácea da Praia do Peró foram caracterizadas em três áreas com topografias e fisionomias distintas, pelo método de parcelas. As três áreas são ocupadas pela comunidade psamófila-reptante, visualmente dividida em duas regiões: frontal, com espécies estoloníferas e suculentas, e posterior, com predomínio de espécies graminóides. Foram amostradas 38 espécies, das quais Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth e Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. alcançaram os maiores valores de importância (VI. A topografia do ambiente, intimamente relacionada com a dinâmica de ondas de maré e tempestades, com aporte de areia oriunda dos ventos e das marés e com a ação antrópica, não influencia a distribuição das espécies vegetais encontradas, sendo considerada apenas como um componente influente na paisagem, estabelecido em conjunto com a comunidade vegetal, sendo esta última fortemente determinada pela distância em que se encontra em relação ao mar.The composition and the distribution of herbaceous vegetation of Praia do Peró were characterized in three areas with different topographic and aspect, by using the method of quadrats. The three areas are occupied by the creeping-psamophyte community, being visually divided into two regions: frontal, with stolonipherae and succulent species, and posterior, with predominance of grass species. Thirty-eight species were sampled, from which Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth and Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. attained the highest values of importance (VI. The topography, intimately related with the dynamics of tidal waves and storms, with the deposit of sand brought by the winds and tides, and with the human action, doesn't influence the distribution of the vegetal species found

  12. Developmental anatomy of Cyperus laxus (non-Nranz and Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz (Cyperaceae, Poales and tissue continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cyperaceae species are present in different ecosystems and constitute the herbaceous extract. Of the approximately 5,500 species of the family; a third has Kranz anatomy, representing an important characteristic of the taxonomy and phylogeny of the group. In Cyperus laxus L. (non-Kranz and Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl (Kranz, development begins with germination that is marked by the emergence of the coleoptiles, followed by the primary root, which is ephemeral. The rhizome originates from the mesocotyl and it promotes the vascular connection between the roots, leaves and scapes. The continuity of the tissues is evidenced by the presence of an endodermis and pericycle in all vegetative organs. Leaves and scapes differ between the two species by the arrangement of mesophyll cells, which is regular in Cyperus laxus (non-Kranz and arranged radially in Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz. Also differ in the number of bundles sheaths: two in Cyperus laxus (non-Kranz and three in Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz. The outer bundle sheath in both species constitutes the endodermis, and the inner sheath in Cyperus laxus and the middle and inner sheaths in Fimbristylis dichotoma constitute the pericycle.As espécies de Cyperaceae estão presentes em diferentes ecossistemas e constituem o extrato herbáceo. Das aproximadamente 5,500 espécies da família, um terço possui anatomia Kranz, representando uma importante característica da taxonomia e filogenia do grupo. Em Cyperus laxus L. (não Kranz e Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl (Kranz, o desenvolvimento começa com a germinação que é marcada pela emergência do coleóptilo, seguido da raiz primária, que é efêmera. O rizoma se origina do mesocótilo e promove a conexão vascular entre raízes, folhas e escapos. A continuidade dos tecidos é evidenciada pela presença de endoderme e periciclo em todos os órgãos vegetativos. Folhas e escapos diferem entre as duas espécies estudadas no arranjo das células do

  13. Protective Effect of Phillyrin on Lethal LPS-Induced Neutrophil Inflammation in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Forsythia suspensa Vahl. (Oleaceae fruits are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat pneumonia, typhoid, dysentery, ulcers and oedema. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities have been reported for phillyrin (PHN, the main ingredient in Forsythia suspensa Vahl fruits, in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms in vivo remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered that PHN exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in lethal LPS-induced neutrophil inflammation by suppressing the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway in zebrafish. Methods: LPS-yolk microinjection was used to induce a lethal LPS-infected zebrafish model. The effect of PHN on the survival of zebrafish challenged with lethal LPS was evaluated using survival analysis. The effect of PHN on neutrophil inflammation grading in vivo was assessed by tracking neutrophils with a transgenic line. The effects of PHN on neutrophil production and migration were analysed by SB+ cell counts during consecutive hours after modelling. Additionally, key cytokines and members of the MyD88 signalling pathway that are involved in inflammatory response were detected using quantitative RT-PCR. To assess gene expression changes during consecutive hours after modelling, the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MyD88, TRIF, ERK1/2, JNK, IκBa and NF-κB expression levels were measured. Results: PHN could protect zebrafish against a lethal LPS challenge in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by decreased neutrophil infltration, reduced tissue necrosis and increased survival rates. Up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression also showed the same tendencies of depression by PHN. Critically, PHN significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MyD88, IκBa, and NF-κB but did not affect the expression of ERK1/2 MAPKs or JNK MAPKs in LPS-stimulated zebrafish. Additionally, PHN regulated the MyD88/IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathway by controlling IκBα, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF

  14. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  15. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  16. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  17. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V; Hajduk, J

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  18. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with 3 H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted

  19. Comparative availability of cesium and strontium for plant absorption from amended Rupert surface soil and associated subsoil: influence of growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the plant availability of 134 Cs and 85 Sr amended to Rupert surface soil and an associated subsoil. Concentration ratios for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and tumbleweed (Salsola kali) grown on 134 Cs amended Rupert soil were 0.15 and 0.28, respectively; values for amended subsoils were 0.074 and 0.13, respectively. Rupert surface soil and subsoil amended with 85 Sr gave concentration ratios of 15 and 7, respectively, for both tumbleweed and cheatgrass. While pot size (1 vs 4 kg) had a market effect on concentration ratios, values for greenhouses and growth chamber grown plants were generally similar. Aging of both Rupert surface soil and subsoils for 1 to 30 days prior to planting had a pronounced effect on the availability of 134 Cs for uptake by plants, but no effect on 85 Sr uptake

  20. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadell, J.; Medrano, H.

    1986-01-01

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts [es

  1. A morphological reappraisal of the immature stages and life history of Elachista synethes Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, an Australian leaf miner alien to Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Andrés Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elachista synethes was recently recognized as an alien species in northern Chile, where its larvae mine the rescue grass Bromus catharticus (Poaceae. In order to provide the necessary information to allow field detection of E. synethes during early ontogeny, we conducted a morphological reappraisal of the immature stages of this leaf-miner moth, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, including the first descriptions of the egg and the first-instar larva. This is the first report of the existence of an apodal early larva for a species of Elachista Treitschke. The legs and prolegs are absent in the first two instars, but are well developed in the last two. Additional observations on the life history are also provided, including a description of the mine.

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of the monogenomic Triticeae (Poaceae) based on morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seberg, Ole; Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    not traditionally included in Aegilops s.J. Most of the 33 characters used in the analysis are coded as binary. The only four multistate characters in the matrix are treated as unordered. Three diploid species of Bromus are used as outgroup. The number of equally parsimonious trees found is very large (approx....... 170000; length = 107, ci = 0.36, ri = 0.75) and the strict consensus tree has an expectedly low level of resolution. However, most of the equally parsimonious trees owe their existence to an unresolved Aegilops clade. If this clade is replaced by its hypothetical ancestor, the number of equally...... parsimonious trees drops dramatically (48; length = 78, ci = 0.45, ri = 0.76). When trees for which more highly resolved compatible trees exist are excluded, only two trees remain. Bremer support is used as a measure of branch support. The trees based on morphology and on molecular data are largely incongruent....

  3. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  4. Weather-induced variability of cesium 137 content in overground part of automorphic soil plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliashevich, H.V.

    2000-01-01

    Daily variability of specific cesium 137 content in plants (12 species) from 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP in summer time under the influence of climatic factors is shown. The rise of residual solar radiation (exceeding 2 MJ/m 2 in a day) and average diurnal temperature over 10 - 15 degrees centigrade (for different species) induced decrease in activity of overground phyto mass while precipitation takes opposite effect. A threshold and non-threshold type of cesium 137 accumulation in plants was recorded at higher daily fall-out. Critical sum of diurnal precipitation for the latter case in 5 species (Agropyron repens (L.) P.B., Bromus inermis Leyss., Origanum vulgare L., Festuca arundinacea Shreb., Acer plata noides L.) is in the range of 20 - 25 mm

  5. Provisional catalogue of the flora of San Ignacio de Huinay, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Morales

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the vascular plants flora of San Ignacio de Huinay natural reserve, Comau fiord, Región de los Lagos, Chile. To date, 262 species with their herbaria sheets stored in 5 different American and European herbaria (CONC, M, MA, and SGO and that of Huinay, are known in the territory. In this work some first new records for the South Cone are included, such as Potentilla anglica, Plantago media, and Mentha x rotundifolia. Furthermore, some of the records are new for the Flora of Chile, such as Juncus burkartii, only known from Argentina. Other species very scarcely cited in Chile, such as Solanum nigrum and Bromus squarrosus, are also included.

  6. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the taxonomic segment of a floristic study undertaken in the city of Podgorica in the period of 2002-2007. The check-list of spontaneously growing vascular plants includes 1227 species and subspecies belonging to 545 genera and 118 families. The dominant families are Poaceae (11.7%, asteraceae (11.2% and Fabaceae (9.2%. The most abundant genera are Trifolium (2.1%, Euphorbia (1.5%, Carex (1.5%, Bromus (1.3% and Vicia (1.2%. Analysis of the flora of Podgorica in comparison with some other european cities showed that the flora of Podgorica is most similar to that of Rome (Q/S= 0,7.

  7. Ozone sensitivity of plants in natural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M; Stewart, D

    1973-07-01

    Field fumigation studies conducted in grassland, oak, aspen, and conifer, communities established the injury threshold of prevalent plant species to ozone. Several important species, including Bromus tectorum, Quercus gambelii, and Populus tremuloides, were injured by a single 2-hours exposure to 15 pphM ozone. Over half the perennial forbs and woody species studied were visibly injured at concentrations of 30 pphM ozone or less. It is postulated that lower concentrations at prolonged or repeated exposures to ozone may impair growth and affect community vigor and stability. Continued exposure of natural plant communities to ozone is expected to initiate major shifts in the plant composition of communities. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  8. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  9. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  10. Preserving prairies: Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of invasive annual bromes in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Isabel; Symstad, Amy J.; Davis, Christopher; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Two Eurasian invasive annual brome grasses, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), are well known for their impact in steppe ecosystems of the western United States where these grasses have altered fire regimes, reduced native plant diversity and abundance, and degraded wildlife habitat. Annual bromes are also abundant in the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains (NGP), but their impact and ecology are not as well studied. It is unclear whether the lessons learned from the steppe will translate to the mixed-grass prairie where native plant species are adapted to frequent fires and grazing. Developing a successful annual brome management strategy for National Park Service units and other NGP grasslands requires better understanding of (1) the impact of annual bromes on grassland condition; (2) the dynamics of these species through space and time; and (3) the relative importance of environmental factors within and outside managers' control for these spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we use vegetation monitoring data collected from 1998 to 2015 in 295 sites to relate spatiotemporal variability of annual brome grasses to grassland composition, weather, physical environmental characteristics, and ecological processes (grazing and fire). Concern about the impact of these species in NGP grasslands is warranted, as we found a decline in native species richness with increasing annual brome cover. Annual brome cover generally increased over the time of monitoring but also displayed a 3- to 5-yr cycle of reduction and resurgence. Relative cover of annual bromes in the monitored areas was best predicted by park unit, weather, extant plant community, slope grade, soil composition, and fire history. We found no evidence that grazing reduced annual brome cover, but this may be due to the relatively low grazing pressure in our study. By understanding the consequences and patterns of annual brome invasion, we will be better able to preserve and restore

  11. Conversion of sagebrush shrublands to exotic annual grasslands negatively impacts small mammal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, S.M.; Schupp, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim The exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is fast replacing sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities throughout the Great Basin Desert and nearby regions in the Western United States, impacting native plant communities and altering fire regimes, which contributes to the long-term persistence of this weedy species. The effect of this conversion on native faunal communities remains largely unexamined. We assess the impact of conversion from native perennial to exotic annual plant communities on desert rodent communities. Location Wyoming big sagebrush shrublands and nearby sites previously converted to cheatgrass-dominated annual grasslands in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Methods At two sites in Tooele County, Utah, USA, we investigated with Sherman live trapping whether intact sagebrush vegetation and nearby converted Bromus tectorum-dominated vegetation differed in rodent abundance, diversity and community composition. Results Rodent abundance and species richness were considerably greater in sagebrush plots than in cheatgrass-dominated plots. Nine species were captured in sagebrush plots; five of these were also trapped in cheatgrass plots, all at lower abundances than in the sagebrush. In contrast, cheatgrass-dominated plots had no species that were not found in sagebrush. In addition, the site that had been converted to cheatgrass longer had lower abundances of rodents than the site more recently converted to cheatgrass-dominated plots. Despite large differences in abundances and species richness, Simpson's D diversity and Shannon-Wiener diversity and Brillouin evenness indices did not differ between sagebrush and cheatgrass-dominated plots. Main conclusions This survey of rodent communities in native sagebrush and in converted cheatgrass-dominated vegetation suggests that the abundances and community composition of rodents may be shifting, potentially at the larger spatial scale of the entire Great Basin, where cheatgrass continues to invade

  12. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  14. The Effect of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil on Growth and Development of Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żurek G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of agricultural land in Poland by heavy metals is not a general problem but is limited to industrial areas. In regions of long history of industrial emission, of elevated levels of lead, cadmium, zinc and other ions during coal and ore mining and processing, as for example in Silesia, about 10 % of agricultural land may be characterized by exceeded maximum residue limits for Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn ions. Since the maintenance of agricultural areas in those regions is important from an ecological standpoint, the alternative farming activities are needed. Perennial grass biomass production for energy purposes is currently the best solution for majority of agricultural areas not suitable for food production in Poland. Along with increasing knowledge on separation and utilization of heavy metals (HM during and after biomass processing, phytoremediation of polluted soils will become important and valuable. To detect the effect of soil HM ions concentration on growth and development of selected, tall growing and high biomass yielding perennial grass cultivars, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were registered. The elevated content of Pb, Cd and Zn ions in soil influenced on decrease of: minimal (Fo, maximal (Fm and variable (Fv fluorescence level as well as on total complementary area on a diagram of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve (Area. Based on detected parameters it was concluded, that the high level of HM ions in soils negatively affected the efficiency of photosynthesis. Therefore, plant growth, as well as development of generative shoots and finally the biomass yield were reduced in some cultivars. Among tested cultivars different reaction for HM ions in polluted soil were noted: from only slightly modified parameters of photosynthesis and unreduced yield (Elytrigia elongata cv. Bamar and Arrhenatherum elatius cv. Wiwena to significantly reduced Fo, Fv, Fm and biomass yield (Bromus carinathus cv. Broma and Bromus

  15. Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia spp. caused by Cylindrocladium candelabrum and C. spathiphylli in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh and Eugenia patrisii Vahl, caused respectively by Cylindrocladium candelabrum (Calonectria scoparia and C. spathiphylli (Calonectria spathiphylli are reported in the state of Pará, Brazil. On both host species, the disease is characterized by dark brown lesions of different sizes and shapes. A whitish bright sporulation, resembling Cylindrocladium is observed on the necrotic lesions by using a stereomycroscope or a pocket lense (10-20 X. Under favorable conditions and depending on the level of infection, intense premature tree defoliation may also be found.Although the conidial germination and mycelial growth were higher at 25ºC for both species, C. candelabrum was more sensitive to the variation of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC than C. spathiphylli. This is the first report of C. candelabrum and C. spathiphylli on Eugenia stipitata (araçá-boi and on Eugenia patrisii (ubaia-da-amazônia, respectively in Brazil.

  16. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  17. Formation and distribution of sennosides in cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunnoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzorn, R.; Weiler, E.W.; Zenk, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of (/sup 3/H)-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, (/sup 3/H)-sennoside A and (/sup 3/H)-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in Cassia angustifolia VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60/sup 0/C.

  18. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-⁹⁹m (⁹⁹mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na⁹⁹mTcO₄)in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.

  19. Formation and distribution of sennosides in cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunnoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzorn, R.; Weiler, E.W.; Zenk, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of [ 3 H]-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, [ 3 H]-sennoside A and [ 3 H]-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in Cassia angustifolia VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60 0 C. (orig.)

  20. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Elizabeth Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.

  1. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos, E-mail: marciaoliveira.13@terra.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2011-07-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. (author)

  2. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na 99m TcO 4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na 99m TcO 4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na 99m TcO 4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. (author)

  3. Behavioral evidence for cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Fujun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reactions of four bat species from four different lineages to UV light: Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835 and Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821, which use constant frequency (CF or frequency modulation (FM echolocation, respectively; and Rousettus leschenaultii (Desmarest, 1820 and Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl, 1797, cave and tree-roosting Old World fruit bats, respectively. Following acclimation and training involving aversive stimuli when exposed to UV light, individuals of S. kuhlii and C. sphinx exposed to such stimuli displayed conditioned reflexes such as body crouching, wing retracting, horizontal crawling, flying and/or vocalization, whereas individuals of H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, in most cue-testing sessions, remained still on receiving the stimuli. Our behavioral study provides direct evidence for the diversity of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and further supports our earlier postulate that, due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF bats, but not in FM bats. In addition, Old World fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision, but those roosting in trees have not. Bats are thus the third mammalian taxon to retain ancestral cone-based UV sensitivity in some species.

  4. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  5. ITS2 barcoding DNA region combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of Hyoscyami Semen, the mature seed of Hyoscyamus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Gang; Tu, Yuan; Liu, He-Gang; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Ming-Ming; SHIi, Yu-Hua; Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Hyoscyami Semen, the mature dried seed of Hyoscyamus niger L., has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat human diseases. Hyoscyami Semen is found in local markets in China. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently mix the seeds of H. niger with the seeds of related species such as Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees, Astragalus complanatus R. Br., Cuscuta australis R. Br., Cuscuta chinensis Lam., and Impatiens balsamina L. because of their similar morphologies or similar names. Thus, developing a reliable method for discriminating H. niger seeds from its adulterants is necessary to reduce confusion and ensure the safe use of Hyoscyami Semen. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of high-resolution melting analysis combined with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) with internal transcribed spacer 2 to discriminate H. niger. Our results show that Bar-HRM successfully identified the adulterants and detected the proportion of H. niger DNA extract within an admixture. In particular, HRM detected H. niger DNA extract in A. complanatus DNA extract at concentrations as low as 1%. In conclusion, the Bar-HRM method developed in the present study for authenticating H. niger is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the purity of Hyoscyami Semen for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution to the study of the insect fauna of some conifer species in the region of Western Traras (Tlemcen - Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichane, M.; Bouchikhi Tani, Z.; Khelil, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the study of Biocenotic insects related to conifer species in Traras, the Western region of Tlemcen, a comprehensive knowledge of the insect fauna hosted by the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill.), Thuya Barbary (Tetraclinis articulata(Vahl) Masters)) and Cypress green(Cupressus sempervirensL) is essential. The various methods used for capturing insects allowed the collection of a large number of species, but a large number still remains unknown. These species are distributed among 10 orders of which the most important are the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Through this list of insects and the nature of their food, six diets to which these species belong were identified. The most representative are herbivores, auxiliaries and borers. This inventory allows the compilation of a list of insects harmful to the conifer species studied in this region. They total species including 9 phytophagous, 8 xylophagous, 7 seed-eating species, 5 opophages and one gall species. The auxiliaries are present with 26 species. (author)

  7. Sensitivity to zinc of Mediterranean woody species important for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disante, Karen B; Fuentes, David; Cortina, Jordi

    2010-04-15

    Heavy metals have increased in natural woodlands and shrublands over the last several decades as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. However, our knowledge of the effects of these elements on woody species is scarce. In this study, we examined the responses of six Mediterranean woody species to increasing levels of zinc in hydroponic culture and discussed the possible implications for the restoration of contaminated sites. The species used, Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster Ait., Pinus halepensis Mill., Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast., Rhamnus alaternus L. and Quercus suber L. represent a climatic gradient from dry sub-humid to semi-arid conditions. Zinc concentrations in shoots ranged from 53 microg g(-1) in Q. suber to 382 microg g(-1) in T. articulata and were well below the levels found in roots. Zinc inhibited root elongation and root biomass and changed the root length distribution per diameter class, but the magnitude of the effects was species-specific. Only P. halepensis and Q. suber showed toxicity symptoms in aboveground parts. Species more characteristic from xeric environments (T. articulata, R. alaternus and P. halepensis) were more sensitive to zinc than species from mesic environments (Q. suber, P. pinaster and P. pinea). According to the Zn responses and bioaccumulation, Q. suber P. pinea and P. halepensis are the best candidates for field trials to test the value of woody species to restore contaminated sites. None of the species tested seemed suitable for phytoremediation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  9. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72 and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5 media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment.

  10. Self-sterility in the hexaploid Handroanthus serratifolius (Bignoniaceae, the national flower of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is common among angiosperms and might induce typically allogamous plants to become autogamous (self-compatible, relying on sexual self-fertilization or apomictic (achieving asexual reproduction through seeds. This work aimed to determine whether neopolyploidy leads to the breakdown of the self-incompatibility system in the hexaploid non-apomictic species Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl S. Grose, through analyses of its floral biology, pollination biology and breeding system. Although anthesis lasted for three days, increasing the overall floral display, receptivity decreased as of the second day. Centridini and Euglossini bees were the main pollinators, and low nectar availability (1.95 ± 1.91 µl/flower might have obliged them to visit multiple flowers. We observed low reproductive efficacy. That might be explained by self-sterility and by the great number of flowers per individual, which could increase the frequency of geitonogamy. Ovule penetration by the pollen tubes in self-pollinated pistils with posterior abscission indicated late-acting self-incompatibility in H. serratifolius, as observed in other diploid Bignoniaceae species, although inbreeding depression cannot be excluded. The self-sterility found in the monoembryonic, hexaploid individuals studied here contrasts with the results for other neopolyploid Handroanthus and Anemopaegma species, which are often autogamous and apomictic. Our results suggest that neopolyploidy is not the main factor leading to self-fertility in Handroanthus.

  11. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El Shoubaky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2 solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H 3 BO 3 , AlCl 3 , and AlCl 3 + HCl were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids. The flavone compound was identified as apigenin bycomparing its physicochemical data with those in the literature. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin were evaluated. Apigenin showed promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the hot plate test and writhing test in mice as well as tail-immersion tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It is concluded that apigenin possesses potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, which might be due to the inhibition of PGE 2 as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α.

  12. Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antimicrobial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils from Euryops arabicus and Laggera decurrens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial part of two Asteraceae species, namely Euryops arabicus Steud. and Laggera decurrens (Vahl. Hepper and Wood, were studied by GC and GC/MS. In parallel the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The investigation led to the identification of 48 and 44 compounds for both plants, respectively. The essential oil of E. arabicus was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.9%. The oil also contained a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.1%. Compounds such as caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, T-cadinol (7.0%, spathulenol (5.2%, (E-β-caryophyllene (6.0% and 2-epi-(E-β-caryophyllene (6.0% were the main constituents of the oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes also predominated in L. decurrens (46.3%. The thymoquinone-derivative, 3-methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (28.1%, thymol (5.7% and eudesma-11-en-4a-ol (7.0% were the most abundant constituents. Both essential oils showed antimicrobial activity with MIC-values between 0.13–5.25 mg/mL. Furthermore, only the essential oil of L. decurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (91% at 500 µg/mL.

  13. The synergistic effects of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil herbicides on weed population in rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ramli Ishak; Sabri Junoh; Ismail Sahid

    2002-01-01

    Four treatments with the herbicides 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil were carried out in two consecutive rice planting seasons, to study the synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil on rice weed populations at Pasir Panjang, the Northwest Selangor Project (PBLS), Projek Barat Laut Selangor) rice granary area. The treatments were control, 1x recommended rate (single dose), 2x recommended rate (double dose) of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and farmer practice. In all plots, propanil herbicide was applied at similar rate. Among the ecological indices measured were Simpson Index of diversity and importance (I.V.). A total number of 19 weed species was identified and the most common important weed was Najas graminae Del. The second most commonly found important weed was Scirpus lateriflorus Gmel. Other important weeds frequently found were Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. In the rice agroecosystem, species diversity of weeds was affected but total weed biomass was not affected synergistically by the mixture of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil. The negative synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil was to increase the total biomass of Scirpus lateriflorus, at 2x recommended dose rate of 2,4-D dimethyl amine. (Author)

  14. Efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu preparation in, relieving mosquito bite reactions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenthaisong, Ratree; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Rojanawiwat, Archawin; Thavara, Usavadee

    2014-02-01

    Trikatu is composed of dried fruits of Piper nigrum L and Piper retrofractum Vahl, and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale R. Although this preparation has been used to relieve pruritis, pain, and inflammation for a long time, there is no clinical evidence to confirm its efficacy and safety. Therefore, we performed a double-blind, within person-randomized controlled study of 30 healthy volunteers to determine efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu on mosquito bite reactions. All subjects were bitten by Aedes aegypti laboratory mosquitoes on their forearms and they were randomly assigned arms to apply either Trikatu or reference product on the mosquito bite papule. The main outcome was the difference of papule size reduction at 30 min, measured by a caliper, between the Trikatu and reference arms. Pruritis, redness, pain, and patient satisfaction were assessed at 15, 30, 60, 180, and 360 min as secondary outcomes. There were no significant differences between treatment and reference arms on any outcome at any time of measurement. Trikatu did not show additional effects for relieving mosquito bite reaction as compared with the reference product containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus. For further study, it is very important to consider a proper selection of subjects, comparator product, and concentration of extract when Trikatu preparation is investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice.

  16. Modelling of natural convection flows with large temperature differences: a benchmark problem for low Mach number solvers. Part. 1 reference solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, P.; Weisman, C.; Paillere, H.; Vierendeels, J.; Dick, E.; Becker, R.; Braack, M.; Locke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer by natural convection and conduction in enclosures occurs in numerous practical situations including the cooling of nuclear reactors. For large temperature difference, the flow becomes compressible with a strong coupling between the continuity, the momentum and the energy equations through the equation of state, and its properties (viscosity, heat conductivity) also vary with the temperature, making the Boussinesq flow approximation inappropriate and inaccurate. There are very few reference solutions in the literature on non-Boussinesq natural convection flows. We propose here a test case problem which extends the well-known De Vahl Davis differentially heated square cavity problem to the case of large temperature differences for which the Boussinesq approximation is no longer valid. The paper is split in two parts: in this first part, we propose as yet unpublished reference solutions for cases characterized by a non-dimensional temperature difference of 0.6, Ra 10 6 (constant property and variable property cases) and Ra = 10 7 (variable property case). These reference solutions were produced after a first international workshop organized by Cea and LIMSI in January 2000, in which the above authors volunteered to produce accurate numerical solutions from which the present reference solutions could be established. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of resistance to Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guennée and Meloidogyne incognita in an F1 hybrid of Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Polanco Puerta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to cross lulo plants of cv. La Selva to obtain a hybrid with tolerance to the fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae and to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White (Nematoda: Heteroderidae, to obtain better-adapted plants to the conditions of the Colombian coffee-growing region and with bigger and non-dehiscent fruits. La Selva cultivar is a hybrid developed from the interspecific backcross of Solanum quitoense Lam. × Solanum hirtum Vahl with plants of lulo cv. Castilla Larga Vida. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Dosquebradas, Risaralda, Colombia, located at 1,465 m a.s.l. F1 plants were obtained from reciprocal crossings. When inoculated with the nematode M. incognita, plants showed susceptibility in their seedling stage; however, when we carried out the evaluation six months after transplantation under field conditions, nematode infestation was less than 1%, which likely indicates the tolerance of these materials to the nematode. When assessing the resistance of the hybrid to the attack of N. elegantalis, we found that the evaluated materials were resistant to this insect. The resulting hybrids showed good agronomic characteristics, such as a good morphological structure and vigor, high productivity, good solar exposure adaptation, large fruits (5.6 cm average diameter similar to those of cv. Castilla, with yellow peel, green pulp and non-dehiscent fruits with pleasant aroma and flavor. As an undesirable characteristic plants had thorns on leaves and stems.

  18. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do A. Neiva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared questionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis(Rich. Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50% of a single plant (64.25% collected from backyards and gardens (44.34% and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52% attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lambliatrophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ≤ IC50 ≤ 500 μg/ml, C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ≤ IC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml, and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50≤ 100 μg/ml. This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

  20. Weed populations and their buried seeds in rice fields of the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Sahid; Noor Faezah Zainuddin; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    A total of 25 weed species belonging to 15 families were found in rice fields near Kampung Tandop, in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The dominant weeds in dry-seeded rice were Utricularia aurea Lour., Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) vahl., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. Q Presl. and Najas graminea (Del.) Redl. In wet-seeded rice, the dominant species were N. graminea, Lemna minor L., Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn., U. aured, and Sagittaria guayanensis H. B. K., while in volunteer seedling rice fields, the dominant species were Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Fimbristylis alboviridis C. B. Clarke, E miliacea, Cyperus babakan Steud. and Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Dry-seeded rice fields contained the highest number of weed seeds (930 910/m 2 in the top 15 cm of soil); volunteer seedling rice fields contained 793.162/m 2 and wet-seeded rice fields 712 228/m 2 . In general, the seed numbers declined with increasing soil depth. At 1015 cm depth, seeds of U aurea and S. zeylanica were the most abundant in dry and wet-seeded rice fields, whilst seeds of Scirpusjuncoides Roxb. and E miliacea were most abundant in volunteer seedling fields. (Author)

  1. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  2. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  4. Influence of chemical treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash - part one: Tangential swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional change in wood occurs with the change in hygroscopic moisture content, as a consequence of available hydroxyl groups in wood constituents, allowing for the hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Various pretreatments of wood material are being frequently applied in the wood processing industry. One of the main effects of such processes is the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, which is the main carrier of the free hydroxyl groups in wood material. Hence, the influence of water treatment and the acetic acid treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. ssp. Pannonica Soó & Simon were examined in this paper. Duration of treatments was 1h, 2h, 3h and 4h for both solvents. In addition the acetic acid was separately used in concentrations of 3% and 6%. Dimensional stability of the control (referent and treated sample groups were tested on oven dried samples which were consequently submerged in the distilled water during 32 days. The increase of dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash was achieved with all of the three treatments (one treatment with water and the two with acetic acid solutions. Simultaneously, it was noticed that the results of water uptake and tangential swelling were not significantly affected by the duration (length of the treatments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP-031041

  5. Ethnobotanical study in the highland of Alvand and Tuyserkan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosaddegh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medicinal plants are widely used by people in the treatment of various diseases. These resources are usually regarded as part of cultural traditional knowledge. The aim of this study was to identify the information about the medicinal plants used by indigenous people of some regions of Hamedan province, Iran. Methods: The present ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Alvand mountainous area of Hamedan and Tuyserkan. Interviews were done in 27 villages and totally 53 informants were interviewed. Ethnobotanical indices like relative frequency of citation (RFC and cultural importance index (CI were calculated. Results: Our study reports 80 traditionally used plant species, belonging to 31 plant families. Asteraceae with 12 species was the most used family in this area. The most used parts were aerial parts (18.57%, leaves (21.42%, and flowers (17.14%, respectively. The most treated ailments were digestive problems. The highest number of ethnobotanical indices RFC and CI were observed in Stachys lavandulifolia   Vahl. and Thymus lancifolius  Celak., respectively. Conclusions: Hamedan provincepossesses considerable knowledge about medicinal plants for treating common health problems.

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  7. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  8. Reaction of genotypes of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. to Meloidogyne spp. under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Salazar-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.

  9. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, C.; Garcia-Figueres, F.; Lovato, P.; Camprubi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72) and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5) media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment. (Author)

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  11. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Sellano, situado na Úmbria (Itália, ocupando uma superfície de cerca 86 km² no setor regional central mais oriental junto à fronteira com as Marcas, do ponto de vista florestal se destaca pelo elevado índice de cobertura florestal superior a 60% em relação aos 40% da Úmbria. A biodiversidade florestal é constituída por 7 formações de caducifólias naturais (florestas: de Quercus pubescens, de Ostrya carpinifolia, de Quercus cerris com a associação endêmica denominada Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis rica em Orquídeas, de Quercus cerris com Quercus pubescens, de Castanea sativa, de Fagus sylvatica, de Salix alba e por um artificialismo (reflorestamentos de Pinusnigra e Pinus halepensis. Tais florestas, voltadas para a exploração econômica, em bom estado de conservação, contornadas por áreas de pastagem, por áreas antrópicas com ocupações humanas, áreas cultivadas e zonas de artesanato caracterizam 11 unidades ambientais paisagísticas do conjunto das 42 tipologias de paisagens da Região Úmbria como um todo: vertentes alto-colinares com florestas de Quercus pubescens ou de Ostrya carpinifolia, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; vertentes montanas com florestas de Fagus sylvatica e pequenas pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; áreas rupestres com agrupamentos casmofiticos; vertentes alto-colinares e submontanas, com fraca declividade e recobertas por paleossolos fersialíticos, com florestas mesófilas de Quercus cerris (Carpinion betuli e florestas de Castanea sativa de origem antrópica; relevos alto-colinares com florestas de Ostryacarpinifolia ou Quercus pubescens, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagem, de origem secundária, de Brachypodium rupestre; leitos fluviais com florestas meso-higrófilas de Salixalba ou Alnus glutinosa; cimos e vertentes com pastagens de origem secundária de

  12. Relaciones suelo-planta-herbívoro en un sistema pastoral de montaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, I.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil characteristics of six communities with pastoral interest in León mountain (Spain and the Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, K and Na contents of soils and vegetation were analysed in relation with the nutritional characteristics of herbivores' diet. The communities were named after the most representative species: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus. Genista florida. Erica australis. Genista occidentalis and Calluna vulgaris. Soils showed in general good conditions for vegetal growth. There were no relationships between soil and plants mineral contents. Ca and Cu were deficient in some moments during the stay of the animals in the mountain. Mineral concentrations in vegetation communities varied seasonally due to maturity processes and physiological changes in plants, depending on the kind of plant and the microenvironment where they grew.

    [es] Se analizaron las características edáficas de seis comunidades de interés pastoral.en la montaña de León denominadas en función de la especie más representativa (Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Genista florida. Erica australis, Genista occidentalis, Calluna vulgaris, así como las concentraciones minerales de Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, Ky Na en suelos y pastos por su influencia sobre las características nutritivas de la dieta de los herbívoros. Según los resultados obtenidos, los suelos presentaron en general unas buenas condiciones para el desarrollo vegetal. No se apreció ninguna relación entre la concentración de minerales en suelos y plantas. Las cantidades de Ca y Cu presentes en la vegetación fueron insuficientes para el mantenimiento de los herbívoros domésticos al menos durante parte de su estancia en el puerto. Las concentraciones minerales en la vegetación sufrieron variaciones estacionales debido a procesos de madurez y cambios fisiológicos, en mayor o menor medida según el tipo de planta y el ambiente en que se encuentre. [de] Die Bodeneigenschaften von sechs

  13. Negative impacts of invasive plants on conservation of sensitive desert wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Berger, Andrew J.; Custer, Nathan; Waters, Shannon C.; Johnson, Jay D.; Miles, A. Keith; Lewison, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from development, resource extraction, off-road vehicle use, and energy development ranks highly among threats to desert systems worldwide. In the Mojave Desert, United States, these disturbances have promoted the establishment of nonnative plants, so that native grasses and forbs are now intermixed with, or have been replaced by invasive, nonnative Mediterranean grasses. This shift in plant composition has altered food availability for Mojave Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally listed species. We hypothesized that this change in forage would negatively influence the physiological ecology, immune competence, and health of neonatal and yearling tortoises. To test this, we monitored the effects of diet on growth, body condition, immunological responses (measured by gene transcription), and survival for 100 captive Mojave tortoises. Tortoises were assigned to one of five diets: native forbs, native grass, invasive grass, and native forbs combined with either the native or invasive grass. Tortoises eating native forbs had better body condition and immune functions, grew more, and had higher survival rates (>95%) than tortoises consuming any other diet. At the end of the experiment, 32% of individuals fed only native grass and 37% fed only invasive grass were found dead or removed from the experiment due to poor body conditions. In contrast, all tortoises fed either the native forb or combined native forb and native grass diets survived and were in good condition. Health and body condition quickly declined for tortoises fed only the native grass (Festuca octoflora) or invasive grass (Bromus rubens) with notable loss of fat and muscle mass and increased muscular atrophy. Bromus rubens seeds were found embedded in the oral mucosa and tongue in most individuals eating that diet, which led to mucosal inflammation. Genes indicative of physiological, immune, and metabolic functions were transcribed at lower levels for individuals fed B

  14. Fire as a long-term stewardship issue for soils contaminated with radionuclides in the western U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, David S.; DuBois, David; Etyemezian, Vic; Kavouras, Ilias; Miller, Julianne J.; Nikolich, George; Stone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Defense sites in the southwestern United States (U.S.), significant areas of surface soils are contaminated with radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear testing, and with depleted uranium, primarily from military training. At DOE sites in Nevada, the proposed regulatory closure strategy for most sites is to leave contaminants in place with administrative controls and periodic monitoring. Closure-in-place is considered an acceptable strategy because the contaminated sites exist on access-restricted facilities, decreasing the potential risk to public receptor, the high cost and feasibility of excavating contaminated soils over large areas, and the environmental impacts of excavating desert soils that recover very slowly from disturbance. The largest of the contaminated sites on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada covers over 1,200 hectares. However, a factor that has not been fully investigated in the long-term stewardship of these sites is the potential effects of fires. Because of the long half-lives of some of the contaminants (e.g., 24,100 years for 239 Pu) and changes in land-cover and climatic factors that are increasing the frequency of fires throughout the western U.S., it should be assumed that all of these sites will eventually burn, possibly multiple times, during the time frame when they still pose a risk. Two primary factors are contributing to increased fire frequency. The first is the spread of invasive grasses, particularly cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens), which have out-competed native annuals and invaded inter-spaces between shrubs, allowing fires to burn easier. The second is a sharp increase in fire frequency and size throughout the western U.S. beginning in the mid-1980's. This second factor appears to correlate with an increase in average spring and summer temperatures, which may be contributing to earlier loss of soil moisture and longer periods of dry plant biomass

  15. The Festuco-Brometea Grasslands on Sandstone and Marl-Clay-Sandstone Substrata in Tuscany (Northern-Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foggi Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Travišča v katerih prevladujeta vrsti Bromus erectus in/ali Brachypodium rupestre pokrivajo velike površine na podlagi iz peščenjaka in laporasto-glinastega peščenjaka (apnenec je izključen na Apeninih in območju pred njimi med provincama Pistoia in Arezzo (Toskana, srednja Italija. Naša raziskava je bila osredotočena na 71 neobjavljenih in 45 objavljenih vegetacijskih popisov iz Toskane in sosednjih območij. Originalni popisi opisujejo asociacije Astragalo monspessulani-Brometum erecti, Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti in Ononido masquillerii-Brometum erecti. Popise smo obdelali z multivariatno analizo s katero smo zaznali 9 skupin. Konsistenstnost skupin smo preverili s povprečjem NMDS proti Ellenberg/Pignatti indikatorskim vrednostim in CCA proti horotipom in rastnim oblikam. Diagnostične vrste posameznih skupin smo določili z navezanostjo vrst, ki temelji na φ koeficientu asociacije. Z analizo smo podatkovni niz razdelili na dva klastra; prvi (A vključuje nekaj popisov termofilne cenoze z nižje nadmorske višine, ki jih opišemo kot prehod med submediteranskim aspektom razreda Festuco-Brometea in drugih mediteranskih zeliščnih in grmiščnih razredov; drugi klaster (B pa vključuje večino podatkovnega niza in ga lahko členimo na pionirske, mezokserofilne (skupini B1 in B2a in mezofilne združbe (skupina B2b. Popise klastrov B1 in B2a uvrščamo v asociacijo Coronillo minimae-Astragaletum monspessulanii in tri druge skupine: združba Plantago argentea-Carex caryophyllea, združba Tragopogon samaritani-Bromus erectus in Festuco trachyphyllae-Brometum erecti ass. nova. Mezofilna skupina (B2b vključuje popise asociacij Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti in Ononido masquillerii- Brometum erecti, skupaj z delno spremenjeno združbo. Zaradi majhnih razlik v florističnem, ekološkem in horološkem pogledu med temi traviščnimi tipi predlagamo, da jih obravnavamo kot tri subasociacije Centaureo bracteatae

  16. Fire Impacts on the Mojave Desert Ecosystem: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermaker Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located within the Mojave Desert, which is the driest region in North America. Precipitation on the NNSS varies from an annual average of 130 millimeters (mm; 5.1 inches) with a minimum of 47 mm (1.9 inches) and maximum of 328 mm (12.9 inches) over the past 15 year period to an annual average of 205 mm (8.1 inches) with an annual minimum of 89 mm (3.5 inches) and maximum of 391 mm (15.4 inches) for the same time period; for a Frenchman Flat location at 970 meters (m; 3182 feet) and a Pahute Mesa location at 1986 m (6516 feet), respectively. The combination of aridity and temperature extremes has resulted in sparsely vegetated basins (desert shrub plant communities) to moderately vegetated mountains (mixed coniferous forest plant communities); both plant density and precipitation increase with increasing elevation. Whereas some plant communities have evolved under fire regimes and are dependent upon fire for seed germination, plant communities within the Mojave Desert are not dependent on a fire regime and therefore are highly impacted by fire (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 1999). As noted by Johansen (2003) natural range fires are not prevalent in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts because there is not enough vegetation present (too many shrub interspaces) to sustain a fire. Fire research and hence publications addressing fires in the Southwestern United States (U.S.) have therefore focused on forest, shrub-steppe and grassland fires caused by both natural and anthropogenic ignition sources. In the last few decades, however, invasion of mid-elevation shrublands by non-native Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Bromus tectorum (Hunter, 1991) have been highly correlated with increased fire frequency (Brooks and Berry, 2006; Brooks and Matchett, 2006). Coupled with the impact of climate change, which has already been shown to be playing a role in increased forest fires (Westerling et al., 2006), it is likely that the fire

  17. Caracterização, compatibilidade e ocorrência de reprodução sexual entre isolados de Pyricularia grisea de diferentes hospedeiros Sexual characterization, compatibility and occurrence of sexual reproduction among isolates of Pyricularia grisea from different hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Galbieri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A brusone, causada por Pyricularia grisea (teleomorfa Magnaphorthe grisea, possui uma ampla gama de hospedeiros. No Brasil, arroz, trigo, triticale e cevada são as culturas que sofrem quedas significativas de produtividade devido ao ataque desse patógeno. Além desses cereais, outras gramíneas também têm apresentado sintomas dessa doença. Os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram: a caracterizar sexualmente isolados de P. grisea desses hospedeiros baseado na determinação do "mating type", fertilidade, sexualidade, compatibilidade sexual, b analisar o grau de compatibilidade sexual entre isolados de brusone de trigo e de outras gramíneas, c estudar a ocorrência da reprodução sexual em isolados de trigo. Os resultados obtidos através de ensaios "in vitro" constataram: 1 compatibilidade sexual de P. grisea do trigo com Bromus catharticus, Phalaris canariensis e X. triticosecal; 2 desbalanço entre porcentagem de MAT1-1 e MAT1-2, com predominância de MAT1-1 na população de P. grisea do trigo; 3 existência de um campo de isolados de trigo com baixa habilidade de cruzamento; 4 baixa possibilidade de ocorrência de reprodução sexual de P. grisea em campos de trigo, mesmo com existência de ambos "mating type" num mesmo campo.The blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (teleomorph Magnaporthe grisea has a wide host range. In Brazil, significant yield loss has been reported in rice, wheat, triticale and barley crops. Besides those cereals, several other gramineous plants have been shown to develop symptoms of this disease. The objectives of this research were: a sexually characterize isolates of P. grisea from these hosts based on the mating type, fertility, sexuality, sexual compatibility, b to analyze the degree of sexual compatibility among isolates from wheat and other grasses, c to verify the occurrence of sexual reproduction in isolates from wheat. Results of "in vitro" assay showed: 1 sexual compatibility of P. grisea of wheat with

  18. Regeneração e riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae em uma cronoseqüência pós-fogo na Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil The structure and diversity of three areas of shrubby restinga vegetation were analyzed 3, 12 and 84 months after fire in the Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura e a riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae foram analisadas em três sítios numa cronoseqüência de regeneração (3, 12 e 84 meses após a última queimada na Restinga da Marambaia, registrando-se a presença de 29, 41 e 64 táxons, respectivamente. No sítio com maior tempo de regeneração, Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze representou 79% da dominância relativa (DoR, seguida das nanofanerófitas Inga maritima Benth. e Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. Na área queimada há 12 meses, A. arenaria representou 88% da DoR, seguida de Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv. e Paspalum arenarium Schrad. No sítio com três meses de regeneração, a DoR de A. arenaria foi de 82%, acompanhada de Clitoria sp., Inga maritima e Portulaca mucronata Link. Nos três sítios estudados, a forma de vida mais importante foi geófita rizomatosa, devido à dominância de A. arenaria. Caméfita herbácea escaposa foi a forma de vida que apresentou maior número de espécies nos sítios com três e 12 meses de regeneração e no sítio queimado há 84 meses, as nanofanerófitas acompanharam as caméfitas herbáceas escaposas em número de espécies. Das 29 espécies registradas no sítio com três meses de regeneração, só Portulaca mucronata e Sebastiania corniculata (Vahl Müll. Arg. originaramse a partir de sementes, sendo que as demais rebrotaram ou se regeneraram. Sete dias após a queimada A. arenaria apresentou, em média, 8cm de sua parte vegetativa regenerada e com 180 dias apresentou as primeiras inflorescências.A total of 29, 41 and 64 taxa, respectively, were found. In the area sampled 84 months after fire, relative dominance of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze was 79%, followed by the nanophanerophytes Inga maritima Benth. and Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. In the area sampled 12 months after fire, relative dominance of A. arenaria was 88%, followed by Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv and Paspalum

  19. Germination and emergence of Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Ipomoea asarifolia Germinação e emergência de Ipomea asarifolia e Stachytarpheta cayennensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Dias Filho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how weed seed germination and emergence respond to environmental factors is critical to determining their adaptive capabilities and potential for infestations, and could also aid in the development of effective control practices. Germination of Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. decreased linearly with decreasing osmotic potentials. Also, increasing osmotic stress delayed germination of Ipomoea more than that of Stachytarpheta. Ipomoea germination was insensitive to light, while Stachytarpheta showed a positive photoblastic behavior. Nitrate had a negative effect on germination of Ipomoea seed under both light and dark conditions but stimulated dark germination of Stachytarpheta. Ipomoea emergence was not significantly affected by planting depth. However, for Stachytarpheta emergence was restrited to seeds planted at the soil surface. Emergence of Ipomoea seedlings from greater than 6cm significantly decreased the amount of biomass allocated to roots, while biomass allocated to leaves was decreased for seedlings that emerged from depths greater than 2cm. These germination and emergence responses are discussed in relation to their ecological implications and to weed control strategies.O entendimento de como a germinação e emergência de plantas daninhas respondem a fatores ambientais é de grande importância para a determinação da capacidade de adaptação e potencial de infestação, podendo ainda auxiliar no desenvolvimento de práticas de controle eficazes. A germinação de Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. Diminuiram linearmente com o decréscimo do potencial osmótico do meio de germinação, sendo que o aumento do estresse osmótico atrasou com maior intensidade a germinação de Ipomoea do que a de Stachytarpheta. A germinação de Ipomoea foi insensível à luz; já a de Stachytarpheta mostrou ter um comportamento fotobl

  20. Composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica de dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga no Município de Bertioga, SP, Brasil Floristic and phytosociological analysis of two fragments of restinga forest in Bertioga, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guedes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga (floresta inundável e floresta não inundável no Município de Bertioga, Estado de São Paulo, em uma área com extensão total aproximada de 3.000.000 m², pertencente ao condomínio residencial Riviera de São Lourenço. Para o levantamento fitossociológico foram instaladas 48 parcelas de 10×10 m distribuídas em blocos de 20×30 m e de 10×30 m, onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com perímetro do caule à altura do peito (PAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. Foram levantados 893 indivíduos distribuídos em 83 espécies e 31 famílias. As espécies da floresta não inundável com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard, Amaioua intermedia Mart. ex K. Schum., Didymopanax angustissimum A. Sampaio, Miconia cubatanensis Hoehne, Euterpe edulis Mart., Syagrus pseudococos (Raud. Glassm., Bactris setosa Mart., Guarea macrophylla Vahl. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness & Mart. ex Mez. e na floresta inundável: Eriotheca pentaphylla (Vell. emend K. Schum. A. Robyns, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Syagrus pseudococos, Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., Manilkara subsericea, Tabebuia obtusifolia (Cham Bureau, Didymopanax angustissimum, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Benth. e Amaioua intermedia. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,50 nats/ind. para a floresta inundável e 3,70 nats/ind. para a floresta não inundável.A phytosociological investigation in two fragments of restinga forest (flooded and nonflooded in Riviera de São Lourenço complex, Bertioga, São Paulo, was carried out. Each fragment in the phytosociological survey was studied using 10×10 m plots. These plots were distributed in blocks of 20×30 m and 10×30 m, for a total area of 4,800 m². The 893 individuals sampled in both fragments were distributed in 83 species and 31 families. The species with highest importance values (IV in the flooded restinga

  1. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  2. Bromatologic composition of the herbaceous species of the Northeastern Brazil Caatinga Composição bromatológica de espécies herbáceas da caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of the pool and of four species of caatinga herbaceous vegetation in the rainy and dry seasons. The experiment was conducted in three selected shrub areas at different levels of conservation. Four samples of each species (Arachis pintoi, Boerhavia diffusa, Heliotropium ternatum, Aristida adscensionis were collected in each area and from a pool of species for determination of bromatologic composition. In the dry season, only the pool of species and the grass Aristida adscensionis were evaluated. There was a significant effect of the studied area on the chemical composition of all analyzed species. The nutrient content found in the dry matter (DM and the digestibility of the pool of species indicate that caatinga herbs presented improved quality in the rainy season. The qualitative variables of the studied species were most heterogeneous due to the variability found in caatinga. Conservation conditions in caatinga and season of the year influence bromatologic composition of the species Arachis pintoi, Boerhavia diffusa L., Heliotropium ternatum Vahl. Aristida adscensionis L. and of a pool of typical species found in Caatinga.Com o objetivo de avaliar a composição bromatológica do pool e de quatro espécies da vegetação herbácea da caatinga nos períodos chuvoso e seco foi conduzido um experimento em três áreas selecionadas de caatinga, com níveis diferenciados de conservação. Em cada área, foram colhidas quatro amostras de cada espécie (Arachis pintoi, Boerhavia diffusa, Heliotropium ternatum, Aristida adscensionis e de um pool de espécies, para determinação da composição bromatológica. Na época seca foram avaliados somente o pool de espécies e a gramínea Aristida adscensionis. Houve efeito significativo da área amostrada na composição bromatológica de todas as espécies analisadas. Os teores de nutrientes na matéria seca (MS e a digestibilidade do pool

  3. Estrutura floral das angiospermas usadas por Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Flower structure of angiosperms used by Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine A. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A field survey of flowering plants used as food resource by the adults of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 was carried out in four sites located in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Samples were taken in preserved areas of the Atlantic Rain and Myrtaceae forests, an Eucalyptus plantation, and an urban park. Adult feeding frequencies on flowers were registered monthly from December 1996 to May 1997, on plants located on previously marked 200 m long transects. Flowers on which H. erato phyllis fed in the field were collected, drawn and morphometrically characterized. Feeding was registered on flowers of twenty-three species, of which seventeen are new records for H. erato in Brazil . The use of a given plant varied among localities, as a function of its corresponding abundance. The most visited flowers were those of Lantana camara L. and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, followed by Dahliapinnata Voss in the urban site. The data suggest the existence of size and shape convergence between the proboscis and the small, tubular flowers upon which H. eratophyllis feeds. They also indicate that H. eratophyllis adults have an opportunistic nectar feeding / pollen gathering habit, using several of those flowers available in a given time and locality that fit such a morphometrical pattern. Since plant species of both primitive and derived families are used, there is no indication that phylogenetic constraints play a major role in this association, nor that color of flowers, growth pattern or size of the plants are relevant in determining their use by H. erato phyllis.

  4. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  5. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  6. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas popularmente utilizadas como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias pela comunidade de Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento-MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyres Zínia Taveira de Jesus

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo proceder o levantamento etnobotânico das espécies vegetais utilizadas popularmente no Distrito de Pirizal - MT, no pantanal mato-grossense, como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias. A entrevista aberta foi realizada através da aplicação de um roteiro base a 38 informantes adultos, na faixa etária de 25 a 75 anos. Indagou-se o nome popular das plantas, partes utilizadas, preparados e vias de administração, e realizou-se a revisão bibliográfica das plantas mais citadas no estudo, utilizando-se as bases de dados convencionais. Foram citadas 49 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 32 famílias, destacando-se a família Fabaceae. As plantas mais citadas simultaneamente como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias foram Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (9,2%, Hyptis crenata Pohl (8,8%, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit (6,7%, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C.Rich Vahl (5,8%, Waltheria indica L. (5%, Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (4,2% e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke (3,3%. A parte da planta mais citada foi a folha (57,1%, a via de administração mais utilizada no tratamento das úlceras gástricas foi a oral (100%, com preferência para os chás (75%, enquanto nas inflamações foram os banhos tópicos (60%.. A revisão bibliográfica apontou a necessidade de aprofundar os estudos químico-farmacológicos para Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke e Hyptis crenata Pohl.

  7. TROCAS GASOSAS E EFICIÊNCIA DO FOTOSSISTEMA II EM PLANTAS ADULTAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO SUPRIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David de Holanda Campelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A redução da disponibilidade hídrica causa efeitos sobre a fotossíntese e o desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as trocas gasosas e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II em plantas adultas de gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott., guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., ipê-amarelo (Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl., ipê-rosa (Handroanthus impetiginosa (Mart. Matos, marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl. e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. cultivadas em condições de sequeiro e irrigadas, no Perímetro Irrigado do Baixo Acaraú, Ceará. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de medidas repetidas no tempo, num esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas (6 x 2 x 3, sendo a parcela principal composta por seis espécies, a subparcela por dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e sequeiro e a subsubparcela pelas épocas de avaliação. As análises das trocas gasosas foram realizadas em 22/11/2012 (estação seca, 07/02/2013 (data que antecedeu o período chuvoso e 17/05/2013 (estação chuvosa. As espécies mogno, guanandi e ipê-amarelo mostraram-se mais sensíveis ao déficit hídrico, em comparação com as outras espécies, o que foi evidenciado pelas maiores reduções nas trocas gasosas e na eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II. O ipê-rosa, o marupá e o gonçalo-alves mostraram-se mais adaptados às condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica do solo.

  8. In-vitro activity of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) relevant to treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, N S; Houghton, P J; Sampson, J; Theobald, A E; Hart, S; Lis-Balchin, M; Hoult, J R; Evans, P; Jenner, P; Milligan, S; Perry, E K

    2001-10-01

    Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl. (Spanish sage) essential oil and individual monoterpenoid constituents have been shown to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in-vitro and in-vivo. This activity is relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, since anticholinesterase drugs are currently the only drugs available to treat Alzheimer's disease. Other activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects. Results of in-vitro tests for these activities are reported here for S. lavandulaefolia extracts, the essential oil and its major constituents. Antioxidant activity (inhibition of bovine brain liposome peroxidation) was found in the EtOH extract of the dried herb (5 mg mL(-1)) and the monoterpenoids (0.1 M) alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Thujone and geraniol had lower antioxidant effects, while camphor had no antioxidant effects. Possible anti-inflammatory activity (eicosanoid inhibition in rat leucocytes) was found in the EtOH extract (50 microg mL(-1)) and was shown by the monoterpenoids alpha-pinene and geraniol (0.2 mM), but not 1,8-cineole, thujone or camphor. Possible estrogenic activity (via induction of beta-galactosidase activity in yeast cells) was found in the essential oil (0.01 mg mL(-1)) and the monoterpenoid geraniol (0.1-2 mM). 1,8-Cineole, alpha- and beta-pinene and thujone did not exhibit estrogenic activity in this analysis. These results demonstrate that S. lavandulaefolia, its essential oil and some chemical constituents have properties relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and provide further data supporting the value of carrying out clinical studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease using this plant species.

  9. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-Rivas, Isabel; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna). Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Forsythiae Fructus water extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Miao, Hui; Yan, Hongyu; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili

    2018-05-23

    The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml/kg CCl 4 (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, the mice were orally given with FSE (1, 2 g/kg) every day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters, gene and protein expression related to liver fibrosis were analyzed. The contents of forsythiaside A and forsythin in FSE were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) activity and liver histological evaluation both showed the protection of FSE against CCl 4 -induced liver injury. Further, the anti-fibrotic effects of FSE was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content, and serum amounts of hyaluronic acid, laminin, collagen Ⅳ and type III procollagen (PCIII). FSE also reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in livers from CCl 4 -injured mice. Additionally, FSE decreased the increased hepatic expression of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin induced by CCl 4 in mice. FSE attenuates CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reducing hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudha, Murugesan; Rani, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua (Vahl.) Masam. The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitro models such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid and phenolic content in samples were estimated using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content and total phenolic content of the ethanol extract were found to be 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and 1.86 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that C. retusa possess potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenolic content. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant.

  12. Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Galvez, M. D.; García-Mozo, H.; Oteros, J.; Mestre, A.; Botey, R.; Galán, C.

    2018-04-01

    This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986-2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel ( Corylus avellana L.), willow ( Salix alba L.), ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry ( Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by -0.67 days and flowering on average by -0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by -1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  14. Effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil organic matter and biological properties: A 1-year study case in the Central Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona-García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Ortiz-Perpiñá, Oriol; Mora, Juan Luis; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M

    2018-03-15

    Prescribed burning has been readopted in the last decade in the Central Pyrenees to stop the regression of subalpine grasslands in favour of shrublands, dominated among others by Echinospartum horridum (Vahl) Rothm. Nevertheless, the effect of this practice on soil properties is uncertain. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of these burnings on topsoil organic matter and biological properties. Soil sampling was carried out in an autumnal prescribed fire in Buisán (NE-Spain, November 2015). Topsoil was sampled at 0-1cm, 1-2cm and 2-3cm depth in triplicate just before (U), ~1h (B0), 6months (B6) and 12months (B12) after burning. We analysed soil total organic C (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass C (C mic ), soil respiration (SR) and β-D-glucosidase activity. A maximum temperature of 438°C was recorded at soil surface while at 1cm depth only 31°C were reached. Burning significantly decreased TOC (-52%), TN (-44%), C mic (-57%), SR (-72%) and β-D-glucosidase (-66%) at 0-1cm depth while SR was also reduced (-45%) at 1-2cm depth. In B6 and B12, no significant changes in these properties were observed as compared to B0. It can be concluded that the impact of prescribed burning has been significant and sustained over time, although limited to the first two topsoil centimetres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    Full Text Available A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna. Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  16. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudha, Murugesan; Rani, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua (Vahl.) Masam. The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitro models such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid and phenolic content in samples were estimated using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content and total phenolic content of the ethanol extract were found to be 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and 1.86 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that C. retusa possess potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenolic content. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant. PMID:27168685

  17. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinkov, A.; Semioshkina, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of 90 Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. 90 Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of 90 Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between 90 Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m 2 kg -1 x 10 -3 over all measurements. The transfer of 90 Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews

  18. Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bethany A; Mustard, John F

    2006-06-01

    Improved understanding of the spatial dynamics of invasive plant species may lead to more effective land management and reduced future invasion. Here, we identified the spatial extents of nonnative cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the north central Great Basin using remotely sensed data from Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+. We compared cheatgrass extents in 1973 and 2001 to six spatially explicit landscape variables: elevation, aspect, hydrographic channels, cultivation, roads, and power lines. In 2001, Cheatgrass was 10% more likely to be found in elevation ranges from 1400 to 1700 m (although the data suggest a preferential invasion into lower elevations by 2001), 6% more likely on west and northwest facing slopes, and 3% more likely within hydrographic channels. Over this time period, cheatgrass expansion was also closely linked to proximity to land use. In 2001, cheatgrass was 20% more likely to be found within 3 km of cultivation, 13% more likely to be found within 700 m of a road, and 15% more likely to be found within 1 km of a power line. Finally, in 2001 cheatgrass was 26% more likely to be present within 150 m of areas occupied by cheatgrass in 1973. Using these relationships, we created a risk map of future cheatgrass invasion that may aid land management. These results highlight the importance of including land use variables and the extents of current plant invasion in predictions of future risk.

  19. Biotic soil crusts in relation to topography, cheatgrass, and fire in the Columbia Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetti, Jeanne; McCune, B.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We studied lichen and bryophyte soil crust communities in a large public grazing allotment within a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in which the biotic soil crusts are largely intact. The allotment had been rested from grazing for 12 years, but experienced an extensive series of wildfires. In the 350, 4 ?? 0.5 m plots, stratified by topographic position, we found 60 species or species groups that can be distinguished in the field with a hand lens, averaging 11.5 species groups per plot. Lichen and bryophyte soil crust communities differed among topographic positions. Draws were the most disturbed, apparently from water erosion in a narrow channel and mass wasting from the steepened sides. Presumably because of this disturbance, draws had the lowest average species richness of all the topographic strata we examined. Biotic crust species richness and cover were inversely related to cover of the invasive annual, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and positively related to cover of native bunchgrasses. Integrity of the biotic crust was more strongly related to cheatgrass than to fire. In general, we observed good recovery of crusts following fire, but only in those areas dominated by perennial bunchgrasses. We interpret the resilience of the biotic crust, in this case, to the low abundance of cheatgrass, low amounts of soil disturbance and high moss cover. These fires have not resulted in an explosion of the cheatgrass population, perhaps because of the historically low levels of livestock grazing.

  20. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  1. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  2. Efficacité de quelques herbicides des céréales dans une culture du blé tendre conduite en semis direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr HAJJAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficacy of 11 cereal herbicides on no till soft wheat, two trials were conducted in Chaouia region during 2014-2015 growing season. Dominant species of weed flora in Sidi El Aidi site were: Bromus rigidus, Lolium rigidum and Avena sterilis. Dominant species of weed flora in Ouled Said site were: Avena sterilis, Centaurea diluta and Papaver rhoeas. The obtained results showed that “Pyroxsulam” and “Mesosulfuron Sodium + Iodosulfuron sodium” gavethe best efficacy on rip gut brome. Prosulfocarb provided excellent control of ryegrass but no effect on ripgut brome or wild oat. Broadleaf herbicides provided moderate to good control. “Mesosulfuron Sodium +Iodosulfuron sodium” need to be completed with an broadleaf herbicide in case centaurea diluta is present. “Pyroxsulam” need to be tank mixed with a broadleaf herbicide to widen its weeds spectrum. Treatment with “Pendimethalin”as pre-emergence herbicide allowed an early complete control of weeds and good crop selectivity.

  3. Survival of a Rifampicin-Resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain in Nine Mollisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. Stubbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens strain D7 (P.f. D7 is a naturally occurring soil bacterium that shows promise as a biological herbicide to inhibit growth of annual grass weeds, including downy brome (Bromus tectorum L., in crop- and rangelands. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain D7rif (P.f. D7rif is a rifampicin-resistant strain of P.f. D7. One of the greatest obstacles to successful biological weed control is survival of the organism under field conditions. Nine soils in the taxonomic order of Mollisols, collected from downy brome-infested areas of the Western and Central United States, were inoculated with P.f. D7rif and incubated in the laboratory to determine the effects of soil type, soil properties, incubation temperature, and soil water potential on survival of P.f. D7rif over 63 days. Silt loam soils from Lind, Washington, and Moro, Oregon, sustained the highest P.f. D7rif populations, and recovery was the lowest from Pendleton, Oregon soil. Survival and recovery of P.f. D7rif varied with soil type and temperature but not with the two soil water potentials tested. After 63 days, P.f. D7rif was recovered at levels greater than log 5.5 colony forming units (CFU g−1 soil from five of the nine test soils, a level adequate to suppress downy brome under field or range conditions.

  4. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  5. Sonoran Desert winter annuals affected by density of red brome and soil nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, L.F.; McPherson, G.R.; Williams, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Red brome [Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husn.] is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded Southwestern USA deserts. This study evaluated interactions among 13 Sonoran Desert annual species at four densities of red brome from 0 to the equivalent of 1200 plants ma??2. We examined these interactions at low (3 I?g) and high (537 I?g NO3a?? g soila??1) nitrogen (N) to evaluate the relative effects of soil N level on survival and growth of native annuals and red brome. Red brome did not affect emergence or survival of native annuals, but significantly reduced growth of natives, raising concerns about effects of this exotic grass on the fecundity of these species. Differences in growth of red brome and of the three dominant non nitrogen-fixing native annuals at the two levels of soil N were similar. Total species biomass of red brome was reduced by 83% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 42 to 95%. Mean individual biomass of red brome was reduced by 87% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 72 to 89%.

  6. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  7. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  8. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Newcombe

    Full Text Available Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  9. Recovery of 15N-labelled fertilizers applied to bromegrass on a thin black chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The availability of N fertilizers on established grass stands is a function of such processes as immobilization, gaseous loss, leaching and position of applied N. A field experiment was conducted on a Thin Black Chernozem soil at Crossfield, Alberta to determine the effect of source, time and method of application on the recovery of 15 N-labelled fertilizers applied to smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.). The treatments included two sources of N [urea and ammonium nitrate (AN)], four application times (early autumn, late autumn, early spring and late spring) and two methods of placement (surface-broadcast and subsurface banding). In most cases the 15 N recovery in soil did not differ much between urea and AN. However, when urea was surface-broadcast, there was, on average, 10.2% less 15 N recovery in plants than AN. The N recovery for late spring > early spring > late autumn = early autumn. When urea was banded 4 cm deep into the soil, N recovery in plants increased significantly compared with its surface-broadcast application. However, this was not observed when the source of N was AN. Banding generally increased the amount of immobilized N present in the soil and N recovery. We concluded that the N recovery in plants and in plants plus soil was less for urea than for AN and was less with autumn broadcast N application than with spring broadcast application. (author). 23 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Evaportranspiration studies for protective barriers: FY 1989 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Thiede, M.E.; Downs, J.L.; Lettau, D.J.; Waugh, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the results of technological developments and experiments at the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility. The objective of this research is to develop the capability to predict evapotranspiration in support of studies of water infiltration control for the Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. This process must be predictable to adequately model soil water dynamics. We develop a miniature greenhouse (gas exchange chamber), where internal temperature and relative humidity can be controlled. With this device we measured evapotranspiration, transpiration, and carbon dioxide exchange rates from lysimeters with various surface and plant characteristics. We tested the effect on gas exchange rates and sand, gravel, admix, and soil surfaces in lysimeters where, cheat-grass, Bromus tectorum, had been seeded. Results showed that evapotranspiration was unaffected by the surface treatments. Estimated transpiration rates were higher for plants growing in sand compared with rates for plants growing in the admix and soil treatments. Soil evaporation rates were higher in the gravel treatment than in the sand treatment. Future research will entail parameterization of relationships between evapotranspiration, transpiration, soil evaporation, carbon dioxide exchange, and the abiotic and biotic factors that drive these processes for model development

  11. Revegetation following artificial disturbance. Progress report, 1 June 1975--29 February 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, L. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Areas at Rocky Flats that had previously been reseeded by Rocky Flats personnel were evaluated for seeding success. Only one species in the seed mixture, Agropyron smithii (western wheatgrass) made a significant contribution to the stand. Two other species which made important contributions but were not in the seed mixture were Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and B. inermis (smooth brome). The vegetation receiving chronic exposure to ionizing radiation at the Grasslands Irradiation Study Area appears to be near equilibrium although electromagnet failure prevented irradiation for approximately 3 months during late summer 1975. Secondary succession is continuing in the sectors given a seasonal, short-term exposure in 1969 but at exposures where the dominant species, Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama) was killed there is no indication that any recovery of the B. gracilis is taking place. In plots that were artificially disturbed by burning, scraping and tilling, recovery patterns in the burned plots most nearly parallel recovery patterns of the areas receiving intermediate damage from exposure to ionizing radiation. For the scraped and tilled plots, recovery patterns most nearly paralleled those receiving heavy damage from exposure to ionizing radiation where all B. gracilis was killed

  12. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  13. Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Water Extract of Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. at Rosette Stage on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of leaves at rosette stage of the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. against some associated grasses like, prairie June grass (Koeleria macrantha, Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis, blue-bunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata and cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and its own were investigated. The experiment al materials used were the leaf extracts and its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of the abave mentioned grasses in Petri dishes. According to our study, leaves of hoary alyssum rosettes at stage have the potential to reduce germination rate, root and shoot growth of pasture grasses and hoary alyssum itself due to its allelopathic effect. The leaf leachate solution bioassays also showed that the germination of cheat grass was more susceptible to 4% solution of allelopathic extract of leaves. Hoary alyssum leaf extract also exhibited allelopathic self-inhibition, in both seedling root and shoot growth at 2 and 4% concentrations. Self- inhibitory allelopathic effects of hoary alyssum could also be important in preventing seed germination and seedling establishment of neighboring plant.

  14. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  15. Using multi-date satellite imagery to monitor invasive grass species distribution in post-wildfire landscapes: An iterative, adaptable approach that employs open-source data and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Kumar, Sunil; Swallow, Aaron; Luizza, Matthew; Chignell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Among the most pressing concerns of land managers in post-wildfire landscapes are the establishment and spread of invasive species. Land managers need accurate maps of invasive species cover for targeted management post-disturbance that are easily transferable across space and time. In this study, we sought to develop an iterative, replicable methodology based on limited invasive species occurrence data, freely available remotely sensed data, and open source software to predict the distribution of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in a post-wildfire landscape. We developed four species distribution models using eight spectral indices derived from five months of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data in 2014. These months corresponded to both cheatgrass growing period and time of field data collection in the study area. The four models were improved using an iterative approach in which a threshold for cover was established, and all models had high sensitivity values when tested on an independent dataset. We also quantified the area at highest risk for invasion in future seasons given 2014 distribution, topographic covariates, and seed dispersal limitations. These models demonstrate the effectiveness of using derived multi-date spectral indices as proxies for species occurrence on the landscape, the importance of selecting thresholds for invasive species cover to evaluate ecological risk in species distribution models, and the applicability of Landsat 8 OLI and the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for targeted invasive species management.

  16. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinkov, A. [Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544, Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: Chebotar@srai.kz; Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Land str.1, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.voigt@iaea.org

    2007-02-01

    The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. {sup 90}Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of {sup 90}Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between {sup 90}Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m{sup 2} kg {sup -1}x 10{sup -3} over all measurements. The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews.

  17. Regional climate model downscaling may improve the prediction of alien plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2014-12-01

    Distributions of invasive species are commonly predicted with species distribution models that build upon the statistical relationships between observed species presence data and climate data. We used field observations, climate station data, and Maximum Entropy species distribution models for 13 invasive plant species in the United States, and then compared the models with inputs from a General Circulation Model (hereafter GCM-based models) and a downscaled Regional Climate Model (hereafter, RCM-based models).We also compared species distributions based on either GCM-based or RCM-based models for the present (1990-1999) to the future (2046-2055). RCM-based species distribution models replicated observed distributions remarkably better than GCM-based models for all invasive species under the current climate. This was shown for the presence locations of the species, and by using four common statistical metrics to compare modeled distributions. For two widespread invasive taxa ( Bromus tectorum or cheatgrass, and Tamarix spp. or tamarisk), GCM-based models failed miserably to reproduce observed species distributions. In contrast, RCM-based species distribution models closely matched observations. Future species distributions may be significantly affected by using GCM-based inputs. Because invasive plants species often show high resilience and low rates of local extinction, RCM-based species distribution models may perform better than GCM-based species distribution models for planning containment programs for invasive species.

  18. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

  20. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  1. The Study of Perennial Grasses and Legumes Mixtures in the Environmental Conditions Part 1: The Evolution of Mixtures Productivity from Someşelor Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin-Benone Pleşa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lately it is a high interest in the establishing of temporary grasslands, these being considered a valuable source of fodder from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. Temporary grasslands can be established instead of degraded permanent grasslands or in arable lands. In the paper are presented the results of the research which took place in 2010 and 2011, regarding the fodder evolution of a double factor experience; A factor – mixtures (8 complex mixtures of perennial grasses and legumes and one alfalfa pure crop, considered as a witness,B factor – levels of fertilization (0N0P2O5, 60N70P2O5,120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1. In 2010 the highest productions (13.16 SU t·ha-1 were obtained at all the cycles from the 5th mixture composed from red clover and 4 species of grasses Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festulolium Asch. & Graebn., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L.. In 2011, mixture number 3, recognized as being recommended for the forest steppe area and composed from Lotus corniculatus L.,Onobrychis viciifolia Scop., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds., Bromus inermis Leyss, presented the highest productions (4.82 t·ha-1 for the 60N70P2O5 and 120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1 levels of fertilization.

  2. Investigating Effects of Participatory Range Management Plans on Species Diversity in Semirum-Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borhani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of range management plans on species diversity, richness and evenness in Semirum rangelands, 52 sites (28 with treated plan and 24 without treated plan were selected. The non-parametric indices for species richness (Margalof, Menhinick, Jacknife and counting method and species diversity (Simpson, Camargo, Smith and Wilson and modified Nee were compared in two management plans. The mean comparisons were made by independent T Student Test and Mann-Witheny U Test, and correlation was determined between diversity indices and vegetation parameters. Based on the results there was no significant difference between the two management systems regarding environmental features, while the implementation of range management plans caused significant reduction of stocking rate. Among the studied indices, evenness of species in sites without treated plan was significantly more than the sites with treated plan. The correlation matrix showed that there was a significant positive correlation between species richness and vegetation cover, production of perennial plans, and the rangeland condition and trend, while evenness showed significant negative correlation with these indices. Generally, implementation of range management plans has considerable effect on increasing climax species, dominance of Bromus tomentellus and it causes improvement of rangeland condition and reduction of evenness. This behavior could be explained by the balance between species competition and grazing pressure. Further, succession process of the studied communities demonstrates domination of some desirable species, high production and less diversity.

  3. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  4. Vascular flora of saline lakes in the southern high plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David J.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Caskey, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Saline lakes and freshwater playas form the principal surface hydrological feature of the High Plains of the Southern Great Plains. Saline lakes number less than 50 and historically functioned as discharge wetlands with relatively consistent water availability due to the presence of one or more springs. Currently, less than ten saline lakes contain functional springs. A survey of vascular plants at six saline lakes in the Southern High Plains of northwest Texas and one in eastern New Mexico during May and September 2009 resulted in a checklist of 49 species representing 16 families and 40 genera. The four families with the most species were Asteraceae (12), Amaranthaceae (8), Cyperaceae (5), and Poaceae (12). Non-native species (Bromus catharticus, Poa compressa, Polypogon monspeliensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Kochia scoparia, and Tamarix ramosissima) accounted for 10% of the total species recorded. Whereas nearly 350 species of vascular plants have been identified in playas in the Southern High Plains, saline lakes contain a fraction of this species richness. The Southern High Plains saline lake flora is regionally unique, containing taxa not found in playas, with species composition that is more similar to temperate desert wetlands of the Intermountain Region and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

  5. Efficacité de quelques séquences d’herbicides contre les mauvaises herbes du pois chiche et de la féverole conduits en semis direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr HAJJAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficacy of 18 sequences of pre and post emergence herbicides on weeds of no till faba bean and chickpea and their impact on crops grain yield, two trials were conducted during 2014-2015 growing season at Sidi El Aidi INRA research station and at a farmer’s farm in Ouled Said (Settat. Dominant species of weed flora in chickpea in Sidi El Aidi were: Bromus rigidus, Lolium rigidum, Avena sterilis, Cichorium endivia, Centaurea diluta, Emex spinosa and Papaver rhoeas. Dominant species of weed flora in faba bean at Ouled Said were: Avena sterilis, Plantago afra, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Centaurea diluta, Sonchus oleraceus and Silybum marianum. The obtained results showed that herbicides react differently on weed and crops. Treatments which showed good weed control and better selectivity provided the best crop yield. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” and “Acetochlor (2100 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” provided good weed control and good selectivity in horse bean crop. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” needs to be more tested on chickpea before its recommendation on this crop.

  6. Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

    2009-03-11

    Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides.

  7. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments.

  8. Facilitation and interference of seedling establishment by a native legume before and after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Erin; Chambers, Jeanne C

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, heterogeneous resources can lead to variable seedling recruitment. Existing vegetation can influence seedling establishment by modifying the resource and physical environment. We asked how a native legume, Lupinus argenteus, modifies microenvironments in unburned and burned sagebrush steppe, and if L. argenteus presence facilitates seedling establishment of native species and the non-native annual grass, Bromus tectorum. Field treatments examined mechanisms by which L. argenteus likely influences establishment: (1) live L. argenteus; (2) dead L. argenteus; (3) no L. argenteus; (4) no L. argenteus with L. argenteus litter; (5) no L. argenteus with inert litter; and (6) mock L. argenteus. Response variables included soil nitrogen, moisture, temperature, solar radiation, and seedling establishment of the natives Elymus multisetus and Eriogonum umbellatum, and non-native B. tectorum. In both unburned and burned communities, there was higher spring soil moisture, increased shade and reduced maximum temperatures under L. argenteus canopies. Adult L. argenteus resulted in greater amounts of soil nitrogen (N) only in burned sagebrush steppe, but L. argenteus litter increased soil N under both unburned and burned conditions. Although L. argenteus negatively affected emergence and survival of B. tectorum overall, its presence increased B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in unburned plots. However, L. argenteus had positive facilitative effects on size and survival of E. multisetus in both unburned and burned plots. Our study indicates that L. argenteus can facilitate seedling establishment in semi-arid systems, but net effects depend on the species examined, traits measured, and level of abiotic stress.

  9. Viral pathogen production in a wild grass host driven by host growth and soil nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Briana K; Rúa, Megan A; Mitchell, Charles E

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient limitation is a basic ecological constraint that has received little attention in studies on virus production and disease dynamics. Nutrient availability could directly limit the production of viral nucleic acids and proteins, or alternatively limit host growth and thus indirectly limit metabolic pathways necessary for viral replication. In order to compare direct and indirect effects of nutrient limitation on virus production within hosts, we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in a glasshouse for the wild grass host Bromus hordeaceus and the viral pathogen Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV. We found that soil N additions increased viral concentrations within host tissues, and the effect was mediated by host growth. Specifically, in statistical models evaluating the roles of host biomass production, leaf N and leaf P, viral production depended most strongly on host biomass, rather than the concentration of either nutrient. Furthermore, at low soil N, larger plants supported greater viral concentrations than smaller ones, whereas at high N, smaller plants supported greater viral concentrations. Our results suggest that enhanced viral productivity under N enrichment is an indirect consequence of nutrient stimulation to host growth rate. Heightened pathogen production in plants has important implications for a world facing increasing rates of nutrient deposition. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems.

  11. Effects of competition on induction of crassulacean acid metabolism in a facultative CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Li, Wei; He, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic drivers of environmental stress have been found to induce CAM expression (nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM species such as Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The role played by biotic factors such as competition with non-CAM species in affecting CAM expression, however, remains largely understudied. This research investigated the effects of salt and water conditions on the competition between M. crystallinum and the C 3 grass Bromus mollis with which it is found to coexist in California's coastal grasslands. We also investigated the extent to which CAM expression in M. crystallinum was affected by the intensity of the competition with B. mollis. We found that M. crystallinum had a competitive advantage over B. mollis in drought and saline conditions, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum in access to light and soil nutrients in high water conditions. This strong competitive effect even outweighed the favorable effects of salt or water additions in increasing the biomass and productivity of M. crystallinum in mixture. Regardless of salt conditions, M. crystallinum did not switch to CAM photosynthesis in response to this strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Disturbance (i.e., grass cutting) reduced the competitive pressure by B. mollis and allowed for CAM expression in M. crystallinum when it was grown mixed with B. mollis. We suggest that moderate competition with other functional groups can enhance CAM expression in M. crystallinum, thereby affecting its plasticity and ability to cope with biological stress.

  12. Common mycelial networks impact competition in an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rachael E; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2016-06-01

    Mycorrhizal hyphal complexes can connect multiple host plants to form common mycelial networks (CMNs) that may affect plant competitive outcomes and community composition through differential resource allocation. The impacts of CMN interactions on invasive plants are not well understood and could be crucial to the understanding of invasive plant establishment and success. We grew the invasive grass Brachypodium sylvaticum in intra- and interspecific pairings with native grass Bromus vulgaris in a greenhouse and controlled for the effects of CMN and root interactions by manipulating the belowground separation between competitors. Comparison of plant growth in pots that allowed CMN interactions and excluded root competition and vice versa, or both, allowed us to delineate the effects of network formation and root competition on invasive plant establishment and performance. Brachypodium sylvaticum grown in pots allowing for only hyphal interactions, but no root competition, displayed superior growth compared with conspecifics in other treatments. Invasive performance was poorest when pairs were not separated by a barrier. Shoot nitrogen content in B. sylvaticum was higher in mycorrhizal plants only when connections were allowed between competitors. Our results indicate that the presence of CMN networks can have positive effects on B. sylvaticum establishment and nutrient status, which may affect plant competition and invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Investing in rangeland restoration in the Arid West, USA: countering the effects of an invasive weed on the long-term fire cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca; Englin, Jeffrey; Nalle, Darek

    2009-01-01

    In large areas of the arid western United States, much of which are federally managed, fire frequencies and associated management costs are escalating as flammable, invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) increases its stronghold. Cheatgrass invasion and the subsequent increase in fire frequency result in the loss of native vegetation, less predictable forage availability for livestock and wildlife, and increased costs and risk associated with firefighting. Revegetation following fire on land that is partially invaded by cheatgrass can reduce both the dominance of cheatgrass and its associated high fire rate. Thus restoration can be viewed as an investment in fire-prevention and, if native seed is used, an investment in maintaining native vegetation on the landscape. Here we develop and employ a Markov model of vegetation dynamics for the sagebrush steppe ecosystem to predict vegetation change and management costs under different intensities and types of post-fire revegetation. We use the results to estimate the minimum total cost curves for maintaining native vegetation on the landscape and for preventing cheatgrass dominance. Our results show that across a variety of model parameter possibilities, increased investment in post-fire revegetation reduces long-term fire management costs by more than enough to offset the costs of revegetation. These results support that a policy of intensive post-fire revegetation will reduce long-term management costs for this ecosystem, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This information may help justify costs associated with revegetation and raise the priority of restoration in federal land budgets.

  14. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  15. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  16. Northward invading non-native vascular plant species in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, R.W.; Wein, G.; Bahret, S.; Cody, W.J. (Alberta University, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Canadian Circumpolar Institute)

    A survey of the non-native vascular plant species in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada's largest forested National Park, documented their presence and abundance in key locations. Most of the fifty-four species (nine new records) were found in disturbed sites including roadsides, settlements, farms, areas of altered hydrological regimes, recent bums, and intensive bison grazing. Species that have increased most in geographic area and abundance in recent years include [ital Agropyron repens], [ital Bromus inermis], [ital Chenopodium album], [ital Melilotus spp.], [ital Trifolium spp.], [ital Plantago major], [ital Achillea millefolium], [ital Crepis tectorum] and [ital Sonchus arvensis]. An additional 20 species, now common in the Peace River and Fort Vermilion areas, have the potential to invade the Park if plant communities are subjected to additional stress as northern climates are modified by the greenhouse effect and as other human-caused activities disturb the vegetation. It is recommended that permanent plots be located in key locations and monitored for species invasion and changing abundances as input to management plans.

  17. Concentration and distribution of elements in plants and soils near phosphate processing factories, Pocatello, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    The processing of phosphatic shale near Pocatello, Idaho has a direct influence on the element content of local vegetation and soil. Samples of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. tridentata) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) show important negative relations between the concentration of certain elements (Cd, Cr, F, Ni, P, Se, U, V, and Zn) and distance from phosphate processing factories. Plant tissues within 3 km of the processing factories contain unusually high amounts of these elements except Ni and Se. Important negative relations with distance were also found for certain elements (Be, F, Fe, K, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) in A-horizon soil. Amounts of seven elements (Be, F, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) being contributed to the upper 5 cm of the soil by phosphate processing, as well as two additional elements (U and V) suspected as being contributed to soil, were estimated, with F showing the greatest increase (about 300 kg/ha) added to soils as far as 4 km downwind from the factories. The greatest number of important relations for both plants and soils was found downwind (northeast) of the processing factories

  18. Efficacy of an Iranian herbal preparation (Lax-Asab in treating functional constipation: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Somi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint of patients with unsatisfactory treatment outcome. We designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of a traditional herbal preparation (Lax-Asab in treating chronic constipation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, participants with chronic constipation (n = 48 were randomly selected to receive either the Lax-Asab powder (n = 24 or placebo (n = 24 on alternative days for 4 weeks. The Lax-Asab powder contains equal amounts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (狹葉番瀉葉 xiá yè fān xiè yè, Mentha piperita L. (胡椒薄荷 hú jiāo bò hé, Zingiber officinale Rosc. (生薑 shēng jiāng, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (甘草 gān cǎo. A total of 40 patients completed the study. We determined the severity of constipation based on defecation frequency (per week and defecation difficulties. Of the total of 48 patients who participated, 40 completed the trial [24 men (60%, mean age, 21.0 ± 4.2 years; 16 women (40%, mean age, 20.1 ± 4.3 years]. The mean of weekly defecation frequency increased in both groups; from 1.8 ± 0.41 to 4.8 ± 1.12 times in patients who received Lax-Asab and from 1.7 ± 0.44 to 2.2 ± 0.61 times in patients who received placebo. A time–treatment interaction showed that this increase was significantly higher in the intervention group. Defecation difficulties improved significantly more in patients who received Lax-Asab than patients who received placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to the side effects observed. This study confirms the efficacy and tolerability of an Iranian herbal preparation, Lax-Asab, in treating patients with chronic functional constipation.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of leaves of some salt-tolerant tree species by assessing, in vitro, the ruminal microbial nitrogen and fermentation characteristics utilizing "1"5N tracer and gas production techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    2014-04-01

    Leaves of some salt-tolerant tree species (Tamarix articulata Vahl., Tamarix aphylla (L) Karst, Acacia ampliceps Maslin, Casuarina equisetifolia L, Parkinsonia aculeate L, Eucaliptus camaldulensis Dahnhard) were evaluated in terms of microbial nitrogen (MN) and biomass (MBM) production after incubation with rumen fluid and 15N-tracer for 96 h in the absence or presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000). The characteristics of fermentation (initial gas produced from soluble fraction; a, gas production during incubation which produced from insoluble but fermentable fraction; b, potential gas production; a + b, fractional rate of gas production per hour; c) were assessed using an in vitro incubation technique with rumen fluid. Effective degradability (ED), short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and predicted daily intake (Y) were also estimated in leaves of the experimental tree species.The a + b values (mL/g DM) were highest (P<0.05) in A. ampliceps (191), lowest in T. articulate and C. equisetifolia (119), and intermediate in T. aphylla, E. camaldulensis and P. aculeate (158). E. camaldulensis, A. ampliceps and P. aculeate had higher (P<0.05) fractional rate of gas production (0.080/h) than other species (0.061/h). There was a positive correlation between SCFA concentrations and c and a + b values. The ratios of MN and MBM to effective degraded substrate and the values of MN and MBM were significantly higher (P<0.05) in P. aculeate and A. ampliceps compared with other species. Microbial nitrogen and MBM production were positively correlated with a + b, ED and SCFA.The addition of PEG to the plant samples incubated with rumen fluid at a ratio of 2:1 PEG: substrate increased the values of gas production, characteristics of fermentation, MN, MBM, SCFA, ED and Y. The response of leaves of the experimental tree species to PEG treatment in terms of increased gas production varied between species and tended to decline as incubation progressed, with the highest increase during the

  20. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  1. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  2. Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoisy, Anne Kathie; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2016-12-24

    The tropical island of Rodrigues is one of three islands that constitute the Mascarene archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Currently considered as a biodiversity hotspot, the island has also a resilient history in the use of traditional medicine. However, there has been no ethnopharmacological study to document quantitatively such traditional practice against communicable diseases (CD), which currently accounts for 6.61% annual death and 30.7% attendances in public hospitals. The aim of the present study was to collect, analyse, and document traditionally used medicinal plants (MP) and polyherbal formulas from key informants and traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) in Rodrigues to treat and/or manage common CD. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews with MP users (n=113) and TMP (n=9) from 17 key sites. Seven quantitative ethnopharmacological indices, namely family use value (FUV), use value (UV), informant agreement ratio (IAR), relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and ethnobotanicity index (EI) were calculated. Ninety-seven plants belonging to 49 families were recorded to be in common use as monotherapy (80 plants) and/or as part of polyherbal preparation (23 plants) for the treatment and/or management of 16 different CD. Thirteen MPs were found to have a maximum FL of 100% for CD. The highest IAR (0.98) was observed for diseases of the eye and adnexa and skin and subcutaneous tissue. The highest FUV was for Arecaceae. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M. king et H.Rob. scored the highest UV (UV=2.72). Seven endemic medicinal plants have been recorded to be employed in cultural rituals for the management of common CDs, whereas 14 polyherbal preparations were used to treat and/or manage 6 different types of CDs. Side effects were also reported following use of some these medicinal plants. Given the dearth of updated information on traditional medicine from Rodrigues, this work has provided an

  3. Fractionation of stigmasterol derivative and study of the effects of Celsia coromandelina aerial parts petroleum ether extract on appearance of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis in immature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-06-01

    Celsia coromandelina Vahl (Scrophulariaceae) is a shrub found throughout Bangladesh and India, and it is distributed widely in the plains of West Bengal. It is used by the tribal people to treat diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, skin eruption, fever, syphilis, helminthes infection, and to control fertility. The objective of this study was to fractionate stigmasterol derivative and to investigate the effects of petroleum ether extract of C. coromandelina (PECC) aerial parts on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis in immature female mice. PECC was prepared by hot extraction process and one compound was isolated by preparative TLC from it. PECC was completely freed from solvent and administered in immature female mice intraperitoneally once on every alternate day for nine doses. The sexual maturity was observed by means of vaginal opening, first estrus (days), rate of body growth, changes in weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary. The content of ascorbic acid, cholesterol, Δ⁵-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Δ⁵-3β-HSD) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G 6-PDH) activities in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were measured by means of biochemical technique in control and treated mice. The activity of PECC was compared with standard marker compound ethinyl estradiol. The isolated compound was characterized as stigmasterol derivative. PECC treatment caused a remarkable delay (30.27 and 18.56%, respectively, by low dose) in sexual maturity compared to vehicle control as evidenced by the age of vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). PECC treatment also caused a significant fall (58.6 and 50.0%, respectively, by low dose) in Δ⁵-3β-HSD and G 6-PDH activities involved in ovarian steroidogenesis compared to vehicle control. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were increased significantly (low dose by 49.3, 424.6 and 82

  4. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF Fimbrist ylis miliacea (L.V AHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED OMAR BIN SYED RASTAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of Universiti Putra Malaysia, to deter-mine the growth and development of Fimbristylis miliacea (L. Vahl. Twenty F. miliacea seeds were surface sown in ten plastic buckets of 18 cm diameter filled with 3 kg soil. After germina-tion only one plant/bucket was retained. Time of first seedling emergence, time and number of leaves appearing until first tiller formation, time of tiller formation, first inflorescence, the first 10 inflorescences appearance and their maturity were recorded for each plant. Plant height and the number of inflorescence per plant was recorded weekly for up to 4 months after sowing. The first ten inflorescences for each plant were tagged after emergence, subsequently mature inflo-rescences were collected and the numbers of spikelets/inflorescence, seeds/inflorescence, seeds/ plant and 1000 seed weight were determined. Statistical analysis was performed as complete randomized design on weekly observed plant height and inflorescence number using the SAS statistical software and means were tested using Tukey’s studentized range test at the 5% level of probability. Fimbristylis miliacea seedlings emerged at 3 days after planting of seeds. Approximate times required for the sequential production of 10 leaves, tillers, first 10 inflorescence and their maturity were 28 days after emergence (DAE, 35 DAE, 49 DAE, 63 DAE, respectively. Plant height increased rapidly from 3-8 WAE and maximum plant height (64.05 cm was attained at 10 WAE. This species had three important growth stages: a slow growth stage during the first 4 weeks after emergence (WAE; a rapid growth stage from 4-9 WAE; and finally, a maximum growth stage from 9-17 WAE. Within this first 4 weeks after emergence would be the most appropriate time for controlling this species with early post-emergence herbicides. Each F . miliacea plant produced on average of 2.3 tillers/plant and a total of 134 inflorescences, with 84

  5. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  6. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  7. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to

  8. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to assess the potential for perennial filter strips (PFS) to mitigate increases in NO3-N levels. The study, conducted at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR) in central Iowa, consisted of a balanced incomplete block design with 12 watersheds and four watershed-scale treatments having different proportions and topographic positions of PFS planted in native prairie grasses: 100% rowcrop, 10% PFS (toeslope position), 10% PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips), and 20 PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips). All treatments were established in fall 2006 on watersheds that were under bromegrass (Bromus L.) cover for at least 10 yr. Nonperennial areas were maintained under a no-till 2-yr corn (Zea mays L.)--soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation since spring 2007. Suction lysimeter and shallow groundwater wells located at upslope and toeslope positions were sampled monthly during the growing season to determine NO3-N concentration from 2005 to 2008. The results indicated significant increases in NO3-N concentration in soil and groundwater following grassland-to-cropland conversion. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone and groundwater under PFS were lower compared with 100% cropland, with the most significant differences occurring at the toeslope position. During the years following conversion, PFS mitigated increases in subsurface nitrate, but long-term monitoring is needed to observe and understand the full response to land-use conversion.

  9. Cheatgrass percent cover change: Comparing recent estimates to climate change − Driven predictions in the Northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Major, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a highly invasive species in the Northern Great Basin that helps decrease fire return intervals. Fire fragments the shrub steppe and reduces its capacity to provide forage for livestock and wildlife and habitat critical to sagebrush obligates. Of particular interest is the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), an obligate whose populations have declined so severely due, in part, to increases in cheatgrass and fires that it was considered for inclusion as an endangered species. Remote sensing technologies and satellite archives help scientists monitor terrestrial vegetation globally, including cheatgrass in the Northern Great Basin. Along with geospatial analysis and advanced spatial modeling, these data and technologies can identify areas susceptible to increased cheatgrass cover and compare these with greater sage grouse priority areas for conservation (PAC). Future climate models forecast a warmer and wetter climate for the Northern Great Basin, which likely will force changing cheatgrass dynamics. Therefore, we examine potential climate-caused changes to cheatgrass. Our results indicate that future cheatgrass percent cover will remain stable over more than 80% of the study area when compared with recent estimates, and higher overall cheatgrass cover will occur with slightly more spatial variability. The land area projected to increase or decrease in cheatgrass cover equals 18% and 1%, respectively, making an increase in fire disturbances in greater sage grouse habitat likely. Relative susceptibility measures, created by integrating cheatgrass percent cover and temporal standard deviation datasets, show that potential increases in future cheatgrass cover match future projections. This discovery indicates that some greater sage grouse PACs for conservation could be at heightened risk of fire disturbance. Multiple factors will affect future cheatgrass cover including changes in precipitation timing and totals and

  10. An emerging crisis across northern prairie refuges: Prevalence of invasive plants and a plan for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.A.; Flanders-Wanner, B.; Shaffer, T.L.; Murphy, R.K.; Knutsen, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains. 2009 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

  11. Growth and fecundity of fertile Miscanthus × giganteus ("PowerCane") compared to feral and ornamental Miscanthus sinensis in a common garden experiment: Implications for invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriti, Maria N; Ibrahim, Tahir; Palik, Destiny; Bonin, Catherine; Heaton, Emily; Mutegi, Evans; Snow, Allison A

    2017-08-01

    Perennial grasses are promising candidates for bioenergy crops, but species that can escape cultivation and establish self-sustaining naturalized populations (feral) may have the potential to become invasive. Fertile Miscanthus  ×  giganteus , known as "PowerCane," is a new potential biofuel crop. Its parent species are ornamental, non-native Miscanthus species that establish feral populations and are sometimes invasive in the USA. As a first step toward assessing the potential for "PowerCane" to become invasive, we documented its growth and fecundity relative to one of its parent species ( Miscanthus sinensis ) in competition with native and invasive grasses in common garden experiments located in Columbus, Ohio and Ames, Iowa, within the targeted range of biofuel cultivation. We conducted a 2-year experiment to compare growth and reproduction among three Miscanthus biotypes-"PowerCane," ornamental M. sinensis , and feral M. sinensis -at two locations. Single Miscanthus plants were subjected to competition with a native grass ( Panicum virgatum ), a weedy grass ( Bromus inermis ), or no competition. Response variables were aboveground biomass, number of shoots, basal area, and seed set. In Iowa, all Miscanthus plants died after the first winter, which was unusually cold, so no further results are reported from the Iowa site. In Ohio, we found significant differences among biotypes in growth and fecundity, as well as significant effects of competition. Interactions between these treatments were not significant. "PowerCane" performed as well or better than ornamental or feral M. sinensis in vegetative traits, but had much lower seed production, perhaps due to pollen limitation. In general, ornamental M. sinensis performed somewhat better than feral M. sinensis . Our findings suggest that feral populations of "PowerCane" could become established adjacent to biofuel production areas. Fertile Miscanthus  ×  giganteus should be studied further to assess its

  12. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  13. Managed grassland alters soil N dynamics and N2O emissions in temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Xingliang; Tang, Xuejuan; Xin, Xiaoping; Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Tang, Huajun; Lv, Shijie; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012. The results showed conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa or B. inermis grasslands decreased concentrations of NO 3 - -N, but did not change NH 4 + -N. Soil microbial N was slightly decreased by the conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa, but increased by the conversion to B. inermis. The conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa (i.e., a legume grass) increased N 2 O emissions by 26.2%, while the conversion to the B. inermis (i.e., a non-legume grass) reduced N 2 O emissions by 33.1%. The conversion from native to managed grasslands caused large created variations in soil NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N concentrations. Net N mineralization rates did not change significantly in growing season or vegetation type, but to net nitrification rate. These results provide evidence on how reclamation may impact the grassland ecosystem in terms of N dynamics and N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  15. Assessing the biophysical naturalness of grassland in eastern North Dakota with hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Over the past two decades, non-native species within grassland communities have quickly developed due to human migration and commerce. Invasive species like Smooth Brome grass (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky Blue Grass (Poa pratensis), seriously threaten conservation of native grasslands. This study aims to discriminate between native grasslands and planted hayfields and conservation areas dominated by introduced grasses using hyperspectral imagery. Hyperspectral imageries from the Hyperion sensor on EO-1 were acquired in late spring and late summer on 2009 and 2010. Field spectra for widely distributed species as well as smooth brome grass and Kentucky blue grass were collected from the study sites throughout the growing season. Imagery was processed with an unmixing algorithm to estimate fractional cover of green and dry vegetation and bare soil. As the spectrum is significantly different through growing season, spectral libraries for the most common species are then built for both the early growing season and late growing season. After testing multiple methods, the Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE) was used for spectral matching analysis between the imagery and spectral libraries. Due in part to spectral similarity among key species, the results of spectral matching analysis were not definitive. Additional indexes, "Level of Dominance" and "Band variance", were calculated to measure the predominance of spectral signatures in any area. A Texture co-occurrence analysis was also performed on both "Level of Dominance" and "Band variance" indexes to extract spatial characteristics. The results suggest that compared with disturbed area, native prairie tend to have generally lower "Level of Dominance" and "Band variance" as well as lower spatial dissimilarity. A final decision tree model was created to predict presence of native or introduced grassland. The model was more effective for identification of Mixed Native Grassland than for grassland dominated by a single

  16. Status and management of non-native plant invasion in three of the largest national parks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Abella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, invasion by non-native plants threatens resources that nature reserves are designated to protect. We assessed the status of non-native plant invasion on 1,662, 0.1-ha plots in Death Valley National Park, Mojave National Preserve, and Lake Mead National Recreation Area. These parks comprise 2.5 million ha, 23% of the national park land in the contiguous USA. At least one non-native species inhabited 82% of plots. Thirty-one percent of plots contained one non-native species, 30% two, 17% three, and 4% four to ten non-native species. Red brome (Bromus rubens, an ‘ecosystem engineer’ that alters fire regimes, was most widespread, infesting 60% of plots. By identifying frequency of species through this assessment, early detection and treatment can target infrequent species or minimally invaded sites, while containment strategies could focus on established invaders. We further compared two existing systems for prioritizing species for management and found that a third of species on plots had no rankings available. Moreover, rankings did not always agree between ranking systems for species that were ranked. Presence of multiple non-native species complicates treatment, and while we found that 40% of plots contained both forb and grass invaders, exploiting accelerated phenology of non-natives (compared to native annuals might help manage multi-species invasions. Large sizes of these parks and scale of invasion are formidable challenges for management. Yet, precisely because of their size, these reserves represent opportunities to conserve large landscapes of native species by managing non-native plant invasions.

  17. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  18. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  19. 1983 biotic studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1984-04-01

    A 27.5-square-mile portion of Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, is being considered as a potential location for a national high-level radioactive waste repository. Preliminary geologic and environmental characterization studies have been supported and more extensive studies are planned. Goals of the biotic surveys were to identify species of concern, describe major floral and faunal associations, and assess possible impacts of characterization and operational activities. Floral associations observed were characteristic of either the Mojave or Transition deserts that are widely distributed in southern Nevada. Diversity, in terms of total number of perennial species represented, was higher in Transition Desert associations than in Mojave Desert associations. Canopy coverage of associations fell within the range of reported values, but tended to be more homogeneous than expected. Annual vegetation was found to be diverse only where the frequency of Bromus rubens was low. Ground cover of winter annuals, especially annual grasses, was observed to be very dense in 1983. The threat of range fires on Yucca Mountain was high because of the increased amount of dead litter and the decreased amount of bare ground. Significant variability was observed in the distribution and relative abundance of several small mammal species between 1982 and 1983. Desert tortoise were found in low densities comparable with those observed in 1982. Evidence of recent activity, which included sighting of two live tortoises, was found in five areas on Yucca Mountain. Two of these areas have a high probability of sustaining significant impacts if a repository is constructed. Regeneration of aboveground shrub parts from root crowns was observed in areas damaged in 1982 by seismic testing with Vibroseis machines. These areas, which had been cleared to bare dirt by passage of the machines, also supported lush stands of winter annuals

  20. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  1. Bird-habitat relationships in interior Columbia Basin shrubsteppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, S.L.; Holmes, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation structure is considered an important habitat feature structuring avian communities. In the sagebrush biome, both remotely-sensed and field-acquired measures of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) cover have proven valuable in understanding avian abundance. Differences in structure between the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and native bunchgrasses are also expected to be important. We used avian abundance data from 318 point count stations, coupled with field vegetation measurements and a detailed vegetation map, to model abundance for four shrub- and four grassland-associated avian species in southeastern Washington shrubsteppe. Specifically, we ask whether species distinguish between bunchgrass and cheatgrass, and whether mapped, categorical cover types adequately explain species' abundance or whether fine-grained, field-measured differences in vegetation cover are also important. Results indicate that mapped cover types alone can be useful for predicting patterns of distribution and abundance within the sagebrush biome for several avian species (five of eight studied here). However, field-measured sagebrush cover was a strong positive predictor for Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli), the only sagebrush obligate in this study, and a strong negative predictor for two grassland associates, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Likewise, shrub associates did not differ in abundance in sagebrush with a cheatgrass vs. bunchgrass understory, but grassland associates were more common in either bunchgrass (Horned Lark and Grasshopper Sparrow) or cheatgrass grasslands (Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus), or tended to use sagebrush-cheatgrass less than sagebrush-bunchgrass (Horned Lark, Grasshopper Sparrow, and Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis).

  2. Mixed artificial grasslands with more roots improved mine soil infiltration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Yang, Zheng; Cui, Zeng; Liu, Yu; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Soil water is one of the critical limiting factors in achieving sustainable revegetation. Soil infiltration capacity plays a vital role in determining the inputs from precipitation and enhancing water storage, which are important for the maintenance and survival of vegetation patches in arid and semi-arid areas. Our study investigated the effects of different artificial grasslands on soil physical properties and soil infiltration capacity. The artificial grasslands were Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Agropyron mongolicum, Lespedeza davurica, Bromus inermis, Hedysarum scoparium, A. mongolicum + Artemisia desertorum, A. adsurgens + A. desertorum and M. sativa + B. inermis. The soil infiltration capacity index (SICI), which was based on the average infiltration rate of stage I (AIRSI) and the average infiltration rate of stage III (AIRS III), was higher (indicating that the infiltration capacity was greater) under the artificial grasslands than that of the bare soil. The SICI of the A. adsurgens + A. desertorum grassland had the highest value (1.48) and bare soil (-0.59) had the lowest value. It was evident that artificial grassland could improve soil infiltration capacity. We also used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine that the main factors that affected SICI were the soil water content at a depth of 20 cm (SWC20), the below-ground root biomasses at depths of 10 and 30 cm (BGB10, BGB30), the capillary porosity at a depth of 10 cm (CP10) and the non-capillary porosity at a depth of 20 cm (NCP20). Our study suggests that the use of Legume-poaceae mixtures and Legume-shrub mixtures to create grasslands provided an effective ecological restoration approach to improve soil infiltration properties due to their greater root biomasses. Furthermore, soil water content, below-ground root biomass, soil capillary porosity and soil non-capillary porosity were the main factors that affect the soil infiltration capacity.

  3. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1980-10-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of /sup 137/Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum /sup 90/Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond.

  4. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Zimmerman, C.A.; Dvorak, A.J.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot/root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil; however, more vigorous growth occurred on lime-amended gob than on fly ash-amended gob. Significant differences (rho < 0.05) in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations which have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  5. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  6. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  7. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  8. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  9. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Six plants in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil. (author)

  10. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Casado, J.; Carpio, A.J.; Prada, L.M.; Tortosa, F.S.

    2015-07-01

    Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain). We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 %) than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %). The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity) are scarce. (Author)

  11. The effect of different land uses on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the northwestern Black Sea Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Şahin; Lermi, Ayşe Genç; Beki, Rıdvan

    2016-06-01

    The object of the present research was to establish correlations between the status of root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and different types of land use. In order to achieve this aim, rhizosphere soil samples from grassland crops were taken during June and July of 2013 in order to use for determining several soil characteristics. The 27 different taxa and 60 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere level in the study areas. The existence of AMF was confirmed in 100 % of these plants with different rations of colonization (approximately 12-89 %). Bromus racemosus L. (pasture) was the most dense taxon with the percentage of AMF colonization of 88.9 %, and Trifolium pratense L. (forest) was the least dense taxon with the percentage of AMF colonization of 12.2 % (average 52.0 %). As a result of the statistical analysis, a positive relationship was found between the botanical composition of legumes and AMF colonization (r = 0.35; p = 0.006). However, a negative relationship was determined between botanical composition of other plant families and AMF colonization (r = -0.39; p = 0.002). In addition, a positive relationship was defined between soil pH (H2O) and the root colonization of AMF (r = 0.35; p = 0.005). The pasture had the highest mean value of AMF root colonization. However, the pasture and gap in the forest were in the same group, according to the results of the S-N-K test.

  12. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and spatial pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at spatial scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three spatial scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context dependence and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at

  13. Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiewicz Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Segetal flora of cereal crop agrocenoses in the Suwałki Landscape Park was studied in between the years 2012 and 2013. One hundred phytosociological Braun-Blanquet releves were taken, documenting the occurrence of 152 species of vascular plants that represented 29 botanic families. Analysis of the contributions of geographic-historical groups revealed the dominance of the native species, apophytes (87 species, making 57.2%, over anthropophytes (65 species, 42.8%. The number of short-lived species was twice greater (103 species, 67.8% than the perennial ones (49 species, 32.2%. As regards the lifeforms, the therophytes were dominant (96 species, 63.2% over hemicryptophytes (44 species, 28.9% and geophytes (12 species, 7.9%. Among the species of segetal flora in the area studied, 23 valuable species classified to different categories of protection, were identified. The presence of Consolida regalis, Centaurea cyanus and Bromus secalinus, belonging to threatened species in other regions of Poland, was abundant. Also the species: Anthemis tinctoria, Echium vulgare and Anchusa officinalis were met with high frequency. The species: Agrostemma githago, Papaver argemone and Papaver dubium were represented by single plants, which can suggest their dying out. In the Park area, expansive species, threatening the biodiversity, such as Myosotis arvensis, Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetraehit, Stellaria media, Artemisia vulgaris, Galinsoga parviflora, Elymus repens, Capsella bursa pastoris, Erodium cicutarium, Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. pallidum and Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. lapathifolium, were commonly seen in the crop land.

  14. Germination sensitivities to water potential among co-existing C3 and C4 grasses of cool semi-arid prairie grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, F P O; Naeth, M A

    2015-03-01

    An untested theory states that C4 grass seeds could germinate under lower water potentials (Ψ) than C3 grass seeds. We used hydrotime modelling to study seed water relations of C4 and C3 Canadian prairie grasses to address Ψ divergent sensitivities and germination strategies along a risk-spreading continuum of responses to limited water. C4 grasses were Bouteloua gracilis, Calamovilfa longifolia and Schizachyrium scoparium; C3 grasses were Bromus carinatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha. Hydrotime parameters were obtained after incubation of non-dormant seeds under different Ψ PEG 6000 solutions. A t-test between C3 and C4 grasses did not find statistical differences in population mean base Ψ (Ψb (50)). We found idiosyncratic responses of C4 grasses along the risk-spreading continuum. B. gracilis showed a risk-taker strategy of a species able to quickly germinate in a dry soil due to its low Ψb (50) and hydrotime (θH ). The high Ψb (50) of S. scoparium indicates it follows the risk-averse strategy so it can only germinate in wet soils. C. longifolia showed an intermediate strategy: the lowest Ψb (50) yet the highest θH . K. macrantha, a C3 grass which thrives in dry habitats, had the highest Ψb (50), suggesting a risk-averse strategy for a C3 species. Other C3 species showed intermediate germination patterns in response to Ψ relative to C4 species. Our results indicate that grasses display germination sensitivities to Ψ across the risk-spreading continuum of responses. Thus seed water relations may be poor predictors to explain differential recruitment and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in the Canadian prairies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Hydrologic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Associated With the Increased Role of Fire on Western Landscapes, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Spaeth, K. E.; Hardegree, S. P.; Clark, P. E.; Moffet, C. A.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Landscape-scale plant community transitions and altered fire regimes across Great Basin, USA, rangelands have increased the likelihood of post-fire flooding and erosion events. These hazards are particularly concerning for western urban centers along the rangeland urban-wildland interface where natural resources, property, and human life are at risk. Extensive conversion of 4-7 million hectares of Great Basin shrub-steppe to cheatgrass-dominated (Bromus tectorum) grasslands has increased the frequency and size of wildland fires within these ecosystems. Fire frequencies have increased by more than an order of magnitude and occur on 3-10 year intervals across much of the cheatgrass-dominated landscape. Extensive tree (Pinus spp. and Juniperus spp.) encroachment into wooded shrub-steppe has increased heavy fuel loads. Ladder fuels in these ecosystems promote rapidly spreading, high-intensity and severe ground-surface-crown fires. These altered fuel structures across much of the historical Great Basin shrub-steppe have initiated an upsurge in large rangeland wildfires and have increased the spatial and temporal vulnerability of these landscapes to amplified runoff and erosion. Resource and infrastructure damages, and loss of life have been reported due to flooding following recent large-scale burning of western rangelands and dry forests. We present a decade of post-fire rangeland hydrologic research that provides a foundation for conceptual modeling of the hydrologic impacts associated with an increased role of rangeland wildfires. We highlight advancements in predictive tools to address this large-scale phenomenon and discuss vital research voids requiring attention. Our geographic emphasis is the Great Basin Region, however, these concepts likely extend elsewhere given the increased role of fire in many geographic regions and across rangeland-to-forest ecotones in the western United States.

  16. Effect of fiber-based creep feed on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Knight, M H; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Six Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs (653 +/- 35 kg and 157 +/- 10 kg initial BW for cows and calves, respectively) were used to evaluate the influence of a fiber-based creep feed on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion characteristics, and microbial efficiency in nursing beef calves. Cow-calf pairs were stratified by calf age and assigned randomly to one of two treatments: control (no supplement) or supplemented. Supplemented calves received 0.9 kg of a 49% soy hulls, 44% wheat middlings, 6% molasses, and 1% limestone supplement (DM basis) daily. All calves were cannulated in the rumen and duodenum and given ad libitum access to chopped brome hay (Bromus inermus L; 7.43% CP, 40.96% ADF, and 63.99% NDF; DM basis). Supplementation was initiated on May 1 (88 +/- 10.3 d calf age). Three sampling periods were conducted throughout the study (June 14 to 25, July 5 to 16, and August 9 to 20). Supplement and forage were offered at 0800 daily. Total, hay, and milk OM intakes of nursing calves were not affected by supplementation (2,014 vs. 2,328 +/- 288.8, 1,486 vs. 1,029 +/- 3,06.9, and 528 vs. 575 +/- 87.0 g/d, respectively). Milk OM intake was less (P 0.40) total-tract OM digestibility during June and August; however, during July, total-tract OM digestibility was lower (P = 0.03) for the control calves. Ruminal ammonia concentration, total VFA, and butyrate molar proportion increased (P effects on OM intake, total-tract OM digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics in nursing beef calves.

  17. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira L. Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp. and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.. Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs; the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere and shoot (endophyllosphere tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the

  18. When perception reflects reality: Non-native grass invasion alters small mammal risk landscapes and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradnini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk. We measured perceived risk by nocturnal rodents using a giving-up density foraging experiment with paired shrub (safe) and open (risky) foraging trays in cheatgrass and native habitats. We also evaluated microhabitat selection across a cheatgrass gradient as an additional assay of perceived risk and behavioral responses for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at two spatial scales of habitat availability. Finally, we used mark-recapture analysis to quantify deer mouse apparent survival across a cheatgrass gradient while accounting for detection probability and other habitat features. In the foraging experiment, shrubs were more important as protective cover in cheatgrass-dominated habitats, suggesting that cheatgrass increased perceived predation risk. Additionally, deer mice avoided cheatgrass and selected shrubs, and marginally avoided native grass, at two spatial scales. Deer mouse apparent survival varied with a cheatgrass–shrub interaction, corresponding with our foraging experiment results, and providing a rare example of a native plant mediating the effects of an invasive plant on wildlife. By synthesizing the results of three individual lines of evidence (foraging behavior, habitat selection, and apparent survival), we provide a rare example of linkage between behavioral responses of animals indicative of perceived predation risk and actual fitness outcomes. Moreover, our results

  19. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain. We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 % than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %. The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity are scarce.

  20. The use of less common grass varieties as a factor of increasing forage lands productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Д. Бугайов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess introduced samples of drought-resistant species of perennial grasses, select a promising parent material and create on its base high-yielding varie­ ies with economic characters. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The results of studies on introduction and breeding were given aimed to improve drought tolerance of non-traditional perennial grasses under the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Based on the selected parent material, varieties were created by the use of hybridization and ecotype breeding methods and then entered into the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine, among them: intermediate wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia (Host Nevski – ‘Hors’, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L. Gaertn. – ‘Petrivskyi’; meadow brome (Bromus riparia Rehm. – ‘Boian’; slender wheatgrass (Roegneria trachycaulon (Link Nevski – ‘Co­umb’. As compared with conventional, relatively drought-tolerant species of smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss. Holub – ‘Mars’, increment of dry matter content of these species in the extreme drought conditions of 2011 was increased by 1,52–3,73 t/ha. Under more sufficient moistening conditions of 2012, slender wheatgrass ‘Columb’ was at the level of the сheck variety in terms of this indicator. Other varieties exceeded it by 1.44–3.22 t/ha. The data was given including seed productivity and sowing quality indicators, after-ripening duration and economic fitness of seeds. Conclusions. The use of the recommended varieties of drought-resistant species of perennial grasses as part of grass mixtures will increase significantly the productivity of grasslands and pastures in the current context of climate change.

  1. Genetic resources of perennial forage grasses in Serbia: Current state, broadening and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to historical background of vegetation development, geographical position, climate and relief, Serbia represents one of the 158 world biodiversity centres, based upon the number of plant species and territory size (biodiversity index 0.72. Large areas in Serbia are under natural grasslands and pastures, composed of forage grass species, and important as source of natural plant genetic diversity and germplasm for breeding. These eco-systems represent basic prerequisites for sustainable forage production, but very low potential of them is utilized and genetic resources are not protected. Family Poaceae is present in Serbia flora with 70 genera and among them from the aspect of forage production and quality, the most important are perennial Festuca, Lolium, Dactylis, Phleum, Bromus, Arrhenatherum, Poa and Agrostis species. Most of these grasses have been bred in Serbia and lot of cultivars were released. These cultivars contain autochthonous Serbian material and represent great and important resource of genetic variability. Therefore, collecting of new samples which are acclimatised to local eco-geographical conditions and including them in plant ex situ gene bank is of exceptional importance for further utilization in different plant breeding programmes as well as genetic resources protection. These autochthonous populations have natural variability and very often have satisfactory yielding performance in comparison with introduced cultivars, which referred them for direct phenotypic selection for cultivars release. Broadening of forage grasses genotypes collection is permanent objective of Serbian scientists. Collected accessions are being characterized and evaluated for important phenological, morphological and agronomical traits. In this paper genetic resources of forage grass species, their diversity and potentials, state of the grasses gene banks, as well as possibility for breeding of new cultivars has been analysed.

  2. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R and D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area. -- Highlights: • A modeling approach (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2, Tier 3 and R and D 128/SP1a) was used to estimate dose rates for herbs growing in the wild at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace. • The highest levels of anthropogenic radiation exposure were determined for herbs at Impact EURT sites. • Total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. • Total dose rate per plant organism for herbs is under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. Currently herbaceous plant populations exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area

  3. Root plasticity buffers competition among plants: theory meets experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Katja; Tielbörger, Katja; Tietjen, Britta; Jeltsch, Florian

    2011-03-01

    Morphological plasticity is a striking characteristic of plants in natural communities. In the context of foraging behavior particularly, root plasticity has been documented for numerous species. Root plasticity is known to mitigate competitive interactions by reducing the overlap of the individuals' rhizospheres. But despite its obvious effect on resource acquisition, plasticity has been generally neglected in previous empirical and theoretical studies estimating interaction intensity among plants. In this study, we developed a semi-mechanistic model that addresses this shortcoming by introducing the idea of compensatory growth into the classical-zone-of influence (ZOI) and field-of-neighborhood (FON) approaches. The model parameters describing the belowground plastic sphere of influence (PSI) were parameterized using data from an accompanying field experiment. Measurements of the uptake of a stable nutrient analogue at distinct distances to the neighboring plants showed that the study species responded plastically to belowground competition by avoiding overlap of individuals' rhizospheres. An unexpected finding was that the sphere of influence of the study species Bromus hordeaceus could be best described by a unimodal function of distance to the plant's center and not with a continuously decreasing function as commonly assumed. We employed the parameterized model to investigate the interplay between plasticity and two other important factors determining the intensity of competitive interactions: overall plant density and the distribution of individuals in space. The simulation results confirm that the reduction of competition intensity due to morphological plasticity strongly depends on the spatial structure of the competitive environment. We advocate the use of semi-mechanistic simulations that explicitly consider morphological plasticity to improve our mechanistic understanding of plant interactions.

  4. The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, David E; Personius, Ashden; Collins, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C 3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to which water stress, nutrients, and competition affect nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum . High nutrient and low water conditions favored M. crystallinum over B. mollis , in contrast to high water conditions. While low water conditions induced nocturnal carboxylation in 9-week-old individuals of M. crystallinum , in these low water treatments, a 66% reduction in nutrient applied over the entire experiment did not further enhance nocturnal carboxylation. In high water conditions M. crystallinum both alone and in association with B. mollis did not perform nocturnal carboxylation, regardless of the nutrient levels. Thus, nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum was restricted by strong competition with B. mollis in high water conditions. This study provides empirical evidence of the competitive advantage of facultative CAM plants over grasses in drought conditions and of the restricted ability of M. crystallinum to use their photosynthetic plasticity (i.e., ability to switch to CAM behavior) to compete with grasses in well-watered conditions. We suggest that a high drought tolerance could explain the increased dominance of facultative CAM plants in a future environment with increased drought and nitrogen deposition, while the potential of facultative CAM plants such as M. crystallinum to expand to wet environments is expected to be limited.

  5. Influence of richness and seeding density on invasion resistance in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Helzer, Christopher J.; Wedin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations and agencies have restored thousands of hectares of cropland to grassland in the Great Plains of the United States. However, little is known about the relationships between richness and seeding density in these restorations and resistance to invasive plant species. We assessed the effects of richness and seeding density on resistance to invasive and other unseeded plant species in experimental tallgrass prairie plots in central Nebraska. In 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m plots were planted with six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. There was a significant negative relationship between richness and basal cover of unseeded perennial forbs/legumes and unseeded perennial/annual grasses, abundance of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), and the number of inflorescences removed from smooth brome (Bromus inermis) transplants. Invasion resistance may have been higher in the high richness treatments because of the characteristics of the dominant species in these plots or because of greater interspecific competition for limiting resources among forbs/legumes with neighboring plants belonging to the same functional group. Seeding density was not important in affecting invasion resistance, except in the cover of unseeded grasses. Increasing seed mix richness may be more effective than increasing the seeding density for decreasing invasion by unseeded perennial species, bull thistle, and smooth brome.

  6. Crested wheatgrass-cheatgrass seedling competition in a mixed-density design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Mark G.; Pyke, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant competition experiments have historically used designs that are difficult to interpret due to confounding problems. Recently, designs based on a 'response function' approach have been proposed and tested in various plant mixture settings. For this study, 3 species were used that are important in current revegetation practices in the Intermountain West. 'Nordan' (Agropyron desertorum [Fish. ex Link] Shult.) and 'Hycrest' (A. cristatum [L.] Gaertn. x desertorum) crested wheatgrass are commonly-used revegetation species on rangelands susceptible to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion, although little quantitative data exist that compare their competitive abilities. We evaluated the competitive ability of Hycrest and Nordan seedlings in 2-species mixtures with cheatgrass in a greenhouse study. Linear and nonlinear models were developed for a range of densities (130- 520 seeds m-2) for each species to predict median above-ground biomass and tiller numbers and to further test the usefulness of this design for evaluating species to rehabilitate rangelands. In both experiments, increasing Hycrest and Nordan densities reduced their own biomass and tiller production while increasing Hycrest densities reduced cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. Nordan did not affect cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. However, increasing cheatgrass densities reduced Hycrest and Nordan biomass and tiller production, and its own biomass and tiller production. The competition index i.e. substitution rate, indicated that Hycrest seedlings were better competitors with cheatgrass than Nordan, although in all mixtures, cheatgrass plants were the superior competitors. Further field research using this design, where environmental inputs are less optimal and diverse, is needed to validate these results and to further evaluate the use of this approach in examining effects of intra- and interspecific competition.

  7. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1980-10-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of 137 Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum 90 Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond

  8. Fungal and bacterial contributions to nitrogen cycling in cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded native sagebrush soils of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth J.; Giguere, Andrew T; Pyke, David A.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    AimThere is interest in determining how cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) modifies N cycling in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) soils of the western USA.MethodsTo gain insight into the roles of fungi and bacteria in N cycling of cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sagebrush soils, the fungal protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and the bacteriocidal compound, bronopol (BRO) were combined with a 15NH4+ isotope pool dilution approach.ResultsCHX reduced gross N mineralization to the same rate in both sagebrush and cheatgrass soils indicating a role for fungi in N mineralization in both soil types. In cheatgrass soils BRO completely inhibited gross N mineralization, whereas, in sagebrush soils a BRO-resistant gross N mineralization rate was detected that was slower than CHX sensitive gross N mineralization, suggesting that the microbial drivers of gross N mineralization were different in sagebrush and cheatgrass soils. Net N mineralization was stimulated to a higher rate in sagebrush than in cheatgrass soils by CHX, implying that a CHX inhibited N sink was larger in the former than the latter soils. Initial gross NH4+ consumption rates were reduced significantly by both CHX and BRO in both soil types, yet, consumption rates recovered significantly between 24 and 48 h in CHX-treated sagebrush soils. The recovery of NH4+ consumption in sagebrush soils corresponded with an increase in the rate of net nitrification.ConclusionsThese results suggest that cheatgrass invasion of sagebrush soils of the northern Great Basin reduces the capacity of the fungal N consumption sink, enhances the capacity of a CHX resistant N sink and alters the contributions of bacteria and fungi to gross N mineralization.

  9. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  10. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  11. Responses to invasion and invader removal differ between native and exotic plant groups in a coastal dune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, Susan M; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Cushman, J Hall

    2013-12-01

    The spread of exotic, invasive species is a global phenomenon that is recognized as a major source of environmental change. Although many studies have addressed the effects of exotic plants on the communities they invade, few have quantified the effects of invader removal on plant communities, or considered the degree to which different plant groups vary in response to invasion and invader removal. We evaluated the effects of an exotic succulent, iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), on a coastal dune plant community in northern California, as well as the community responses to its removal. To assess possible mechanisms by which iceplant affects other plants, we also evaluated its above- and belowground influences on the germination and growth of a dominant exotic annual grass, Bromus diandrus. We found that iceplant invasion was associated with reduced native plant cover as well as increased cover and density of some exotic plants-especially exotic annual grasses. However, iceplant removal did not necessarily lead to a reversal of these effects: removal increased the cover and density of both native and exotic species. We also found that B. diandrus grown in iceplant patches, or in soil where iceplant had been removed, had poorer germination and growth than B. diandrus grown in soil not influenced by iceplant. This suggests that the influence of iceplant on this dune plant community occurs, at least in part, due to belowground effects, and that these effects remain after iceplant has been removed. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering how exotic invasive plants affect not only native species, but also co-occurring exotic taxa. It also shows that combining observational studies with removal experiments can lead to important insights into the influence of invaders and the mechanisms of their effects.

  12. STUDY OF THE ARBORIZATION AND GREEN AREAS OF THE CAMPUS II OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL ESTUDO DA ARBORIZAÇÃO E DAS ÁREAS VERDES DO CAMPUS II DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Yuriko Hashimoto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Continuing the study of the green areas of the Campus II of the Federal University of Goiás it was developed a research in order to check the situation of the arborization at Campus. The sites of the present study consisted of spaces among buildings, streets, places, parking places and a little wood. A scale of 1:5000 was used to localize them in an aerophotogramatic plant The plants were located and identified. The native species are remainders of the semideciduous forest occurring in the locality, e. g. Apuleia molaris Spruce (garapa, Anadenanthera peregrina L. (angico, Cedrela fissilis Vel. (cedro and Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl. Nichols. (ipê amarelo and many other species. Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (espatódea, Delonix regia Rafin (flamboyant, Pachira aquatica Aublet. (munguba, Caesalpinia echinata Lan. (pau-brasil and Syagrus oleracea (Mat. Becc. (guariroba are some of the exotic species from other states and from the flora of Goiás. The totality of 1,389 individuals were distributed among 43 families and 84 genres. The study showed that some species have not been planted in adequate localities because of the high tonnage, root system and falling of the leaves. This investigation will permit an amplification, improvement of the arborization and recomposition of the green areas of Campus II. It will also contribute to future landscaping projects.

    Em continuidade ao estudo das áreas verdes do Campus II da UFG, desenvolveu-se um trabalho para verificar a situação da arborização localizada no referido Campus. O local para o estudo da vegetação consistiu nos espaços entre prédios, sistema viário, praças, estacionamentos e mini-bosque e para a localização dos mesmos usou-se uma planta aerofotogram

  13. Estrutura do estrato herbáceo na formação aberta de Clusia do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Herb layer structure of Clusia scrub in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cristina Alvarez Pereira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba localiza-se o site 5 do Programa de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD, região de grande diversidade de hábitats e riqueza florística nas restingas do Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para descrever a composição florística e estrutura do estrato herbáceo da formação aberta de Clusia foram amostrados todos os indivíduos deste estrato utilizando-se o método de parcelas. Em três diferentes áreas foram distribuídos 200 quadrados de 1m², totalizando 600m². Em cada quadrado anotou-se o número de indivíduos e percentagem de cobertura de cada espécie. Para a comparação entre as áreas utilizaram-se os índices de Similaridade de Sørensen, diversidade de Shannon (H' e equabilidade de Pielou (J'. Foram amostrados 39 espécies e 3.021 indivíduos. Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze, Vriesea neoglutinosa Mez, Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss., Neoregelia cruenta (Graham L.B. Sm., Anthurium maricense Nadruz & Mayo, Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem. Byles & G.D. Rowl. e Ipomoea imperati (Vahl Griseb. obtiveram os maiores valores de importância. A diversidade foi H'=1,89 nats/m² e a equabilidade J'= 0,52, utilizando a cobertura como medida de abundância das espécies por esta evitar a subjetividade na definição de indivíduos e melhor representar a estrutura oligárquica aqui descrita. O ponto A diferencia-se significativamente de B e C quanto ao número de indivíduos e à cobertura vegetal herbácea. O número de espécies e os índices de diversidade não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Os resultados aqui apresentados diferem parcialmente dos obtidos anteriormente para o estrato arbustivo, sugerindo que estudos sobre distribuição espacial e associação entre espécies são necessários para esclarecer as relações entre estes dois estratos.Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Site No.5 in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park

  14. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to evaluate (1 the influence of the aquatic macrophytes Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergent and Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersed on sediment stoichiometry and (2 the contribution of these aquatic macrophytes to organic carbon composition in different compartments of a tropical coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé-RJ; METHODS: The concentration of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P was determined in 2-cm intervals in the first 10 cm of sediment in both littoral and limnetic regions. In the littoral region, the sediment was collected in three different sites: T. domingensis, E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. In order to know the pathways of C in Cabiunas lagoon, the isotopic signature (δ13C of restinga terrestrial vegetation, zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, dissolved and suspended material on water were evaluated; RESULTS: The concentrations of C and N in the sediment of the E. interstincta and T. domingensis stands were significantly higher than in the sediment of the limnetic region. The concentration of phosphorus in the sediment colonized by T. domingensis was higher than in the limnetic region and in P. stenostachys stand. The highest molar C:P ratios were found in E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. The highest N:P ratios were also found in the littoral region. Carbon stable isotopic analysis (δ13C signatures showed that a majority of the particulate organic carbon (POC in the water column had aquatic macrophyte tissues origin; CONCLUSIONS: Emergent macrophytes strongly contribute to nutrient enrichment of the sediment of Cabiúnas lagoon. In general, macrophyte detritus alters the littoral region sediment stoichiometry and quality for decomposers, by accumulating much more C in relation to N and P when compared to limnetic region. However, macrophytes importance isn't restricted to the sediment once they have a central

  15. Perfil químico y biológico de aceites esenciales de plantas aromáticas de interés agro-industrial en Castilla-La Mancha (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana, O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of which represented more than 1% of the essential oil. The 1,8 cineole (16-23% appeared as the main compound of Salvia sp. essential oils. The high content of α-thujone was characteristic in S. officinalis oil. Remarkable concentrations of linalool (30-33%, camphor (5-17% and linalyl acetate (9-28% were detected in Lavandula sp. oils while carvacrol (21.6% and p-cimene (23.7% were the most abundant compounds in T. vulgaris oil. Biological characterization was based on their bioplaguicide activity. The essential oils studied had strong antifeedant effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., Myzus persicae Sulzer and Rhopalosiphum padi L., phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa L. and Lolium perenne L. and also exhibited high antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. Oils from T. vulgaris and L. latifolia showed the highest levels of bioactivity against all target species. These results provide an added-value to the essential oils of aromatic plants of agro-industrial interest for its potential use in the development of natural agrochemicals.

    En este trabajo se presenta el estudio químico y biológico de los aceites esenciales de Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. y Thymus vulgaris L. El estudio químico por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

  16. Potencial inseticida de plantas medicinais encontradas na Amazônia Central contra o pulgão-da-couve Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris Sousa de Alencar Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial inseticida e a ação repelente sobre o pulgão-da-couve [Brevicoryne brassicae (L.] de extratos de cinco espécies de plantas ocorrentes e cultivadas na Amazônia Central: Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson, Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Schnella sp. e Protium sp. Os extratos foram utilizados na concentração de 10% e o inseticida botânico a base de azadiractina (Azamax® foi usado como controle. Para avaliação inseticida, discos de folhas de couve-manteiga com 3,5 cm de diâmetro foram individualizados em placas de Petri (6 cm ø e infestados com 10 ninfas de B. brassicae (até 48 h de idade. 1,0 mL de cada um dos tratamentos foi pulverizado sobre os discos e após 24 h foi avaliada a mortandade. Para avaliação da repelência, discos foliares (3,5 cm ø foram divididos em duas partes: 1,0 mL de cada tratamento foi pulverizado em uma das metades do disco, na mesma concentração empregada para avaliação da atividade inseticida. Uma hora após a pulverização, cinco adultos de B. brassicae foram transferidos para o centro do disco e após 24 h foi avaliado o número de adultos sobre a área tratada e não tratada do disco foliar. O resultados foram submetidos a teste de normalidade e análise de variância (ANOVA.  O contato direto e residual dos extratos de C. cujete, H. articulatus e Schnella sp. causaram uma mortalidade de ninfas entre 97,6 e 100%, resultados esses mais expressivos que S. malaccense (54,6% e Azamax® (35,1%.  Não foi detectada ação repelente dos extratos sobre B. brassicae. Insecticidal potential of medicinal plants found in Central Amazon region against cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae Abstract. The present work aimed to evaluate the insecticidal potential of five plant native or widely cultivated species of  Central Amazon, Brazil - Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus  (Vahl

  17. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  18. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  19. Análisis microbiológico de plantas medicinales con óxido de etileno Microbiologic analysis of medicinal plants using ethylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausy Lorena Torres Rojas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de plantas curativas constituye una de las terapias médicas más antiguas y extendidas que se remonta a los tiempos prehistóricos (Wust, 2003. Cada cultura ha desarrollado sus tradiciones de medicina popular, con remedios y ritos que utilizan plantas locales. La Organización Mundial de la Salud, mediante varios comunicados ha expresado su posición con respecto a la necesidad de revalorar la utilización de las plantas medicinales dentro del ámbito sanitario, teniendo en cuenta que el 80 % de la población mundial depende de estas en lo referente a la atención primaria de salud (Alonso, 1998. Frente a esta necesidad y a la preocupación que genera ofrecer productos de alta calidad, la investigación realizada permitió evaluar algunas de las materias primas, como: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Caléndula (Calendula officinalis, Sen (Casia angustifolia Vahl, Fucus (Fucus vesiculosas L y Spirulina (Spirulina maxima, que son importantes por la gran oferta que estas tienen en el mercado. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad microbiológica y establecer si el proceso de esterilización con óxido de etileno tenía un efecto eficaz sobre la materia prima, propuesta a evaluar. Se realizó el recuento de microorganismos mesófilos aerobios, hongos, levaduras y pruebas de ausencia/presencia para microorganismos patógenos como: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella s.p, Clostridium perfringes y Staphylococcus aureus. Estas pruebas se realizaron con la utilización de medios de cultivo específicos: TSN, EMB, CETRIMIDE, XLD, B.P, OGY (hongos y levaduras y Plate Count (mesófilos aerobios. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las muestras analizadas permitieron obtener datos significativos relacionados con la ausencia/presencia de microorganismos patógenos antes y después del proceso de esterilización, así como el recuento de mesófilos, hongos y levaduras. En las muestras analizadas antes de la esterilizaci

  20. The cultivation bias: different communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi detected in roots from the field, from bait plants transplanted to the field, and from a greenhouse trap experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ineichen, Kurt; Wiemken, Andres; Redecker, Dirk

    2007-12-01

    The community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated in roots of four different plant species (Inula salicina, Medicago sativa, Origanum vulgare, and Bromus erectus) sampled in (1) a plant species-rich calcareous grassland, (2) a bait plant bioassay conducted directly in that grassland, and (3) a greenhouse trap experiment using soil and a transplanted whole plant from that grassland as inoculum. Roots were analyzed by AMF-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism screening, and sequence analyses of rDNA small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions. The AMF sequences were analyzed phylogenetically and used to define monophyletic phylotypes. Overall, 16 phylotypes from several lineages of AMF were detected. The community composition was strongly influenced by the experimental approach, with additional influence of cultivation duration, substrate, and host plant species in some experiments. Some fungal phylotypes, e.g., GLOM-A3 (Glomus mosseae) and several members of Glomus group B, appeared predominantly in the greenhouse experiment or in bait plants. Thus, these phylotypes can be considered r strategists, rapidly colonizing uncolonized ruderal habitats in early successional stages of the fungal community. In the greenhouse experiment, for instance, G. mosseae was abundant after 3 months, but could not be detected anymore after 10 months. In contrast, other phylotypes as GLOM-A17 (G. badium) and GLOM-A16 were detected almost exclusively in roots sampled from plants naturally growing in the grassland or from bait plants exposed in the field, indicating that they preferentially occur in late successional stages of fungal communities and thus represent the K strategy. The only phylotype found with high frequency in all three experimental approaches was GLOM A-1 (G. intraradices), which is known to be a generalist. These results indicate that, in greenhouse trap experiments, it is difficult

  1. Microbial decomposition of dead grassland roots and its influence on the carbon cycle under changing precipitation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, C.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and as such, represents a potential sink for carbon dioxide.The decomposition products of dead roots buried in the soil is a contributor to soil organic carbon. However, changing precipitation patterns may affect its fate by influencing the microbial community responsible for decomposing dead roots. To assess the impact of changing precipitation patterns, we constructed microcosms with grassland soil collected from the UCSB Sedgwick Reserve, an active and long-term research site, and dead roots from greenhouse-grown grass, Bromus diandrus. Microcosms were wetted continuously, every seven days, or every twenty days. Sets of microcosms were periodically deconstructed to assess the soil versus the roots-associated microbial community and its function. Differences in respiration rates of microcosms continuously wetted or wetted every 7 days versus microcosms wetted every 20 days existed for the first 70 days. After which, no differences in respiration rates were seen with microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. Relatedly, after a 70% roots mass loss by day 50, there was no difference in the respiration rate of microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. More than half of the roots mass loss had occurred by 30 days. By the end of the incubation period, the roots mass loss in continuously wet and 7-day wetted microcosms were over 80% compared to 67% for the microcosms wetted every 20 days. Microbial biomass in the soil were constant over time and showed no difference in treatment except with the no roots control during the first half of the incubation period. Hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-1,4-glucosidase; α-1,4-glucosidase; β-1,4-xylosidase; β-1,4-cellobiosidase) on the roots versus the soil attached to the roots were over an order greater and decreased faster with the exception of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and acid phosphatase. Oxidative enzyme activities (phenol

  2. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) has increased in many drylands worldwide. This is hypothesized to occur because CAM plants store water, take up CO2 at night, exhibit photosynthetic plasticity, and have high water use efficiency. The increased dominance of CAM plants, however, also depends on their competitive relationship with other functional groups, an aspect of CAM plant sensitivity to global environmental change that has remained largely understudied. Here, we investigated the response of CAM plants and their competitive relationships with C3 and C4 plants under global environmental change. We focused on two pairs of CAM and non-CAM species, namely Cylindropuntia imbricata (a constitutive CAM species) and Bouteloua eriopoda (C4 grass), which co-occur in desert grasslands in northern Mexico, and invasive Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a facultative CAM species) and Bromus mollis (a C3 invasive grass), which coexist in California's coastal grasslands. A set of growth chamber experiments under altered CO2 and water conditions show that C. imbricata outcompeted B. eriopoda under drought conditions, while in well-watered conditions B. eriopoda was a stronger competitor for soil water than C. imbricata. Under drought conditions a more positive response to CO2 enrichment by C. imbricata indirectly disfavored B. eriopoda, which suggests that interspecific competition can outweigh the favorable direct effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth. A set of greenhouse experiments under water, N, and soil salinity manipulations showed that drought, N deposition, and/or increased soil salinity served as important drivers for success of M. crystallinum invasion, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum for light and soil nutrients in well-watered conditions. M. crystallinum switched from C3 photosynthesis to CAM photosynthesis as an adaptive strategy in response to moderate intensity of competition from B. mollis, in

  3. Assessing the risk of nitrogen deposition to natural resources in the Four Corners area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne; Floyd-Hanna, Lisa; Crews, Tim; Herring, Jack; Hanna, Dave; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Roybal, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    the approach utilized here (e.g., we have fertilization plots to explore how N deposition affects Bromus tectorum invasion that will surely yield provoking results), we plan to continue this exciting line of questioning and expect further insight to be forthcoming.

  4. Contrasting patterns of groundwater evapotranspiration in grass and tree dominated riparian zones of a temperate agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchithanantham, Sanjayan; Wilson, Henry F.; Glenn, Aaron J.

    2017-06-01

    Consumptive use of shallow groundwater by phreatophytic vegetation is a significant part of the water budget in many regions, particularly in riparian areas. The influence of vegetation type on groundwater level fluctuations and evapotranspiration has rarely been quantified for contrasting plant communities concurrently although it has implications for downstream water yield and quality. Hourly groundwater evapotranspiration (ETG) rates were estimated for grass and tree riparian vegetation in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using two modified White methods. Groundwater table depth was monitored in four 21 m transects of five 3 m deep monitoring wells in the riparian zone of a stream reach including tree (Acer negundo; boxelder) and grass (Bromus inermis; smooth brome) dominated segments. The average depths to the groundwater table from the surface were 1.4 m and 1 m for the tree and grass segments, respectively, over the two-year study. During rain free periods of the growing season ETG was estimated for a total of 70 days in 2014 and 79 days in 2015 when diurnal fluctuations were present in groundwater level. Diurnal groundwater level fluctuations were observed during dry periods under both segments, however, ETG was significantly higher (p < 0.001) under trees compared to grass cover in 2014 (a wet year with 72% higher than normal growing season precipitation) and 2015 (a drier year with 15% higher than normal growing season precipitation). The two methods used to estimate ETG produced similar daily and seasonal values for the two segments. In 2014, total ETG was approximately 50% (148 mm) and 100% (282-285 mm) of reference evapotranspiration (ETref, 281 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. In 2015, total ETG was approximately 40% (106-127 mm) and 120% (369-374 mm) of ETref (307 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. Results from the study show the tree dominated portions of the stream reach consumed approximately 2.4 ML ha-1 yr-1 more

  5. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable

  6. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  7. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  8. Species’ traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species’ responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species’ traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species’ responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species’ traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species’ habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid

  9. Impacts of Climate Variability on Non-native Plant Invasion in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    Plant invasions are changing ecosystem structure and function throughout the United States. In many areas of the west, invasive species such as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) dominate landscapes. Expansion of these species is occurring at a staggering rate, and invasion rates may change in the future as native ecosystems become more or less susceptible to invasion because of changes in climate. For example, evidence suggests that some plant invaders are favored under increased ambient CO2 levels, potentially leading to increased invasion with continued greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, I predict how western invasive plant species may also be affected by changes in climate variability. According to IPCC reports, rising ocean temperatures may change the frequency and intensity of El Niño events, potentially resulting in wetter El Niño years and/or more extreme and lengthier drought. In semi-arid systems, changing frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events may further shift the competitive balance between native and invasive species. For example, cheatgrass and yellow starthistle, both annual invaders, display high inter-annual variability in response to water availability. As a result, plants are larger and produce more seeds than native competitors during extreme wet years. This phenological response is so strong in cheatgrass communities that it can be observed in regional satellite records. Further, dense cheatgrass growth leads to a secondary feedback in the form of wildfire; higher density cheatgrass increases fire frequency in shrublands and enables further cheatgrass colonization. In this work, I synthesize knowledge of invasive plant phenological response under different climate conditions, drawing on information gathered through geographical mapping efforts at state or regional levels by university and agency researchers. Using the ranges of climate tolerance from current

  10. The carbon fertilization effect over a century of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: higher intracellular CO2 and more drought resistance among invasive and native grass species contrasts with increased water use efficiency for woody plants in the US Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brandon L; Hanson, David T; Lowrey, Timothy K; Sharp, Zachary D

    2017-02-01

    From 1890 to 2015, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations from 270 to 400 mol mol -1 . The effect of increased carbon emissions on plant growth and reproduction has been the subject of study of free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These experiments have found (i) an increase in internal CO 2 partial pressure (c i ) alongside acclimation of photosynthetic capacity, (ii) variable decreases in stomatal conductance, and (iii) that increases in yield do not increase commensurate with CO 2 concentrations. Our data set, which includes a 115-year-long selection of grasses collected in New Mexico since 1892, is consistent with an increased c i as a response to historical CO 2 increase in the atmosphere, with invasive species showing the largest increase. Comparison with Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI) for New Mexico indicates a moderate correlation with Δ 13 C (r 2  = 0.32, P < 0.01) before 1950, with no correlation (r 2  = 0.00, P = 0.91) after 1950. These results indicate that increased c i may have conferred some drought resistance to these grasses through increased availability of CO 2 in the event of reduced stomatal conductance in response to short-term water shortage. Comparison with C 3 trees from arid environments (Pinus longaeva and Pinus edulis in the US Southwest) as well as from wetter environments (Bromus and Poa grasses in New Mexico) suggests differing responses based on environment; arid environments in New Mexico see increased intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) in response to historic elevated CO 2 while wetter environments see increased c i . This study suggests that (i) the observed increases in c i in FACE experiments are consistent with historical CO 2 increases and (ii) the CO 2 increase influences plant sensitivity to water shortage, through either increased WUE or c i in arid and wet environments, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  12. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  13. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUROSH KAVOUSI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kavousi K, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, Ejtehadi H, Khavari-Nejad RA. 2016. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 17: 11-15. Extensive investigation in subnival-nival area around Khersan glacier moraine introduced 71 vascular plant species. From this list 43 species have been listed in Noroozi (2001 in “ subnival-nival vascular plant species of Iran : a unique high mountain flora and its threat from climate warming ” and the others are new for subnival- nival area of Iran. Among this plant list 31 species had introduced with Kotschy (1861a,b, Bornmuller (1904, Melchior (1937, Klein (1982, european researchers and the other is named for the first time from Khersan glacier territory. Many species such as Astragalus macrosemius, Pseudocamelina kleinii, Crepis multicaulis subsp. congesta, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana and Draba melanopus due to glacier condition have very sensitive habitat, vulnerable and only gathered from restrict area with conservation value. Vegetation change happened in many nival and subnival area with upward movement in the same habitat and movement from lower altitude at alpine towards summit in subnival and nival. Carex oreophila, Campanula stevenii, Bromus barchystachyus, Oxytropis immersa, Erigeron uniflorus,Trachydium pauciradiatum, Scorzonera radicosa and some other species are surprisingly movement to subnival area and many nival and subnival species such as Didymophysa aucheri, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana, Dracocephalum aucheri and Arabis caucasica have come significantly upward in nival. The movement is different in all side of Khersan glacier moraine in north, south and the east (beside moraine tongue slops and limited with presence of soil natural generation and other ecological remarks. Limitation for soil generation starts at different altitude in northern, southern and eastern slopes of Khersan glacier valley. This study examined

  14. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  15. Spreaders, igniters, and burning shrubs: plant flammability explains novel fire dynamics in grass-invaded deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Veldman, Joseph W; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2016-10-01

    Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires often ignite a keystone desert shrub, the fire-intolerant creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville. Ignition of Larrea is likely catalyzed by fuels produced by native plants that grow beneath the shrubs. We hypothesize that invasive and native species exhibit distinct flammability characteristics that in combination determine spatial patterns of fire spread and intensity. We measured flammability metrics of Larrea, two invasive grasses, Schismus arabicus and Bromus madritensis, and two native plants, the sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa and the annual herb Amsinckia menziesii. Results of laboratory experiments show that the grasses carry fire quickly (1.32 cm/s), but burn for short duration (0.5 min) at low temperatures. In contrast, native plants spread fire slowly (0.12 cm/s), but burn up to eight times longer (4 min) and produced hotter fires. Additional experiments on the ignition requirements of Larrea suggest that native plants burn with sufficient temperature and duration to ignite dead Larrea branches (time to ignition, 2 min; temperature at ignition 692°C). Once burning, these dead branches ignite living branches in the upper portions of the shrub. Our study provides support for a conceptual model in which exotic grasses are "spreaders" of fire and native

  16. Geomorphic and land cover identification of dust sources in the eastern Great Basin of Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, Maura; Nicoll, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies anthropogenically disturbed areas and barren playa surfaces as the two primary dust source types that repeatedly contribute to dust storm events in the eastern Great Basin of western Utah, U.S.A. This semi-arid desert region is an important contributor to dust production in North America, with this study being the first to specifically identify and characterize regional dust sources. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 51 dust event days (DEDs) affected the air quality in Salt Lake City, UT. MODIS satellite imagery during 16 of these DEDs was analyzed to identify dust plumes, and assess the characteristics of dust source areas. A total of 168 plumes were identified, and showed mobilization of dust from Quaternary deposits located within the Bonneville Basin. This analysis identifies 4 major and 5 secondary source areas for dust in this region, which produce dust primarily during the spring and fall months and during moderate or greater drought conditions, with a Palmer Drought Index (PDI) of - 2 or less. The largest number of observed dust plumes (~ 60% of all plumes) originated from playas (ephemeral lakes) and are classified as barren land cover with a silty clay soil sediment surface. Playa surfaces in this region undergo numerous recurrent anthropogenic disturbances, including military operations and anthropogenic water withdrawal. Anthropogenic disturbance is necessary to produce dust from the vegetated landscape in the eastern Great Basin, as evidenced by the new dust source active from 2008 to 2010 in the area burned by the 2007 Milford Flat Fire; this fire was the largest in Utah's history due to extensive cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) along with drought conditions. However, dust mobilization from the Milford Flat Burned Area was limited to regions that had been significantly disturbed by post-fire land management techniques that consisted of seeding, followed by chaining or tilling of the soil. Dust storms in the eastern

  17. Uptake and distribution of Pu, Am, Cm and Np in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R G; Cline, J F [Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The relative uptake of the nitrate forms of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Sm, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 237}Np from soil into selectee parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions were observed. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), peas (Pisum sativum, var. Blue Bonnet), barley (Hordeum vulgare, var. U. Cal. Briggs), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa, var. Ranger) were grown outdoors in contaminated soil contained in small weighing lysimeters constructed from 13.2 cm diameter by 1-meter-long polyvinyl chloride pipe. The amended soil, containing 0.1 to 1.0 mCi of each isotope individually per 3.4 kg soil, was situated in a 20 cm band and covered by 10 cm of uncontaminated soil to eliminate chances of windblown contamination to the surrounding environs. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. There did not appear to be any effect of soil concentration on the plant uptake of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am or {sup 244}Cm for the two levels utilized (approximately 0.03 and 0.3 {mu}Ci/g soil). The relative uptake of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu were not significantly different. Likewise, {sup 241} Am uptake values were not significantly different from the {sup 244}Cm values. The relative plant uptake of the four different transuranium element was: Np > Cm {approx} Am > Pu. The relative uptake values of Np were 2,200 to 45,000 times greater than for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10 to 20 times greater. The seeds were significantly lower than the rest of the above ground plant parts for all four transuranics. The legumes accumulated approximately ten times more than the grasses. A hypothetical comparison of the radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with LMFBR fuels indicate that Am, Cm and Np concentrations would exceed Pu values. (author)

  18. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  19. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  20. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  1. Ecological analysis of plant cover of the permanent grassland ecosystem located in the vicinity of Novi Kneževac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 taxa and stands of 12 plant communities were found to comprise the plant cover of the permanent grassland on the solonetz and solonchakic solonetz soils located in the vicinity of the town of Novi Kneževac (Vojvodina Province, Serbia. The registered taxa included 177 plant species, six subspecies, eight varieties, 13 forms and one lusus. The ecological analysis of the flora involved 191 taxa. That group consisted of 177 species, six subspecies, three varieties and five forms. The three varieties, Aster tripolium L. var. pannonicus ( Jacq. Beck, Chenopodium rubrum L. subsp. botryoides Sm. var. crassifolium (Hornem Kov. and Sonchus arvensis L. var. uliginosus (M.B. Grec. were used for analysis because their higher taxonomic categories were not recorded in the studied flora. The five forms, Aster sedifolius L. f. subsquamosus Soy, Bromus commutatus Schrad. f. violaceus Podp., Mentha aquatica L. f. erromera Top., Poa bulbosa L. f. vivipara Koel. and Scleranthus annus L. f. minimus Schur., were used for the same reason. The ecological analysis encompassed stands of all 12 recorded communities, i.e. ass. Scirpo-Phragmitetum W. Koch 1926, ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi continentale Soy (1927 1957, ass. Acorelletum pannonici Soy (1939 1947, ass. Puccinelletum limosae (Rapcs. 1927 Soy 1930, ass. Pholiuro-Plantaginetum tenuiflorae (Rapcs. 1927 Wendel. 1943, ass. Hordeetum histricis (Soy 1933 Wendel. 1943, ass. Camphorosmetum annuae (Rapcs. 1916 Soy 1933 corr. Soy 1938, ass. Agrostio-Alopecuretum pratensis Soy (1933 1947, ass. Agrostio-Eleochariti-Alopecuretu geniculati (Magyar1928 Soy (1939 1947, ass. Artemisio-Festucetum pseudovinae (Magyar 1928 Soy 1945, ass. Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae (Magyar 1928 Soy 1945 and ass. Festuco-Andropogonetum ischaemi Vučk. 1985. The ecological analysis of the plant cover indicated that halophytes made 30.37% of the flora of the permanent grassland near the town of Novi Kneževac, and that the stands of

  2. Ecophysiology of Trembling Aspen in Response to Root-Zone Conditions and Competition on Reclaimed Mine Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.; Dyck, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Reclaimed soils are typically characterized by increased bulk densities, penetration resistances and poor soil structure as well as associated problems with hydrology and aeration. As a result, available rooting space for planted tree seedlings is often restricted to a shallow layer of topsoil, which is usually of higher quality and is cultivated prior to planting. This may hinder the development of healthy root systems, thus drastically increasing the risk for plant stress by limiting access to soil resources such as water, nutrients and oxygen. These problems are exacerbated when herbaceous plants compete for the same resources within this limited root-zone. To understand how limited rooting space affects the physiology of young trees, we experimentally manipulated soil conditions and levels of competition at a reclaimed mine site in central Alberta, Canada. The site was characterized by heavily compacted, fine textured subsoil (~2.0 Mg ha-1), capped with 15 cm of topsoil (~1.5 Mg ha-1). In a replicated study (n=6) half the plots were treated with a subsoil plow to a depth of about 60 cm to increase available rooting spece. Subsequently, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and smooth brome (Bromus inermis L.) were planted to create four vegetation covers: aspen (a), brome (b), aspen + brome (ab) and control (c) (no vegetation). Various soil properties, including texture, bulk density, penetration resistance and water availability, in conjunction with plant parameters such as root and shoot growth, leaf area development, sap flow, and stomatal conductance have since been monitored, both in-situ and through destructive sampling. Our results indicate that the soil treatment was effective in lowering bulk densities and penetration resistance, while improving moisture retention characteristics. Tree seedling growth and leaf area development were significantly greater without competition, but did not differ between soil treatments. The soil treatment generally

  3. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  4. Study of natural biota of and biologic recovery possibilities for closed tunnels of the Degelen mountain complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Baiganov, A.T.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Nesipbaev, Sh.T.; Dzhanin, B.T.; Sultanova, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    -forming species of the Degelen Mountains. The results of work on fauna analysis show that 86 species of vertebrates live on the territory studied, including 2 species of amphibian, 6 species of reptiles, 59 species of birds, 19 species of mammals. Four species of all the found are rare species included in the Red Book of Kazakstan. Works on recovery of vegetation cover in the areas of tunnel demilitarization where the vegetative cover had been completely destroyed have been started. The experimental areas near four tunnels have been sown with seedling of poplar, weeping birch, Tatar maple, and elm; the experimental areas have been sown with perennial species of grass (Bromus inermis, Psothyrostachus, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium Elateus, etc.)

  5. The role of the multidisciplinary health care team in the management of patients with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kodolitsch Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yskert von Kodolitsch,1 Meike Rybczynski,1 Marina Vogler,2 Thomas S Mir,3 Helke Schüler,1 Kerstin Kutsche,4 Georg Rosenberger,4 Christian Detter,5 Alexander M Bernhardt,5 Axel Larena-Avellaneda,6 Tilo Kölbel,6 E Sebastian Debus,6 Malte Schroeder,7,8 Stephan J Linke,9,10 Bettina Fuisting,9 Barbara Napp,1 Anna Lena Kammal,11 Klaus Püschel,11 Peter Bannas,12 Boris A Hoffmann,13 Nele Gessler,13 Eva Vahle-Hinz,14 Bärbel Kahl-Nieke,14 Götz Thomalla,15 Christina Weiler-Normann,16 Gunda Ohm,17 Stefan Neumann,18 Dieter Benninghoven,19 Stefan Blankenberg,1 Reed E Pyeritz20 1Clinic of Cardiology, University Heart Centre, 2Marfan Hilfe Deutschland e.V., Zentrumsehstärke, 3Clinic for Pediatric Cardiology, University Heart Centre, 4Institute of Human Genetics, 5Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Centre, 6Clinic of Vascular Medicine, University Heart Centre, 7Department of Trauma, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, 8Department of Orthopedics, 9Clinic of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 10Smilow Center for Translational Research, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 11Department of Legal Medicine, 12Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department and Clinic, 13Clinic of Electrophysiology, University Heart Centre, 14Department of Orthodontics, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, 15Clinic of Neurology, 16Martin Zeitz Center for Rare Diseases, 17Strategic Business Development, 18Business Unit Quality Management, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 19Mühlenberg-Clinic for Rehabilitation, Bad Malente-Gremsmühlen, 20Zentrumsehstärke, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: Marfan syndrome (MFS is a rare, severe, chronic, life-threatening disease with multiorgan involvement that requires optimal multidisciplinary care to normalize both prognosis and quality of life. In this article, each key team member of all the medical disciplines of a multidisciplinary

  6. Effect of Time and Burial Depth on Breaking Seed dormancy and Germination of Weed Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crop growth, development and yield through competing. Seed bank of weeds in field is one of the sources which can affect weed management and their control methods. Environmental conditions during seed maturation and following dispersal interact to influence the germination phenology of many species. Disturbance plays a key role in the maintenance of habitat for many plant species, particularly referrals, for example, fire ephemerals, desert annuals, and arable weeds. Seed germination and emergence depend on endogenous and exogenous factors. Viable seeds are dormant when all environmental conditions are appropriate for germination but seeds fail to germinate. Thus, dormancy plays an important ecological role in preventing seed germination, being a major contributor to seed persistence of some species in soil. Buried seeds of annual weeds are certainly subjected to different soil moisture conditions during their dormancy release season (winter according to the annual rainfall pattern and burial depth. Shallow buried seeds are exposed to soil moisture fluctuations that could affect their dormancy status. Laboratory studies showed that desiccation and subsequent re-hydration of seeds could stimulate germination and modify seed light requirements. Seeds buried in deeper layers of the soil would not be exposed to such fluctuations in soil moisture, but would be exposed to different soil moisture environments depending on weather and soil characteristics. The effects of interactions between temperature, and soil or seed moisture, on seed dormancy changes have been reported for several species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of time and burial depth treatments on seed germination and seedling emergence of Aegilops cylindrica, Agropyrom repens, Avena fatua, Bromus dantoniae, Cynodon dactylon, Cyprus rotundus, Setaria viridis, Anthriscus sylvestris, Centurea cyanus. Materials and Methods: In

  7. The effect of heat and smoke on the emergence of exotic and native seedlings in a Mediterranean fire-free matorral of central Chile Efecto del calor y el humo sobre la emergencia de plántulas exóticas y nativas en un matorral mediterráneo libre de fuego en Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A FIGUEROA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of heat shock and wood-fueled smoke on the emergence of native and exotic plant species in soil samples obtained in an evergreen matorral of central Chile that has been free of fire for decades. It is located on the eastern foothills of the Andes Range in San Carlos de Apoquindo. Immediately after collection samples were dried and stored under laboratory conditions. For each two transect, ten samples were randomly chosen, and one of the following treatments was applied: (1 heat-shock treatment, (2 plant-produced smoke treatment, (3 combined heat-and-smoke treatment, and (4 control, corresponding to samples not subjected to treatment. Twenty-seven species, representing 13 families, emerged from the soil samples. The most abundant families were Asteraceae and Poaceae. All of the emerged species were herbaceous, and 18 species were exotic. Respect to general hypothesis, there is no evidence for the proposition that fire-free matorral has lower proportion of exotic and native species with fire-related cues than matorral with fires. Among the exotic and native, the mean number of species that emerged from soil samples did not change significantly with respect to the control for any of the treatments applied. Nevertheless, important species-specific responses were observed. Smoke and heat-smoke combination significantly increased the emergence of the exotic species Anthriscus caucalis. While smoke-related cues significantly increased the emergence of the exotic species Avena barbata, the emergence of the exotic Aphanes arvensis and the native Bromus berteroanus decreases. For several species our results showed inconsistent responses to fire-related cues compared to those reported in the literature. We suggest that these differences might be related with the fire-history in the populations, an important issue poorly acknowledge in the literature.Nosotros estudiamos el efecto del golpe de calor y del humo de la combustión de

  8. Evaluation of Seed and Forage Yield of Perennial Plants with Low Water Requirement in Abandoned Farming Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali gazanchian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is a natural phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is created by low precipitation, high evaporation and reduced soil moisture. Today, they are the major threats to agricultural lands due to fluctuations in rainfall, limited water resources, wells salinization and subsequently abandoned farming lands. Iran is located on the world's dry belt and more than 90 percent of its area is located in the arid and semi-arid climatic regions. It has been reported that the annual rate of soil erosion is up to 33 tons per hectare and 5 to 6 times more than the standard limit. Also, 90% of the country's protein production comes from animals sources. Due to the lack of adequate forage production, the main burden of protein production is imposed on the natural resources and pastures. Therefore, In order to enhance soil stabilization and maintain its fertility, optimum use of off-season precipitations, preventing the flow of water and protecting the abandoned farming lands from the flood risk, increasing the water permeability in the soil, and helping to feed the underwater aquifers and finally the production of forage and seeds, the development of perennial plants cultivation is an important conservative practice. The aim of this study is to emphasize on the selection of the best perennial forage species with low water requirements and acceptable performance for renovation of the abandoned farming lands and moving towards sustainable agriculture approaches. Materials and Methods In this experiment, 10 species of perennial grasses (Agropyron elongatum Host., Secale montanum Guss., Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron intermedium Host., Agropyron repense L., Agropyron cristatum L., Panicum antidutale Retz., Bromus inermis Leyss., Bromus riparius Rehmann, Agropyron cristatum L. and two legumes includes Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis sativa Lam. were studied at Asatan-e-Ghods Razavi farm in

  9. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, Alex M.

    1989-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily awnless brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic profile, and (3) a soil-based water budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data and then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates (for March through November) by these methods were in close agreement: 648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates reach a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of total precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soilmoisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) at the Sheffield site were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2011-01-01

    the Moxa Arch Natural Gas Development area) and (2) the study of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) occurrence in burn treatments of the Little Mountain Ecosystem. The activity that entails evaluating relationships between ungulate herbivory and fire on aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment also was expanded to include relationships between stand characteristics of and herbivory on aspen in various ecohydrological settings. The USGS continued compiling data and developing geospatial products from all of its WLCI activities to support (1) ranking and prioritizing of proposed conservation projects, (2) developing the WLCI Integrated Assessment, and (3) developing the WLCI 5-year Conservation Action Plan. Two activities were completed in FY2010: (1) the conceptual modeling and indicator selection for monitoring resource conditions across the WLCI region, and (2) the literature review on effects of oil and gas development in western regions of the United States, both of which are in the last stages of publication.

  11. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  12. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  13. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  14. Rolled lawn as tool for industrial barren remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbacheva, T. T.; Ivanova, L. A.; Kikuchi, R.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    term of cultivation (from 1 to 16 July 2008). Rolled lawn was characterized by high plant density 759.0±12.2 units per m2. That parameter achievement is not possible using traditional way of direct seeding in prepared ground that is common in Kola Peninsula region. Mass of 1 m2 rolled lawn is about 5-7 kg. Rolled lawn cost is sufficiently lower than traditional (turf-grounded) one. Grass seeds were choose as more adaptive for severe conditions and suitable for recultivation tasks: Festuca rubra L. - 44.4%, Bromus inermis Leyss. - 33.4%, Festulolium smaragdinum - 11.1%, Festuca pratensis Huds.- 11.1%. Field experiment was carried out in three variants (1- mineral ground - flat site; 2- mineral ground- slope sites; 3- organogenic ground - flat site in depression in five replicates. Growing in very contaminated ground resulted in 50% rolled lawn surface loss but with biodiversity maintenance. Grass roots proliferated in contaminated ground very slowly. It seems obvious that plant roots choose the best zones of soils to grow, and that they avoided toxic zones. More comprehensive results were received for mineral ground due to better natural washing compared to organogenic ground. In all variants we observed secondary roots formation. Simultaneously with rolled lawn placement litterbag experiment was carried out with original vermiculite as filling. Short term (July- September 2008) alteration of nutritional status and contamination level of vermiculite was controlled and compared with quartz as inert material. Observations will continue during 2009-2011 to follow freezing influence and nutrient loss rate.

  15. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  16. Conservation reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.E.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    cropland in some counties has been converted primarily to grass. In North Dakota, nearly 3 million acres have been enrolled. Over 90 percent of the CRP plantings in North Dakota are grass and grass-legume mix composed primarily of wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis), alfalfa (Medicago saliva) and sweetclover (Melilotus spp.). Mixes of these species have been reported to attract high densities of nesting ducks (Duebbert and Kantrud 1974). According to the CRP provisions, the land must remain idle for the 10-year contract period, with the exception of emergency provisions for haying or grazing. CRP appears to have great potential for benefiting many species of grassland-nesting birds. There have been efforts to document the importance of the CRP to migratory birds in the Upper Great Plains of the U.S. Kantrud (1993) studied duck nest success in CRP cover and concluded that nest success was higher than in planted cover on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Waterfowl Production Areas (WPAs). Johnson and Schwartz (1993a) measured the use of CRP fields by nonwaterfowl birds and reported that several species have responded positively by colonizing CRP fields. They concluded that CRP has the potential to help reverse the population declines of several species. We investigated the importance of CRP to upland-nesting ducks and certain other grassland-nesting birds. For ducks, we compared nest success in CRP cover with nest success in planted cover on WPAs in the same period (1992-93) and with that of an earlier period (1980-84). For nonwaterfowl, we used BBS data to compare the trends in populations of certain species found in CRP, for the periods 1966-86 (pre-CRP cover establishment) and 1987-92 (post-CRP cover establishment) in North Dakota.

  17. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    budget. Although monthly totals for each method differed, estimated annual evapotranspiration averages ranged from 630 to 693 millimeters or about 70 percent of precipitation. Tritium concentrations in leaf water from on-site plants were determined for 125 vegetation samples collected during the summers of 1982 through 1986. Concentrations varied significantly among some locations and plant types. Tritium concentrations ranged from the detection limit of 0 .2 to 1,330 nanocuries per liter, with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) having the highest concentrations, followed by brome grass (Bromus inermis), and then red clover (Trifoleum pratense); these variations in concentration are most likely a result of root depth. Runoff and sediment transport were measured from July 1982 through December 1985 in four basins--three comprising almost two-thirds of the 8.1-hectare site and one comprising a 1.4-hectare undisturbed area. Volumes and equivalent weights of collapses were estimated from records of site surficial conditions from October 1978 through December 1985. Runoff showed a direct relation to degree of land modification; lowest mean yields were measured at the undisturbed area, and highest mean yields were measured from the basin composed wholly of trench and intertrench areas. Sediment yield measured onsite averaged 3.4 megagrams per hectare. A total of 315 collapse cavities, corresponding to a cumulative volume of about 500 cubic meters, were documented. Most collapses were recorded after periods of rainfall or snowmelt when soil moisture was near maximum. Almost two-thirds of the collapses, corresponding to 63 percent of the cumulative cavity volume, occurred during February through April. Data for the study of water movement through a trench cover were collected from July 1982 through June 1934. Pressure-head data were collected at four different clusters at depths ranging from 50 to 1,850 millimeters within a selected trench cover. Soil-moisture content f

  18. Hydrological behavior of a Vertisol under different soil management systems in a rain-fed olive orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Jose Manuel; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil water availability is a major subject in Mediterranean agricultural systems, mainly due to the limited and highly variable annual rainfall, high evaporative demand, and soil hydrological characteristics. The recent expansion of olive cultivation in the rolling-plains of the Guadalquivir valley, due to the higher profitability of new intensive olive orchards, expanded the presence of olive orchards on Vertisols, soils traditionally used for annual rain-fed crops. These soils have a high content of smectitic clays, which give them a high water storage capacity, and are characterized by vertical and deep shrinkage cracks in the dry season, associated to low soil moisture. Farmers make several tillage passes in these olive groves during the summer, in order to cover the cracks and thus reduce soil water loss by evaporation, which will impact especially in rain-fed in the next olive yield. This tillage practice involves removal of plant residues from the soil surface, as well as burying seeds produced by the plants, so this will remain bared at the beginning of the rainy season, when in the Mediterranean climate is frequent occurrence of high-intensity rainfall, which are ideal conditions for soil loss by water erosion, one of the most serious problems for the sustainability of olive cultivation in Andalusia. Although there are some studies showing that water loss by evaporation from deep horizons of a vertic soil might be elevated (eg. Ritchie and Adams, 1974), the presence of plant residues on the soil surface drastically reduced soil water loss (eg Adams et al., 1969). Thus the aim of this study was to assess of soil moisture dynamics in a rain-fed olive orchard growing on a Vertisol under different soil management practices, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Four different soil management treatments were applied, which combined a cover crop (Bromus rubens L.) or bare soil throughout the year by applying herbicides, with tillage in summer to cover the cracks or non

  19. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  20. Final Report for Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation Treatment Monitoring of the Keeney Pass, Cow Hollow, Double Mountain, and Farewell Bend Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    2006 and 0.09 plants/m2 in 2008. Density of seeded perennial grasses at the Double Mountain non-native and native seeding were 2.72 and 3.86 plants/m2 in 2006 and 0.90 and 1.74 plants/m2 in 2008, respectively. The Farewell Bend non-native seeding resulted in 5.62 plants/m2 in 2006 and 0.42 plants/m2 in 2008 while the native seeding had 2.22 seeded grass plants/m2 in 2006 and 0.44 plants/m2 by 2008. The primary reason for low level of establishment on most treatments except the Cow Hollow seeding was most likely the unfavorable timing and amount of precipitation in 2007 and 2008. Measurements of density within the first 3 years provide the best estimate of initial seeding success. Increases in cover due to the seedings were not detectable in the first 3 years following seeding in this monitoring effort. Changes in cover resulting from the treatments may be detectable in cases where the seedings were very successful in the first 3 years following seeding, but in areas with lower annual average precipitation, may not occur consistently. As a result, cover of seeded species may not be a good indication of seeding success in the early years after treatment. However, cover is useful for monitoring initial patterns of abundance of naturally recovering vegetation, exotic annual grasses and forbs, and bare ground. Cover measurements at these four sites revealed patterns common to most of the treatment areas in cover of litter, bare ground, and exotic annuals in response to drill seeding and weather patterns. There was a rapid increase in litter at all treatments after the fire. Additionally, there was less litter in treatment plots than in the control plots in 2006 probably due to the mechanical action of the seed drill. There also was a corresponding decrease in bare ground from 2006 to 2008. Initially, higher bare ground cover at treatment plots appears to be due to the mechanical action of the seed drill. Cover of annual grasses, primarily Bromus tectorum,