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Sample records for bromocriptine

  1. Bromocriptine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromocriptine (Parlodel) is used to treat symptoms of hyperprolactinemia (high levels of a natural substance called prolactin ... function). Bromocriptine (Parlodel) may be used to treat hyperprolactinemia caused by certain types of tumors that produce ...

  2. Bromocriptine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... program and sometimes with other medications to control blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes (condition ... a serious condition that may develop if high blood sugar is not treated). Bromocriptine is in a class ...

  3. Recurrent prolactinoma and meningioma following irradiation and bromocriptine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, J.; Dluhy, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    This case report describes a 45-year-old man with a massive extrasellar prolactinoma, treated initially with surgery and radiotherapy, who experienced a dramatic reduction of the bulk of his tumor but persistence and subsequent progression of an extrasellar portion while receiving long-term bromocriptine therapy, despite stable, suppressed prolactin levels. Although the residual tumor was thought to be adenomatous tissue unresponsive to bromocriptine, a meningioma was ultimately diagnosed. Because the meningioma may have been radiation-induced, clinicians are reminded to consider a second neoplasm in cases of apparent bromocriptine treatment failures, especially when prolactin levels are stable.

  4. Prolactinoma during pregnancy causing compression symptoms responding to bromocriptine therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A woman with pituitary macroadenoma causing pressure symptoms and a partial right third cranial nerve palsy during pregnancy is described. Complete resolution occurred using oral bromocriptine therapy alone and the remainder of the pregnancy was uneventful.

  5. Bromocriptine as a new therapeutic agent for peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a poorly understood, rare disorder in which left ventricular systolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure occur between the last month of pregnancy and the first 5 months postpartum. Recent data suggest that uncontrolled oxidative stress leads to the activation of the prolactin cleaving enzyme cathepsin D that in turn leads to an increase in a cleaved 16 kDa prolactin. This cleaved form that has an angiostatic and proapoptotic role appears to drive the disease by adversely impacting the endothelium and cardiomyocyte. Bromocriptine that reduces the prolactin production by dopamine agonist actions may improve outcomes in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy by eliminating the cleaved form of prolactin despite the activation of the cleaving enzyme. In limited case reports and proof of concept studies use of bromocriptine in the early stages has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy. However, larger randomized control study is still awaited.

  6. Transient intrasellar collection of air during bromocriptine treatment of a prolactinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagel, W.J.; Smith, S.J.; Vijver, J.C.M. van der; Hekster, R.E.M.

    1986-07-01

    A patient is described with a large prolactinoma with expansion into the sphenoid sinus. During bromocriptine treatment an intrastellar area of gas developed, continuous with the air in the sinus. No operation was performed, bromocriptine was continued. During the regression of the tumor, the area of air disappeared.

  7. Caveolin-1 sensitizes rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells to bromocriptine induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mu-Chiou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactinoma is the most frequent pituitary tumor in humans. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine has been widely used clinically to treat human breast tumor and prolactinoma through inhibition of hyperprolactinemia and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, respectively, but the molecular mechanism of bromocriptine induction of pituitary tumor apoptosis remains unclear. Caveolin-1 is a membrane-anchored protein enriched on caveolae, inverted flask-shaped invaginations on plasma membranes where signal transduction molecules are concentrated. Currently, caveolin-1 is thought to be a negative regulator of cellular proliferation and an enhancer of apoptosis by blocking signal transduction between cell surface membrane receptors and intracellular signaling protein cascades. Rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells, which express endogenous caveolin-1, exhibit increased apoptosis and shrinkage after exposure to bromocriptine. Hence, the GH3 cell line is an ideal model for studying the molecular action of bromocriptine on prolactinoma. Results The expression of endogenous caveolin-1 in GH3 cells was elevated after bromocriptine treatment. Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. Significantly, caveolin-1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis was sensitized by the administration of bromocriptine. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 may contribute to sensitization of apoptosis in GH3 cells exposed to bromocriptine. Conclusion Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may contribute to tumor shrinkage after clinical bromocriptine treatment.

  8. Study to assess the role of bromocriptine in treatment of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Kumar Pathak

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: From this study, we concluded that individually both metformin and bromocriptine were effective in controlling hyperglycemia but metformin was better in achieving normal mean FBS. Further studies are required to ascertain the consistency in hypoglycemic effect of bromocriptine as well as its effect in lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes. Study taking different doses of bromocriptine or with increasing the duration of study can elaborate its role in achieving proper glycemic control over time. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 423-428

  9. Bromocriptine and low dose cyclosporine in the treatment of experimental autoimmune uveitis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Palestine, A G; Muellenberg-Coulombre, C G; Kim, M K; Gelato, M C; Nussenblatt, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    The immunologic effects of bromocriptine and low dose cyclosporine on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced in Lewis rats by S-antigen immunization were studied. Rats treated with a sub-optimal dose (low dose) of cyclosporine (2 mg/kg per d), bromocriptine (1.8 mg/kg per d), or both drugs were compared with untreated rats in regard to the development of EAU, lymphocyte proliferative responses, and anti-S-antigen serum antibodies. Bromocriptine alone decreased the incidence of EAU only...

  10. The role of hypertension in bromocriptine-related puerperal intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spate of medicolegal inquiries following the disqualification of Parlodel (bromocriptine mesylate) by the Food and Drug Administration for postpartum ablactation, uncovered previously unreported side effects associated with its postpartum administration. In 1994, bromocriptine mesylate was withdrawn from the market as a milk suppressant. Since this time, over a dozen cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhages associated with its use have been reported. We describe three additional cases of postpartum intracranial hemorrhage related to bromocriptine usage. One patient, previously normotensive, developed hypertension and a headache; initial CT was normal, but CT 24 h later demonstrated intracranial hemorrhage. This suggests that the blood-pressure elevation was drug-induced and was the cause, rather than the consequence, of bromocriptine-related intracranial hemorrhage. (orig.)

  11. CT follow-up of microprolactinomas during bromocriptine-induced pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years complete or partial regression of prolactinomas has been demonstrated in nonpregnant women treated by bromocriptine. Thus bromocriptine therapy appears as an attractive alternative to surgery for management of infertility related to hyperprolactinemia. However, numerous reports emphasized the possibility of an excessive growth of the pituitary adenoma with visual field defects during the last 3 months of pregnancy. To avoid these complications, the authors followed with serial CT scans the growth of microprolactinoma at the 5th of 6th month of pregnancy. Among six pregnant women, one patient presented a marked upward extension of the adenoma. Bromocriptine was then reintroduced and the effectiveness in reducing tumor growth was proved by CT scan at the 7th month. Regarding low risk of using intravenous iodinated contrast medium in pregnant women and of fetal radiation damage, the authors emphasize the value of CT in the follow-up of bromocriptine-induced pregnancies. (orig.)

  12. CT follow-up of microprolactinomas during bromocriptine-induced pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Bonneville, J.F.; Portha, C.; Cattin, F.; Mollet, E.

    1983-06-01

    In the last few years complete or partial regression of prolactinomas has been demonstrated in nonpregnant women treated by bromocriptine. Thus bromocriptine therapy appears as an attractive alternative to surgery for management of infertility related to hyperprolactinemia. However, numerous reports emphasized the possibility of an excessive growth of the pituitary adenoma with visual field defects during the last 3 months of pregnancy. To avoid these complications, the authors followed with serial CT scans the growth of microprolactinoma at the 5th of 6th month of pregnancy. Among six pregnant women, one patient presented a marked upward extension of the adenoma. Bromocriptine was then reintroduced and the effectiveness in reducing tumor growth was proved by CT scan at the 7th month. Regarding low risk of using intravenous iodinated contrast medium in pregnant women and of fetal radiation damage, the authors emphasize the value of CT in the follow-up of bromocriptine-induced pregnancies.

  13. Effects of dopamine agonist bromocriptine on alcohol induced stress ulcer lesions in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Piperski; Mira Popovic; Radoslav Mittic

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Stress ulcers represent acute lesions of gastric mucosa resulting from influence of various factors: burn, surgical operation, trauma, shock, severe metabolic disorders, drug administration, etc. Alcohol causes stress gastric ulcerations and hemorrhage. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and mild D1 receptor antagonist, has been shown to be an effective protective factor against stress ulcerogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bromocriptin...

  14. AB086. The effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jun; Liu, Cundong; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yanping; Ye, Yunlin; Liu, Cundong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia. Methods A total of 46 patients with erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia were divided into a treatment group (n=23) and a control group (n=23), both treated by bromocriptine and the former given Xuanju compound capsule in addition. After treatment for 12 weeks, comparison were made in erectile function, serum prolactin level and serum testosterone in two groups. Results Compared with those before treatment, the erectile function after treatment was significantly improved in two groups (P0.05). Serum testosterone after treatment in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (Phyperprolactinemia, and the effect was better than bromocriptine.

  15. Effects of bromocriptine on hepatic cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moochhala, S M; Lee, E J; Hu, G T; Koh, O S; Becket, G

    1989-02-01

    We have evaluated the in vitro effects of bromocriptine (Br), on the hepatic cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system of rats pretreated with saline phenobarbitone (PB) and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). Br inhibited ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in liver microsomes of rats pretreated with saline and PB but not in BNF pretreated animals. Maximum inhibition of EROD activity by Br in the microsomes of saline and PB pretreated rats were 50%-60% of the control. In contrast, a dual effect was observed on aminopyrine N-demethylase activity (APD) by Br in microsomes of saline, PB and BNF pretreated rats. At a low concentration (25 microM), Br inhibited the activity of APD to a similar extent in all pretreatment groups; however, with higher concentrations of Br (50 microM to 300 microM), enhancement of APD activity was observed. Br (300 microM) increased the APD activity to 2-3 times the control level in microsomes of rats pretreated with saline, PB or BNF. Spectral studies revealed a Type II binding of Br to cytochrome P-450 from microsomes of saline and PB pretreated rats. A reverse type I binding was observed for BNF induced microsomes. In addition, Br also enhanced NADPH cytochrome c (P-450) reductase activity to a similar extent in all pretreatment groups. These results suggest that the inhibition of EROD activity may be due to direct binding by Br to certain isozymes of cytochrome P-450 and that the enhancing effect of Br on APD activity may be in part due to the activation of the NADPH cytochrome c reductase component of the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system. PMID:2499727

  16. Effect of bromocriptine alginate nanocomposite (BANC) on a transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Hasan Siddique; Wasi Khan; Ambreen Fatima; Smita Jyoti; Saba Khanam; Falaq Naz; De Rahul; Fahad Ali; Braj Raj Singh; Alim Hussain Naqvi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, administered in the form of bromocriptine alginate nanocomposite (BANC) was studied on Parkinson's disease (PD) model flies. The synthesized BANC was subject to characterization and, at a final concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 µM, was mixed in diet. The PD flies were allowed to feed on it for 24 days. A significant dose-dependent delay in the loss of climbing activity and activity pattern was observed in PD flies exposed to 0.5, 1.0 a...

  17. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  18. Comparison of cabergoline and bromocriptine in patients with asymptomatic incidental hyperprolactinemia undergoing ICSI-ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahceci, Mustafa; Sismanoglu, Alper; Ulug, Ulun

    2010-07-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes of in vitro fertilisation in groups of women with asymptomatic incidentally discovered hyperprolactinaemia (AIH) undergoing ovarian stimulation and ICSI-ET relative to the types of dopamine agonist and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue used. Of 5840 women who underwent COH and ICSI-ET, 239 were included in the study; 122 had been treated with cabergoline, and 117 with bromocriptine, during the COH. The mean age, duration of stimulation, and total number of gonadotropin ampules employed were comparable in the two groups using the agonist and antagonist protocols, as were the number of oocytes retrieved and the proportion of mature MII and fertilised (2pn) oocytes. There were no significant differences in implantation, pregnancy, and miscarriage rates between the agonist and antagonist arms of the study. The cost of treatment was significantly higher with cabergoline than with bromocriptine (p = 0.0001). However, side effect rate was significantly higher with bromocriptine than with cabergoline (15.3% vs. 2.5%; p = 0.0004). In conclusion, we found that cabergoline and bromocriptine showed no differences in IVF outcomes and pregnancy results in patients with AIH. PMID:20459348

  19. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI) 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL). All patient...

  20. Effect of bromocriptine in patients with apomorphine-responsive erectile impotence: an open study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, S; Kiely, M E; Thavundayil, J X; Stewart, J. D.; Assalian, P; Ackman, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    An open pilot study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effect of the dopaminergic agent, bromocriptine (BC), in impotent patients who developed an erectile response to the dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine. Eight out of 17 patients reported improvement in ability to obtain an erection; five of these 8 subjects were able to achieve penetration. The optimum dose of BC was 2.5 - 11.25 mg/day. A double-blind placebo-controlled study is merited.

  1. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  2. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

  3. Bromocriptine, a Dopamine (d2) Receptor Agonist, Used Alone and in Combination with Glipizide in Sub–Therapeutic Doses to Ameliorate Hyperglycaemia

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    Kumar V.S., Harish; M.B., Vinutha; A.N., Pradeep; Aithal, Sathisha; Baleed, Sindhura Reddy; Patil, Umakant N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, is an agonist at the dopamine 2 receptor and a sympatholytic. It is a well established drug in Parkinsonism, hyperprolactinaemia and acromegaly and it has various other clinical indications like induction of ovulation in female infertility. Bromocriptine has been evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic rats for its anti-hyperglycaemic effect with and without simultaneous use of glipizide.

  4. AB236. The effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jun; Liu, Cundong; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yanping; Ye, Yunlin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Xuanju compound capsule combined with bromocriptine on erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia. Methods Forty-six patients with erectile dysfunction due to hyperprolactinemia were divided into a treatment group (n=23) and a control group (n=23), both treated by bromocriptine and the former given Xuanju compound capsule in addition. After treatment for 12 weeks, comparison were made in erectile function, serum prolactin level and serum testosterone in two groups. Results Compared with those before treatment, the erectile function after treatment was significantly improved in two groups (P0.05). Serum testosterone after treatment in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (Phyperprolactinemia, and the effect was better than bromocriptine.

  5. Effect of bromocriptine on PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas. Analysis by CT scan

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    Niwa, Jun; Sato, Osamu; Daibo, Masahiko; Inoue, Yoshitoshi; Tanabe, Sumiyoshi (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    The effect of bromocriptine on the CT scan was examined in eight patients with prolactinsecreting pituitary adenomas. All the patients showed a high serum PRL level (> 30 ng/ml) after surgical treatment. Bromocriptine was administered at the rate of from 7.5 to 25 mg per day. The effects on the CT scan and metrizamide CT cisternography were then evaluated. The data suggest: (1) The effect of bromocriptine on the CT scan was shown in the reduction of enhanced area or the decrease in the enhanced density, and it was classified into three types: Type I showed a reduction of the enhanced area, Type II showed a decrease in the enhanced density, and Type III showed no change on the CT sacn. When the shrinkage of the adenoma was examined by means of metrizamide CT cisternography, Type I showed an actual shrinkage of the adenoma, but Type II showed only a pseudoshrinkage of the adenoma. Thus, the shrinkage of the adenoma should be determined by metrizamide CT cisternography. (2) The normalization of the serum PRL level was related to the effect on the CT scan, but it occurred before the effect on the CT scan. Therefore, the normalization of the serum PRL level can not be used to distinguish between Type I and Type II. (3) An initial shrinkage of the adenoma occurred within one or two months, and there was a notable shrinkage by nine months after treatment. A change from an enhanced high density to isodensity occurred by one month and to a low density by seven months after treatment, therefore, a reduction in the enhanced density occurred earlier than a decrease in the enhanced area.

  6. Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

  7. Lack of tumor reduction in hyperprolactinemic women with extrasellar macroadenomas treated with bromocriptine

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    Boulanger, C.M.; Mashchak, C.A.; Chang, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    Three patients with hyperprolactinemia and large extrasellar pituitary macroadenomas were treated with bromocriptine, 10 mg daily, for 8 weeks. In spite of correction of their amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, radiologic evaluation by CT scan failed to show evidence of tumor shrinkage. After surgical resection, histologic examination revealed that PRL-secreting cells comprised only a small portion of the tumor cell population in two patients and in the third patient were completely absent. These cases illustrate that large nonfunctional pituitary tumors may mimic signs and symptoms of a prolactinoma and stress the importance of adequate radiologic evaluation during medical management. 8 references, 3 figures.

  8. Lack of tumor reduction in hyperprolactinemic women with extrasellar macroadenomas treated with bromocriptine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients with hyperprolactinemia and large extrasellar pituitary macroadenomas were treated with bromocriptine, 10 mg daily, for 8 weeks. In spite of correction of their amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, radiologic evaluation by CT scan failed to show evidence of tumor shrinkage. After surgical resection, histologic examination revealed that PRL-secreting cells comprised only a small portion of the tumor cell population in two patients and in the third patient were completely absent. These cases illustrate that large nonfunctional pituitary tumors may mimic signs and symptoms of a prolactinoma and stress the importance of adequate radiologic evaluation during medical management. 8 references, 3 figures

  9. Effect of bromocriptine alginate nanocomposite (BANC) on a transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Khan, Wasi; Fatima, Ambreen; Jyoti, Smita; Khanam, Saba; Naz, Falaq; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim Hussain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, administered in the form of bromocriptine alginate nanocomposite (BANC) was studied on Parkinson's disease (PD) model flies. The synthesized BANC was subject to characterization and, at a final concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 µM, was mixed in diet. The PD flies were allowed to feed on it for 24 days. A significant dose-dependent delay in the loss of climbing activity and activity pattern was observed in PD flies exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 µM BANC. The PD flies exposed to BANC also showed a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity, and an increase in glutathione content. However, no gross morphological changes were observed in the brains of PD flies compared with controls. The results suggest that BANC is effective in reducing the PD symptoms in these transgenic flies. PMID:26542705

  10. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  11. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-[11C]methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells

  12. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.G.; Gee, A.D.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B5

    1987-09-01

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-(/sup 11/C)methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

  13. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Nunes, Vania; El Dib, Regina; Boguszewski, César Luiz; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2011-09-01

    Cabergoline and bromocriptine are the most used drugs in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, they are able to normalize the prolactin levels, restore gonadal function and promote tumor reduction in the majority of patients. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare cabergoline versus bromocriptine in the treatment of patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. The data sources were: Embase, Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Central. The outcome measures were: normalization of prolactin secretion, restoration of gonadal function, reduction of tumoral volume, quality of life and adverse drug effects. Were identified 418 references and after screening by title and abstract, we obtained complete copies of 34 articles potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. From this total, 19 were selected to be included, but fifteen of them were excluded due to the following reasons: one randomized study compared cabergoline versus placebo and other randomized study compared different doses of cabergoline; five references were cases series; four were only controlled studies; three were retrospectives series and; one was a cohort study. Therefore, four publications were included in the review and in the final analysis. The meta-analysis of normalization of serum prolactin levels and menstruation with return of ovulatory cycle showed a significant difference in favor of cabergoline group (RR 0.67 [CI 95% 0.57, 0.80]) e (RR 0.74 [CI 95% 0.67, 0.83]), respectively. The number of adverse effects was significantly higher in the bromocriptine number than in cabergoline group (RR 1.43 [CI 95% 1.03, 1.98]). The meta-analysis showed new evidence favoring the use of cabergoline in comparison with bromocriptine for the treatment of prolactinomas and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. PMID:21221817

  14. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

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    Patricia A. Broderick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neurotransmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, homovanillic acid (HVA a metabolite of DA, L-tryptophan (L-TP a precursor to 5-HT and peptides, dynorphin A 1-17 (Dyn A and somatostatin (somatostatin releasing inhibitory factor (SRIF. Each neurotransmitter and neurochemical was imaged at a signature electroactive oxidation/half-wave potential in dorsal striatum of the PD as compared with the non-PD animal. Both endogenous and bromocriptine-treated neurochemical profiles in PD and non-PD were imaged using the same experimental paradigm and detection sensitivities. Results showed that we have found significant neurotransmitter peptide biomarkers in the dorsal striatal brain of endogenous and bromocriptine-treated PD animals. The peptide biomarkers were not imaged in dorsal striatal brain of non-PD animals, either endogenously or bromocriptine-treated. These findings provide new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for PD patients. Thus, our findings are highly applicable to the clinical treatment of PD.

  15. The effects of perphenazine and bromocriptine on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles in anestrous pony mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Wimbush, K; Loch, W E; Plata-Madrid, H; Evans, T

    1998-03-01

    Nineteen anestrous pony mares were used in a project designed to determine the effects of altered prolactin concentrations on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles during spring transition. The dopamine antagonist, perphenazine, was administered daily to mares (0.375 mg/kg body weight) in Group A (n = 6), while Group B mares (n = 7) received 0.08 mg/kg metabolic weight (kg75) dopamine agonist, 2-bromo-ergocriptine, intramuscularly twice daily. Mares in Group C (n = 6) received 0.08 mg/kg75, i.m., saline twice daily. Treatment began January 20, 1994, and continued until ovulation occurred. Mares were teased 3 times weakly with an intact stallion. The ovaries of the ponies were palpated and imaged weekly using an ultrasonic B-mode unit with a 5 Mhz intrarectal transducer until they either exhibited estrual behavior and had at least a 20-mm follicle, or had at least a 25-mm follicle with no signs of estrus. At this time, ovaries were palpated and imaged 4 times weekly. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to ultrasonic imaging for measurement of prolactin, FSH and estradiol-17 beta. Perphenazine treatment advanced the spring transitional period and subsequent ovulation by approximately 30 d. Group A exhibited the onset of estrual behavior earlier (P mares. In addition, Group A mares developed large follicles (> 30 mm) earlier (P mares, with least square means for Groups A and B of 47.0 +/- 8.8 vs 88.1 +/- 8.2 d, respectively. Control mares developed 30-mm follicles intermediate to Groups A and B at 67.3 +/- 8.8 d. Bromocriptine decreased (P < 0.05) plasma prolactin levels throughout the study, while perphenazine had no significant overall effect. However, perphenazine treatment did increase (P < 0.05) mean plasma prolactin concentrations from Day 31 to 60 of treatment. There were no differences in mean plasma FSH or estradiol-17 beta between treatment groups. We concluded that daily perphenazine treatment hastened the growth of follicles and subsequent

  16. Effects of bromocriptine and radiation on the size and activity of estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas

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    Hori, Tomokatsu; Numata, Hideharu; Hokama, Yasuo; Muraoka, Kiyoaki; Saito, Yoshikazu (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Kawamoto, Kaoru

    1985-01-01

    Estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas were produced after seven weekly injections of 2.5 mg of estradiol valerate. The rats were treated with various combinations of therapeutic agents. They were divided into four groups including the bromocriptine (CB) treated group, irradiated group, combined CB and radiation treated group, and finally the control group. Serum concentrations of prolactin and weights of tumors containing pituitary tissues were measured and statistically compared. The suppressing effect of CB against prolactinomas was well demonstrated in their hormonal activities. But it alone was not effective in reducing the size of prolactinomas. Concerning irradiation, on the 17th day it alone was not effective in reducing hormonal activities of rat prolactinomas. In the chronic stage, on the 30th day radiation alone was effective in reducing hormonal activity. Throughout the experiment CB was more potent than radiation in reducing hormonal activity. Concerning the size reducing effect, combined use of CB with radiation was significantly effective. If CB is not sufficient in reducing the size and hormonal activity of human prolactinoma, its combined use with radiation may be suggested.

  17. Bromocriptine induces parapoptosis as the main type of cell death responsible for experimental pituitary tumor shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromocriptine (Bc) produces pituitary tumoral mass regression which induces the cellular death that was classically described as apoptosis. However, recent works have related that other mechanisms of cell death could also be involved in the maintenance of physiological and pathological pituitary homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the different types of cell death in the involution induced by Bc in experimental rat pituitary tumors. The current study demonstrated that Bc induced an effective regression of estrogen induced pituitary tumors by a mechanism identified as parapoptosis. This alternative cell death was ultrastructurally recognized by extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and an increased cell electron density, represented around 25% of the total pituitary cells counted. Furthermore, the results obtained from biochemical assays did not correspond to the criteria of apoptosis or necrosis. We also investigated the participation of p38, ERK1/2 and PKCδ in the parapoptotic pathway. An important observation was the significant increase in phosphorylated forms of these MAPKs, the holoenzyme and catalytic fragments of PKCδ in nuclear fractions after Bc administration compared to control and estrogen treated rats. Furthermore, the immunolocalization at ultrastructural level of these kinases showed a similar distribution pattern, with a prevalent localization at nuclear level in lactotrophs from Bc treated rats. In summary, we determined that parapoptosis is the predominant cell death type involved in the regression of pituitary tumors in response to Bc treatment, and may cause the activation of PKCδ, ERK1/2 and p38.

  18. An SLE patient with prolactinoma and recurrent granulomatous mastitis successfully treated with hydroxychloroquine and bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-N; Shi, T-Y; Yang, Y-J; Zhang, F-C

    2014-04-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a rare benign mammary lesion in which autoimmunity and hyperprolactinemia are considered possible etiological factors. GM has a high frequency of relapse and may lead to chronic ulceration and fistula if not treated properly. Here we report a case of a 22-year-old systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient with three years' disease duration, stable on prednisone and hydroxychloroquine, who was found to have prolactinoma and recurrent GM after she discontinued medication on her own accord. The patient subsequently recovered and remained free of GM relapse under treatment of prednisone, hydroxychloroquine and bromocriptine. Though autoimmune disorders and prolactinoma were reported in GM, a coexisting condition of SLE, prolactinoma, and granulomatous mastitis has rarely been observed in one patient. We suggest our case as an illustrative example of the complex interaction between autoimmunity, neuroendocrine dysfunction, and manifestations in the breast: Immunological disturbances in the background of SLE, coupled with elevated prolactin levels secondary to a prolactinoma, may have predisposed the patient to the development of GM. The mammary lesion recovered and maintained free of relapse under immunosuppressive and antiprolactinemic therapy. PMID:24446305

  19. Growth hormone responses to hp GRF 1-44 amide, bromocriptine and stress in acromegaly are correlated.

    OpenAIRE

    Belchetz, P E

    1987-01-01

    The results of testing growth hormone (GH) reserve using human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor 1-44 amide (hp GRF 1-44 amide) have been compared with the GH responses in a variety of other dynamic tests in seven acromegalic patients. The GH release following hp GRF 1-44 amide correlated with the GH suppression following bromocriptine, but showed an inverse correlation with the GH release following stress tests (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia/glucagon). There was no correlation betwe...

  20. Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Bromocriptine in Diabetic Patients with Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Oliva; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge E.; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Avila-Diaz, Marcela; Prado-Uribe, Carmen; Belio-Caro, Francisco; Salinas-González, Antonio; Vega-Gomez, Helios; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; Lindholm, Bengt; García-López, Elvia; Paniagua, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine (BEC) on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and residual renal function (RRF) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research Design and Methods. A 6-month double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in 28 patients with T2D and stage 4 CKD with increased LVMI. Fourteen patients received BEC (2.5 mg, initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day) and 14 received a placebo (PBO; initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day). Cardiovascular changes were assessed by monitoring 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, two-dimensional-guided M-mode echocardiography, and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma levels. RRF was evaluated by creatinine clearance and cystatin-C plasma levels. Results. Both BEC and PBO groups decreased blood pressure—but the effect was more pronounced in the BEC group. Average 24 h, diurnal and nocturnal blood pressures, and circadian profile showed improved values compared to the PBO group; LVMI decreased by 14% in BEC and increased by 8% in PBO group. NT-proBNP decreased in BEC (0.54 ± 0.15 to 0.32 ± 0.17 pg/mL) and increased in PBO (0.37 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.17 pg/mL). Creatinine clearance did not change in the BEC group and decreased in the PBO group. Conclusions. BEC resulted in a decrease on blood pressure and LVMI. BEC also prevented the progression of CKD while maintaining the creatinine clearance unchanged. PMID:23984312

  1. Bromocriptine mitigated paliperidone metabolic and neuro-hormonal side effects and improved negative domain in a case of early onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguy, Ahmed; Al-Tajali, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of early onset schizophrenia that responded favourably to paliperidone but experienced hyperprolactinaemia, tremors, and weight gain, with impaired fasting glycaemia. Addition of bromocriptine helped with both hyperprolactinaemia and tremors, but also brought about euglycaemia and, strikingly, ameliorated negative symptoms. PMID:26573387

  2. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  3. The effect of octreotide and bromocriptine on expression of a pro-apoptotic Bax protein in rat prolactinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kunert-Radek

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that disruption of apoptosis may lead to tumor initiation, progression or metastasis. It is also well documented that many anticancer drugs induce apoptosis. In the earlier studies, the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine (BC and somatostatin analog octreotide (OCT were found to inhibit the growth of the estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma. Our previous investigations, applying the TUNEL method showed the involvement of the pro-apoptotic effect in the action of BC, and to a lesser degree, in the action of OCT. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the pro-apoptotic action of these drugs involves the increased expression of Bax--a member of Bcl-2 protein family which is known to play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. Male four-week Fisher 344 rats were used in the experiment. Capsules containing diethylstilboestrol (DES were implanted subcutaneously. Six weeks after the implantation the rats were given OCT (2 x 25 microg/animal/24, BC (3 mg/kg b.w./24 h or OCT and BC at the above doses for 10 days. Bax expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Prolactin (PRL in blood serum was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. It has been found that both OCT and BC, alone or in combination, significantly reduce the tumor weight. Both OCT and BC suppressed PRL levels, but the inhibitory effect of BC was stronger than that of OCT. It has been found that the treatment with OCT and BC, alone or in combination, causes a significant increase in Bax expression in the rat prolactinoma cells. Our findings indicate that anti-tumoral action of bromocriptine and to some extent the action of octreotide in the experimental rat prolactinoma is connected with the induction of apoptosis and is associated with increased Bax expression.

  4. „Mid-stimulation psychosis” in the course of in vitro fertilization procedure with the use of clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine – case study

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    Holka-Pokorska, Justyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A few cases of psychosis induced by clomiphene citrate have been described so far. However, data on the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among women treated for infertility are inconclusive. Still a little is known about possible psychiatric complications of medications used in assisted reproduction techniques (ART. We present a case of a patient who developed transient psychotic symptoms in the course of the in vitro fertilization procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ‘mid-stimulation psychosis’, which has been observed during ART using clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine. The aim of this study is to describe the determinants of pharmacotherapy undertaken in ART, which can result in the development of psychotic symptoms. Methods. The case presentation Conclusions. The use of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in combination with bromocriptine used for chronic hyperprolactinemia is a likely mechanism that might have triggered psychotic symptoms in the case presented. However, combination therapy with clomiphen citrate and bromocriptine may be the pharmacological model of hyper-dopaminergia followed by chaotic changes in serum estrogen levels and might lead to an increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors. The above therapeutic schema may increase susceptibility to the development of psychotic symptoms in treated women. This impact should be considered in the case of any psychotic complications in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques.

  5. Bromocriptine tablet of self-microemulsifying system adsorbed onto porous carrier to stimulate lipoproteins secretion for brain cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrangsalit, Sirigul; Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-07-01

    Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed to improve solubility, stimulate lipoprotein synthesis to promote lymphatic transport, avoid hepatic metabolism and target drug to brain. SME liquid containing castor oil, Tween(®) 80 and Cremophor(®) EL was prepared and then adsorbed onto solid carries, Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 or NeusilinUS2(®), yielding SME powders. The optimal ratios of SME liquid to carriers determined from flowability and scanning electron photomicrographs before tableting were 1.5:1, 2:1 and 2.5:1 for Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 and NeusilinUS2(®), respectively. Only Aeroperl(®)300 SME tablet had comparable dissolution to BM commercial tablet. From in vitro study in Caco-2 cells, fluorescein loaded SME tablet showed higher uptake than fluorescein loaded in either oil or surfactant. Although significantly lower amount of drug was permeated from SME tablet than from commercial tablet, higher drug uptake was obviously observed (Pbrain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (CTX TNA2) from drug loaded SME tablet when compared to commercial tablet (Pbrain via lymphatic transport by increasing the lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:25988280

  6. Effects of early and late neonatal bromocriptine treatment on hypothalamic neuropeptides, dopaminergic reward system and behavior of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janaine C; Lisboa, Patricia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Pinheiro, Cintia R; Fraga, Mabel C; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Franci, Celso R; Manhães, Alex C; Moura, Egberto G

    2016-06-14

    In humans, bromocriptine (BRO) is used as a treatment for many disorders, such as prolactinomas, even during pregnancy and lactation. Previously we demonstrated that maternal BRO treatment at the end of lactation programs offspring for obesity and several endocrine dysfunctions. Here, we studied the long-term effects of direct BRO injection in neonatal Wistar rats on their dopaminergic pathway, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at adulthood. Male pups were either s.c. injected with BRO (0.1μg/once daily) from postnatal day (PN) 1 to 10 or from PN11 to 20. Controls were injected with methanol-saline. Body mass, food intake, neuropeptides, dopamine pathway parameters, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were analyzed. The dopamine pathway was analyzed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS) at PN180. PN1-10 BRO-treated animals had normal body mass and adiposity but lower food intake and plasma prolactin (PRL). This group had higher POMC in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA, higher dopa decarboxylase (DDc), higher D2R and μu-opioid receptor in the NAc. Concerning behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM), BRO-treated animals displayed more anxiety-like behaviors. PN11-20 BRO-treated showed normal body mass and adiposity but higher food intake and plasma PRL. This group had lower POMC in the ARC, lower TH in the VTA and lower DAT in the NAc. BRO-treated animals showed less anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM. Thus, neonatal BRO injection, depending on the time of treatment, leads to different long-term dysfunctions in the dopaminergic reward system, food intake behavior and anxiety levels, findings that could be partially due to PRL and POMC changes. PMID:27038750

  7. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai-Ning; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Sze, Cho Wing; Tong, Yao; Tan, Qing-Rong; Feng, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Rui-Mei; Zhang, Ji-Zhi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2008-06-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect that occurs as a result of antipsychotic therapies, which often results in discontinuation. Empirical evidence has shown that some herbal medicines have suppressive effects on prolactin (PRL) hyperactivities. This study was designed to compare the herbal preparation called Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) with bromocriptine (BMT), a dopamine agonist widely used for PRL-secreting disorders, in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Twenty schizophrenic women who were under risperidone maintenance treatment, diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia (serum PRL levels >50 mug/L), and currently experiencing oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea were selected for the study. Subjects were randomized to additional treatment with PGD (45 g/d) followed by BMT (5 mg/d) or BMT followed by PGD at the same doses for 4 weeks each, with an interval of 4-week washout period between 2 treatment sessions. The severity of psychotic symptoms, adverse events, serum PRL, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone levels were examined at baseline and end point. Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction treatment produced a significant baseline-end point decrease in serum PRL levels, without exacerbating psychosis and changing other hormones, and the decreased amplitudes were similar to those of BMT (24% vs 21%-38%). Moreover, there was a significantly greater proportion of patients during PGD treatment than BMT treatment showing improvements on adverse effects associated with hyperprolactinemia (56% vs 17%, P = 0.037). These results suggest that the herbal therapy can yield additional benefits while having comparable efficacy in treating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:18480682

  8. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  9. Effect of Chinese Herbs Bu-shen on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of Decidue in Bromocriptine-induced Hypoprolactin Rat Abortion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-ming LI; Sui-qi GUI; Li-hui JIANG; Li-min LU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Chinese herbs on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of decidue in Bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactin abortion rat model from gene transcription level, and observe the changes of blood PRL, P, E2.Methods RT-PCR method was taken to analyses the differences of PRLR, PR, ER mRNA in decidue between model group (A group) and model + herbs group (A + H group); RIA was taken to measure the serum levels of PRL, P, E2.Results PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue of Group A was significantly lower than the A+H group (P0.05); the abortion rate of Group A was 67%, Group A+H was 17%, the difference was significant; as for the PRL and P level of day 7~10, the A group was significantly lower than the A+H group (P<0.05).Conclusion Bromocriptine could induce abortion by declining the blood PRL, P level and downregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue. Chinese herbs might maintain pregnancy by promoting PRL, P secretion and upregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue.

  10. Effect of Chinese Herbs Bu-shen on Expression of Pituitary PRL-R and PrRP-R in the Bromocriptine-induced Hypoprolactin Rat Abortion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yan WANG; Sui-qi GUI; Fang-xian LU; Li-min LU; Lin CAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Chinese herbs preparation Bu-shen on pituitary prolactin-releasing peptide receptor(PrRP-R) and prolactin receptor(PRL-R) expression in the bromocriptine-induced rat abortion modelMaterials & Methods Female SD rats were divided into five groups randomly. Group A,B,C and D were injected with bromocriptine [0.3 mg/(kg*d)] during the pregnant day 6~8, respectively. Group B was given powder of Bu-shen herbs [3 g/(kg*d)]. Group C was injected with prolactin (8 IU) twice a day and Group D with progesterone [(8 mg/kg*d) in the pregnant day 1~11. The rats in Group E were normal pregnant rats. All these rats were killed at the pregnant day 12 to observe the expression of PrRP-R, PRL-R from the pituitary using RT-PCR.Results The pregnant rate and total number of litters in Group A were significantly lower than those in Group B, C, D and E (P<0.01) and the expression of PrRP-R and PRL-R in the pituitary of Group A was higher than that of any other group.Conclusion Preparation Bu-shen plays a regulatory role in the secretion of prolactin possibly via modulating rats' hypothalamus and pituitary.

  11. Correlation between resistance to bromocriptine and plasma prolactin level in patients with prolactinoma.%垂体泌乳素腺瘤患者溴隐亭耐药与血清PRL水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张湘衡; 牟永告; 赛克; 杨群英; 魏大年; 蒋小兵; 钟鸣谷; 王振宁; 陈忠平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the relationships between resistance to bromocriptine and plasma prolactin level in patients with prolactinoma, so as to provide evidence for early diagnosis. Methods The clinical data of 105 patients with prolactinomas were collected. According the response to bromocriptine therapy, subjects were divided into bromocriptine - sensitive group ( n = 86 ) and bromocriptine - resistant group ( n = 19 ), respectively. The baseline plasma prolactin levels were analysed by t - test between the two groups. Results Significantly higher baseline prolactin level was observed in bromocriptine - sensitive group than that in bromocriptine - resistant group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion High plasma prolactin level predicts sensitive respond to bromocriptine therapy in patients with prolactinoma. However, biological correlative factors should be considered in prediction of the drug resistance. The conrrelation between expression of dopamine D2 receptor in tumor tissue and drug - resistance is worth further research.%目的 了解在对溴隐亭耐药和有效的泌乳素腺瘤患者间,早期血清PRL水平是否存在差异.方法 收集了105例垂体泌乳素腺瘤患者的临床资料,根据溴隐亭疗效分为有效组和耐药组,其中有效组86例,耐药组19例.对两组患者药物治疗前血清PRL水平进行比较.结果 有效组中患者早期血清PRL水平为(689.4±136.9)μg/L高于耐药组的(410.9±121.9)μg/L,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血清PRL水平高的患者可能对药物有敏感性倾向,但要准确预测耐药现象,还应当结合分子生物学相关指标.多巴胺D2受体及其两种亚型D2s(short)和D2l(long)在肿瘤组织中的表达水平与耐药现象的相关性,值得进一步研究.

  12. 溴隐亭对大鼠催乳素瘤细胞表达bcl-2、Bax的影响%Effect of bromocriptine on expression of Bax and bcl-2 in rat prolactinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 徐春; 梁立武; 程海梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究溴隐亭对大鼠催乳素(prolactinoma,PRL)瘤表达bcl-2、Bax的影响.方法 (1)用皮下植入17β-雌二醇的方法制备大鼠催乳素瘤模型,同时设立10只大鼠为对照组;(2)将成功诱发出催乳素瘤的大鼠随机分2组,分别给予自来水(安慰剂组)、溴隐亭(溴隐亭组)灌胃,对照组也给予安慰剂灌胃,用药4周后处死动物,垂体称重,测定PRL、Bax、bcl-2的表达水平.结果 (1)17β-雌二醇组大鼠血清PRL水平[(4236.9±416.9) vs (121.2±12.8) ng/ml]和垂体重量[(62.0±5.1) vs (13.8±1.2) mg]均明显高于对照组(P<0.01),证实17β-雌二醇组成功诱发出大鼠泌乳素瘤.(2)溴隐亭组血清PRL水平和垂体重量低于安慰剂组(P<0.01),bcl-2表达水平较安慰剂组明显下降[(1.8±0.5) vs (4.0±0.6),P<0.01],Bax表达水平明显增高[(4.5±0.6) vs ( 1.0±0.3),P<0.01].结论 抑制bcl-2的表达,刺激Bax的表达,从而促进催乳素瘤细胞的凋亡可能是溴隐亭抗催乳素瘤的重要机制之一.%Objective To study the effect of bromocriptine on expression of Bax and bcl -2 in rat prolactinoma. Methods Firstly, to develop prolactinoma rats model. Adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups at random. The rats in control group were subscutaneously implanted with a blank implant . Rats in 17 p - estradiol group were implanted with 17 p - estradiol - containing implants. Secondly, Rats in 17p - estradiol group were divided into two groups at random, i. e. placebo group and bromocriptine group. Water was given to rats in placebo group. Bromocriptine was orally adminstered to rats in bromocriptine group. After 4 weeks of treatment, all the animals were sacrificed. Each pituitary gland was weighed. Serum prolactin(PRL) levels were measured by RIA. Expression level of Bax and bcl -2 in pituitary tissue were measured by Western blotting. Results (1) The weights of pituitary gland and PRL levels in 17p - estradiol group were significantly higher than those

  13. Effect of Bromocriptine on the Expression of Pit-1 in Prolactinoma Rats%溴隐亭对大鼠泌乳素瘤表达Pit-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱文娟; 张绍峰; 徐春

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of bromocriptine on the expression of Pit-1 in prolactinoma rats. METHODS Firstly, to prepare prolactinoma model in rats. Adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups at random. The rats in control group were subseutaneously implanted with a blank implant. Rats in 17β-estradiol group were implanted with 17β-estradiol-contaimng implants. Secondly, rates in 17β-estradiol group were divided into two groups at random; model group and bromocriptine group. Water was administrated to rats in model group. Bromocriptine (0. 225 mg·kg-1·d-1 ) were orally administrated to rats in bromocriptine group, the rats in control group were orally administrated with water. After four weeks of treatment, all the animals were executed. Each pituitary gland was weighed. Serum prolactin( PRL) levels were measured by RIA method. Pit-1 mRNA levels in pituitary tissue were measured by RT-PCR method. RESULTS The weights of pituitary gland and PRL levels in 17β-estradiol group were individually higher than those in control group (P <0.001). The expression levels of Pit-1 mRNA in bromocriptine group was obviously lower than that in model group ( P < 0. 001). CONCLUSION Bromocriptine has potential preventive effect to estrogen-induced rat pro-lactinoma. The decrease of Pit-1 mRNA level may be involved in the mechanism of anti-prolactinoma effect of bromocriptine.%目的 研究溴隐亭对大鼠泌乳素瘤表达Pit-1的作用.方法 皮下植入17β-雌二醇制备大鼠泌乳素瘤模型,将成年雌性大鼠随机分为2组,正常对照组植入空白硅胶管,17β-雌二醇纽植入装有17β-雌二醇的硅胶管;将成功诱发出泌乳素瘤的17β-雌二醇大鼠随机分2组,分为模型组、溴隐亭组(0.225 mg· kg-1·d-1),用药4周后处死动物,垂体称重,用放免法测定血清泌乳素水平,用反转录聚合酶链反应方法分析组织垂体Pit-1的表达水平.结果 17β-雌二醇组大鼠血清泌乳素水平和垂体质

  14. Effectiveness and safety of bromocriptine on treating prolactinoma in China: systematic review and Meta - analysis%国内溴隐亭治疗垂体催乳素瘤的荟萃分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟亮; 袁芳; 张亚卓; 杨少华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bromocriptine on treating prolactinoma in China.Methods Case - controlled trials of bromocriptine on treating prolactinoma in China were collected,and systematic review and Meta - Analysis were conducted.Results A total of 8 case -control trials involving 1559 patients were included,and the average follow -up time was more than 6 months.As for the total effective rate and the incidence of side effects,no significant differences were found between bromocriptine and transsphenoidal microsurgery ( OR = O.80,95% CI:O.38 - 1.67,P = O.55 ) or (OR =3.70,95% CI:0.61 - 22.29,P =O.15),respectively. Conclusion Observational evidence supports that treatments of prolactinoma using bromocriptine compared to transsphenoidal microsurgery in China have no difference regarding the effective rate and the incidence of side effects.%目的 评价国内溴隐亭治疗垂体催乳素瘤的疗效和安全性.方法 搜集国内溴隐亭与经蝶窦入路显微手术治疗催乳素瘤的病例对照试验文献,对符合纳入标准的研究使用统计软件RevMan 5.1.0完成荟萃分析.结果 共纳入8篇回顾性对比分析文献研究,总计1 559例患者,平均随访时间6个月以上,利用随机效应模型进行荟萃分析,与经蝶窦入路显微手术组相比,溴隐亭组降低催乳素(PRL)分泌有效率的合并OR =0.80(95% CI:O.38 ~1.67),P=0.55,不良反应发生率的合并OR=3.70(95%CI:0.61~22.29),P=0.15.结论 国内的有限证据表明,与经蝶窦入路显微手术相比,口服溴隐亭在降低催乳素瘤患者血PRL水平和不良反应发生率方面差异没有统计学意义.

  15. Bromocriptine Mesylate Attenuates Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Phase 2a, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Research in Japanese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Nagata

    Full Text Available Bromocriptine mesylate (BRC, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist has been shown to confer neuroprotection, sustained motor function and slowed disease progression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS Here we report a first in human trial in ALS.A multicenter, Riluzole add-on, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 102-week extension BRC clinical trial.The trial was conducted between January 2009 and March 2012 on 36 Japanese ALS patients. A 12-week treatment with Riluzole observational period was followed by combined treatment (Riluzole + BRC; n = 29 or Riluzole + placebo; n = 7. The dosing commenced at 1.25 mg/day increasing in steps at two weeks intervals to a maximum of 15 mg/day. The efficacy of BRC was evaluated by comparing BRC and placebo groups upon completion of stepwise dosing at 14 weeks 2 points (1st endpoint and upon completion or discontinuation of the study (2nd endpoint of the dosing.Statistics analyses revealed a marginal BRC treatment efficacy with P≦20%to placebo by 1st and 2nd endpoint analysis. In the 1st endpoint analysis, BRC group was significantly effective on the scores of ALSAQ40-communicaton (P = 1.2%, eating and drinking (P = 2.2%, ALSFRS-R total (P = 17.6%, grip strength (P = 19.8% compared to the placebo group. In the 2nd endpoint analysis, differences between the scores of Limb Norris Scale (P = 18.3%, ALSAQ40-communication (P = 11.9%, eating and drinking (P = 13.6%, and neck forward-bent test (P = 15.4% of BRC group were detected between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for adverse events or serious drug reactions incidence.BRC sustains motoneuronal function at least in part through BRC treatment. Further analysis involving a Phase 2b or 3 clinical trial is required but BRC currently shows promise for ALS treatment.UMIN Clinical Trials UMIN000008527.

  16. 垂体催乳素腺瘤患者妊娠期服用溴隐亭的疗效分析%Analysis of treating prolactinoma patients with bromocriptine during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 刘念; 王任直; 幸兵; 姚勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic efficacies and the timing of taking bromocriptine during pregnancy in patients with pituitary prolactinoma.Methods The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively for 230 women with pituitary prolactinoma at our hospital from January 2001 to May 2014.During January 2001 to December 2007,120 cases were selected as control group.During January 2008 to May 2014,110 cases were recruited into treatment group.When found pregnant,the control group immediately withdrew while the treatment group continued the original dose of bromocriptine.Results The rate of embryo stopping was 16.7% (20/120) in control group.As compared with the rate of natural population,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05); the rate was 0.91% (1/110) in treatment group.As compared with natural population,the difference had no significance (P > 0.05).No significant inter-group difference existed in embryonic malformation rate (P > 0.05).Conclusion Pituitary prolactinoma patients should continue the original dose of bromocriptine for at least 4 months instead of immediate withdrawal during pregnancy.For those with large adenoma,bromocriptine should be taken throughout pregnancy.Blood levels of prolactin,progesterone,human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and visual dysfunction should be monitored every 2 weeks.If the levels of progesterone and HCG are low,they should be timely supplemented.If prolactin rises too rapidly and visual dysfunction worsens,the dose of bromocriptine should be appropriately increased.Taking bromocriptine during pregnancy can significantly reduce the rate of embryo stopping without improving the rate of embryo deformity.Thus use of bromocriptine is both safe and necessary.%目的 探讨垂体催乳素腺瘤患者妊娠期服用溴隐亭药物治疗的临床治疗效果及服药时间的选择.方法 回顾性分析2001年1月至2014年5月期间北京协和医院神经外科门诊收治的230例未手术垂体催乳素

  17. Management of cerebrospinal fluid leakage following treatment of prolactinomas with bromocriptine:a report of 2 cases and literature review%溴隐亭治疗垂体泌乳素腺瘤后并发脑脊液漏处理二例报道并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡梅钦; 秦峰; 王辉; 李文胜; 凌聪; 郭英

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨溴隐亭治疗侵袭性垂体泌乳素腺瘤后并发脑脊液漏的原因、临床表现及处理方法.方法 分析中山大学附属第三医院神经外科收治的2例溴隐亭治疗后并发脑脊液漏的垂体泌乳素腺瘤患者的临床资料,并复习相关文献.结果 2例肿瘤均广泛侵犯颅底,在溴隐亭治疗后1个月内发生脑脊液漏.1例经停药及脑室外引流处理后脑脊液漏停止,另一例经停药、经蝶手术修复漏口及腰大池置管外引流后脑脊液漏停止.在腩脊液漏好转2周后均继续予以较小剂量溴隐亭治疗,随诊3年和9个月无脑脊液漏复发,血泌乳素水平渐下降,肿瘤渐缩小.结论 溴隐亭治疗合并颅底破坏的垂体泌乳素腺瘤时有并发脑脊液漏的可能.停药、手术修复漏口及脑脊液外引流是治疗此类并发症的有效方法.继续小剂量溴隐亭治疗可使肿瘤缓慢缩小并减少脑脊液漏发生的可能.%Objective To investigate the causes,clinical manifestations and treatments of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)leakage following the treatment of prolactinomas with bromocriptine.Methods The data of 2 patients with prolactinomas and CSF leakage following bromocriptine treatment,were retrospectively analyzed and the associated literatures were reviewed.Results Two patients with massive invasive prolactinomas eroding the skull base developed CSF leakage within 1 month after commencing bromocriptine treatment.Bromocriptine treatment was stopped and external ventficular drainage was performed in 1.Bromocriptine treatment was stopped and transsphenoidal surgery in debulking the tumor and sealing the leakage with fibrin glue was performed in the other patient.The bromocriptine treatment was resumed with a lower dose in both patients and the CSF leakage never recurred in the follow-up of 9-36 months;the serum prolactin decreased and the tumor shrank gradually.Conclusions CSF leakage may develop in bromocriptine-treated patients

  18. Surgery versus bromocriptine for female patients with prolactinoma in China:A Meta-a-nalysis%手术与溴隐亭治疗中国女性催乳素瘤的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯毅; 蔡冰; 张龙龙; 王丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用循证医学系统评价方法对手术与口服溴隐亭治疗中国女性催乳素瘤的疗效和安全性进行系统评价,以期为中国女性催乳素瘤的治疗提供临床决策依据。方法:检索Cochrane library、PubMed、Em-base、中国生物医学文献服务系统( SinoMed)、中国期刊全文数据库( CNKI)和中文科技期刊数据库( VIP)中关于外科手术与口服溴隐亭对中国女性催乳素瘤的病例对照文献,并补充检索纳入研究的参考文献,根据纳入和排除标准筛选文献、提取资料并进行质量评价后,使用RevMan 5.1软件进行Meta分析,检索时间从各数据库建库至2013年1月31日。结果:纳入5篇研究共466名诊断明确的女性垂体催乳素瘤患者。Meta分析结果显示:在治疗6月后的PRL水平、治疗有效率和临床症状改善情况(月经改善或恢复率和泌乳改善或停止率)方面,手术与口服溴隐亭疗效差异无明显统计学意义( P>0.05)。两组患者短期并发症的发生率差异无明显统计学意义(OR=1.00,95%CI:0.22-4.62,P=1.00)。结论:目前国内手术与溴隐亭治疗女性催乳素瘤的疗效和短期并发症差异均无统计学意义。但本研究纳入的文献量较少且质量不高,尚需更多高质量研究(如多中心随机对照试验等)来进一步明确两种治疗方法的疗效与并发症。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of surgery versus bromocriptine for patients with prolacti-noma and provide evidence for the treatment of female prolactinoma patients in China. Methods:The databases Co-chrane library,PubMed,Embase,SinoMed,CNKI and VIP was electronically searched,and the relevent references of the included papers were also manually searched. The studies of surgery versus bromocriptine for patients in China with prolactinoma were included,the quality of included studies were evaluated and analyzed by RevMan 5. 1 soft

  19. Effects of bromocriptine,rosiglitazone and metformin on antagonisting insulin resistance and adjusting sex hormone in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome%溴隐停与罗格列酮和二甲双胍对PCOS大鼠拮抗胰岛素抵抗及调整性激素作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳; 刘广南; 潘竞锵; 邝少松; 黄小琼; 饶子亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察溴隐停、二甲双胍、罗格列酮分别对多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)大鼠胰岛素抵抗和性激素作用.方法 采用十一酸睾酮加绒促性素(human chorionic gonadotropin,HCG)建立PCOS大鼠模型,连续经口给予溴隐停、二甲双胍、罗格列酮6周,测定大鼠空腹血糖(fasting blood glucose,FBG)、经口给予葡萄糖后2 h血糖(2-hours blood glucose afteRoral glucose tolerance test,OGTT-2hBG)、胰岛素(insulin,Ins)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumoRnecrosis factor,TNF-α)、睾酮(testosterone,T)、胰岛素样生长因子(insulin growth factor-Ⅰ,IGF-Ⅰ)、雌激素(estradiol,E2)、孕酮(progesterone,P)、泌乳素(prolactin,PRL)等含量,并计算胰岛素敏感指数(insulin sensitivity index,ISI)的变化.结果 PCOS大鼠FBG、OGTT-2hBG、Ins、TNF-α、IGF-Ⅰ、T、E2和PRL水平明显升高,而ISI和P显著降低,与空白对照组比较,差异有高度显著性(P<0.01);溴隐停、二甲双胍、罗格列酮均能不同程度地改善PCOS大鼠的上述病理改变(P<0.01~0.05).结论 溴隐停、二甲双胍、罗格列酮均能不同程度地改善PCOS大鼠胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)和性激素分泌异常,降低T含量.%Objective To observe respectively the effects of bromocriptine, metformin and rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and sex hormone in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS).Methods The PCOS rats were induced by testosterone undecanoate and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), afterwards the rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: PCOS mold, bromocriptine, rosiglitazone and metformin; then all drugs were adiministered respectively by intragastric administration for 6 weeks.At the end of the experiment, the contents of fasting blood glucose ( FBG), 2-hours blood glucose after oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT-2 hBG) ,insulin(Ins), tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α), testosterone (T), insulin-like growth factor( IGFI), estrogen ( E2 ), progesterone

  20. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Successful treatment with bromocriptine

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Elderson, Arthur; Westenberg, H.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication of antipsychotic drugs and is characterized by severe muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and autonomic dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of NMS is considered to be related to dopamine-receptor blockade in the basal ganglia and hypothalamus. Various therapeutic strategies have been employed, including conventional antiparkinsonian agents and dantrolene, but a specific treatment remains unclear. Recently, a successful use of ...

  1. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Successful treatment with bromocriptine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Elderson, Arthur; Westenberg, H.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication of antipsychotic drugs and is characterized by severe muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and autonomic dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of NMS is considered to be related to dopamine-receptor blockade in the basal ganglia and hyp

  2. Late development of resistance to bromocriptine in patients with invasive prolactinomas: report of five cases%侵袭性泌乳素腺瘤溴隐亭治疗后的迟发性耐药现象:5例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲褒; 苏志鹏; 于春江

    2006-01-01

    @@ 溴隐亭(bromocriptine,BRC)作为治疗泌乳素腺瘤的一线药物,不仅能有效控制肿瘤体积,同时可使血清泌乳素(prolactin,PRL)下降至正常水平[1,2].但临床上仍有10%~20%泌乳素腺瘤患者在长时间溴隐亭治疗过程中血清PRL水平未能恢复正常,甚至出现肿瘤持续增长的情况,即耐药现象[3,4].迟发性耐药非常少见,目前文献多数为个案报道.本文复习我院从2000年6月至2004年7月期间随访资料完整的5例侵袭性泌乳素腺瘤(KnospⅢ或Ⅳ级泌乳素腺瘤)经溴隐亭治疗后发生迟发性耐药现象,报告如下.

  3. Ergopeptines bromocriptine and ergovaline and the dopamine type-2 receptor inhibitor domperidone inhibit bovine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum produce ergot alkaloids that alter the systemic physiology of cattle such that reproduction, lactation, and growth are decreased. Ergopeptines are one predominant class of ergot alkaloids. However, aside from their interactions with biogenic amine rece...

  4. [Preliminary results of treatment of hormone-dependent metastatic carcinoma of the breast with the bromocriptin-medroxyprogesterone acetate combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, A; Dogliotti, L; Di Carlo, F

    1977-06-30

    A brief account of the concept of hormone dependence in breast neoplasia is followed by the presentation of results obtained with an association of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocriptine (CB 154) in 14 women with metastatic cancer of the breast, hormone dependent due to the presence of the cytoplasmic receptor for 17-beta-oestradiol. All patients, in fertile or premenopausal stage, were subjected to prior surgical ovariectomy. MAP was given i.m. at a dose of 1 g/day for 30 days and then 150 mg/day. In the same time 2.5 mg CB 154 were administered every 6 hr per os. Evaluation in accordance with the criteria proposed by the Coop Breast Cancer Group showed that rapid improvement was obtained in all cases, persisting (at the time of writing) for a minimum of 6 months to a maximum of 2 yr of observation. In addition, rapid disappearance of pain was noted, particularly in subjects with secondary bone lesions. Side-effects were in all cases of slight consequence and suspension of the treatment was never necessary. The mechanism of the two drugs and the advantages of their association are discussed. PMID:577604

  5. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Broderick; Kolodny, Edwin H.

    2009-01-01

    We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neuro-transmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD) animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD) animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA) ...

  6. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Broderick; Kolodny, Edwin H.

    2009-01-01

    We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neurotransmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD) animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD) animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA) a...

  7. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal chiasmapexy using a clival cranial base cranioplasty for visual loss from massive empty sella following macroprolactinoma treatment with bromocriptine: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Berastegui, G Rene; Raza, Shaan M; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2016-04-01

    Visual deterioration after dopamine-agonist treatment of prolactinomas associated with empty sella syndrome and secondary optic apparatus traction is a rare event. Chiasmapexy has been described as a viable treatment option, although few cases exist in the literature. Here, a novel endonasal endoscopic approach to chiasmapexy is described and its efficacy is demonstrated in a case report. A 55-year-old female patient with a history of a giant prolactinoma and 14 years of treatment using dopaminergic agonist therapy presented to our institution with a 1-month history of visual changes. Neuroophthalmological examination confirmed severe bitemporal field defects, and MRI revealed a large empty sella with downward optic chiasmal herniation. Endoscopic endonasal chiasmapexy was performed by elevating the chiasm with lumbar drainage and filling the clival and sellar defect with an extradural liquid (HydroSet; a cranioplasty bone cement), and a piece of AlloDerm was used to cover and cushion the chiasm. Postoperative imaging demonstrated successful anatomical elevation of the optic apparatus, and the patient showed functional improvement in the visual field at 3 months postoperatively. Although rare, massive empty sellar and chiasmal descent from macroadenoma treatment can result in progressive visual loss. Here, a novel technique of endonasal endoscopic extradural cranioplasty aided by lumbar drainage is reported, which appears to be an effective technique for stabilizing and possibly reversing anatomical and visual deterioration. PMID:26339851

  8. Drug: D03165 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or interaction hsa04540(1813) Gap junction Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07057 Antiparkinson...01 Bromocriptine D03165 Bromocriptine (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiparkinson Agents D

  9. Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Toscano, Rosilde; Ricchi, Alessandro; Colori, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    At birth, a male child presented a 6 cm tumour in the right leg. The tumour was partially removed after just 12 days. Histology showed a congenital fibrosarcoma associated with reactive lymphadenitis. A first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy did not prevent the rapid progression of the disease. Subsequent evaluation for surgical removal raised serious concerns due to the need for a major operation involving total amputation of the right leg and hemipelvectomy. Since surgery could not exclude the possibility of disease recurrence and since the traditional cycles of chemotherapy did not offer any possibility of a cure, the parents opted for the Di Bella Method. The combined use of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Retinoids solubilized in Vit. E, Vit. C, Vit. D3, Calcium, and Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide resulted in a complete objective response, still present 14 years later, with no toxicity and without the need for hospitalization, allowing a normal quality of life and perfectly normal adolescent psycho-physical development. PMID:26921571

  10. Role of dopamine--D2 receptor in spatial memory retention and retrieval determined using Hebb-Williams complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Sanket B; Jadhav, Kshitij S; Marathe, Padmaja A

    2014-01-01

    Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory in Wistar rats using Hebb-Williams complex maze. Rat was placed in entry chamber and allowed to reach reward chamber. Ten trials were given each day per rat for 3 consecutive days. Within-day encoding score indicative of learning and between-day retrieval score indicative of memory were calculated. Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory. General learning index was calculated to compare the effect on spatial memory between groups. Bromocriptine increased while sulpiride decreased within-day encoding index but had no effect on retrieval index. In general learning index, sulpiride group showed more errors whereas bromocriptine group did not show any difference as compared to control. These results suggest that dopamine D2 receptors are involved in memory encoding but not retrieval. Also general learning is under positive modulation by D2 receptors. PMID:25906600

  11. The effect of Dopamine receptor agonists on twich response of Guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle and its relation to Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of bromocriptine and apomorphine (dopamine receptor agonists on electrical field induced twitch response of longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig illeum was investigated. Bromocriptine and apomorphine dose dependently inhibited illeal contraction. IC50 for this inhibitory effects were 6.22±0.645×10^-7 M and 5.48±0.647×10^-6 M, respectively. sulpiride (a specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist with concentration of 10^-5 M inhibited the effects of these agonists. Yohimbine (an ?2 adrenergic receptor antagonist only blocked the inhibitory effect of bromocriptine but failed to block apomorphine inhibitory effects. L-NAME (nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor with concentration of 10^-3 M blocked the effects of bromocriptine and apomorphine. These data suggest that there is inhibitory presynaptic dopamine receptors in cholinergic terminals of guinea-pig ileum and its function is related to formation of nitric oxide.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bromocriptine may be used instead of surgery for pituitary tumors that release the hormone prolactin. The parathyroid glands, ... Pituitary and parathyroid tumors are usually noncancerous ( benign ), but ... tumors may become cancerous (malignant) and spread to the ...

  13. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a periphera...

  14. Comparison of the vasodilator action of dopamine and dopamine agonists in the renal and coronary beds of the dog.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, W. J.; Woodman, O. L.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of dopamine and the dopamine receptor agonists, SK&F 38393 and bromocriptine, on renal and coronary blood flow in the anaesthetized dog were examined. Dopamine was found to dilate both vascular beds, whereas SK&F 38393 increased renal blood flow but did not have any dilator activity in the coronary vasculature. Bromocriptine did not cause vasodilatation in either vascular bed. 2 The vasodilator responses to dopamine and SK&F 38393 were significantly reduced by the dopamine recep...

  15. A review of dopamine agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes and effects on cardio-metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, E M; Levitt, D L; Munir, K M

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine action appears to play a role in changes that are seen in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine-QR (Quick Release), a dopamine agonist, is approved for use in treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has demonstrated modest improvement in glycemic parameters, cholesterol and weight in certain cohorts. Limited data using cabergoline, a long-acting dopamine agonist, also demonstrate glycemic efficacy. Additionally, bromocriptine-QR appears to have a favorable cardiovascular risk reduction. The direct mechanism by which bromocriptine-QR, or central dopamine agonism, achieves modest glycemic control and favorable cardio-metabolic profile is unclear. This relationship appears to be more complex than the historical explanation of "resetting" the circadian clock and may further be elucidated using data in individuals with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. PMID:26670921

  16. The effect of Dopamine receptor agonists on twich response of Guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle and its relation to Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarz M; Karimian M; Dehpoor A; Parviz M

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effects of bromocriptine and apomorphine (dopamine receptor agonists) on electrical field induced twitch response of longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig illeum was investigated. Bromocriptine and apomorphine dose dependently inhibited illeal contraction. IC50 for this inhibitory effects were 6.22±0.645×10^-7 M and 5.48±0.647×10^-6 M, respectively. sulpiride (a specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist) with concentration of 10^-5 M inhi...

  17. Massive reduction of tumour load and normalisation of hyperprolactinaemia after high dose cabergoline in metastasised prolactinoma causing thoracic syringomyelia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uum, S.H.M. van; Alfen, N. van; Wesseling, P.; Lindert, E.J. van; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Nooijen, P.T.G.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1970 a 20 year old woman presented with a pituitary chromophobe adenoma for which she underwent transfrontal pituitary surgery. In 1978 she had to be reoperated on because of local tumour recurrence, resulting in hypopituitarism. Bromocriptine (5 mg/day) was given for 15 years, but the plasma pro

  18. Hyperprolactinemia in Women of Reproductive Age: Etiology, diagnosis, and management

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Basil Ho

    1992-01-01

    Galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome and infertility are manifestations of elevated prolactin levels. Numerous functional and tumorous conditions can cause hyperprolactinemia; prolactinoma is the most common tumor. The dopamine agonist agent bromocriptine controls hypersecretion, shrinks prolactinomas, and will restore menstruation and alleviate galactorrhea in most patients.

  19. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  20. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vimal, M. V.; Sweta Budyal; Rajeev Kasliwal; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Tushar Bandgar; Padmavathy Menon; Nalini S. Shah

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  1. Clinical course and outcome of pregnancies in amenorrhoeic women with hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen term pregnancies occurred in 14 amenorrhoeic women with hyperprolactinaemia and radiological evidence of pituitary tumour. The abortion rate was high (32%). All but one of the term pregnancies occurred after ovulation-inducing treatment with human gonadotrophins and bromocriptine (four and 12 pregnancies respectively). Two of the 14 women had visual complications during pregnancy, but neither had serious residual visual impairment. Two patients had possible pituitary enlargement during pregnancy. Bromocriptine may be the most suitable primary treatment for many infertile women with prolactin-secreting tumours. Tumour complications during pregnancy are a definite risk, but most pregnancies went uneventfully to term. Patients with pituitary tumour should be carefully evaluated before starting ovulation-inducing treatment with bromocriptine alone, and they should be told of the possible risks and of the advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment with irradiation or surgery. Patients should be carefully monitored during pregnancy and have their visual fields checked frequently. If visual complications due to tumour enlargement occur during a pregnancy, reinstituting bromocriptine may be the treatment of choice. If this fails, other forms of treatment such as induction of labour, high-dose corticosteroid treatment, pituitary implantation of yttrium-90, or surgery may be effective. (author)

  2. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  3. Interactions of Prednisolone and Other Immunosuppressants Used in Dual Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Mohamed A.; Jusko, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women. Currently, systemic lupus erythematosus therapy is suboptimal due to adverse effects of immunosuppressants, particularly corticosteroids. This study determines the single effects of prednisolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, bromocriptine, tamoxifen, mycophenolic acid, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, azathioprine, and chloroquine on lectin-stimulated proliferation of human T lymphocytes, as well as determining whether the...

  4. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar A

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available An adult schizophrenic patient developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome following treatment with parenteral haloperidol. An early recognition of the syndrome, immediate discontinuation of the offending agent and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and lorazepam produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential lethality of the syndrome.

  5. Evaluation of pituitary tumors at Hospital Nacional del Sur Arequipa, EsSalud (ex IPSS). I: Prolactinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary adenomas represent 10 to 15% of intracranial tumors, and prolactinomas are the most common type of secretory pituitary adenomas. The clinical features, PRL levels, CT scanning of the pituitary fossa were tested in 101 patients (91 women and 10 men), before and after treatment with bromocriptine and/or hypophysectomy, they presented prolactin-secreting adenomas, and attended the endocrinology and/or neurosurgery services from September 1992 to June 1997. Pretreatment prolactin levels were 106,9 ng/ml (meam) and decreased to 20,0 ng/ml after an average of 23,6 months of medical therapy with bromocriptine. Headache, galactorrhea, menstrual cycle disorders, visual field disturbances, infertility and decreased libido were present in 80,2%; 71,3%; 51,6%; 23,8%; 7,9% and 6,9%; respectively. CT detected 63 microadenomas and 37 macroadenomas, these figures improved after using bromocriptine to 26 and 24, respectively. Approximately 69% of patients responded to bromocriptine in terms of a decrease of serum PRL to normal, tumor shrinkage, cessation of galactorrhea and return of menses, 21% of patients presented no change and the 9% of them continued to enlarge prolactinomas despite a fall, in some, of the serum PRL concentration. (authors)

  6. Drug: D00780 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on hsa04728(1813) Dopaminergic synapse Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07057 Antiparkinsonian agents map07213 D... nervous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 116 Antiparkinson...mesilate (JP16); Bromocriptine mesylate (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiparkinson Agents Dopa

  7. Giant invasive prolactinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.Y.; Vesely, D.L.; Jordan, R.M.; Flanigan, S.; Kohler, P.O.

    1987-11-01

    Two of the largest prolactinomas ever documented that have been followed for nine and 10 years, respectively, demonstrate how aggressive prolactinomas may become and how difficult invasive prolactinomas are to treat. One of these prolactinomas invaded both internal auditory canals and simultaneously grew inferiorly, reducing the bony support of the skull and necessitating the patient to utilize both hands to hold his head up. The second patient's prolactinoma invaded the sphenoidal, ethmoidal, and cavernous sinuses. Both of these patients had neurosurgical debulking of their tumors followed by radiation therapy. Neither patient's prolactin levels decreased significantly during their first five years post-surgically, at which time bromocriptine was added. Since then, there has been a gradual lowering of serum prolactin levels and a decrease in the size of these tumors. These cases demonstrate that prolonged treatment and very large doses of bromocriptine may be necessary for tumor reduction in patients with invasive prolactinomas.

  8. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  9. Effects of Various Drugs on Alcohol-induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this work was to investigate how alcohol-induced oxidative stress in combined chemotherapy changes the metabolic function of the liver in experimental animals. This research was conducted to establish how bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin, applied to the experimental model, affected the antioxidative status of the liver. The following parameters were determined: reduced glutathione, activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation intensity. Alanine transaminase was measured in serum. Alcohol stress (AO group reduced glutathione and the activity of xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase, but increased catalase and alanine transaminase activity. The best protective effect was achieved with the bromocriptine (AB1 group, while other groups had similar effects on the studied parameters.

  10. Follow-up of patients with pituitary tumors before and after operation, medical treatment and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1976 till 1981 56 patients with pituitary tumors were observed. From a total of 51 adenomas 17 prolactinomas (33.3%), 15 acromegalies (29.4%), 4 Cushing-syndromes (7.8%), 1 TSH-producing adenoma (1.9%) and 14 hormone-inactive adenomas (27.4%) were found. In addition, there were 4 craniopharyngeomas and 1 intrasellar meningeoma. For the individual types of adenomas prae- and postoperative hormonal data after transcranial resp. transsphenoidal adenomectomy are listed. Prolactinomas responded well to bromocriptine therapy in some cases, whereas acromegalies showed no remission after bromocriptine. After radiotherapy of 4 recidive-adenomas remission in one case was seen. Problems and objects of long-term-care of patients with pituitary tumors are discussed. (author)

  11. Cabergoline therapy for Macroprolactinoma during pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Hira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the safety of Cabergoline therapy during pregnancy in a lady with hyperprolactinemia intolerant to Bromocriptine. Case presentation We report the case of a 31 year old lady who presented to us with uncontrolled hyperprolactinemia. A pituitary Macroadenoma was demonstrated by MRI. Due to intolerance to Bromocriptine, Cabergoline was started. The patient improved and subsequently conceived. MRI in the second trimester demonstrated further reduction in the tumor size. It was decided to continue Cabergoline throughout pregnancy to ensure further reduction in tumor size until delivery and to hold Cabergoline during postpartum period to allow for an adequate interval of breastfeeding. At 37 weeks of gestation, the patient delivered a healthy baby. Conclusion We were able to safely treat macroprolactinemia in our patient during pregnancy with cabergoline. This case report contributes to the relatively meager data available which advocates the safety of cabergoline therapy in pregnant hyperprolactinemic patients.

  12. Galactorrhoea following hypophysectomy in a boy with a prolactinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Dandona, P; Mohiuddin, J; Lindsay, K W

    1984-01-01

    An 18-year-old boy with delayed puberty was found to have a large prolactinoma. Hypophysectomy led to a fall in serum prolactin concentration, although it remained markedly elevated. The introduction of replacement therapy, including testosterone, resulted in painful swelling of the breasts and galactorrhoea. Bromocriptine therapy resulted in a cessation of galactorrhoea and normalization of serum prolactin concentrations. The absence of galactorrhoea in association with an astronomical conce...

  13. D1 Antagonists and D2 Agonists Have Opposite Effects on the Metabolism of Dopamine in the Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Prieto-Leyva, Jacqueline; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The striatum is known to possess high levels of D1-like and D2-like receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs, respectively). We have previously shown that selective inhibition of D1Rs increases the dopaminergic metabolic response and proposed that this effect is associated with the concomitant activation of postsynaptic D2Rs by endogenous dopamine (DA). Here, we examined whether activation of D2Rs modulates the metabolism and synthesis of DA in the striatum. We used male Wistar rats to evaluate the effects of the systemic administration of a D2R agonist (bromocriptine), a D1R antagonist (SCH-23390), and the co-administration of these compounds with pargyline on the inhibition of monoamine oxidase. DA and L-3,4-dihidroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) content were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The systemic administration of SCH-23390 alone, at 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg, significantly (P DOPAC levels and the DOPAC/DA ratio. At 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, the administration of bromocriptine alone significantly (P DOPAC levels, L-DOPA content and the DOPAC/DA ratio, whereas at 2 mg/kg, it decreased DA levels. In both groups, co-administration of either SCH-23390 or bromocriptine with pargyline decreased DOPAC levels and the DOPAC/DA ratio by approximately 70 % compared to the levels observed in the control groups. In conclusion, administration of the D2R agonist bromocriptine decreased dopaminergic synthesis and metabolism in the striatum; in contrast, administration of the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 induced the opposite effects. PMID:25981954

  14. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Hormone Levels and Secretion in Pituitary Tumor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on...

  15. Low serum iron as a possible risk factor for neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Bhushan Subhash; Subramanyam, Alka A.; Singh, Shipra L; Kamath, Ravindra M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, but fatal condition characterized by rigidity, fever, dysautonomia and altered consciousness along with elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase levels and leukocytosis. Treatment of NMS includes symptomatic and specific treatment with drugs like bromocriptine may be given. Risk factors for NMS include dehydration, parenteral antipsychotics and high potency antipsychotics. One of the important, but lesser known risk factors for NMS is low serum i...

  16. Radioiodine therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with breast uptake; hyperprolactinemia due to empty sella syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 37 year-old-female patient with papillary thyroid cancer treated by surgery who demonstrated residual thyroid and bilateral breast uptake on a diagnostic I-131 whole body scan. She had an extrathyroidal extension needing I-131 ablative therapy. Her galactorrhea was investigated and treated with low doses of bromocriptine prior to I-131 therapy. Her galactorrhea was was due to the decreased secretion of PIF induced by empty sella

  17. Radioiodine therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with breast uptake; hyperprolactinemia due to empty sella syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Seo, Jung Ho [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Rae [Yungdong Sevrance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    We report a 37 year-old-female patient with papillary thyroid cancer treated by surgery who demonstrated residual thyroid and bilateral breast uptake on a diagnostic I-131 whole body scan. She had an extrathyroidal extension needing I-131 ablative therapy. Her galactorrhea was investigated and treated with low doses of bromocriptine prior to I-131 therapy. Her galactorrhea was was due to the decreased secretion of PIF induced by empty sella.

  18. Drug-induced retroperitoneal fibrosis: short aetiopathogenetic note, from the past times of ergot-derivatives large use to currently applied bio-pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, C

    2015-01-01

    Among the secondary forms of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), that drug-induced shows very intriguing aspects given both the broad range of involved pharmaceuticals and the considerable interest arisen from the related pathogenetic mechanisms. The particular incidence, in the last four decades past century, of the RPF due to long-term use of ergot alkaloid derivatives (ergotamine, methysergide, pergolide, bromocriptine, cabergoline) and specific L-dopa derived agents, such as methyldopa, as we...

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as the presenting manifestation of pituitary adenoma: case report with a 4-year follow-up Fístula liquórica como manifestação inicial de macroadenoma hipofisário: relato de caso com 4 anos de seguimento

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alexandre Hanel; Daniel Monte Serrat Prevedello; Alceu Correa; Affonso Antoniuk; João Cândido Araújo

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to an undiagnosed and untreated pituitary adenoma. The tumor had extended well beyond sella turcica and caused bony erosion. The patient initially refused surgery and was treated with bromocriptine and a radiation therapy. CSF leakage did not improved and she was submitted to surgery by the transsphenoidal approach with removal of a tumor mass located in sphenoid sinus and sellar region. Origin of ...

  20. Trial of Oral Metoclopramide on Diurnal Bruxism of Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ho Sung; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Seo, Mi Ri

    2013-01-01

    Bruxism is a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional activity that includes tooth clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding. The dopaminergic system seems to be the key pathophysiology of bruxism and diminution of dopaminergic transmission at the prefrontal cortex seems to induce it. We report two patients with diurnal bruxism in whom a bilateral frontal lobe injury resulted from hemorrhagic stroke or traumatic brain injury. These patients' bruxism was refractory to bromocriptine but responded t...

  1. Parkinson's Disease: A Pharmacological Update

    OpenAIRE

    Chater, Susan; Montgomery, Pat

    1985-01-01

    The primary biochemical defect in Parkinsonism is dopamine depletion. Anticholinergics (except in the elderly) and amantadine are useful in treating early symptomatic disease. L-dopa remains the most effective drug, but experience has led to more modest use due to its late complications, particularly dyskinesias. Bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, is relatively effective, but when it should be used is undecided. Beta-blockers may control tremor. Treatment should be tailored to each patient, a...

  2. Managing Prolactinomas During Pregnancy: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa eAlmalki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional benign pituitary tumors due to a pituitary micro- or macroadenoma. The majority of patients presents with infertility and gonadal dysfunction.A dopamine agonist (DAs (bromocriptine or cabergoline is the treatment of choice that can normalize prolactin levels, reduce tumor size and restore ovulation and fertility. Cabergoline generally preferred over bromocriptine because of its higher efficacy and tolerability. Managing prolactinomas during pregnancy may be challenging. During pregnancy, the pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia due to a progressive increase in serum estrogens level that may lead to increase of the tumor volume with potential mass effect and visual loss.The risk of tumor enlargement may occur in 3 % of those with microadenomas, 32 % in those with macroadenomas that were not previously operated on and 4.8% of those with macroadenomas with prior ablative treatment. Though both drugs appear to be safe during pregnancy, the data on fetal exposure to DAs during pregnancy have been reported with bromocriptine far exceeds that of cabergoline with no association of increased risk of pregnancy loss and premature delivery. It is advisable to stop the use of DAs immediately once pregnancy is confirmed, except in the case of women with invasive macroprolactinomas or pressure symptoms. This review outlines the therapeutic approach to, prolactinoma during pregnancy, with emphasis on the safety of available DA therapy.

  3. Studies on sensitivity of zebrafish as a model organism for Parkinson′s disease: Comparison with rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh T Makhija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the utility of zebra fish as an animal model for Parkinson′s disease (PD in comparison with rat model. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed on rat and zebrafish brain synaptosomal fractions using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent. Quercetin and resveratrol were used as standards to compare anti-apoptotic activity in both organisms. Catalepsy was induced in zebrafish by exposing them to haloperidol (9 μM solution. Drug-treated groups were exposed to bromocriptine and pramipexole, 30 min prior to haloperidol exposure at the dose of 2, 5, and 10 μg/mL. Swimming speed, time spent in the bottom of the tank, and complete cataleptic time were evaluated to assess behavioral changes. In rats, catalepsy was induced using haloperidol (1.25 mg/kg i.p.. Drug-treated groups received bromocriptine (2.5 mg/kg. and pramipexole (1 mg/kg orally. Bar test, block test, and locomotor activity were carried out to assess behavioral changes. Results: Resveratrol and quercetin showed comparable inhibition of apoptosis in rats and zebrafish. In anti-cataleptic study, bromocriptine and pramipexole-treated groups showed significant difference (P < 0.05 in behavioral parameters as compared to haloperidol control group in both the experimental organisms. Results obtained from fish model were in correlation with rat model. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that zebrafish model is highly sensitive and can be used for basic screening of drugs against PD.

  4. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-03-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

  5. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer

  6. 中西医结合治疗垂体泌乳素微腺瘤疗效分析%Efficacy Analysis of Integrative Medicine Treatment for Prolactin-secreting Pituitary Microadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌聪; 胡细玲; 何海勇; 蔡梅钦

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To explore normative , more effective medication for pituitary prolactinoma via the comparision of Traditional Chinese medicine combined with Bromocriptine and single Bromocriptine treating the pituitary prolactinoma. Methods : 50 selected female patients with prolactinoma were divided into two groups , 25 patients in each group. The two groups accepted the treatment of Traditional Chinese medicine combined Bromocriptine respectively, and the decrease of the prolactin levels, curative rate, effective rate and incidence of side effectives were analyzed statistically. Results : The prolactin levels of the two groups were significantly different 3 months after treatment, not significantly different 6 months or 9 months after treatment. The prolactin levels of the groups were significantly different before and after treatment respectively. The curative rate was significantly different, and the effective rate was not significantly different. Conclusion : Traditional Chinese medicine combined with Bromocriptine and single Bromocriptine are effective on decreasing prolactin level. Traditional Chinese medicine combined Bromocriptin is more effective in meliorating menses and asisting pregnancy than single Bromocriptin.%目的:通过对中医联合溴隐亭和单纯溴隐亭治疗垂体泌乳素微腺瘤的效果比较,探讨规范、更有效的垂体泌乳素微腺瘤的药物治疗方法.方法:将入选的50例垂体泌乳素微腺瘤女性患者随机分成两组,每组25例.两组病人分别接受中药加溴隐亭和单纯溴隐亭治疗.比较两种治疗方法在降低催乳素水平、治愈率、有效率和不良反应发生率等方面的差异,并做相应的统计学处理.结果:两组治疗后催乳素水平在治疗后3个月有显著差异,在6个月和9个月均无显著差异;两组治疗前后的催乳素水平均有显著差异;两组的治愈率有显著差异,有效率无显著差异.结论:中西医结合与单纯西药对降低

  7. Suppurative meningitis: A life-threatening complication in male macroprolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suppurative meningitis (SM or bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening condition, which is exceptionally due to pituitary tumors (PT. Our aim was to analyze its frequency among male macroprolactinomas (MPRL deemed to be aggressive, to report the cases we observed in our practice and describe the circumstances under which SM appeared. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 82 male MPRL in order to look for a history of well proved SM and the circumstances under which SM appeared. We also took into account the possibility of SM relapsing. Results: Four out of 82 male MPRL had SM = 4.87%. Three consulted for SM symptoms. SM was confirmed in Infectious Diseases department, but only one had rhinorrhea. Hormonal assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging pleaded for aggressive prolactinomas. After antibiotics, SM was sterilized. Then, MPRL were treated with bromocriptine, which normalized prolactin and reduced PT. SM never relapsed. The 4 th case was hospitalized for a large multidirectional prolactinoma invading and/or arising from the skull base. He was operated on 3 times and then he was given Bromocriptine. After 3 months, he had rhinorrhea and then SM which was successfully treated by antibiotics. SM never relapsed after tumor reduction. Conclusion: SM was demonstrated in 4.87%. SM has revealed MPRL in 3 cases and appeared after bromocriptine intake in the 4 th one. Endocrinologists should be aware of this severe condition, which can be avoided by repairing as soon as possible the bony defect secondary to aggressive tumors, unless it is clogged by fibrosis: What probably happened in our cases.

  8. Clinical application of [sup 11]C-NMSP to the patients with pituitary adenoma other than prolactinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Teramoto, Akira; Nishikawa, Junichi; Inoue, Yusuke; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Yasuhito (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    The existence of dopamine D[sub 2] receptors in the pituitary adenoma (PA) is an important factor for bromocriptine therapy. In order to evaluate the D[sub 2] receptors in PA, [sup 11]C-N-methylspiperone (NMSP) and positron emission tomography was performed in a variety of pituitary adenomas other than prolactinoma. Eight patients with PA including four non-functioning adenomas, two growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas, one adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma and one thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenoma and ten normal healthy volunteers were examined. Seventy hundred and forty MBq of [sup 11]C-NMSP was injected and dynamic scan was performed from the time of injection to 80 min postinjection. The time dependent regional radioactivity in the striatum (st) and in the tumor tissue (tm) was measured and the binding rate, [alpha], was calculated according to the following equation: Cst, tm/Ccbl=[alpha]x[integral][sub 0][sup t]Ccbl dt/Ccbl+1. The ratio of total radioactivity in the striatum or tumor over total activity in the cerebellum was plotted versus 'normalized time', which was obtained by dividing integrated cerebellar radioactivity by actual cerebellar radioactivity for each timepoint. In three patients with PA, two scans were performed before and three hours after oral intake of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine. The [alpha] values for PA and normal striatum were 0.031[+-]0.023 (0.017-0.088) and 0.042[+-]0.006 (0.034-0.049), respectively. Bromocriptine reduced [alpha] value to various degree in PA (13-56%) but not in striatum (-3.7-3.3%). Our data suggest that in some of PA other than prolactinoma, dopamine D[sub 2] receptors existed but that nonspecific binding also contributed to the radioactivity in the tumor tissue. And it also supports the idea that in PA, bromocriptine directly combines with D[sub 2] receptor but in striatum, it might affect receptors other than D[sub 2] receptor itself. (author).

  9. Pituitary Prolactinoma Imaged by 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT in a Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Lv, Jing; Guo, Rui; Pan, Mengyi; Zhang, Yifan

    2016-06-01

    A 35-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral inferior parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism was referred to our hospital to evaluate the cause of irregular menses, galactorrhea, and paroxysmal headache. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was then suspected for the high levels of plasma prolactin, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, insulin, and related symptoms. A Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT acquired to evaluate parathyroid glands unexpectedly revealed an increased accumulation in the pituitary gland, which was further confirmed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a pituitary microadenoma. Bromocriptine treatment gradually reduced the prolactin level. PMID:26828146

  10. Comparison of the functional potencies of ropinirole and other dopamine receptor agonists at human D2(long), D3 and D4.4 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Coldwell, Martyn C; Boyfield, Izzy; Brown, Tony; Hagan, Jim J.; Middlemiss, Derek N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize functional responses to ropinirole, its major metabolites in man (SKF-104557 (4-[2-(propylamino)ethyl]-2-(3H) indolone), SKF-97930 (4-carboxy-2-(3H) indolone)) and other dopamine receptor agonists at human dopamine D2(long) (hD2), D3 (hD3) and D4.4 (hD4) receptors separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells using microphysiometry.All the receptor agonists tested (ropinirole, SKF-104557, SKF-97930, bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide, pra...

  11. Abulia: no will, no way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastak, S M; Gorawara, Pooja S; Mishra, N K

    2005-09-01

    Abulia refers to impaired ability to perform voluntary actions, show initiative, make decisions along with decrease in movements, speech, thought and emotional reactions. We describe here two patients who developed this condition following bilateral insult to different sites in the centromedial core of the brain, the first following the cerebral venous thrombosis and the second after the right ACA and MCA infarct. Both these patients improved following treatment with Bromocriptine. These cases are described for proper identification and management by the clinicians. PMID:16334629

  12. Synthesis of some 11C-labelled alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using (11C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(11C-methyl)-morphine, N-(11C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(11C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(11C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (11C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (11C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (11C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the 14N(p,α)11C reaction. (Authors)

  13. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Aimed at Raising Clinical Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Al Danaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder on risperidone, bupropion, and escitalopram was admitted for community acquired streptococcal pneumonia. Four days later, he developed persistent hyperthermia, dysautonomia, rigidity, hyporeflexia, and marked elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase. He was diagnosed with neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS and improved with dantrolene, bromocriptine, and supportive therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis for fever in the ICU, carefully reviewing the medication list for all patients, and considering NMS in patients with fever and rigidity.

  14. Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst J. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophysiology. The ocular symptoms disappeared rapidly after the discontinuation of citalopram and pulse therapy with methyl-prednisolone. However, galactorrhea persisted for a few weeks necessitating treatment with bromocriptine.

  15. [Aortic insufficiency under weak doses of cabergoline for non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, I; Chague, F; Petit, J-M; Boujon, B

    2007-12-01

    Used in its neurological indication, cabergoline is known to induce cardiac valve regurgitations, essentially mitral and aortic valvular diseases, by its action on the 5HT2b receptors. Until now, it was assumed that the dose and the duration of exposure were the major factors of appearance. We describe a case of aortic insufficiency which developed in a patient given low doses of cabergoline (0.5 mg weekly) for non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia. Because of previous use of appetite suppressants and of bromocriptine, the exclusive responsibility of cabergoline remained uncertain. The potential gravity of these valvular heart diseases emphasizes the importance of careful cardiologic examination before and during treatment. PMID:17905193

  16. Abulia following an episode of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vismay Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    The word 'abulia' means a lack of will, initiative or drive. The symptoms of abulia include lack of spontaneous action and speech, reduced emotional responsiveness and social interaction, poor attention and easy distractibility. These symptoms are independent of reduced levels of consciousness or cognitive impairment. We describe a case of a socially active 72-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of abulia which may have occurred due to damage of the frontosubcortical circuits following an episode of cardiac arrest. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:26135487

  17. Effects of microgram doses of haloperidol on open-field behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, I M; Frussa-Filho, R

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low doses of haloperidol on the open-field behavior of mice. A three-phase effect of haloperidol on the motor activity of mice was observed (depression, no effect, depression). This three-phase action was clear-cut in three experimental approaches (amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and apomorphine- and bromocriptine-induced hypoactivity). A differential action of haloperidol on dopamine receptors mediating motor stimulation and motor depression was proposed. The present data indicate that considerably more attention should be paid to the novel behavioral and biochemical actions of neuroleptic drugs in the microgram dose range. PMID:8801585

  18. Managing prolactinoma during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Azar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors in pregnant women. We conducted this study on pregnant women with prolactinoma to determine their clinical symptoms and signs and eventual necessity to medical therapy.Materials and methods:A descriptive study was performed on 85 pregnant women with prolactinoma.Patients were followed up by physical examination, imaging, and perimetry for diagnosis of visual field defect. If tumor was increased in size perimetry was performedin order to determine eventual visual field defect (VFD. Patients with progressive visual field defect had absolute indication for trans sphenoidal surgery (TSS.In other cases with progressive enlargement of adenoma size but without VFD bromocriptine was administered. Patients without increasing adenoma size were just followed up.Results:In this study 72 patients (84% had microadenomas, 7 patients (8% had macroadenomas without previous medical or surgical therapy and 6 patients (7% had macroadenomas with previous medical therapy with bromocriptine. Totally 20 patients (23 % had tumor enlargement during pregnancy and was symptomatic in 7 patients (8.2%. There was significant difference between 3 groups according to incidence of symptomatic tumor enlargement.(p<0.05Conclusion:Macroprolactinomas are more likely to enlarge during pregnancy than microprolactinomas. In our study conservative management was successfully done in all patients without surgery or medical therapy.

  19. 垂体泌乳素腺瘤中雌激素、雄激素的表达与临床特点的相关性研究%Correlations between Expression of Estrogen and Androgen Receptors and the Clinical Characteristics of Prolactinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    约翰; 王雄伟; 张华楸; 舒凯; 雷霆

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlations between estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) and the clinical presentations of prolactinoma and investigate the effect of ER and AR expression on the pathogenesis of prolactinoma in sexual difference. Methods: The clinical data of 30 patients who had undergone transsphenoidal operations in Tongji Hospital from December 2000 to December 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical information included sex, age, serum-prolactin, size, tumor invasiveness, history of use of bromocriptine and frequency of recurrence. In 20 out of the 30 patients, the ER and AR expression was detected by using immunohistochemistry method. With help of Chi-square test, the relationship between ER, AR and the clinical presentations was analyzed. Results: The statistical values revealed that there was no significant correlation between the ER and AR expression levels with the clinical presentations such as sex, age, tumor size or tumor invasiveness among the 20 patients studied (P>0.05). Conclusion: The expression of ER or AR is not influenced by the clinical data of prolactinoma such as sex, age, tumor diameter or extent of tumor invasiveness. The tumor is more aggressive in males than in females. In maroadenoma or tumor with hyperprolactineamia (>200 ng/mL) simple surgical treatmentcan't successfully cure the prolactinoma. Post-operative bromocriptine therapy can't be determined by the sex of the patients, but is greatly related to the tumor size and serum-prolactin level before operation.

  20. Methods and clinical applications of positron emission tomography in endocrinology. Methodologie et applications cliniques en endocrinologie de la tomographie a emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsheere, C. de; Lamotte, D. (Liege Univ. (BE))

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows to detect in coincidence photons issued from annihilation between positrons and electrons nearby situated. Tomographic detection (plane by plane) and tomographic reconstruction will lead to the quantitation of radioactive distribution per voxel, in the organ of interest. Recent tomographs can acquire simultaneously several transaxial slices, with a high sensitivity and a spatial resolution of 3-5 mm. Commonly used positron emitters have a short half-life: 2, 10, 20 and 110 min for {sup 15}0, {sup 13}N, {sup 11}C and {sup 18}F, respectively. The use of these isotopes requires on line production of radionuclides and synthesis of selected molecules. In endocrinology, PET allows among others to study noninvasively the receptor density of hormonodependent neoplasms such as breast, uterus, prostate tumors and prolactinomas. These last tumors represent a particular entity because of several combined characteristics: high turnover rate of amino acids, high density of dopaminergic receptors and response to bromocriptine (analogue of dopamine inhibiting the secretion of prolactine) in relation to the level of receptors. Because PET permits to evaluate the density of dopaminergic receptors and the metabolism of amino acids, theoretical response of the prolactinoma to bromocriptin can be predicted, the achieved therapeutic efficacy can be estimated and the long-term follow up of tumor growth can be assessed. This example illustrates the clinical value of PET in endocrinology.

  1. Secondary resistance to cabergoline therapy in a macroprolactinoma: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2009-02-04

    Primary resistance to dopamine agonists occurs in 10-15% of prolactinomas but secondary resistance following initial biochemical and anti-proliferative response is very rare and has only been hitherto described in four previous cases, two with bromocriptine and two with cabergoline. We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a large macroprolactinoma with suprasellar extension. She was initially treated with bromocriptine therapy with a resolution of symptoms, marked reduction in prolactin concentration and complete tumour shrinkage; a response which was subsequently maintained on cabergoline. After 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy, her prolactin concentration began to rise and there was symptomatic recurrence of her tumour despite escalating doses of cabergoline up to 6 mg weekly. Non-compliance was outruled by observed inpatient drug administration. The patient underwent surgical debulking followed by radiotherapy with good response. This case adds to the previous two cases of secondary resistance to cabergoline therapy in prolactinomas a marked initial response. While the mechanism of secondary resistance remains unknown and not possible to predict, close observation of prolactinoma patients on treatment is necessary.

  2. Secondary resistance to cabergoline therapy in a macroprolactinoma: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2012-02-01

    Primary resistance to dopamine agonists occurs in 10-15% of prolactinomas but secondary resistance following initial biochemical and anti-proliferative response is very rare and has only been hitherto described in four previous cases, two with bromocriptine and two with cabergoline. We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a large macroprolactinoma with suprasellar extension. She was initially treated with bromocriptine therapy with a resolution of symptoms, marked reduction in prolactin concentration and complete tumour shrinkage; a response which was subsequently maintained on cabergoline. After 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy, her prolactin concentration began to rise and there was symptomatic recurrence of her tumour despite escalating doses of cabergoline up to 6 mg weekly. Non-compliance was outruled by observed inpatient drug administration. The patient underwent surgical debulking followed by radiotherapy with good response. This case adds to the previous two cases of secondary resistance to cabergoline therapy in prolactinomas a marked initial response. While the mechanism of secondary resistance remains unknown and not possible to predict, close observation of prolactinoma patients on treatment is necessary.

  3. Methods and clinical applications of positron emission tomography in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows to detect in coincidence photons issued from annihilation between positrons and electrons nearby situated. Tomographic detection (plane by plane) and tomographic reconstruction will lead to the quantitation of radioactive distribution per voxel, in the organ of interest. Recent tomographs can acquire simultaneously several transaxial slices, with a high sensitivity and a spatial resolution of 3-5 mm. Commonly used positron emitters have a short half-life: 2, 10, 20 and 110 min for 150, 13N, 11C and 18F, respectively. The use of these isotopes requires on line production of radionuclides and synthesis of selected molecules. In endocrinology, PET allows among others to study noninvasively the receptor density of hormonodependent neoplasms such as breast, uterus, prostate tumors and prolactinomas. These last tumors represent a particular entity because of several combined characteristics: high turnover rate of amino acids, high density of dopaminergic receptors and response to bromocriptine (analogue of dopamine inhibiting the secretion of prolactine) in relation to the level of receptors. Because PET permits to evaluate the density of dopaminergic receptors and the metabolism of amino acids, theoretical response of the prolactinoma to bromocriptin can be predicted, the achieved therapeutic efficacy can be estimated and the long-term follow up of tumor growth can be assessed. This example illustrates the clinical value of PET in endocrinology

  4. ROLE OF CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF MEMORY AND ITS INTERACTION WITH DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Zangeneh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The central cholinergic system has been associated with cognitive function and memory and acetylcholine plays an important role during the early stages of memory consolidation. In this study, after training mice were tested with one way active avoidance procedure and retention were tested at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of training and compared with non-shocked mice, in which it took 24 hours, a suitable time for retention test. Low dose administration of arecoline and physostigmine pre-training, immediate post-training and before retrieval showed that muscarinic agonist arecoline can potentiated memory in post trained and retrieval phases and reversible cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine potentiated memory only in retrieval phase. Scopolamine disrupted acetylcholine potentiation only in retrieval phase. In the second part of this study, the effect of dopaminergic system was investigated. Low dose of apomorphine and D2 agonist bromocriptine potentiated memory when administered immediately post-training, and D2 antagonist sulpiride impaired memory. When the cholinergic system was blocked by scopolamine immediately post-training, apomorphine and bromocriptine potentiated memory and sulpiride impaired it. In conclusion, these results suggest that, cholinergic system in retrieval phase is very critical and there was no interaction between the two systems in the post-training phase.

  5. A case of an ectopic prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Kocabas, Gokcen Unal; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Erdogan, Mehmet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Saygili, Fusun; Yilmaz, Candeger; Ozgen, Ahmet Gokhan

    2012-02-01

    A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with a 1.5 year history of secondary amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Prolactin (PRL) level was found to be 151.89 ng/ml. Pituitary imaging was reported to be normal. An examination of the patient revealed that PRL level was still high so the dose of cabergoline was further increased and subsequently, bromocriptine was added to the treatment. There was no reduction in PRL levels in controls. A scanning was performed to look for an ectopic focus. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogenous mass lesion originating from the uterus. Octreotide scintigraphy was performed and we observed an involvement consistent with the mass in the uterus. The patient underwent abdominal total hysterectomy. PRL dropped to 0.4 ng/ml the next day after the operation. The pathology result was a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor. Prolactin was found to be immunohistochemically negative. However, galactorrhea disappeared postoperative and PRL levels are still low. Elevated levels of PRL, resistant to bromocriptine and cabergoline, rapidly returned to normal after hysterectomy, which obviously indicates that hyperprolactinemia was associated with the myoma of the uterus. PMID:21780951

  6. Short-term pharmacological suppression of the hyperprolactinemia of infertile hCG-overproducing female mice persistently restores their fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary lactotrope adenomas in adult age. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the hyperprolactinemia of hCGβ+ females on their reproductive phenotype by treating them with the dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline. Long-term bromocriptine treatment of adult mice was effective in the control of obesity, pituitary growth, and disturbances in the hormone profile, demonstrating that hyperprolactinemia was the main cause of the hCGβ+ female phenotype. Interestingly, short-term treatment (1 wk) with cabergoline applied on 5-wk-old mice corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, prevented pituitary overgrowth, normalized gonadal function, and recovered fertility of adult hCGβ+ females after hormone-induced and natural ovulation. The same cabergoline treatment in the short term applied on 3-month-old hCGβ+ females failed to recover their reproductive function. Hence, we demonstrated that the short-term cabergoline treatment applied at a critical early stage of the phenotype progression effectively prevented the hyperprolactinemia-associated reproductive dysfunction of hCG-overproducing females. PMID:23117930

  7. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors. PMID:19303749

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome and prolactinoma association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasoglu, Irfan; Kucuk, Mert; Coskun, Adil; Guney, Engin; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Bolaman, Zahit

    2009-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common pituitary hormone hypersecretion syndrome in both men and women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting 5%-10% of reproductive age women. Here, we present a patient with irregular menses, obesity, hirsutism and infertility, and hyperprolactinemia who was diagnosed as PCOS and prolactinoma and admitted to our clinic. Prolactinoma and PCOS association is a rare condition. This 33-year-old woman was admitted to the internal medicine outpatient clinic for irregular menses, obesity, hirsutism and infertility, and hyperprolactinemia. Her laboratory results were as follows: prolactin was 74 ng/mL (normal range:1.8-20.3 ng/mL). Pelvic ultrasonography was correlated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pituitary MRI showed 6x8 mm microadenoma at left half. Bromocriptine was started with 1.25 mg/day and increased to 5 mg/day. After six months of bromocriptine treatment her prolactin level was normal and no adenoma was detected in pituitary MRI. PCOS and prolactinoma association should be taken into account in PCOS cases with mild hyperprolactinoma. PMID:19367058

  9. Dopaminergic modulation of distracter-resistance and prefrontal delay period signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; van Schouwenburg, Martine R; Miyakawa, Asako; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark; Cools, Roshan

    2015-03-01

    Dopamine has long been implicated in the online maintenance of information across short delays. Specifically, dopamine has been proposed to modulate the strength of working memory representations in the face of intervening distracters. This hypothesis has not been tested in humans. We fill this gap using pharmacological neuroimaging. Healthy young subjects were scanned after intake of the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine or placebo (in a within-subject, counterbalanced, and double-blind design). During scanning, subjects performed a delayed match-to-sample task with face stimuli. A face or scene distracter was presented during the delay period (between the cue and the probe). Bromocriptine altered distracter-resistance, such that it impaired performance after face relative to scene distraction. Individual differences in the drug effect on distracter-resistance correlated negatively with drug effects on delay period signal in the prefrontal cortex, as well as on functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the fusiform face area. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that dopaminergic modulation of the prefrontal cortex alters resistance of working memory representations to distraction. Moreover, we show that the effects of dopamine on the distracter-resistance of these representations are accompanied by modulation of the functional strength of connections between the prefrontal cortex and stimulus-specific posterior cortex. PMID:25300902

  10. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  11. Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist properties at subtypes of dopamine D(2)-like receptor and alpha(1)/alpha(2)-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Audinot, Valérie; Nicolas, Jean-Paul; De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Boutin, Jean-A; Millan, Mark J

    2002-11-01

    The accompanying multivariate analysis of the binding profiles of antiparkinson agents revealed contrasting patterns of affinities at diverse classes of monoaminergic receptor. Herein, we characterized efficacies at human (h)D(2SHORT(S)), hD(2LONG(L)), hD(3), and hD(4.4) receptors and at halpha(2A)-, halpha(2B)-, halpha(2C)-, and halpha(1A)-adrenoceptors (ARs). As determined by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding, no ligand displayed "full" efficacy relative to dopamine (100%) at all "D(2)-like" sites. However, at hD(2S) receptors quinpirole, pramipexole, ropinirole, quinerolane, pergolide, and cabergoline were as efficacious as dopamine (E(max)100%); TL99, talipexole, and apomorphine were highly efficacious (79-92%); piribedil, lisuride, bromocriptine, and terguride showed intermediate efficacy (40-55%); and roxindole displayed low efficacy (11%). For all drugs, efficacies were lower at hD(2L) receptors, with terguride and roxindole acting as antagonists. At hD(3) receptors, efficacies ranged from 33% (roxindole) to 94% (TL99), whereas, for hD(4) receptors, highest efficacies (approximately 70%) were seen for quinerolane, quinpirole, and TL99, whereas piribedil and terguride behaved as antagonists and bromocriptine was inactive. Although efficacies at hD(2S) versus hD(2L) sites were highly correlated (r = 0.79), they correlated only modestly to hD(3)/hD(4) sites (r = 0.44-0.59). In [(35)S]GTPgammaS studies of halpha(2A)-ARs, TL99 (108%), pramipexole (52%), talipexole (51%), pergolide (31%), apomorphine (16%), and quinerolane (11%) were agonists and ropinirole and roxindole were inactive, whereas piribedil and other agents were antagonists. Similar findings were obtained at halpha(2B)- and halpha(2C)-ARs. Using [(3)H]phosphatidylinositol depletion, roxindole, bromocriptine, lisuride, and terguride displayed potent antagonist properties at halpha(1A)-ARs. In conclusion, antiparkinson agents display diverse agonist and antagonist

  12. Clinical diagnosis and management of prolactinoma%垂体催乳素瘤的临床诊断和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤正义

    2008-01-01

    催乳素瘤是垂体最常见的肿瘤,也是高催乳素血症的病因之一.鉴别诊断有时比较困难,需要胃复安或促甲状腺素释放激素刺激试验结果作参考.垂体催乳素瘤现在首选溴隐亭治疗,在特定情况下,还有其它药物、手术和放射治疗可选择.%Prolactinoma is the most common adenoma of pituitary gland, which causes hyperprolactinemia. Differential diagnosis for hyperprolactinemia may sometimes become difficult. The stimulating test with metoclopramide or thyrotropin-releasing hormone helps. Bromocriptine is the first choice to treat prolactinoma. Other medicaments, surgery and radiation are also of choice under certain particular conditions.

  13. Cavernous sinus residual tumor accompanying the empty sella syndrome after treatment of invasive prolactinomas%侵袭性催乳素腺瘤治疗后海绵窦残留或伴空蝶鞍综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲褒; 苏志鹏; 诸葛启钏; 吴近森; 朱丹化; 郑伟明; 于春江

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨侵袭性催乳素(PRL)腺瘤经治疗后海绵窦残留伴空蝶鞍综合征的临床特征和治疗策略.方法 18例侵袭性PRL腺瘤(Knosp分级Ⅲ或Ⅳ级)经治疗后出现海绵窦肿瘤持续残留,首选药物治疗者9例,首选手术治疗结合药物和(或)放疗9例.结果 平均随访55个月,8例PRL水平正常,7例视力改善.14例因鞍内肿瘤吸收遗留空蝶鞍,7例PRL仍升高,其中5例有不同程度的视交叉下疝(P<0.05).PRL水平正常、无临床症状的7例患者采用低剂量溴隐亭治疗达到PRL水平和肿瘤体积的长期控制.结论 PRL腺瘤治疗后海绵窦肿瘤残留伴发空蝶鞍,这一现象应该引起高度重视,尤其对伴有视交叉下疝的病例,长期的密切随访是必需的.无内分泌和压迫症状的海绵窦残留病例可以采用低剂量的药物治疗达到长期的肿瘤控制和内分泌控制.%Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics, treatment strategy of the cavernous sinus residual tumor (CSRT) accompanying the empty sella syndrome after treatment of invasive prolactinomas. Method Data from 18 patients with CSRT were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients initially received bromocriptine as primary treatment; nine patients had initially undergone transcranial or transsphenoidal microsurgery and then received bromocriptine or adjuvant radiotherapy. Results During an average follow-up period of 55 months, serum PRL levels of 8 patients were in normal range and those of 10 patients were above the normal level. Visual symptoms improved in 7 patients while deteriorated in 2 patients. Fourteen patients had a secondary empty sella due to tumor shrinkage. Of those 14 patients, seven still had elevated PRL levels; five had optic ehiasmal herniation by different degrees (P<0.05). Seven of these 18 patients maintain their PRL levels normal with low-dose bromocriptine treatment without significant clinical symptoms. Conclusions After treatment of invasive prolactinomas

  14. Homology modeling of adenosine A2A receptor and molecular docking for exploration of appropriate potent antagonists for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Somvanshi, Pallavi

    2009-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of central nervous system (CNS) that impaired the patient motor skills, speech and other functions. Adenosine A2A receptors have a unique cellular distribution in the neuron, which is used as a potential target for PD. Homology modeling was used to construct the 3-D structure of A2A using the known template (PDB: 2VT4), and the stereochemical quality was validated. Several effective antagonist drugs were selected and active amino acid residues in A2A were targeted on the basis of robust binding affinity between protein-drug interactions in molecular docking. Six antagonists, Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, Etilevodopa, Lysuride, Melevodopa and Pramipexole, were found more potent for binding and the active amino acids residues were identified (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/) in A2A receptor. It could be used as the basis for rationale designing of novel antagonist drugs against Parkinson's disease. PMID:20021407

  15. D3 receptor test in vitro predicts decreased cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, S B; Koob, G F; Parsons, L H; Everitt, B J; Schwartz, J C; Sokoloff, P

    1997-07-01

    The three dopamine agonists with highest reported D3 receptor selectivity in vitro, pramipexole, quinelorane and PD128,907, decreased self-administration of a high dose of cocaine in rats as a result of a leftward shift in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast the D3 preferring antagonist nafadotride increased cocaine self-administration. Moreover the relative potencies of these and other D2-like dopamine agonists (lisuride, 7-OH-DPAT, quinpirole, apomorphine, bromocriptine) to modulate cocaine self-administration were highly correlated with their relative potencies for increasing mitogenesis in vitro in cell lines expressing D3 but not D2 receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor may be an important target for pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:9243643

  16. Treatment of prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours in young women by needle implantation of radioactive yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty one young female patients with amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea or infertility were treated by 90Y pituitary implantation of 20,000 rads. There was no morbidity. In all patients serum prolactin values were elevated and radiographs of the pituitary fossa were abnormal. After implantation the median fall in prolactin values was 60 per cent while there was no deterioration in pituitary function if normal pre-operatively. Luteinizing hormone values, both basally and following godanotrophin-releasing hormone, rose to normal after operation; several instances of sellar remodelling were observed radiologically, and no instance of relapse was found. So far nine patients desiring fertility have become pregnant, three without any additional therapy. No case of tumour expansion was observed during pregnancy. 90Y implantation in patients requiring fertility is competitive with surgical methods, and together with a short course of bromocriptine if needed, could prove to be the treatment of choice. (author)

  17. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a case of patient with triplet pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlica, B Kastratović; Cetković, A; Plesinac, S; Macut, D; Asanin, M

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but potentially devastating complication of pregnancy associated with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurring within the last month of pregnancy and five month postpartum with no obvious other cause of heart failure and no pre-existing heart disease. In the present case report the authors present a woman who developed PPCM on the day after she delivered by cesarean section in 35th weeks of gestation of triplet pregnancy conceived after ovarian stimulation and insemination. A treatment with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, antiarrhythmics, low weight heparin, antibiotics and bromocriptine was applied and resulted in complete recovery. In conclusion, timely detection and initiation of treatment are important factors for complete recovery of patients with PPCM. PMID:27132428

  18. Pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy, acromegaly and secondary diabetes mellitus - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Hudson Kamau; Lubanga, Reuben Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are associated with significant morbidity. The usual symptoms on presentation are of endocrine dysfunction and mass effects. A 31-year-old African female presented with headache, irregular menses, blurring of vision in the right eye and complete loss of vision in the left eye for 1 year. She had coarse facial features, enlarged hands and feet. Her right eye had temporal hemianopia with decreased visual acuity and her left eye had no perception of light. Investigations revealed an elevated fasting blood sugar and an elevated prolactin and growth hormone level. A CT scan and MRI done showed a hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma. She was put on bromocriptine, ocreotide, analgesics and insulin. Thereafter, she underwent transphenoidal surgery, where near total resection of the tumor was achieved. Patient is doing well post-operatively. This case highlights the importance of the use of a high clinical index of suspicion and radiological findings in diagnosis. PMID:24062868

  19. Antagonism of presynaptic dopamine receptors by phenothiazine drug metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically evoked release of dopamine from the caudate nucleus is reduced by the dopamine receptor agonists, apomorphine and bromocriptine, and facilitated by neuroleptic drugs, which act as dopamine autoreceptor antagonists. The potencies of chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, levomepromazine and their hydroxy-metabolites in modulating electrically evoked release of dopamine were examined by superfusion of rabbit caudate nucleus slices pre-incubated with 3H-dopamine. O-Desmethyl levomepromazine, 3-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy metabolites of chlorpromazine and levomepromazine facilitated electrically evoked release of 3H-dopamine, having potencies similar to that of the parent compounds. 7-Hydroxy fluphenazine was less active than fluphenazine in this system. These results indicate that phenolic metabolites of chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, but not of fluphenazine, may contribute to effects of the drugs mediated by presynaptic dopamine receptors

  20. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic...

  1. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Rezvani, Niloufar; Bani-Assadi, Shadi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    In the present study, effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour have been studied. The dopaminergic receptor agonist, apomorphine (0.15, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg), induced dose-dependent licking in rats. The maximum response was obtained with 0.5 mg/kg of the apomorphine. Lead acetate (0.5%) exposure significantly increased apomorphine-induced licking. Yawning induced by the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist, bromocriptine (2, 3, 4, 8 mg/kg), and the cholinergic drug, physostigmine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg), was significantly decreased by lead acetate (0.05%) exposure. It may be concluded that the behaviour induced by dopaminergic or cholinergic agents can be affected by lead subchronic exposure. (au) 30 refs.

  3. [Peripartum cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouquet, Frédéric; Bouabdallaoui, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from alteration of angiogenesis toward the end of pregnancy. The diagnosis is based on the association of clinical heart failure and systolic dysfunction assessed by echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnoses to rule out are myocardial infarction, amniotic liquid embolism, myocarditis, inherited cardiomyopathy, and history of treatment by anthracycline. Risk factors are advance maternal age (>30), multiparity, twin pregnancy, African origin, obesity, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and prolonged tocolytic therapy. Treatment of acute phase is identical to usual treatment of acute systolic heart failure. After delivery, VKA treatment should be discussed in case of systolic function <25% because of higher risk of thrombus. A specific treatment by bromocriptine can be initiated on a case-by-case basis. Complete recovery of systolic function is observed in 50% of cases. The mortality risk is low. Subsequent pregnancy should be discouraged, especially if systolic function did not recover. PMID:26160284

  4. [Vitex Agnus Castus in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Męczekalski, Błażej; Czyżyk, Adam

    2015-07-01

    We describe a patient with mild hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders (oligomenorrhea). She presented relative hypoestrogenism in laboratory tests. Magnetic resonans excluded the presence of pituitary adenoma. Because patient developed a bromocriptine intolerance, the Vitex Agnus Castus (VAC) extract has been introduced. The VAC therapy was effective, with symptoms relief and improvement of hormonal tests. The VAC medicines are indicated for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), mastalgia, menstrual disorders and mild hyperprolactinemia. The mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it is related to dopaniergic activity of diterpenes and castacin in VAC. The randomized clinical trials revealed efficacy of VAC extract in the treatmet of hyperprolactinemia, menstrual disorders, PMS and mastalgia. Good tolerability, lack of serious side-effects and drug interactions are the advantages of the VAC preparations. PMID:26277178

  5. Hyperprolactinemia in children: clinical features and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Altincik, Ayca; Demir, Korcan; Can, Sule; Buyukgebiz, Atilla; Bober, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a rare endocrine disorder in childhood, which may result from hypophyseal adenoma. We aimed to review the etiologic reasons and clinical features in hyperprolactinemia patients retrospectively. The mean age of 11 female patients at diagnosis was 14.2 ± 1.3 years. Five patients had microadenoma, four patients had macroadenoma, and two patients were diagnosed with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. The most frequent symptoms were menstrual disorders, headache, and galactorrhea, and one-third of the patients had obesity at diagnosis. There was no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. All patients received bromocriptine as initial therapy; only two patients with macroadenoma and one patient with microadenoma were switched to cabergoline. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed for a patient with macroadenoma, who had cavernous sinus invasion and visual field defect. Medical treatment should be the first-line treatment option in both microadenoma and macroadenoma cases without any neurological signs. Surgery should be employed with limited indications. PMID:23329759

  6. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Tongue Cancer: A Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Baba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient’s hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK, and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome.

  7. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  8. L'inhibition de la lactation : quelle prise en charge pour les patientes ?

    OpenAIRE

    Souillard, Amélie

    2013-01-01

    La bromocriptine, molécule inhibitrice de la lactation a vu son administration controversée suite à des effets indésirables graves retrouvés dans la littérature. Le rapport bénéfice-risque est actuellement réévalué. Rappels : Dans 70% des cas, la lactation est inhibée spontanément sans conséquences graves. Aujourd'hui, le traitement le plus utilisé est le Parlodel®, les méthodes non médicamenteuses étant discutées. Matériel : Une étude a été menée auprès de 108 patientes aux CH de Melun et de...

  9. Citicoline in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Massó, J F; Urtasun, M

    1991-01-01

    The subjects were 20 patients with Parkinson's disease. They were aged 52 to 76 years and the duration of the disease ranged from four to 25 years (mean, 12.5 years). All the patients were receiving levodopa alone or in combination with tricyclic antidepressants, amantadine, bromocriptine, anticholinergic agents, or lisuride. Each patient received 1,000 mg of citicoline intramuscularly daily for 15 days and then 500 mg daily for 15 days. After 30 days of treatment, the scores on the Columbia rating scale improved 7.3%; rigidity was improved 18.8%; times to walk 10 m and turn over were reduced 17.5% and 37.4%; and the handwriting test scores improved 19.7%. No side effects were reported. Four patients with advanced parkinsonian symptoms and psychotic side effects received 2,000 mg of citicoline subcutaneously or intravenously for seven days. No improvements in symptoms or treatment side effects were noted. PMID:1863939

  10. Flagging Drugs That Inhibit the Bile Salt Export Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Floriane; Pinto, Marta; Khunweeraphong, Narakorn; Wlcek, Katrin; Sohail, M Imran; Noeske, Tobias; Boyer, Scott; Chiba, Peter; Stieger, Bruno; Kuchler, Karl; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2016-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, bromocriptin, was identified for the first time as BSEP inhibitor. This demonstrates the usefulness of the model to identify new BSEP inhibitors and therefore potential cholestasis perpetrators. PMID:26642869

  11. Hyperprolactinemic breast cancer in radiooncologic care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, G.; Luethgens, M.; Schoen, H.D.

    1986-02-01

    Serum prolactin has been determined in 334 patients with breast cancer within the radiooncologic care. In addition 54 healthy female blood donors were analysed as controls. Values above 600 mU/l were called hyperprolactinemic. 15% of the patients showed elevated prolactin levels, 25% of which coincided with recurrent disease. Preoperative evaluation of prolactin in combination with TPA and CEA may be an aid in selecting a special group of patients with poor prognosis. Following 31 patients under therapy it could be demonstrated that any successful treatment modality leads to a normalization of elevated prolactin levels. In refractory cases addition of bromocriptine may be effective. Furthermore, drug induced hyperprolactinemia ought to be treated.

  12. Diagnosis and medical treatment of prolactinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-line treatment of prolactinomas is medical therapy with dopamine receptor agonists. Bromocriptine (BC) has been used over the past 30 years, while cabergoline (CAB) is increasingly used in recent years because of its enhanced efficacy and better tolerability. Cabergoline is highly effective in normalizing elevated prolactin, recovering hypogonadism, and achieving a successful pregnancy in patients with tumoral and non-tumoral hyperprolactinemia. Also, CAB has a greater ability to shrink prolactinomas (PRLomas) than BC and often extinguishes them. Regarding the diagnosis, it requires demonstrating hyperprolactinemia on at least two separate occasions, excluding other causes of hyperprolactinemia than PRLomas, and detecting pituitary tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. Final diagnosis in non-operated cases is made empirically by attaining unequivocal tumor shrinkage or disappearance with CAB treatment. (author)

  13. The hyperprolactinemic breast cancer in radiooncologic care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum prolactin has been determined in 334 patients with breast cancer within the radiooncologic care. In addition 54 healthy female blood donors were analysed as controls. Values above 600 mU/l were called hyperprolactinemic. 15% of the patients showed elevated prolactin levels, 25% of which coincided with recurrent disease. Preoperative evaluation of prolactin in combination with TPA and CEA may be an aid in selecting a special group of patients with poor prognosis. Following 31 patients under therapy it could be demonstrated that any successful treatment modality leads to a normalization of elevated prolactin levels. In refractory cases addition of bromocriptine may be effective. Furthermore, drug induced hyperprolactinemia ought to be treated. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of some /sup 11/C-labelled alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Halldin, H.; Svaerd, H.; Bergson, G. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden) Inst. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    Using (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-morphine, N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (/sup 11/C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the /sup 14/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reaction.

  15. Investigation of the immunological and receptor activity of human growth hormone in patients with acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was measured by means of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the radioreceptor assay (RRA). The receptors were liver plasma membranes (LPM) of pregnant rabbits. In the RIA, no cross-reaction was found with hPRL, whereas in the RRA the cross-reaction was 3 p.c. The Scatchard analysis revealed two binding sites for hGH at the receptor. Pre-treatment with hGH and Cortisol brought about an enhanced affinity without change of the specific bonding, whereas pre-treatment with bromocriptin showed no significant effect. Hypophyseal hGH was separated by means of gel chromatography into big-big and big-little hGH and a reduced receptor activity of the higher molecular hGH fraction was shown. The Scatchard analysis indicated a more unspecific bonding characteristic of the big hGH. Stimulation of hGH secretion by insulin hypoglycemia provoked an overproportional increase in big hGH in healthy persons, whereas in patients with acromegaly the secretion of little hGH was enhanced. The suppression of hGH secretion by long-term bromocriptin treatment led to a significant rise of the RIA/RRA quotient in patients with post-operative florid acromegaly. Acute administration of BC was shown to induce a stronger hGH drop in the RRA of responders than in their RIA, as compared to non-responders. By chromatographic separation it was found that in responders the secretion of little hGH is selectively inhibited, but no in non-responders. (orig.)

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy in drug resistant neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an idiosyncratic and potentially fatal reaction to neuroleptic drugs and is characterized by fever, muscular rigidity, altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, elevated serum CPK and leucocytosis Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is treated with dantrolene, bromocriptin, amantadin and electroconvulsive therapy."n"nCase: A 22 years old, schizophrenic female was refered to the Emergency ward of Roozbeh hospital in Tehran, Iran in December 2008 with aggression, impulsivity, and reduced sleep. After injection of haloperidol, the patient developed a high grade fever, diaphoresis and muscular stiffness. She was diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and the treatment with dantrolen, bromocriptin and amantadin initiated. Although fever subsided, other signs continued, therefore we applied electroconvulsive therapy to this case."n"nConclusion: Due to excellent response of the patient to electroconvulsive therapy and the rare reports of electroconvulsive therapy in neuroleptic malignant syndrome in the Iranian population, this case may lead to develop studies for further investigations of this issue.

  17. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Amy T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of outcomes of hyperprolactinemic patients, including microadenomas and macroadenomas, to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Through this review, we aimed to compare efficacy and adverse effects of medications, surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Methods We searched electronic databases, reviewed bibliographies of included articles, and contacted experts in the field. Eligible studies provided longitudinal follow-up of patients with hyperprolactinemia and evaluated outcomes of interest. We collected descriptive, quality and outcome data (tumor growth, visual field defects, infertility, sexual dysfunction, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and prolactin levels. Results After review, 8 randomized and 178 nonrandomized studies (over 3,000 patients met inclusion criteria. Compared to no treatment, dopamine agonists significantly reduced prolactin level (weighted mean difference, -45; 95% confidence interval, -77 to −11 and the likelihood of persistent hyperprolactinemia (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 0.99. Cabergoline was more effective than bromocriptine in reducing persistent hyperprolactinemia, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and galactorrhea. A large body of noncomparative literature showed dopamine agonists improved other patient-important outcomes. Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports improved outcomes with surgery and radiotherapy compared to no treatment in patients who were resistant to or intolerant of dopamine agonists. Conclusion Our results provide evidence to support the use of dopamine agonists in reducing prolactin levels and persistent hyperprolactinemia, with cabergoline proving more efficacious than bromocriptine. Radiotherapy and surgery are useful in patients with resistance or intolerance

  18. Research resource: estrogen-driven prolactin-mediated gene-expression networks in hormone-induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Neville N C; Szeto, Carol Y Y; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Fullenkamp, Amy N; Medvedovic, Mario; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2010-11-01

    Cotreatment with testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) is an established regimen for inducing of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer in rodent models. We previously used the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) and bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, to inhibit PIN induction and systemic hyperprolactinemia in Noble rats and found that the carcinogenic action of T+E2 is mediated directly by the effects of E2 on the prostate and/or indirectly via E2-induced hyperprolactinemia. In this study, we delineate the specific action(s) of E2 and prolactin (PRL) in early prostate carcinogenesis by an integrated approach combining global transcription profiling, gene ontology, and gene-network mapping. We identified 2504 differentially expressed genes in the T+E2-treated lateral prostate. The changes in expression of a subset of 1990 genes (∼80%) were blocked upon cotreatment with ICI and bromocriptine, respectively, whereas those of 262 genes (∼10%) were blocked only by treatment with ICI, suggesting that E2-induced pituitary PRL is the primary mediator of the prostatic transcriptional response to the altered hormone milieu. Bioinformatics analyses identified hormone-responsive gene networks involved in immune responses, stromal tissue remodeling, and the ERK pathway. In particular, our data suggest that IL-1β may mediate, at least in part, hormone-induced changes in gene expression during PIN formation. Together, these data highlight the importance of pituitary PRL in estrogen-induced prostate tumorigenesis. The identification of both E2- and pituitary PRL-responsive genes provides a comprehensive resource for future investigations of the complex mechanisms by which changes in the endocrine milieu contribute to prostate carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:20861223

  19. Prolactin regulates kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus to suppress LH secretion in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Crampton, Jessica R; Aquino, Nayara S S; Miranda, Roberta M; Kokay, Ilona C; Reis, Adelina M; Franci, Celso R; Grattan, David R; Szawka, Raphael E

    2014-03-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to suppress LH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons regulate LH secretion and express PRL receptors. We investigated whether PRL acts on kisspeptin neurons to suppress LH secretion in lactating (Lac) and virgin rats. Lac rats displayed high PRL secretion and reduced plasma LH and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Bromocriptine-induced PRL blockade significantly increased ARC kisspeptin and plasma LH levels in Lac rats but did not restore them to the levels of non-Lac rats. Bromocriptine effects were prevented by the coadministration of ovine PRL (oPRL). Virgin ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with either systemic or intracerebroventricular oPRL displayed reduction of kisspeptin expression in the ARC and plasma LH levels, and these effects were comparable with those of estradiol treatment in OVX rats. Conversely, estradiol-treated OVX rats displayed increased kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, whereas oPRL had no effect in this brain area. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 was used to determine whether kisspeptin neurons in the ARC were responsive to PRL. Accordingly, intracerebroventricular oPRL induced expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the great majority of ARC kisspeptin neurons in virgin and Lac rats. We provide here evidence that PRL acts on ARC neurons to inhibit kisspeptin expression in female rats. During lactation, PRL contributes to the inhibition of ARC kisspeptin. In OVX rats, high PRL levels suppress kisspeptin expression and reduce LH release. These findings suggest a pathway through which hyperprolactinemia may inhibit LH secretion and thereby cause infertility. PMID:24456164

  20. effect of photoperiod on ovarian endocrine function in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out at rabbit colony established in Endocrinology Research Unit, Applied Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The hormonal radioimmunological assays were performed in the laboratories of the same Research Unit. It was planned to point out the effect of treating adult does subjected to three regimes of photoperiodicity 8 hrs D/16 hrs L, 12 hrs D/12 hrs L and 16 hrs D/8 hrs L , with different hormonal treatments including HCG and pharmaceutical preparations including Melatonin, Serotonin, Bromocriptine (anti prolactin), Indomethacin (anti prostaglandins) alone or in combined with HCG. A total number of 300 young adult female New Zealand white does aged 3-4 months and weighed 2-3 Kg were individually caged and kept in an environmental chamber under 0 controlled ambient temperature of 25 degree C, isolated from outdoors day light and well ventilated This work was accomplished in two separate experiments spaced with two weeks rest to adapt the animals for the photoperiod regime, does subjected to study were kept under these condition for pre-experimental period leaved two weeks then divided into three groups (photoperiods) each of 100 does. The first experiment: was planned and conducted to detect the possibility for improving the reproductive performance of does by magnifying the hormonal coordination related to productive activity with relation to different lighting regimes tested, to fulfill this aim applying human chorionic gonadotropin as well as other chemical compounds that thought to have considerable effect on hormonal regulation of reproduction (Melatonin, Serotonin, Bromocriptine (anti prolactin) and indomethacin (anti prostaglandin)).

  1. Dopaminergic drugs in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Brie, Belen; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Garcia Tornadu, Isabel; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2016-07-01

    The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans. The actions of dopamine on glucose homeostasis and food intake impact both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Different central actions of the dopamine system may mediate its metabolic effects such as: (i) regulation of hypothalamic noradrenaline output, (ii) participation in appetite control, and (iii) maintenance of the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. On the other hand, dopamine inhibits prolactin, which has metabolic functions; and, at the pancreatic beta cell dopamine D2 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. We review the evidence obtained in animal models and clinical studies that posited dopamine receptors as key elements in glucose homeostasis and ultimately led to the FDA approval of bromocriptine in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolic consequences of treatment with neuroleptics which target the D2R, that should be monitored in psychiatric patients to prevent the development in diabetes, weight gain, and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26748034

  2. D1 dopamine receptor activity of anti-parkinsonian drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fici, G J; Wu, H; VonVoigtlander, P F; Sethy, V H

    1997-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical investigations suggest that stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors may be responsible for dyskinesias induced by dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD), and that these dyskinesias may be decreased by treatment with a D1 antagonist (clozapine). Therefore, the effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists have been investigated in a primary cerebellar granule cell model of cAMP formation that seems to be highly responsive to the D1 receptors. SKF 38393, lisuride, apomorphine, pergolide, dopamine, bromocriptine and 7-OH-DPAT showed concentration-dependent increases in cAMP formation, with EC50s (in microM) of 0.013, 0.053, 0.25, 1.04, 2.18, 50.9 and 54.4, respectively. SKF 38393, apomorphine, dopamine and pergolide had similar intrinsic activity (100%), while the intrinsic activities of 7-OH-DPAT, bromocriptine and lisuride were 28.0%, 20.7% and 17.2%, respectively. SCH 23390, a selective D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, blocked an increase in cAMP formation produced by EC50 concentrations of all of the dopamine agonists investigated in this study. Clozapine concentration-dependently blocked pergolide-induced increases in cAMP and was approximately 1700-fold less potent than SCH 23390 (IC50: 0.97 microM and 0.56 nM, respectively). U-95666A (1-1000 microM), selective for the D2 receptors, showed no significant effect on cAMP, while pramipexole (0.1-100 microM), a D3 preferring agonist, did not elevate cAMP. These data suggest that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures are an excellent model for measuring D1 dopamine receptor-mediated changes in cellular cAMP. The results are discussed with reference to the relationship between the D1 receptor-stimulated increase in cAMP formation and the induction of dyskinesia in humans by these anti-parkinsonian drugs. PMID:9126882

  3. Functional potencies of dopamine agonists and antagonists at human dopamine D₂ and D₃ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadori, Yoshihiro; Forbes, Robert A; McQuade, Robert D; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-09-01

    We measured the functional agonist potencies of dopamine agonists including antiparkinson drugs, and functional antagonist potencies of antipsychotics at human dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. In vitro pharmacological assessment included inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and the reversal of dopamine-induced inhibition in clonal Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing low and high densities of human dopamine D(2L) and D(2S) receptors (hD(2L)-Low, hD(2L)-High, hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High, respectively) and human dopamine D(3) Ser-9 and D(3) Gly-9 receptors (hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9, respectively). Cabergoline, bromocriptine, pergolide, (±)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), talipexole, pramipexole, R-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-olhydrochloride (PD128907) and ropinirole behaved as dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor full agonists and showed higher potencies in hD(2L)-High and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low. In hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9 compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low, dopamine, ropinirole, PD128907, and pramipexole potencies were clearly higher; talipexole and 7-OH-DPAT showed slightly higher potencies; pergolide showed slightly lower potency; and, cabergoline and bromocriptine potencies were lower. Aripiprazole acted as an antagonist in hD(2L)-Low; a low intrinsic activity partial agonist in hD(2S)-Low; a moderate partial agonist in hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9; a robust partial agonist in hD(2L)-High; and a full agonist in hD(2S)-High. Amisulpride, sulpiride and perphenazine behaved as preferential antagonists; and chlorpromazine and asenapine behaved as modest preferential antagonists; whereas fluphenazine, haloperidol, and blonanserin behaved as non-preferential antagonists in hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9. These findings may help to elucidate the basis of therapeutic benefit observed with these drugs, with

  4. Study Progress of Prolactin%泌乳素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雄

    2012-01-01

    泌乳素是由垂体泌乳细胞分泌的一种蛋白质类激素,主要受神经内分泌调节,其作用是促使乳腺分泌乳汁,作为神经内分泌因子参与免疫调节,维持女性黄体的功能和促进男性睾酮的合成.泌乳素异常分泌会引起高泌乳素血症,且与乳腺增生、肿瘤和某些自身免疫疾病的发生密切相关.采用手术切除泌乳素瘤、西药溴隐亭、中药复方或针灸方法治疗泌乳素相关疾病,疗效确切.%Prolactin is a kind of protein hormone secreted by lactotroph of pituitary gland,mainly regulated by neuroendocrine. It promotes mammary gland lactating, participates immunological regulation as a neuroendocrine factor, maintains female luteinic function and promotes the synthesis of male testosterone. Abnormal secretion of protein will cause hyperprolactinemia,and is closely correlated with hyperplasia of mammary glands, tumor and several autoimmune diseases. The related diseases induced by abnormal secretion of protein can be cured by cutting down prolactinoma,bromocriptine,traditional Chinese medicine or acupuncture, and the curative effect is affirmative.

  5. Drug-induced retroperitoneal fibrosis: short aetiopathogenetic note, from the past times of ergot-derivatives large use to currently applied bio-pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBERTI, C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the secondary forms of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), that drug-induced shows very intriguing aspects given both the broad range of involved pharmaceuticals and the considerable interest arisen from the related pathogenetic mechanisms. The particular incidence, in the last four decades past century, of the RPF due to long-term use of ergot alkaloid derivatives (ergotamine, methysergide, pergolide, bromocriptine, cabergoline) and specific L-dopa derived agents, such as methyldopa, as well as to different analgesics, came progressively down given that their long-term use for either the prevention of migraine attacks or the therapy of chronic pathologies (Parkinson’s disease, prolactinoma, pain management, etc) has been, year after year, supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries. More recently, instead, the occurrence of the RPF has been sometimes identified with the use of antitumoral chemotherapeutics, such as carboplatin and methotrexate, and, just lately, as an unusual side-effect of certain biological agents, about which it is timely to go into specific pathogenetic problems in more depth. PMID:26712075

  6. Changes in Plasma Prolactin and Growth Hormone Level and Visual Problem after radiation Therapy(RT) of Pituitary Adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Bahk, Yong Whee; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Joon Ki; Song, Jin Un [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Twenty-four cases of pituitary adenoma, 13 males and 11 females with the age ranging from 11 to 65 years, received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area with 6MV linear accelerator during past 25 months at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Of 24 case of RT, 20 were postoperative and 4 primary. To evaluate the effect of RT, we analyzed the alteration of the endocrinological tests, neurologic abnormalities, major clinical symptoms, endocrinological changes and improvement in visual problems after RT. The results were as follows ; 1. Major clinical symptoms were headache, visual defects, diabetes insipidus, hypogonadisms and general weakness in decreasing order of frequency. 2. All but the one with Nelson syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turcica with an invasive tumor mass around supra and para-sellar area. 3. Endocrinological classifications of the patient were 11 prolactinoma, 4 growth hormonesecreting tumors, 3 ACTH-secreting tumors consisting of one Cushing disease and two Nelson syndrome, and 6 nonfunctioning tumors. 4. Eleven of 14 patients, visual problems were improved after treatment but remaining 3 were unchanged. 5. Seven of 11 prolactinomas returned to normal hormonal level after postoperative and primary RT and 3 patients are being treated with bromocriptine (BMCP) but on lost case. 6. Two of 4 growth hormone-secreting tumor returned to normal level after RT but the remaining 2 are being treated with BMCP, as well.

  7. Management of prolactinoma with cabergoline treatment in a pregnant woman during her entire pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwinder Kaur Bajwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of prolactinoma in pregnancy is a big challenge for the treating obstetrician as prolactin levels are normally raised in pregnancy and this creates a possibility of missing the diagnosis of prolactinoma. Women with micro adenomas and intrasellar macro adenomas do not require serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or visual field testing as required in macro adenomas with extrasellar extension. A strict and vigil monitoring during each trimester for any clinical signs and symptoms related to tumor will suffice for the diagnosis of enlarging prolactinoma and for any active intervention required thereof. Dopamine agonists are the first choice of drugs to treat these tumors during pregnancy. Cabergoline is reported to be more effective and better tolerated as compared to traditional bromocriptine, with minimal risk of spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations or menstrual abnormalities. We are reporting a patient with macro prolactinoma who was treated successfully throughout her pregnancy with cabergoline. We achieved a very good control of prolactinoma without any significant alteration of dose and also without any adverse effects. We convey that cabergoline can be a first choice drug to treat macro prolactinomas in pregnancy also.

  8. Drug-induced retroperitoneal fibrosis: short aetiopathogenetic note, from the past times of ergot-derivatives large use to currently applied bio-pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, C

    2015-01-01

    Among the secondary forms of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), that drug-induced shows very intriguing aspects given both the broad range of involved pharmaceuticals and the considerable interest arisen from the related pathogenetic mechanisms. The particular incidence, in the last four decades past century, of the RPF due to long-term use of ergot alkaloid derivatives (ergotamine, methysergide, pergolide, bromocriptine, cabergoline) and specific L-dopa derived agents, such as methyldopa, as well as to different analgesics, came progressively down given that their long-term use for either the prevention of migraine attacks or the therapy of chronic pathologies (Parkinson's disease, prolactinoma, pain management, etc) has been, year after year, supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries. More recently, instead, the occurrence of the RPF has been sometimes identified with the use of antitumoral chemotherapeutics, such as carboplatin and methotrexate, and, just lately, as an unusual side-effect of certain biological agents, about which it is timely to go into specific pathogenetic problems in more depth. PMID:26712075

  9. Galactorrea grave tras aumento mamario con implantes Severe galactorrhea after mammary augmentation with implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Fidalgo Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La galactorrea es una complicación poco frecuente después de la cirugía plástica mamaria. Su causa aun es desconocida, aunque lo más probable es que su aparición tenga un origen multifactorial. En el caso que presentamos la paciente desarrolló incremento simétrico del volumen de ambas mamas después de un cirugía de aumento mamario. No se detectaron cambios en los valores de prolactina. El proceso no respondió al tratamiento con bromocriptina. La galactorrea postquirúrgica con frecuencia sigue un curso benigno y autolimitado, culminando con resolución espontánea. Dependiendo de la severidad de los síntomas, su tratamiento puede ser médico y/o quirúrgico, con drenaje o incluso retirada de los implantes mamarios.Galactorrhea is a complication rarely observed after mammary plastic surgery. The cause remains unknown although it's likely to be multifactorial. In the reported case, the patient described symmetric massive engorgement of both breasts after augmentation mammoplasty. No significant change was detected in the postoperative prolactin values. The condition was unresponsive to treatment with bromocriptine. Postsurgical galactorrhea often follows a benign course culminating in spontaneous resolution Depending on symptom severity, treatment may be medical with the prescription of dopaminergic agonists, and/or surgical with drainage or even removal of the mammary implants.

  10. Clinical features, pathogenesis and management of drug-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccara, G; Muscas, G C; Messori, A

    1990-01-01

    Many classes of pharmacological agents have been implicated in cases of drug-induced seizures. The list includes antidepressant drugs, lithium salts, neuroleptics, antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists), anticonvulsants, central nervous system stimulants, general and local anaesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs, narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobial agents, antifungal agents, antimalarial drugs, antineoplastic drugs, immunosuppressive drugs, radiological contrast agents and vaccines. For each of these classes of drugs, this article offers a revision of the literature and emphasises in particular the frequency of the adverse reaction, its clinical presentation, its presumed epileptogenic mechanism and the therapeutic strategy for the management of drug-induced seizures. An attempt is also made to distinguish seizures induced by standard dosages from those provoked by accidental or self-induced intoxication. For some classes of drugs such as antidepressants, neuroleptics, central nervous system stimulants (e.g. theophylline, cocaine, amphetamines) and beta-lactam antibiotics, seizures are a well recognised adverse reaction, and a large body of literature has been published discussing exhaustively the major aspects of the issue; sufficient data are available also for the other classes of pharmacological agents mentioned above. In contrast, several other drugs [e.g. allopurinol, digoxin, cimetidine, protirelin (thyrotrophin releasing hormone), bromocriptine, domperidone, insulin, fenformin, penicillamine, probenecid, verapamil, methyldopa] have not been studied thoroughly under this aspect, and the only source of information is the occasional case report. This review does not address the issue of seizures induced by drug withdrawal. PMID:2182049

  11. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A2 activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated 3H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731

  12. Prolactin and glucocorticoid signaling induces lactation-specific tight junctions concurrent with β-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Tsugami, Yusaku; Matsunaga, Kota; Oyama, Shoko; Kuki, Chinatsu; Kumura, Haruto

    2016-08-01

    Alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in mammary glands are highly specialized cells that produce milk for suckling infants. Alveolar MECs also form less permeable tight junctions (TJs) to prevent the leakage of milk components after parturition. In the formation process of less permeable TJs, MECs show a selective downregulation of Cldn4 and a localization change of Cldn3. To investigate what induces less permeable TJs through these compositional changes in Cldns, we focused on two lactogenesis-related hormones: prolactin (Prl) and glucocorticoids. Prl caused a downregulation of Cldn3 and Cldn4 with the formation of leaky TJs in MECs in vitro. Prl-treated MECs also showed low β-casein expression with the activation of STAT5 signaling. By contrast, dexamethasone (Dex), a glucocorticoid analogue, upregulated Cldn3 and Cldn4, concurrent with the formation of less permeable TJs and the activation of glucocorticoid signaling without the expression of β-casein. Cotreatment with Prl and Dex induced the selective downregulation of Cldn4 and the concentration of Cldn3 in the region of TJs concurrent with less permeable TJ formation and high β-casein expression. The inhibition of Prl secretion by bromocriptine in lactating mice induced the upregulation of Cldn3 and Cldn4 concurrent with the downregulation of milk production. These results indicate that the coactivation of Prl and glucocorticoid signaling induces lactation-specific less permeable TJs concurrent with lactogenesis. PMID:27130254

  13. Macrolide antibacterials. Drug interactions of clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosensteil, N A; Adam, D

    1995-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics can interact adversely with commonly used drugs, usually by altering metabolism due to complex formation and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and enterocytes. In addition, pharmacokinetic drug interactions with macrolides can result from their antibiotic effect on microorganisms of the enteric flora, and through enhanced gastric emptying due to a motilin-like effect. Macrolides may be classified into 3 different groups according to their affinity for CYP3A4, and thus their propensity to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Troleandomycin, erythromycin and its prodrugs decrease drug metabolism and may produce drug interactions (group 1). Others, including clarithromycin, flurithromycin, midecamycin, midecamycin acetate (miocamycin; ponsinomycin), josamycin and roxithromycin (group 2) rarely cause interactions. Azithromycin, dirithromycin, rikamycin and spiramycin (group 3) do not inactivate CYP3A4 and do not engender these adverse effects. Drug interactions with carbamazepine, cyclosporin, terfenadine, astemizole and theophylline represent the most frequently encountered interactions with macrolide antibiotics. If the combination of a macrolide and one of these compounds cannot be avoided, serum concentrations of concurrently administered drugs should be monitored and patients observed for signs of toxicity. Rare interactions and those of dubious clinical importance are those with alfentanil and sufentanil, antacids and cimetidine, oral anticoagulants, bromocriptine, clozapine, oral contraceptive steroids, digoxin, disopyramide, ergot alkaloids, felodipine, glibenclamide (glyburide), levodopa/carbidopa, lovastatin, methylprednisolone, phenazone (antipyrine), phenytoin, rifabutin and rifampicin (rifampin), triazolam and midazolam, valproic acid (sodium valproate) and zidovudine. PMID:7576262

  14. Catatonia, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Cotard Syndrome in a 22-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The following case study describes a 22-year-old woman with depression and symptoms of psychosis who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after using Risperidone, thus requiring life support equipment and Bromocriptine, later recovering after seven days. From a psychiatric and neurological point of view, however, the persistence of catatonic syndrome and Cotard syndrome delusions was observed, based on assertions such as “I do not have a heart,” “my heart is not beating,” “I can not breathe,” “I am breaking apart,” “I have no head” (ideas of negation and statements about the patient being responsible for the “death of the whole world” (ideas of enormity. Brain NMR revealed leukoencephalopathy, interpreted as scar lesions caused by perinatal neurological damage, after discarding other pathologies. The patient responded well to electroconvulsive therapy after 11 sessions. Organic vulnerability to these syndromes, as well as their coexistence and clinical differentiation is discussed in the light of the data observed.

  15. [A case of acute renal failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with rhabdomyolysis--possible contributing role of hyperreninemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, K; Maruyama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nagase, M

    1994-10-01

    A schizophrenic woman, aged 45, was admitted complaining of high fever, oliguria, blackish urine, muscle swelling and pain. She had been treated for the past 3 years with haloperidol (8 mg), levomepromazine (150 mg), chlorpromazine (75 mg), lithium carbonate (600 mg), bromocriptine mesilate (7.5 mg), etizolam (1 mg), and flunitrazepam (2 mg), Physical examination revealed her to be an obese and uncommunicatable woman with swelling and weakness of the extremities and abdominal distension without borborygmus. Urine was dark brown and (+) for protein and occult blood. Blood chemistry analysis revealed BUN 71 mg/dl, creatinine 6.8 mg/dl, CPK 143,850 IU and myoglobin 3,980 ng/ml. PRA on the 11th hospital day was 96 ng/ml/hour. This patient fulfilled the Levenson's diagnostic criteria for manifestations of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). High PRA did not decrease after cessation of the diuretics. After treatment with dantrolene sodium and 10 treatments with hemodialysis, azotemia disappeared with the start of diuresis. The PRA also decreased to the normal level. Characteristic acceleration of the central sympathetic stimuli in NMS seemed to have induced hyperreninemia, which together with rhabdomyolysis, might have contributed to the development of acute renal failure. PMID:7815749

  16. Interactive effects of morphine and dopaminergic compounds on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hong Wang; Joshua Dominie Rizak; Yan-Mei Chen; Liang Li; Xin-Tian Hu; Yuan-Ye Ma

    2013-01-01

    Opiates and dopamine (DA) play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals.Although interactions between these neurotransmitters have been found,their functional roles remain to be fully elucidated,and their dysfunction may contribute to human diseases and addiction.Here we investigated the interactions of morphine and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems with respect to learning and memory in rhesus monkeys by using the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) delayed-response task.Morphine and DA agonists (SKF-38393,apomorphine and bromocriptine) or DA antagonists (SKF-83566,haloperidol and sulpiride) were co-administered to the monkeys 30 min prior to the task.We found that dose-patterned co-administration of morphine with D1 or D2 antagonists or agonists reversed the impaired spatial working memory induced by morphine or the compounds alone.For example,morphine at 0.01 mg/kg impaired spatial working memory,while morphine (0.01 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.01 or 0.06 mg/kg) co-treatment ameliorated this effect.Our findings suggest that the interactions between morphine and dopaminergic compounds influence spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.A better understanding of these interactive relationships may provide insights into human addiction.

  17. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoratto, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731.

  18. [Interferences between prolactin and ovarian function (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, L J

    1978-01-14

    In the normal subject, hypoprolactinic agents have a dose-dependent effect on the fall in prolactin (PRL). The depression of the secretion of progesterone is proportional to the inhibition of PRL. Certain hyperprolactinic substances do not alter pituitary-ovarian function. Others induce a luteal deficiency. The prolactinic profile of ovarian function without galactorrhoea is inconstant. There is no precise link between the possibility of inducing ovulation and PRL levels. Galactorrhoea without amenorrhoea is often accompanied by a normal PRL. By contrast, a high PRL, whilst not necessarily causing galactorrhoea, is usually accompanied by hypo-oestrogenic amenorrhoea (normo- or hypo-gonadaotrophic). Puerperal lactation results in a state of relative hyperprolactinaemia, which does not prevent relatively rapid restoration of FSH gonadotrophic function, to which the ovary fails to respond. Artificial weaning by bromocriptine permits a more rapid return of pituitary-ovarian function than natural weaning. Amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea is characterised by a PRL level which is abnormally high or at the upper limit of normal, and FSH gonadotrophic and ovarian/oestrogenic function which is abnormally low or at the lower limit of normal. LH gonadotrophic function and the ovarian production of progesterone are diminished. PMID:565918

  19. Clinical laboratorial analysis of 168 patients with galactorrhea from different etiologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluated the data of 168 patients with galactorrhea throught factorial analysis. This method consists, initially, of an intercorrelation analysis, which serves as a base for the determination of a number of factors, one of them, which could be described as the patient's risk of having a pituitary tumour. This factor was formed, basically, by four elements: the existence of radiological changes, head pain, menstrual irregularities and the prolactin level. After the global study, the patients were analysed within the etiological subgroups, in several clinical and laboratorial aspects, as menstrual abnormalities, duration of the galactorrhea, prolactin level, dynamic tests to evaluate the prolactin secretion an the pituitary reserve, and by the therapeutic aspect. The results of the tests that measures the prolactin secretion were analysed, also, in terms of it's basal hormonal level, and have shown to be more dependent on them, than on the etiological group. We have compared the surgical, radioactive and bromocriptine treatment of pituitary tumours. There wasn't a satisfactory cure rate in any of them, which reinforces the need of an earlier recognition of these tumours. (author)

  20. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenan Seamus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man lived for 30 years after the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor whose clinical and biochemical features were those of acromegaly and hypogonadism. Radiotherapy, totaling 7300 rad, was administered to the sella over two courses. Growth hormone levels normalized, but he developed both thyroid and adrenal insufficiency, and replacement therapy was commenced. Fourteen years later, growth hormone levels again became elevated, and bromocriptine was commenced but led to side effects that could not be tolerated. An attempted surgical intervention failed, and octreotide and pergolide were used in succession. Twenty-seven years after the diagnosis, a mass from an excisional biopsy of below the angle of the mandible proved to be metastatic pituitary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin, growth hormone, and prolactin. One year later, an octreotide scan showed uptake at the sella, neck, and spleen. Our patient declined further active oncology treatment. Conclusions Metastatic pituitary carcinoma associated with acromegaly is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth such case and is the first report of growth hormone and prolactin present in the metastatic mass.

  1. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity is reduced during induction of pituitary tumors by chronic estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regressions of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out. 21 references, 3 figures

  2. Studies on the regulatory effect of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction on prolactin hyperactivity and underlying mechanism in hyperprolactinemia rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yulin; Wang, Juan; Jia, Dongxu; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) in schizophrenic patients. In previous experiment, PGD suppressed prolactin (PRL) level in MMQ cells, involving modulating the expression of D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT). In the present study, hyperPRL female rat model induced by dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP) was applied to further confirm the anti-hyperpPRL activity of PGD and underlying mechanism. In MCP-induced hyperPRL rats, the elevated serum PRL level was significantly suppressed by either PGD (2.5-10 g/kg) or bromocriptine (BMT) (0.6 mg/kg) administration for 14 days. However, in MCP-induced rats, only PGD restored the under-expressed serum progesterone (P) to control level. Both PGD and BMT administration restore the under-expression of DRD2, DAT and TH resulted from MCP in pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Compared to untreated group, hyperPRL animals had a marked reduction on DRD2 and DAT expression in the arcuate nucleus. PGD (10 g/kg) and BMT (0.6 mg/kg) treatment significant reversed the expression of DRD2 and DAT. Collectively, the anti-hyperPRL activity of PGD associates with the modulation of dopaminergic neuronal system and the restoration of serum progesterone level. Our finding supports PGD as an effective agent against hyperPRL. PMID:26297122

  3. Evaluation and management of galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyu; Molitch, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Galactorrhea is commonly caused by hyperprolactinemia, especially when it is associated with amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is most often induced by medication or associated with pituitary adenomas or other sellar or suprasellar lesions. Less common causes of galactorrhea include hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, pregnancy, and nipple stimulation. After pathologic nipple discharge is ruled out, patients with galactorrhea should be evaluated by measurement of their prolactin level. Those with hyperprolactinemia should have pregnancy ruled out, and thyroid and renal function assessed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if no other cause of hyperprolactinemia is found. Patients with prolactinomas are usually treated with dopamine agonists (bromocriptine or cabergoline); surgery or radiation therapy is rarely required. Medications causing hyperprolactinemia should be discontinued or replaced with a medication from a similar class with lower potential for causing hyperprolactinemia. Normoprolactinemic patients with idiopathic, nonbothersome galactorrhea can be reassured and do not need treatment; however, those with bothersome galactorrhea usually respond to a short course of a low-dose dopamine agonist. PMID:22962879

  4. [Prolactinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Andrea; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2014-03-01

    Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas that affect young women at fertile age. Hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism, menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea in women, low serum testosterone levels in men, and infertility and sexual dysfunction in both men and women. Macroprolactinomas may cause cephalea, visual disturbance, and hypopituitarism. Clinical treatment with dopamine agonists is the gold standard, with cabergoline as the first choice due to its greater efficiency and tolerability. In about 20% of the cases, treatment is partially or completely ineffective, a situation in which surgery, in general by transsphenoidal route, is indicated. Radiotherapy is indicated only in the control of tumor growth in invasive/aggressive cases. In invasive macroprolactinoma, the necessary approach, in general, is the combination of several therapeutic modalities, including debulking and recently-approved drugs, such as temozolamide. As for pregnancy, the drug of choice to induce ovulation still is bromocriptine. In the cases of microprolactinomas and intrasselar macroprolactinomas, the treatment with dopaminergic agonists may be suspended after pregnancy is confirmed. In macroprolactinomas, management should be individualized. PMID:24830588

  5. Prolactinomas, cabergoline, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Andrea; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia, frequently caused by a prolactinoma, is an important cause of infertility among young women. Dopamine agonists (DA) are the treatment of choice. Although cabergoline (CAB) is currently considered the gold standard DA, bromocriptine (BRC) remains the drug of choice for women desiring pregnancy, as it was proven to be safe in more than 6,000 pregnancies. The purpose of this review is to perform a critical evaluation of CAB safety in pregnancy, as it is used by most patients harboring prolactinomas. Although the number of CAB-induced pregnancies (about 800) is still reduced as compared with those under BRC treatment, data in the literature do not point to increase risk of preterm delivery or fetal malformations, comparing to pregnancies induced by BRC and those in the general population. Moreover, CAB use throughout pregnancy was reported in about ten cases, without evidence of any harm to fetal development. Therefore, even though BRC still remains the recommended DA drug for pregnancy induction or use during pregnancy in women with prolactinomas, increasing evidences point to the safety of CAB for this purpose. PMID:24985062

  6. Risk of thromboembolic events in patients with prolactinomas compared with patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Sann Yu; Alkabbani, Abdulrahman; Hamrahian, Amir; Thorton, Julie N; Kennedy, Lawrence; Weil, Robert; Olansky, Leann; Doshi, Krupa; Makin, Vinne; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2013-12-01

    Prolactin has been proposed as a potent coactivator of platelet aggregation, possibly contributing to thromboembolic events. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prolactinoma and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Subjects were identified from a prospectively maintained pituitary database at the Cleveland Clinic. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 544 subjects: 347 patients with prolactinomas (prolactinoma group) and 197 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (control group). Main outcome measures were DVT, PE and CVA. We found that 19 (5.5%) patients in the prolactinoma group and five (2.5%) patients in the control group had documented DVT, PE, or CVA, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.109). However, the mean initial prolactin level was higher at the time of diagnosis among prolactinoma patients than among controls (815.23 ng/ml vs. 15.90 ng/ml; p treatment (with cabergoline, bromocriptine, pergolide and/or other drug) and 4 (5.6%) of 72 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery had documented DVT, PE, or CVA, which suggests that dopaminergic therapy did not influence the risk of thromboembolic events. Hyperprolactinemia per se does not appear to predispose to a hypercoagulable state. PMID:23203499

  7. Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary adenomas. In patients with prolactinomas the primary cause of hyperprolactinemia is excessive and autonomic production of prolactin by lactotroph cells. In other conditions, except in case of macroprolactinemia, hyperprolactinemia is secondary to circumstances that stimulate secretion of prolactin by intrinsically normal lactotroph cells, or, rarely, that are the result of decreased clearance of prolactin. In general, cabergoline is the preferred treatment for micro- and macroprolactinomas, because it is more effective with respect to normalization of prolactin levels and reduction of prolactinoma size and because it has fewer side-effects compared to bromocriptine. Recently, it has been suggested that a standardized, individualized, stepwise, dose-escalating regimen of cabergoline may normalize prolactin levels and reduce prolactinoma size in patients who were otherwise considered to be dopamine agonist resistant. In general, the cardiac adverse effects of dopamine agonists reported in Parkinson's disease are not of clinical concern in the treatment of prolactinomas, which are treated with much lower doses. Nonetheless, there is uncertainty with respect to the dose and duration of cabergoline treatment, which requires echocardiographic follow-up. Although withdrawal of dopamine agonists may be considered in patients with prolactinomas well controlled by dopamine agonists, especially in postmenopausal women, recurrence of signs and symptoms may occur in a considerable portion of patients. PMID:25248588

  8. Prolactin, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoreactive B cells: lessons learnt from murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrajit; Tieng, Arlene; Pepeljugoski, K Peter; Zandamn-Goddard, Gisele; Peeva, Elena

    2011-02-01

    The predominant prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women of reproductive age has led to the investigation of the effects of sex hormones on immune regulation and in autoimmune diseases, in particular the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease lupus. The female hormone prolactin has receptors beyond the reproductive axis including immune cells, and it is thought to promote autoimmunity in human and murine lupus. Induced hyperprolactinemia in experimental lupus models, regardless of gender, exacerbates disease activity and leads to premature death. Prolactin treatment in mice that are not prone to develop lupus leads to the development of a lupus-like phenotype. Persistent mild-moderate hyperprolactinemia alters the selection of the naïve B cell repertoire. Recent studies demonstrate that prolactin impairs all three mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction (negative selection, receptor editing, and anergy) and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. The effects of prolactin are genetically determined as shown by the differential response to the hormone in the different mice strains. Bromocriptine, a drug that inhibits prolactin secretion, abrogates some of the immune effects of this hormone. Further research is required to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in immune effects of prolactin and to develop novel targeted treatments for SLE patients with prolactin-responsive disease. PMID:19937157

  9. Prolactin promotes oxytocin and vasopressin release by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Zamorano, Miriam; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Méndez, Isabel; Thebault, Stéphanie; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine AVP as part of the maternal adaptations facilitating parturition and lactation. Both neurohormones are under the regulation of nitric oxide. Here, we investigate whether the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system mediates the effect of PRL on OXT and AVP release and whether these effects operate in males. Plasma levels of OXT and AVP were measured in male rats after the intracerebroventricular injection of PRL or after inducing hyperprolactinemia by placing two anterior pituitary glands under the kidney capsule. NOS activity was evaluated in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and in hypothalamic extracts by the phosphorylation/inactivation of nNOS at Ser(847). Elevated central and systemic PRL correlated with increased NOS activity in the PVN and SON and with higher OXT and AVP circulating levels. Notably, treatment with 7-nitroindazole, a selective inhibitor of nNOS, prevented PRL-induced stimulation of the release of both neurohormones. Also, phosphorylation of nNOS was reduced in hyperprolactinemic rats, and treatment with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of anterior pituitary PRL secretion, suppressed this effect. These findings suggest that PRL enhances nNOS activity in the PVN and SON, thereby contributing to the regulation of OXT and AVP release. This mechanism likely contributes to the regulation of processes beyond those of female reproduction. PMID:20943859

  10. Therapie des frühen Morbus Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerschlager W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa ist weiterhin der Goldstandard in der Therapie des M. Parkinson. Allerdings führt eine Langzeittherapie mit Levodopa bei vielen Patienten zu motorischen Komplikationen. Experimentelle Studien haben gezeigt, daß eine pulsatile Stimulation der Dopaminrezeptoren zur Entwicklung von motorischen Komplikationen beiträgt. Eine initiale Monotherapie mit Dopaminagonisten (DA wie Cabergolin, Pergolid, Pramipexol oder Ropinirol führt, bei 2- bis 5jährigen Therapieverläufen, seltener zum Auftreten von motorischen Komplikationen. 10-Jahres-Daten einer unlängst publizierten randomisierten Studie zeigen, daß Patienten, die initial mit Levodopa behandelt wurden, signifikant häufiger motorische Komplikationen entwickeln, als Patienten, die zuerst auf Bromocriptin eingestellt wurden, allerdings treten klinisch relevante mäßige oder starke Dyskinesien in beiden Gruppen gleich häufig auf. Außerdem zeigten alle randomisierten Vergleichsstudien einer frühen Levodopatherapie versus einer Initialtherapie mit einem DA eine bessere symptomatische Wirksamkeit von Levodopa. Weiterhin wird eine initiale Monotherapie mit DA empfohlen. Erst wenn keine befriedigende Kontrolle der motorischen Symptome durch eine Monotherapie mit DA erreicht wird, sollte zusätzlich Levodopa gegeben werden. Bei über siebzigjährigen Patienten ist der Einsatz von DA sorgfältig abzuwägen. Falls keine wesentliche Komorbidität, keine Demenz und keine Anamnese von psychiatrischen Symptomen (z. B. medikamenteninduzierte Psychose vorliegt, kann auch in dieser Subgruppe eine initiale Monotherapie mit DA erfolgen.

  11. Primary radiotherapy of prolactinomas. Eight- to 15-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.E.; Reyes, F.I.; Faiman, C.

    1987-07-01

    Eight women with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, of whom six had macroadenomas and two had microadenomas, were treated with conventional (cobalt-60) external radiotherapy, and their progress was monitored for eight to 15 years. Normoprolactinemia was established in five of these patients after two to 13 years (median, nine years). A recurrence was treated surgically in one patient, and stable prolactin values and roentgenographic features have been maintained in two patients. Hypopituitarism has developed in only one patient to date, and no other complications of radiotherapy have been observed. These findings, together with the few previous reports on the long-term effects of radiotherapy on macroprolactinomas, have been compared with the long-term results following surgery or dopamine agonist therapy. The normalization of prolactin values is considerably delayed following radiotherapy compared with the other two therapeutic modalities. However, radiotherapy affords permanent normalization without recurrence in a larger percentage of patients than does surgery and avoids the considerable ongoing cost and inconvenience of daily drug ingestion. The long-term development of hypopituitarism appears to be an acceptably small risk of radiotherapy. Thus, conventional radiotherapy is an attractive treatment option, particularly for macroprolactinomas; adjunctive bromocriptine can be used while awaiting the longer-term benefits of radiotherapy.

  12. Primary radiotherapy of prolactinomas. Eight- to 15-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight women with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, of whom six had macroadenomas and two had microadenomas, were treated with conventional (cobalt-60) external radiotherapy, and their progress was monitored for eight to 15 years. Normoprolactinemia was established in five of these patients after two to 13 years (median, nine years). A recurrence was treated surgically in one patient, and stable prolactin values and roentgenographic features have been maintained in two patients. Hypopituitarism has developed in only one patient to date, and no other complications of radiotherapy have been observed. These findings, together with the few previous reports on the long-term effects of radiotherapy on macroprolactinomas, have been compared with the long-term results following surgery or dopamine agonist therapy. The normalization of prolactin values is considerably delayed following radiotherapy compared with the other two therapeutic modalities. However, radiotherapy affords permanent normalization without recurrence in a larger percentage of patients than does surgery and avoids the considerable ongoing cost and inconvenience of daily drug ingestion. The long-term development of hypopituitarism appears to be an acceptably small risk of radiotherapy. Thus, conventional radiotherapy is an attractive treatment option, particularly for macroprolactinomas; adjunctive bromocriptine can be used while awaiting the longer-term benefits of radiotherapy

  13. Drug-related cardiac valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac valve disease can involve one or more of the four heart valves. Chronic valve damage may remain asymptomatic for long periods but ultimately leads to haemodynamic overload of the heart. The most common causes of valve disease are rheumatic diseases, infections, chronic renal failure, malformations, and genetic diseases. Valve disease is often attributed to degeneration with no known cause.The frequency of drug-related valve disease has long been underestimated. Most implicated drugs have serotonergic properties, such as fenfluramine-derived amphetamines, including benfluorex. Rye ergot derivatives can also be implicated: these include dopamine agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide and cabergoline), migraine treatments (methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine), and drugs used for cognitive and neurosensory deficits (nicergoline, dihydroergocryptine, etc.). "Ecstasy", an amphetamine, is sometimes also involved. The risk increases after a few months of exposure. Drug withdrawal is sometimes followed by an improvement. Patients exposed to a drug known to cause valve damage should be informed of the risk and receive long-term monitoring to detect these lesions before they become irreversible. The possible role of a drug should always be considered when cardiac valve disease is diagnosed, in order to facilitate active research and to avoid exposing other patients to this risk. PMID:24600729

  14. Dopaminergic drug effects during reversal learning depend on anatomical connections between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke E. van der Schaaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the striatum is known to be important for reversal learning. However, the striatum does not act in isolation and reversal learning is also well accepted to depend on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and the amygdala. Here we assessed whether dopaminergic drug effects on human striatal BOLD signalling during reversal learning is associated with anatomical connectivity in an orbitofrontal-limbic-striatal network, as measured with diffusion tensor imaging. By using a fibre-based approach, we demonstrate that dopaminergic drug effects on striatal BOLD signal varied as a function of fractional anisotropy (FA in a pathway connecting the OFC with the amygdala. Moreover, our experimental design allowed us to establish that these white-matter dependent drug effects were mediated via D2 receptors. Thus, white matter dependent effects of the D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine on striatal BOLD signal were abolished by co-administration with the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride. These data provide fundamental insight into the mechanism of action of dopaminergic drug effects during reversal learning. In addition, they may have important clinical implications by suggesting that white matter integrity can help predict dopaminergic drug effects on brain function, ultimately contributing to individual tailoring of dopaminergic drug treatment strategies in psychiatry.

  15. Current therapeutic concepts in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Jan; Poloczkova, Hana; Nemec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare disease characterized by systolic heart failure occuring towards the end of pregnancy or during the months following birth. It is most often seen in women of African descent, and its incidence seems to be slightly increasing in recent years. Other etiologies of heart failure should be excluded to determine the diagnosis of PPCM. The clinical picture corresponds to systolic heart failure. The rapid onset of the symptoms in relation to pregnancy is striking. The essential diagnostic procedures such as echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy may be beneficial in certain situations. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Speculated causes include myocarditis, autoimmune disorders, cardiotropic virus infection, and abnormal responses to hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Particular attention is currently given to the concept of increased oxidative stress inducing production of proapoptotic, angiostatic and proinflammatory mediators. Recovery of left ventricular systolic function occurs in about half of the cases. Mortality has been decreasing in recent years, especially in the United States, but is still between 10-15% in less developed countries where therapeutic possibilities are limited. In addition to standard heart failure therapy, specific treatments (pentoxyfilline, bromocriptine, immunomodulatory therapy) have been tested. Mechanical circulatory support is sometimes needed. Heart transplantation is the therapeutic option for the most severe heart failure and is used in about 10% of the cases. Recurrence in subsequent pregnancy is common and therefore, another pregnancy is not recommended in many cases. PMID:25483952

  16. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (pextract of red lentil has protective effect on Catatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism.

  17. Pioglitazone--do we really need it to manage type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Binayak; Ghosal, Samit

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years a number of important drugs like rofecoxib, rosiglitazone, gatifloxacin (in diabetics) have lost their position in disease management. The newest controversy revolves around Pioglitazone, a thiozolidindione, which improves insulin sensitivity and is reputed to have cardioprotective actions, but is riddled with several controversies related to weight gain, distal fractures of long bones, recent reports of bladder cancer and others. There are now new groups of drugs, which have been introduced with stringent FDA approval. These include DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 analogues and bromocriptine (old wine in a new bottle). Early in 2013 we are also looking at the launch of another new agent - SGLT-2 inhibitors. These newer agents are associated with not only a significant glucose lowering effect but also positive extra-glycaemic benefits principally in the areas of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. This raises a very important question - do we really need such a controversial agent when such a plethora of agents are available to us with possibly better metabolic profile than pioglitazone? This review addresses this highly contentious area dissecting the pros and cons as we see it. PMID:24290093

  18. Imaging of dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptors in vivo using single-photon emission tomography in a patient with a TSH/PRL-producing pituitary macroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 28-year-old man with a thyroid stimulating hormone/prolactin (TSH/PRL)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma is discussed in relation to dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptor single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptors were present on the tumour as visualised by SPET with the ligands indium-111-DTPA-octreotide (111In-SMS) and iodine-123 iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM), respectively. Therefore, treatment with octreotide 150 μg t.i.d. subcutaneously and bromocriptine 10 mg b.i.d. orally was given for >12 and >6 weeks, respectively. Following this treatment the visual defects disappeared, although tumour size, as measured by CT scanning, and serum TSH levels did not decrease. SPET with 111In-SMS and 123I-IBZM after therapy relvealed no change or a possible increase in somatostatin receptor binding potential and a possible decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. The lack of long-term effects of the medical treatment is discussed. It is concluded that a high somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptor binding potential in vivo in a TSH/PRL-producing adenoma does not necessarily predict a successful outcome of medicaal treatment. (orig./MG)

  19. [A case of prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Kaga, Makiko; Arima, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), after developing severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy because of cardiopulmonary arrest. She showed dramatic paroxysmal sympathetic activity with dystonia. She was treated with wide variety of medications against PSH, which were found to be effective in previous studies. Among them, morphine, bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonidine were effective in reducing the frequency of her attacks while gabapentin, baclofen, dantrolene, and benzodiazepine were ineffective. Though the paroxysms decreased markedly after the treatment, they could not be completely controlled beyond 500 days. Following the treatment, levels of plasma catecholamines and their urinary metabolites decreased to normal during inter- paroxysms. However, once a paroxysm had recurred, these levels were again very high. This case study is considered significant for two rea- sons. One is that PSH among children have been rarely reported, and the other is that this case of prolonged PSH delineated the transition of plasma catecholamines during the treatment. The excitatory: inhibitory ratio (EIR) model proposed by Baguley was considered while dis- cussing drug sensitivity in this case. Accumulation of similar case studies will help establish more effective treatment strategies and elucidate the pathophysiology of PSH. PMID:27149743

  20. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with pituitary adenoma using labeled amino acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineura, Katsuyoshi; Sasajima, Toshio; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kowada, Masayoshi (Akita Univ. (Japan). Hospital); Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1989-12-01

    Four cases with pituitary adenomas were studied using {sup 11}C-L-methionine (C-11 Met) positron-emission tomography (PET). The C-11 Met was intravenously administered at a dose of 0.6 mCi/kg. The uptake of the tracer for tumors was calculated on the PET images 45 min after the injection; the uptake index was represented as a percentage of the total count in the arterial blood over a period of 45 min. In all cases, the C-11 Met accumulated intensely in the tumor regions; the PET images clearly delineated the extent of the tumor. The C-11 Met uptake index for pituitary adenomas varied widely from 3.94 x 10{sup -2}% to 15.36 x 10{sup -2}%, with a mean of 7.87 x 10{sup -2}%. These indices for the tumors increased markedly in comparison with that of the contralateral left temporal gray matter as a nontumor region (1.89 x 10{sup -2}% to 2.43 x 10{sup -2}% with a mean of 2.06 x 10{sup -2}%). In a case of prolactinoma, repeated PET following bromocriptine treatment showed a decrease in the C-11 Met uptake index; this decrease reflected changes in the serum prolactin value. In another case with ACTH-producing adenoma, the T/NT (tumor/nontumor) ratio fell from 3.44 to 2.40; however, the C-11 Met index remained unchanged. C-11 Met PET images facilitate determining the extent of pituitary adenomas and the monitoring of tumor response to treatment. Further application may give useful knowledge on the amino-acid metabolism of the tumor. (author).

  1. Prolactinoma and pregnancy: From the wish of conception to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiter, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Prolactinoma is a common cause of infertility in young women and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) allows restoration of fertility in over 90% of the cases. Both bromocriptine and cabergoline have shown a good safety profile when administered during early pregnancy. In particular, data on exposure of the fetus or embryo to cabergoline during the first weeks of pregnancy have now been reported in more than 900 cases, and do indicate that cabergoline is safe in this context. There is no increase in the frequency of spontaneous miscarriage, premature delivery, multiple births or neonatal malformations, and follow-up studies of the children for up to 12years after fetal exposure to cabergoline did not show any physical or developmental abnormalities. These women should therefore continue DA treatment until pregnancy has been initiated. Treatment discontinuation is recommended at that time in women with microprolactinoma or non-compressive macroprolactinoma. For microprolactinomas, the risk of symptomatic tumour enlargement during pregnancy is very low (2-3%). It is higher for macroprolactinomas (20-30%) and careful follow-up is advised, including MRI without contrast injection if symptoms or visual disturbances develop. If a symptomatic tumour enlargement does occur, reinitiation of the dopamine agonist (BRC or CAB) is indicated rather than surgery. Breast-feeding has no harmful effect on tumour growth and DA treatment, if still needed, may be postponed as long as breast-feeding is desired. Finally, about 40% of women with a microprolactinoma or an intermediate size macroprolactinoma may be in prolonged remission after one or more pregnancies. PMID:27130071

  2. Dopamine agonist resistance-related endocan promotes angiogenesis and cells viability of prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Leng, Zhi Gen; Guo, Yu Hang; Lin, Shao Jian; Wu, Ze Rui; Su, Zhi Peng; Lu, Jiang Long; Wei, Li Fei; Zhuge, Qi Chuan; Jin, Kunlin; Wu, Zhe Bao

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line treatment of prolactinomas. They function through the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) in the tumor cells. Endocan, also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM1), has been described as a marker of neoangiogenesis. However, whether ESM1 promotes the resistance of prolactinomas to DA therapy is largely unknown. In our study, 25 patients with prolactinomas were divided into resistant- and sensitive- groups according to the clinical response to bromocriptine. We found that ESM1-microvessel density of resistant prolactinomas was significantly higher than that of sensitive prolactinomas (47.9 ± 11.6, n = 8, vs 13.1 ± 2.8, n = 17, p = 0.0006), indicating that ESM1 was a DA resistance-related gene. Immunostaining showed that ESM1 was expressed in tumor vessels and sporadic tumor cells, and ESM1 was overlapped with the Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA) and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) in the tumor vessels. Silencing of ESM1 markedly suppressed the viability of GH3 and MMQ cells in vitro, and furthermore, significantly increased the sensitivity of GH3 and MMQ cells to DA treatment. Additionally, silencing of ESM1 down-regulated the angiogenesis-associated genes, such as VEGFR2, FGF2, CD34, CD31, VWF, and EGFR. Knockdown of ESM1 decreased endothelial tube formation of HUVECs, and significantly increased the sensitivity of HUVECs to Avastin treatment. Therefore, we first demonstrate that DA resistance-related ESM1 promotes the angiogenesis and tumor cells growth of prolactinomas, suggesting that ESM1 may be a novel therapeutic target for prolactinomas. PMID:26662185

  3. The role of dopamine receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine and cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, M; Przegaliński, E

    1997-01-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimuli of the psychostimulant drugs of abuse amphetamine and cocaine was evaluated by the ability of DA D1, D2 and D3 receptor subtype ligands to either substitute for or antagonize these effects. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate between amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) and saline, and between cocaine (5 mg/kg) and saline. Both the training drugs evoked cross-substitution. In further substitution experiments, (+)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H -3-benzazepine (SKF 38393; 5-20 mg/kg), a selective D1 agonist, moderately substituted for cocaine, but not for amphetamine. The D2 agonist bromocriptine (2.5-20 mg/kg) mimicked both training drugs' cues. Pramipexole, a D3-preferring agonist, in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg induced over 80% substitution for cocaine, and a weaker one (ca. 62%) for amphetamine. Combination tests with DA antagonists showed that the D1 antagonist (+)-3-methyl-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H -3-benzazepine (SCH 23390; 0.01-2 mg/kg), and the D2 blocker raclopride (0.13-1 mg/kg) significantly (78-100%) attenuated the effects of psychostimulants, while the D3-preferring antagonist cis-(+)-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (UH 232; 5-20 mg/kg) did not affect them. The present results indicate a critical role of D2 receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimuli of amphetamine and cocaine in rats, as well as a less pronounced involvement of D1 and D3 subtypes in the effects under study. PMID:9431548

  4. Several insulin-like growth factor-I analogues and complexes of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 fail to mimic the effect of growth hormone upon lactation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, D J; Tonner, E; Beattie, J; Gardner, M

    1994-02-01

    Lactation was suppressed in rats using a combined treatment of bromocriptine (to reduce prolactin concentrations) and a specific antiserum to rat GH administered twice daily for 2 days. When milk production had ceased, as determined by litter weight loss and the absence of milk in the stomachs of pups, attempts were made to reinitiate lactation using prolactin, GH, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) precomplexed to recombinant human IGF-binding protein-3 (hIGFBP-3) or IGF-I plus IGF-II precomplexed to hIGFBP-3. Despite the fact that all treatments except prolactin led to increases in serum IGFs and IGFBP-3, only prolactin and GH provoked the reinitiation of milk production as determined by increased litter weight gain, milk in the stomach of pups and a significant increase in the weight of the mammary glands. Since the mammary gland has been shown to produce IGFBPs which may inhibit IGF action we also tested three IGF-I analogues, R3-IGF-I, Long-IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I. R3-IGF-I has a single amino acid substitution (Glu to Arg) at position 3 whereas Long-IGF-I has a 13 amino acid N-terminal extension. These modifications dramatically reduce the ability of these analogues to bind to IGFBPs although they remain active at the IGF-I receptor. Such IGF analogues would therefore be expected to be active irrespective of the production of inhibitory IGFBPs. However, none was effective in reinitiating lactation, even at doses which have been shown to be biologically effective in terms of nitrogen retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7513341

  5. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  6. Pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs on in vivo binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the central dopamine transporters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of drugs competing for the dopamine transporter (DAT) or changing intra- and/or extracellular dopamine levels on the binding of a novel technetium-99m labeled tropane derivative, technetium, [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3, 2, 1]oct-2-yl]methyl] (2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3)]-oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]-, [99mTc]TRODAT-1, to DAT. This paper describes the further characterization of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 binding sites in rats under conditions which may exist in patients receiving various drug treatments. All experiments were carried out using an i.v. injection of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 into male Sprague-Dawley rats. The biodistribution studies were performed in the presence of drugs which compete for the binding site. Additionally, the influence of dopamine receptor agonists, such as apomorphine and (+)bromocriptine, on biodistribution was tested. It is likely that a low dose of l-DOPA (normally needed in the treatment of Parkinson's disease) will not affect the results on [99mTc]TRODAT-1 single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the results clearly demonstrate the specificity of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 binding to DAT in vivo. Competition for [99mTc]TRODAT-1 binding was observed only with drug treatment that significantly increases dopamine levels or actively competes for binding at DAT. The results suggest that prior knowledge of whether patients are receiving various drug treatments may assist in the interpretation of DAT status as assessed by SPET imaging studies using [99mTc]TRODAT-1. (orig.)

  7. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:26970582

  8. Radiation Therapy for Pituitary Adenoma - Changes in Endocrine Function after Treatment-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Jang, Hong Suck; Kim, Song Hwan; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Joon Ki [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    Seventy four patients with pituitary adenoma received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area using 6 MV linear accelerator during the past 7 years at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. mary's hospital, Catholic University Medical College. Thirty nine were men and 35 were women. The age ranged from 7 to 65 years with the mean being 37 years. Sixty five (88%) patients were treated postoperatively and 9(12%) primary RT. To evaluate the effects of RT, we analyzed the series of endocrinologic studies with prolactin(PRL), growth hormone(GH), adrenocortiotrophic hormone (ACTH), leuteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone(FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) etc after RT. All but one with Nelson's syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turica with invasive tumor mass around supra-and/or parasella area. The patients were classified as 23(29%) prolactinomas and 20 (26%) growth hormone (GH) secreting tumors, and 6(8%) ACTH secreting ones consisting of 4 Cushing's disease and 2 Nelson's syndrome. Twenty nine(37%) had nonfunctioning tumor and four (5%) of those secreting pituitary tumors were mixed PRL-GH secreting tumors. The hormonal level in 15(65%) of 23 PRL and 3(15%) of 20 GH secreting tumors returned to normal by 2 to 3 years after RT, but five PRL and five GH secreting tumors showed high hormonal level requiring bromocriptine medication. Endocrinologic insufficiency developed by 3 years after RT in 5 of 7 panhypopituitarisms, 4 of seven hypothyroidisms and one of two hypogonadisms, respectively, Fifteen(20%) patients were lost to follow up after RT.

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  10. Medical management of clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharonjeet Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clomiphene citrate is the traditional first-line treatment for chronic anovulation that characterizes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. A gold standard therapy has always been Clomiphene Citrate (CC. However, 20%-25% of PCOS women fail to ovulate with incremental doses of CC. A good body of evidence suggest that alternatives for PCOS women with CC-resistant anovulation include insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone. Insulin sensitizers improves pregnancy outcome and ovulation rate by and acts by ameliorating insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenemia. Metformin is preferred in obese women. Gonadotropins induce ovulation and maintain optimal follicle growth via controlled administration of follicle stimulation hormone. Two regimens are used which includes high and low dose regimen. Low dose regimen is preferred but is associated adverse effects like ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS and increased cost. Extending clomiphene therapy reduces cost and improves pregnancy outcome. Glucocorticoids are preferably used when serum Dehydroepiandrosterone levels are > 200µg/dL. Bromocriptine improves ovulation rate by decreasing prolactin levels. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin restores ovulation but its use is limited during intrauterine insemination. Tamoxifen acts in a similar way as CC but has lesser antiestrogenic effect on the endometrium, cervical mucus, and granulosa cells, hence an added advantage of monofollicular ovulation. Aromatase inhibitors block conversion androstenedione and testosterone to estrogen in ovary and improves ovulation rate. Added advantage includes lesser cost, simple to use, no danger of multiple pregnancies and convenient for patient. Combination of GnRH analogues and Gonadotropins are associated with increased risk of OHSS. D-chiro-inositol, N-Acetylcysteine, melatonin and acarbose are tried with little success. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-9

  11. Characterization of the chlorpropamide-alcohol-flush in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiroli, A E; De Pasqua, A; Colombo, R; Ricordi, C; Pozza, G

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the prevalence of the chlorpropamide-alcohol-flush (CPAF) in patients with type 2 and with type 1 diabetes. Ninety-seven patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 with type 1 diabetes drank 40 ml vermouth 12 h after placebo and again 12 h after 1 tablet of chlorpropamide (250 mg) or 12 h after the last of repeated administrations of chlorpropamide (250 mg b.i.d. for 2 days). Skin temperature was recorded in all patients by a thermocouple probe connected to the left cheek. In 47 patients serum concentrations of chlorpropamide and of its metabolite CBSU were also determined. The prevalence of CPAF was similar in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, was greater in women than in men, and was significantly greater after repeated administrations than after one single administration of chlorpropamide. The increase of skin temperature during a 30-min period was significantly higher in patients with CPAF than in patients without CPAF. Serum concentrations of chlorpropamide and of its metabolite CBSU were more elevated after 4 than after 1 tablet of chlorpropamide, but were not significantly different in patients with and without CPAF. These data indicate that both genetic factors and the amount of chlorpropamide used affect the appearance of CPAF. To assess the possible role of serotonin and of dopamine in the CPAF, some patients with CPAF were tested again after treatment with metergoline, an antiserotonin agent, or with bromocriptine, a dopamine-agonist. Neither drug influenced the CPAF, indicating that the two neurotransmitters are not involved in the CPAF. PMID:6880563

  12. Dopamine receptor expression and function in corticotroph pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; Kros, Johan M; De Caro, Maria Laura Del Basso; Arvigo, Marica; Annunziato, Lucio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Hofland, Leo J; Lamberts, Steven W J

    2004-05-01

    The role of dopamine agonist treatment in corticotroph pituitary tumors is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate D(2) receptor expression in 20 corticotroph pituitary tumors and to correlate it to the in vitro effect of dopamine agonists on ACTH secretion and the in vivo effect of short-term cabergoline treatment on cortisol secretion. D(2) expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. A 50% or more decrease in daily urinary cortisol levels was considered a significant clinical response. At receptor-ligand binding, specific binding of [(125)I]epidepride was found in 80% of cases. At immunohistochemistry, specific D(2) immunostaining was found in 75% of cases. D(2) expression was found in 83.3% of cases (D(2long) in 40%, D(2short) in 20%, and both in 40%) by RT-PCR. Significant in vitro inhibition of ACTH secretion was found in 100% of D(2)-positive cases, but not in 100% of D(2)-negative cases by either bromocriptine or cabergoline. A significant in vivo inhibition of cortisol secretion after 3-month cabergoline treatment was found in 60%, although a normalization of cortisol secretion was found in 40% of cases. All cabergoline-responsive cases were associated with D(2) expression, whereas all noncabergoline-responsive cases but one were not associated with D(2) expression. In conclusion, functional D(2) receptors were expressed in approximately 80% of corticotroph pituitary tumors. The effectiveness of cabergoline in normalizing cortisol secretion in 40% of cases supports its therapeutic use in the management of Cushing's disease. PMID:15126577

  13. Prolactin modulation of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha production by peripheral neutrophils in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, R; Raso, G M; Gualillo, O; Pacilio, M; Di Carlo, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that prolactin (PRL) is a potent immunomodulator that exerts stimulatory effects on physiological responses of immune cells. In the present research we have investigated whether PRL may influence nitric oxide (NO) and/or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in neutrophils obtained from inflammatory exudate of carrageenin-induced experimental pleurisy in the rat. In this acute model of inflammation the role of endogenous NO was evaluated using an inhibitor of NO-synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). A treatment of animals with L-NAME (10 mg/kg s.c.) induced a reduction of volume and cell number of pleural exudate and a decrease of nitrite production (measured by the Griees reaction) by polymorphonuclear cells after 24 h of incubation, while D-NAME, the inactive isomer, was without effect. Neutrophils from ovine prolactin (oPRL) treated rats (5 mg/kg for 5 times s.c.) or from rats with a hyperprolactinaemia induced by pituitary gland graft produced higher amounts of NO both after 24 and 48 h of incubation. On the contrary, a clear reduction in the production of NO was found in neutrophils from rats treated with bromocriptine (BRC) (2 mg/kg s.c.), a dopamine D2-receptor agonist. TNF-alpha production (measured by MTT/cytotoxic assay) by neutrophils was markedly increased in PRL-treated or pituitary-grafted rats in comparison to controls, whereas BRC treatment reduced TNF-alpha production. PMID:9335229

  14. [A patient with Parkinson's disease complicated by hypothyroidism who developed malignant syndrome after discontinuation of etizolam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Masakazu; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Furuya, Hirokazu; Araki, Takehisa; Inoue, Naohide; Esaki, Shigemitsu; Yamada, Takeshi; Kira, Junichi

    2002-02-01

    A 59-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease and depression seven years ago and was on oral antiparkinsonian agents, antianxiety agents, and antidepressants, developed a high fever, disturbed consciousness, and marked muscle rigidity after discontinuation of etizolam and amitriptyline. He was admitted to a nearby hospital. Hypothyroidism had been noted two months before admission. Marked muscle rigidity and increased serum CK were observed. Since discontinuation of benzodiazepine has been known to rarely trigger a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), he was diagnosed as having NMS. After receiving dantrolene and bromocriptine, these symptoms temporarily improved but he again developed consciousness disturbance, and convulsive seizures associated with an elevated serum CK. He was transferred to our hospital. On admission, the CK level was normal at 168 IU/l, while free T4 was 0.6 ng/dl (normal range, 0.9-2.3) and TSH was 108.7 mU/ml (normal range, 0.2-4.2) in serum, indicating the presence of primary hypothyroidism. As an increase in thyroid hormone dosage improved the thyroid function to normal level, his disturbed consciousness and muscle rigidity gradually improved. Convulsive seizure and recurrence of NMS in a short interval are unusual in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In this patient, hypothyroidism may have contributed to the development of malignant syndrome through metabolic changes of the central dopaminergic system, and discontinuation of etizolam, a kind of benzodiazepine, may have triggered NMS, since there has not been reported that discontinuation of antidepressants including amitriptyline triggers NMS. PMID:12424963

  15. Pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs on in vivo binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 to the central dopamine transporters in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.H.J.; Kung, M.P.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)]|[Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of drugs competing for the dopamine transporter (DAT) or changing intra- and/or extracellular dopamine levels on the binding of a novel technetium-99m labeled tropane derivative, technetium, [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chloro- phenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3, 2, 1]oct-2-yl]methyl] (2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3)]-oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]-, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, to DAT. This paper describes the further characterization of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 binding sites in rats under conditions which may exist in patients receiving various drug treatments. All experiments were carried out using an i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 into male Sprague-Dawley rats. The biodistribution studies were performed in the presence of drugs which compete for the binding site. Additionally, the influence of dopamine receptor agonists, such as apomorphine and (+)bromocriptine, on biodistribution was tested. It is likely that a low dose of l-DOPA (normally needed in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease) will not affect the results on [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the results clearly demonstrate the specificity of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 binding to DAT in vivo. Competition for [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 binding was observed only with drug treatment that significantly increases dopamine levels or actively competes for binding at DAT. The results suggest that prior knowledge of whether patients are receiving various drug treatments may assist in the interpretation of DAT status as assessed by SPET imaging studies using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  16. Pharmacological differences between the D-2 autoreceptor and the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubocovich, M.L.; Weiner, N.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists was studied on the calcium-dependent release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine elicited by field stimulation at 3 Hz for a duration of 1 min (20 mA, 2 msec) from the rabbit retina in vitro and on adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of rabbit retina. The relative order of potency of dopamine receptor agonists to inhibit the stimulation-evoked (/sup 3/H)dopamine release was pergolide greater than bromocriptine greater than apomorphine greater than LY 141865 greater than N,N-di-n-propyldopamine greater than or equal to dopamine. The relative order of potencies of dopamine receptor antagonists to increase (/sup 3/H)dopamine release was: S-sulpiride greater than or equal to domperidone greater than or equal to spiroperidol greater than metoclopramide greater than fluphenazine greater than or equal to R-sulpiride. alpha-Flupenthixol (0.01-1 microM) and (+)-butaclamol (0.01-1 microM) did not increase (/sup 3/H)dopamine overflow when added alone, but they antagonized the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of apomorphine (0.1-10 microM). These results suggest that the dopamine inhibitory autoreceptor involved in the modulation of dopamine release from the rabbit retina possesses the pharmacological characteristics of a D-2 dopamine receptor. Maximal stimulation by 30 microM dopamine resulted in a 3-fold increase in adenylate cyclase activity with half-maximal stimulation occurring at a concentration of 2.46 microM. Apomorphine and pergolide elicited a partial stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. However, at low concentrations both compounds were more potent than dopamine.

  17. Binding of (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol to the D-2 dopamine receptor in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland: a thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agui, T.; Amlaiky, N.; Caron, M.G.; Kebabian, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The novel iodinated ligand (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol ((/sup 125/I)NAPS) was used to identify the D-2 dopamine receptor in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The binding of (/sup 125/I)NAPS was of high affinity and saturable, given that the dissociation constant and the maximal binding were 34.7 +/- 4.8 pM and 21.1 +/- 2.5 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The ability of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to compete with (/sup 125/I)NAPS varied markedly with incubation temperature. The marked decrease of the molar potency associated with increasing incubation temperature in the competitive displacement curve suggested that the binding of five agonists, dopamine, (-)-apomorphine, (-)-n-propylnorapomorphine, N-0434, and LY-171555, to the D-2 dopamine receptor was enthalpy-driven, with a negative change in entropy. In contrast, the binding of three antagonists, fluphenazine, (+)-butaclamol, and domperidone, was entropy-driven, with positive change in entropy, suggesting less temperature-sensitive change in the molar potency. Several molecules gave unanticipated results; the molar potency of two dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and lisuride, was much less temperature-sensitive than the other agonists used in this study. The thermodynamic parameters for the atypical agonists indicated entropy-driven binding. Conversely, the molar potency of (+)-apomorphine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was markedly affected by incubation temperature, indicating enthalpy-driven binding. Another antagonist, YM-09151-2, was affected by the inclusion of sodium chloride in the assay system: in the absence of sodium chloride, the drug was relatively weak and displayed enthalpy-driven binding; in the presence of sodium chloride, its molar potency was increased and its binding manner turned into entropy-driven.

  18. Are Dopamine Agonists Neuroprotective in Parkinson′s Disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) agonists are playing increasingly important role in the treatment of not only advanced Parkinson′s disease (PD) and in PD patient with levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced motor fluctuations,but also in early treatment of the disease.This shift has been largely due to the demonstrated L-DOPA-sparing effect of DA agonists and their putative neuroprotective effect,based largely on experimental in vitro and in vivo studies.In this article we review the evidence of neuroprotection by DA agonists pramipexole,ropinirole,pergolide,bromocriptine and apomorphine in cell cultures and animal models of nigral injury.Most of the studies suggest that DA agonists exert their neuroprotection via directly scavenging free radicals or increasing the activities of radical-scavenging enzymes,and enhancing neurotrophic activity.The finding that pramipexole can normalize mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit activity of caspase-3 in cytoplasmic hybrid cells made from mitochondrial DNA of nonfamilial Alzheimer′s disease patients,however,suggests even a broader implication for the neuroprotective role of DA agonists.Although the clinical evidence for neuroprotection by DA agonists is still limited,the preliminary results from several on-going clinical trials are promising.Several longitudinal studies are currently in progress designed to demonstrate a delay or slowing of progresion of PD using various surrogate markers of neuronal degeneration such as 18 F-L-DOPA PET and 123 I β-CIT SPECT.The results of these experimental and clinical studies will improve our understanding of the action of DA agonists and provide critical information needed for planning future therapeutic strategies in PD and related neurodegenerative disorders.``

  19. Radiation Therapy for Pituitary Adenoma - Changes in Endocrine Function after Treatment-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy four patients with pituitary adenoma received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area using 6 MV linear accelerator during the past 7 years at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. mary's hospital, Catholic University Medical College. Thirty nine were men and 35 were women. The age ranged from 7 to 65 years with the mean being 37 years. Sixty five (88%) patients were treated postoperatively and 9(12%) primary RT. To evaluate the effects of RT, we analyzed the series of endocrinologic studies with prolactin(PRL), growth hormone(GH), adrenocortiotrophic hormone (ACTH), leuteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone(FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) etc after RT. All but one with Nelson's syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turica with invasive tumor mass around supra-and/or parasella area. The patients were classified as 23(29%) prolactinomas and 20 (26%) growth hormone (GH) secreting tumors, and 6(8%) ACTH secreting ones consisting of 4 Cushing's disease and 2 Nelson's syndrome. Twenty nine(37%) had nonfunctioning tumor and four (5%) of those secreting pituitary tumors were mixed PRL-GH secreting tumors. The hormonal level in 15(65%) of 23 PRL and 3(15%) of 20 GH secreting tumors returned to normal by 2 to 3 years after RT, but five PRL and five GH secreting tumors showed high hormonal level requiring bromocriptine medication. Endocrinologic insufficiency developed by 3 years after RT in 5 of 7 panhypopituitarisms, 4 of seven hypothyroidisms and one of two hypogonadisms, respectively, Fifteen(20%) patients were lost to follow up after RT

  20. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with pituitary adenoma using labeled amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases with pituitary adenomas were studied using 11C-L-methionine (C-11 Met) positron-emission tomography (PET). The C-11 Met was intravenously administered at a dose of 0.6 mCi/kg. The uptake of the tracer for tumors was calculated on the PET images 45 min after the injection; the uptake index was represented as a percentage of the total count in the arterial blood over a period of 45 min. In all cases, the C-11 Met accumulated intensely in the tumor regions; the PET images clearly delineated the extent of the tumor. The C-11 Met uptake index for pituitary adenomas varied widely from 3.94 x 10-2% to 15.36 x 10-2%, with a mean of 7.87 x 10-2%. These indices for the tumors increased markedly in comparison with that of the contralateral left temporal gray matter as a nontumor region (1.89 x 10-2% to 2.43 x 10-2% with a mean of 2.06 x 10-2%). In a case of prolactinoma, repeated PET following bromocriptine treatment showed a decrease in the C-11 Met uptake index; this decrease reflected changes in the serum prolactin value. In another case with ACTH-producing adenoma, the T/NT (tumor/nontumor) ratio fell from 3.44 to 2.40; however, the C-11 Met index remained unchanged. C-11 Met PET images facilitate determining the extent of pituitary adenomas and the monitoring of tumor response to treatment. Further application may give useful knowledge on the amino-acid metabolism of the tumor. (author)

  1. [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezosi, Emese; Nemes, Orsolya

    2009-09-27

    According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas". The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis. The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs. The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease. The available dopamine agonists in Hungary are bromocriptine and quinagolide. In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients. Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas. In the last decades, significant improvement has been reached in surgical procedures, resulting in low mortality rates. Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment. The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly. The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production. A new, promising somatostatin analog, pasireotide is evaluated in clinical trials. The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy. The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors. PMID:19758960

  2. Not only dopamine D2 receptors involved in Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, an herbal preparation against antipsychotic-associated hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Li; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wang, Xiao-Min; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Feng, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2012-12-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of an herbal preparation called Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). In the present study, we further examined the pharmacological action of PGD on prolactin (PRL) secretion using in vitro and in vivo models, with specific attention to the role of dopaminergic mediators and other sex hormones. Treatment with PGD at 1-5mg/ml significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis in MMQ cells, a model of hyperPRL derived from pituitary adenoma cells. The suppressive effects were completely abolished by pretreatment with 10μM haloperidol, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. Consistent with a D(2)-action, PGD did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D(2) receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D(2) receptors and dopamine transporters (DAT) in PC12 cells. In a rat model of hyperPRL, produced by repeated injection of the dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP), chronic PGD (2.5-10g/kg daily) significantly reduced elevated serum PRL. The reduction in magnitude was similar to that elicited by bromocriptine (BMT), a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist currently used for treatment of hyperPRL. Neither PGD nor BMT altered serum estradiol, but PGD reversed decreased serum progesterone to control level, whereas BMT did not. These results indicate that the anti-hyperPRL effects of PGD are associated not only with D(2) receptor and DAT modulation, but also with a normalization of other sex hormone dysfunction. This experimental evidence supports clinical use of PGD as an effective treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperPRL. PMID:22796279

  3. Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of nanodisc-embedded human CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijac, Aleksandra Z; Li, Ying; Sligar, Stephen G; Rienstra, Chad M

    2007-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 contributes to the metabolism of approximately 50% of commercial drugs by oxidizing a large number of structurally diverse substrates. Like other endoplasmic reticulum-localized P450s, CYP3A4 contains a membrane-anchoring N-terminal helix and a significant number of hydrophobic domains, important for the interaction between CYP3A4 and the membrane. Although the membrane affects specificity of CYP3A4 ligand binding, the structural details of the interaction have not been revealed so far because X-ray crystallography studies are available only for the soluble domain of CYP3A4. Here we report sample preparation and initial magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) of CYP3A4 (Delta3-12) embedded in a nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc. The growth protocol yields approximately 2.5 mg of the enzymatically active, uniformly 13C,15N-enriched CYP3A4 from 1 L of growth medium. Polyethylene glycol 3350-precipitated CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs yields spectra of high resolution and sensitivity, consistent with a folded, homogeneous protein. CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs remains enzymatically active throughout the precipitation protocol as monitored by bromocriptine binding. The 13C line widths measured from 13C-13C 2D chemical shift correlation spectra are approximately 0.5 ppm. The secondary structure distribution within several amino acid types determined from 13C chemical shifts is consistent with the ligand-free X-ray structures. These results demonstrate that MAS SSNMR can be performed on Nanodisc-embedded membrane proteins in a folded, active state. The combination of SSNMR and Nanodisc methodologies opens up new possibilities for obtaining structural information on CYP3A4 and other integral membrane proteins with full retention of functionality. PMID:17985934

  4. Are Dopamine Agonists Neuroprotective in Parkinson‘s disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐卫东; Jank.J

    2002-01-01

    Dopamine(DA) agonists are playing increasingly important role in the treatment of not only advanced Parkinson's disease(PD) and in PD patient with levodopa(L-DO-PA)-induced motor fluctuations,but also in early treatment of the disease.This shift has been largely due to the demonstrated L-DOPA-sparing effect of DA agonists and their putative neuroprotective effect,based largely on experimental in vitro and in vivo studies.In this article we review the evidence of neuroprotection by DA agonists pramipexole,ropinirole,pergolide,bromocriptine and apomorphine in cell cultures and animal models of nigral injury.Most of the studies suggest that DA agonists exert their neuroprotection via directly scavenging free radicals or increasing the activities of radical-scavenging enzymes,and enhancing neurotrophic activity.The finding that pramipexole can normalize mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit activity of caspase-3 in cytoylasmic hybrid cells made from mitochondrial DNA of nonfamilial Alzheimer's disease patients,however,suggests even a broader implication for the neuroprotective role of DA agonists.Although the clinical evidence for neuroprotection by DA agonists is still limited,the preliminary results from several on-going clinal trials are promising.Several longitudinal studies are currently in progress designed to demonstrate a delay or slowing of progresion of PD using various surrogate markers of neuronal degeneration such as18F-L-DOPA PET and123I β-CIT SPECT.The results of these experimental and clinical studies will improve our understanding of the action of DA agonists and provide critical information needed for planning future therapeutic strategies in PD and related neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. A new mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor gene of a Chinese family with resistance to thyroid hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qian; GONG Chun-xiu; GU Yi; SU Chang

    2011-01-01

    Background Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a dominant inherited syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone. It is usually due to mutations located at the ligand-binding domain and adjacent hinge region of the thyroid hormone receptor β(TRβ). We report the clinical and laboratory characteristics and the genetic analysis of a patient with this rare disorder and his family members.Methods The clinical presentations and changes of thyroid function tests (TFTs) including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary and other laboratory tests were analysed. TFTs of his family's members were detected as well. Direct DNA sequencing of the TRβ gene was done for those with abnormal TFTs.Results The RTH child had goiter, irritability, aggressiveness, and sudoresis. His TFTs showed high levels of circulating free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) and normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. He felt worse when treated as hyperthyroidism (Grave disease) with thiamazole and his clinical presentations got improved obviously when treated as RTH with bromocriptine without obvious advert effect. We identified a novel missense mutation, A317D, located in exon 9 of the gene of this boy and his mother. His mother had not any clinical presentation, but having abnormal TFTs results.Conclusions This patient reported here was concordant with the criteria of RTH. The feature is dysfunction of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. A novel mutation was found in the TRβ, A317D, of this family. This research verified the phenomena that there is a clinical heterogeneity within the same mutation of different RTH patients.

  6. 垂体催乳素瘤合并妊娠的临床观察%Clinical observation on pituitary prolactinoma complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟娟; 吕敏茹; 白桂芹

    2012-01-01

    -term pregnancy, including 22 undergoing caesarean section and 7 with vaginal spontaneous labor. All of the newborn infants survived without any abnormalities. MRI at late trimester of pregnancy revealed increase in tumor size in 7 cases, decrease in 3 cases and no obvious change in 21 cases. None of the symptoms such as headache, eyesight change or visual impairment occurred in patients. The pregnancy progress and outcomes of 7 cases of macroadenoma were not well. Only one of them underwent cesarean section at full term, and the neonate was survival without abnormality. Headache and visual impairment occurred at second trimester in 2 cases. After treatment with bromocriptine, these symptoms relieved and cesarean section was performed at full term. The neonate was survival without abnormality. Another case, with these symptoms at mid trimester of pregnancy, received operation and radiotherapy after induced abortion when symptoms were not significantly relieved treated with bromocriptine. Early abortion occurred in 2 cases and another one miscarried at 18 gestational weeks. Conclusion The pregnancy outcomes of cases of microadenoma are fine after bromocriptine withdrawl, but the pregnancy progress and outcomes of cases of macroadenoma are not well, which needs attention from clinical physicians.

  7. Metastatic prolactinoma: case report with immunohistochemical assessment for p53 and Ki-67 antigens Prolactinoma metastático: relato de caso com avaliação imuno-histoquímica para os antígenos p53 e Ki-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Crusius

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinomas are rare neoplasms characterized by craniospinal and/or systemic metastases originated from the pituitary. Their histopathology is frequently indistinguishable from that of benign adenomas. The development of markers that better reflect their behavior is desirable. We present the case of a 47 year-old man with a prolactin-secreting macroadenoma who was submitted to surgeries, cranial radiation therapy, and bromocriptine treatment, but evolved to a fatal outcome after the disclosure of intracranial metastases. Tumor samples underwent p53 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical assessment. p53 was absent in all samples, a rare finding among pituitary carcinomas. Ki-67 proliferative index was 2.80% in the original tumor, 4.40% in the relapse, and 4.45% in the metastasis. The figure in the relapse is higher than the expected for a noninvasive adenoma. In conclusion, p53 staining is not positive in all pituitary carcinomas. A high Ki-67 proliferative index in a pituitary adenoma might indicate a more aggressive behavior.Carcinomas pituitários são neoplasias raras caracterizadas pela presença de metástases cranio-espinhais e/ou sistêmicas originadas da hipófise. Sua histopatologia é freqüentemente indistinguível daquela dos adenomas benignos. O desenvolvimento de marcadores que melhor reflitam o seu comportamento é desejável. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 47 anos com um macroadenoma secretor de prolactina que foi submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos, radioterapia e tratamento com bromocriptina, mas que evoluiu para o óbito após o descobrimento de metástases intracranianas. Amostras do tumor foram submetidas à análise imuno-histoquímica para os antígenos p53 e Ki-67. A coloração para p53 foi negativa em todas as amostras, um achado raro entre os carcinomas pituitários. O índice proliferativo Ki-67 foi 2,80% no tumor original, 4,40% na recidiva e 4,45% na metástase. O valor obtido na recidiva é maior que o

  8. 斜坡异位泌乳素垂体腺瘤 1 例临床分析并文献复习%Clinical analysis of one patient with ectopic prolactinoma in clivus and review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆林森; 张红波; 陈谦学; 桂松柏; 曾小君; 白吉伟; 李储忠; 赵鹏; 孙彦辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis , differential diagnosis and treatment of ectopic prolactinoma in clivus .Methods The clinical data of one patient with ectopic pituitary adenoma ( EPA) in clivus underwent surgery and pathology results was retrospectively analyzed ,and the clinical features with literature review were summarized .Results The cases was diagnosed as hyperprolactinemia ,MRI showed clivus mass and preoperative diagnosis was chordoma .The tumors were totally resected through transendoscopic single nostril transsphenoidal approach .Pathological immunohistochemical test showed prolactin positive , the hyperprolactinemia not returned to normal after surgery , oral bromocriptine treatment to control it , follow-up of 1 year without recurrence . Conclusions Ectopic clivus pituitary adenoma was rarely in clinic and easily be misdiagnosed .We should continue to adopt a comprehensive treatment based on surgery .%目的 探讨斜坡异位泌乳素垂体腺瘤的诊断与鉴别诊断及治疗方法. 方法 回顾性分析1例经手术及术后病理检查确诊的斜坡异位垂体腺瘤患者的临床资料,并结合文献总结其临床特点. 结果 该例患者表现为高泌乳素血症,MRI检查发现斜坡病变,术前诊断为脊索瘤. 采用内镜下单鼻孔经鼻蝶入路显微手术全切除肿瘤. 肿瘤病理免疫组化检查泌乳素阳性,术后未完全降至正常,口服溴隐亭治疗,随访1年无复发. 结论 斜坡异位垂体腺瘤临床罕见,误诊率高;仍应采用以手术为主的综合治疗.

  9. Pramipexole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, J; Denesle, R; Petit, D

    2000-05-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a condition characterized by unpleasant limb sensations occurring at rest and associated with an irresistible urge to move. Several treatments are used to treat RLS including benzodiazepines, opioids, dopaminergic agents, clonidine and anticonvulsant drugs such as carbamazepine and gabapentine. Dopaminergic agents are now considered the treatment of choice for RLS. Levodopa is effective in treating RLS; however, several patients treated with levodopa at bedtime developed morning or late afternoon restlessness. Recently, more attention has been paid to dopamine receptor agonists. Ergoline derivatives, bromocriptine and pergolide were found effective, but require concomitant administration of domperidone, a peripheral dopamine antagonist. In a recent study, we studied the efficacy and innocuity of pramipexole, a new dopamine agonist with a higher affinity for the D3 receptor subtype of the D2 family, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Pramipexole had major effects on RLS symptoms without severe side-effects. The present study aimed to assess the long-term efficacy of pramipexole. Seven patients were treated with the drug for a mean follow-up duration of 7.8 months. Treatment was started at a dosage of 0.25 mg, and progressively increased until the optimal therapeutic effect was obtained. Home questionnaires were completed for 7 consecutive days, after one month and after a mean of 7.8 months of treatment with pramipexole, assessing leg restlessness during the daytime, in the evening, at bedtime and during the night. There was no evidence of a decrease in the therapeutic effect of pramipexole in these patients, even 7.8 months after the initiation of treatment. The optimal dosage was 0.25 mg for one patient, 0.5 mg for five patients and 0.75 mg for one patient. While there was a progressive increase in severity of leg restlessness from daytime to nighttime before treatment, a suppression of leg restlessness was

  10. Gestational gigantomastia: case report and bibliographic review Gigantomastia de la gestación: relato de un caso y revisión de la literatura Gigantomastia gestacional: relato de caso e revisão bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Rogério da Silva Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gigantomastia is a rare clinical condition, with few cases reported in the literature. Although it has an unknown etiology, it has been associated with responses to pregnancy hormones, most frequently in multiparous and Caucasian women. It presents great capacity to recur in future pregnancies. This condition is often associated with disabling pain, postural disorders, ulcers and skin necrosis, leading to breast infections. The authors report one case occurred at the fifth pregnancy, explaining management of the Family Health Team during the prenatal and inhibition of lactation with bromocriptine immediately after childbirth, and breast reduction in preparation for the second time.La gigantomastia es una rara condición clínica, raramente descrita en la literatura. Aunque de etiología incierta, se ha sido asociada con las respuestas a las hormonas del embarazo, ocurre con mayor frecuencia en mujeres multíparas y las caucásicas. Presenta altas tasas de recurrencia en futuros embarazos. Se asocia a menudo con dolor incapacitante, trastornos posturales, úlceras y necrosis de la piel, favoreciendo la aparición de infecciones. Los autores presentan un caso ocurrido en quinto embarazo, exponiendo la conducta del Equipo de Salud de la Familia durante el prenatal y la inhibición de la lactancia con bromocriptina inmediatamente después del parto y la preparación para el manejo quirúrgico.A gigantomastia é uma condição clínica rara, pouco descrita na literatura. Apesar da etiologia desconhecida, tem sido associada às respostas aos hormônios gestacionais, com maior incidência em mulheres multíparas e caucasianas. Apresenta altas taxas de recorrência em gestações futuras. O quadro frequentemente está associado à dor incapacitante, a alterações posturais, a úlceras e à necrose cutânea, favorecendo o aparecimento de infecções. Os autores relatam um caso clínico ocorrido em quinta gestação, expondo a conduta da Equipe de Sa

  11. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periti, P; Mazzei, T; Mini, E; Novelli, A

    1992-08-01

    , carbamazepine, phenazone (antipyrine) and triazolam. Troleandomycin can cause ergotism in patients receiving ergot alkaloids and cholestatic jaundice in those taking oral contraceptives. Erythromycin and its different prodrugs appear to be less potent inhibitors of drug metabolism. Case reports and controlled studies have, however, shown that erythromycins may interact with theophylline, carbamazepine, methylprednisolone, warfarin, cyclosporin, triazolam, midazolam, alfentanil, disopyramide and bromocriptine, decreasing drug clearance. The bioavailability of digoxin appears also to be increased by erythromycin in patients excreting high amounts of reduced digoxin metabolites, probably due to destruction of enteric flora responsible for the formation of these compounds. These incriminated macrolide antibiotics should not be administered concomitantly with other drugs known to be affected metabolically by them, or at the very least, combined administration should be carried out only with careful patient monitoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1511528

  12. [Hyperprolactinemia in mentally ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Manuel Maria de; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    prolactin-sparing antipsychotic or the use of a dopamine receptor agonist, such as bromocriptine, cabergoline and amantadine. Given the osteopenic and osteoporosis risk, combined oral contraceptives must be considered in female patients in fertile age which have amenorrhoea for at least a one year period. With the exception of the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, none of the current international psychiatric guidelines recommend a routine baseline prolactin determination, neither periodic prolactin levels without the presence of any hyperprolactinemia symptoms. PMID:22713195

  13. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in prolactinoma patients before and after normalization of prolactin by dopamine agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berinder, Katarina; Nyström, Thomas; Höybye, Charlotte; Hall, Kerstin; Hulting, Anna-Lena

    2011-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with impaired metabolism, including insulin resistance. However, the metabolic effects of elevated prolactin (PRL) levels are not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to obtain more insights of metabolic consequences in hyperprolactinemia patients. Fourteen consecutive patients, eight women and six men, aged 39.7 (±13.7) years with prolactinomas (median PRL 72 [49-131] μg/L in women and 1,260 [123-9,600] μg/L in men) were included. Anthropometric data and metabolic values were studied before and after 2 and 6 months on DA agonists (Bromocriptine [5.7 (±3.9) mg/day, n = 13] or Cabergoline [0.5 mg/week, n = 1]). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were studied in six patients before and after 6 months of treatment. PRL normalized in all patients. Anthropometric data changed only in males with a significant decrease of median body weight (95.6 [80.7-110.1] to 83.4 [77.8-99.1] kg, P = 0.046), waist circumference and fat percentage after 6 months. LDL cholesterol was positively correlated to PRL at diagnosis (r = 0.62, P = 0.025) and decreased within 2 months (3.4 [±0.9] to 2.9 [±0.6] mmol/L, P = 0.003). Insulin, IGFBP-1 and total adiponectin levels did not change. Insulin sensitivity tended to improve after 6 months; M-value from 5.7 (±1.8) to 7.8 (±2.6) mg/kg/min, P = 0.083 and per cent improvement in M-value was correlated to per cent reduction in PRL levels (r = -0.85, P = 0.034). In conclusion, beneficial metabolic changes were seen in prolactinoma patients after treatment with DA agonists, underscoring the importance of an active treatment approach and to consider the metabolic profile in the clinical management of hyperprolactinemia patients. PMID:21128120

  14. Glycyrrhetinic acid and E.resveratroloside act as potential plant derived compounds against dopamine receptor D3 for Parkinson’s disease: a pharmacoinformatics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza MU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Usman Mirza,1 A Hammad Mirza,2 Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori,3 Saba Ferdous4 1Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Bioscience, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan; 3Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, UK Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD is caused by loss in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and is ranked as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Dopamine receptor D3 is considered as a potential target in drug development against PD because of its lesser side effects and higher degree of neuro-protection. One of the prominent therapies currently available for PD is the use of dopamine agonists which mimic the natural action of dopamine in the brain and stimulate dopamine receptors directly. Unfortunately, use of these pharmacological therapies such as bromocriptine, apomorphine, and ropinirole provides only temporary relief of the disease symptoms and is frequently linked with insomnia, anxiety, depression, and agitation. Thus, there is a need for an alternative treatment that not only hinders neurodegeneration, but also has few or no side effects. Since the past decade, much attention has been given to exploitation of phytochemicals and their use in alternative medicine research. This is because plants are a cheap, indispensable, and never ending resource of active compounds that are beneficial against various diseases. In the current study, 40 active phytochemicals against PD were selected through literature survey. These ligands were docked with dopamine receptor D3 using AutoDock and AutoDockVina. Binding energies were compared to docking results of drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration against PD. The compounds were further analyzed for their absorption, distribution

  15. Long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Evaluation of tumor control and hypopituitarism after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the results of conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas assessed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endpoints include tumor control, normalization of hormone levels in functioning adenomas, and hypopituitarism after radiotherapy as an adverse effect. Forty-two patients were treated with radiotherapy from 1982 to 1995 at Niigata University Hospital. Forty patients were irradiated after surgery because of residual adenomas in 33 patients and tumor regrowth in 7 patients. One patient was treated with radiotherapy alone, and the remaining 1 patient was treated with preoperative radiotherapy. Tumor size and extension were evaluated using CT or MRI, and all tumors were macroadenomas. They consisted of 18 non-functioning and 24 functioning adenomas (growth hormone (GH)-secreting: 11, prolactinomas: 7, concomitant GH and prolactin (PRL)-secreting: 5, gonadotropin-secreting: 1). Treatment was given in 200 cGy daily fraction size and a total dose of 50 Gy was given to most patients. Sixteen patients with GH- and/or PRL-secreting adenomas received bromocriptine. Tumor progression was determined by increase in tumor size as shown by CT or MRI. Hypopituitarism after radiotherapy was evaluated using the functions of corticotropin (ACTH), thyrotropin (TSH), and gonadotropin. Median follow-up time from the end of radiotherapy was 103 months. Tumor progression occurred in 2 out of 42 patients and 10-year progression-free rate for all patients was 93.7%. Normalization of GH levels was obtained in 12 of 16 GH-secreting adenomas with a mean time of 27 months after radiotherapy, and 9 of 12 PRL-secreting adenomas achieved normalization of PRL levels with a mean time of 34 months. One gonadotropin-secreting adenoma achieved normalization of gonadotropin level at 21 months after radiotherapy. The incidence of hypopituitarism after radiotherapy increased with time, and cumulative risk of deficiencies of ACTH, TSH, and gonadotropin at 10

  16. New insights into the importance of prolactin in dairy ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S; Lollivier, V; Boutinaud, M

    2016-01-01

    In most mammals, prolactin (PRL) is essential for maintaining lactation, and the suppression of PRL inhibits lactation. However, the involvement of PRL in the control of ruminant lactation is less clear, because inconsistent effects on milk yield have been observed with the short-term suppression of PRL by bromocriptine. Therefore, several experiments have been conducted to assess the galactopoietic role of PRL. In an initial experiment, cows in early lactation received daily injections of the dopamine agonist quinagolide for 9 wk. Quinagolide reduced milking-induced PRL release and caused a faster decline in milk production. Quinagolide also reduced mammary epithelial cell activity, survival, and proliferation. In goats, cabergoline, another dopamine agonist, caused a 28% decrease in milk yield the day after injection. In another experiment, cows were injected for 5d with quinagolide, with quinagolide plus bovine PRL injected at milking time, or with vehicles only. Again, quinagolide reduced milk, protein, and lactose yields. Although PRL injections were not sufficient to restore milk yield, they tended to increase milk protein and lactose yields and increased the viability of mammary epithelial cells purified from milk. Recently, our team stimulated PRL secretion with daily injections of the dopamine antagonist domperidone for 5 wk. Milk production increased gradually and was greater in domperidone-treated cows during the last 4 wk of the treatment period. In most experiments where PRL secretion was manipulated, feed intake paralleled the changes of PRL concentration, supporting the idea that PRL increases feed intake to provide the nutrients necessary to support lactation in dairy ruminants. In late-lactation cows, quinagolide and cabergoline decreased milk production within the first day of treatment and induced more rapid changes in several markers of mammary gland involution after drying-off. In addition, quinagolide improved the resistance to intramammary

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as the presenting manifestation of pituitary adenoma: case report with a 4-year follow-up Fístula liquórica como manifestação inicial de macroadenoma hipofisário: relato de caso com 4 anos de seguimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Hanel

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a young woman who presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea due to an undiagnosed and untreated pituitary adenoma. The tumor had extended well beyond sella turcica and caused bony erosion. The patient initially refused surgery and was treated with bromocriptine and a radiation therapy. CSF leakage did not improved and she was submitted to surgery by the transsphenoidal approach with removal of a tumor mass located in sphenoid sinus and sellar region. Origin of the leak was localized and repaired with fascia lata and a lumbar subarachnoid drain was left in place for 5 days. After 4 years she has normal serum PRL levels and no rhinorrhea. The management, complications and mechanisms involved in this rare condition are discussed.Relatamos o caso de uma paciente que se apresentou com fístula liquórica devido a macroadenoma de hipófise sem diagnóstico e/ou tratamento prévio. O tumor estendia-se além dos limites da sela túrcica, causando erosão óssea. A paciente inicialmente recusou tratamento cirúrgico e foi então tratada com bromocriptina e radioterapia convencional. O fluxo de liquor da fístula não diminuiu e desta feita a paciente concordou com a realização da cirurgia. Realizou-se acesso transesfenoidal com remoção da massa tumoral do seio esfenoidal e selar. A origem da fístula foi reparada com enxerto autólago de fascia lata. Drenagem liquórica lombar foi utilizada por 5 dias. Atualmente, após 4 anos de seguimento, a paciente se apresenta com níveis normais de prolactina e sem sinais de fístula liquórica. Discutimos o mecanismo fisiopatológico desta rara apresentação dos tumores hipofisários bem como seu manejo e complicações.

  18. Pregnancy rate of gonadotrophin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery in polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnegad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common cause of ovulation insufficiency and then infertility. Therapeutic options to induce ovulation in anovulatory PCOS patients are clomiphene citrate, metformin, tamoxifen, dopamine agonists (bromocriptin, Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE. Gonadotrophin and LOE are important options in anovulatory clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS. Literature data regarding compare of the efficacy of these two treatments are few. Therefore we aimed to study the pregnancy rates of these treatments in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, between 2003 and 2008."n"nResults: A total of 100 patients women were randomly allocated in two groups. There were no differences in age and pimary and secondary infertility duration. In LOE treatment group, eight cases (16% were pregnant and all delivered at term. in gonadotrophin treatment 14 cases (28% were pregnant, 10 cases (20% delivered at term

  19. Guías para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de acromegalia, prolactinomas y enfermedad de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ku Chih Hao

    2004-10-01

    (acromegaly and ACTH (Cushing’s disease. There are different opinions about the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. We present here the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors made by the Costa Rican Association of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition. The main cause of acromegaly is a pituitary tumor that produces growth hormone. The diagnosis is usually made several years after the disease has started because the physical changes occur very slowly. The initial treatment should be surgery and when it fails, medical therapy with octreotide is the main choice. Radiotherapy can be used although it is limited by the long time it takes to start its effect. If there is hyperprolactinemia, other causes of prolactin elevation should be ruled out. If a prolactinoma is identified, the treatment almost always will be with dopamine agonists. Surgery should be performed only in macroprolactinomas with visual field changes that do not shrink with medical treatment. The first choice for medical treatment will be bromocriptine although there are other agents like cabergoline and quinagolide. In Cushing´s disease, there are different tests for screening for hypercortisolism, after which a confirmatory test should be performed. Initial treatment should be surgery followed by radiotherapy. In these cases, medical treatment is less effective than in other pituitary tumors.

  20. Pituitary prolactinoma with severe erectile dysfunction as the initial symptom:Diagnosis and treatment of 4 cases%以重度ED为首发症状的垂体泌乳素瘤4例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 郑磊; 苏晓明; 彭进强; 孙冬晨; 李泉林; 张志伟; 王法鹏; 姜辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:以重度ED为首发症状的垂体泌乳素瘤易误诊,分析该病所致重度ED的特点,以提高诊治水平. 方法:回顾4例以重度ED(IIEF-5评分5~7分)为首发临床症状、经MRI检查确诊的垂体泌乳素瘤,结合文献诊治特点进行分析. 结果:4例因垂体泌乳素瘤引起的重度ED误诊时间长达2年,血清泌乳素(PRL)均为正常高值的10倍以上,开始应用PDE5抑制剂无效,3例行单鼻孔-蝶窦-垂体瘤全切除术,术后24个月随访:1例PRL正常,IIEF-5 19分,2例PRL分别降至600和768 IU/L,IIEF-5均为15分,此时再服用PDE5抑制剂获得满意效果;1例口服溴隐亭保守治疗,12个月后随访PRL正常,IIEF-5> 21分. 结论:检测血PRL和脑MRI检查可以确诊以重度ED为首发临床症状的垂体泌乳素瘤,在PRL极高的情况下,单纯应用PDE5抑制剂无效,通过手术或药物降低PRL后,ED症状可改善,若改善不明显,此时再应用PDE5抑制剂将会收到满意的效果.%Objective: Pituitary prolactinoma with severe erectile dysfunction (ED) as the initial symptom is often misdiag-nosed. This article explores the diagnosis and treatment of severe ED caused by pituitary prolactinoma. Methods; We retrospectively analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of 4 cases of pituitary prolactinoma with severe ED (IIEF-5 score 5 - 7) as the initial clinical symptom confirmed by MRI. Results: The 4 cases of pituitary prolactinoma-induced severe ED, with serum prolactin 10 times above the maximum normal level, were misdiagnosed for 2 years. AH failed to respond to the PDE5 inhibitor therapy, and then 3 of them underwent transnasal hypophysiectomy. Twenty-four months of follow-up found the level of prolactin restored to normal in 1 case (IIEF-5 = 19), and reduced to 600 and 768 IU/L respectively (IIEF-5 = 15) in the other 2. Then administration of the PDE5 inhibitor was followed, which produced satisfactory efficacy. One case was treated with oral bromocriptine, which restored the

  1. 儿童青少年垂体催乳素瘤的临床特点与治疗%Clincal characteristics and treatment of pituitary prolactinoma in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠娟; 任祖渊; 苏长保; 马文斌; 史轶蘩; 顾锋; 金自孟; 潘慧; 李乃适; 伍学炎; 岳欣; 吴勤勇; 王任直

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics and treatment of pituitary prolactinoma in children and adolescents. Method The clinical data of 31 prolactinoma patients treated from 2002 to 2007 in PUMC hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Results The group of patients consisted of(21±67.7)% girls and(10±32.3)% boys.The average age at diagnosis was 16.9±2.7 years old. The onset age was 15.0±2.7 years. The main symptoms were abnormal menstruation in girls and headache and visual disorders in boys. 81% patients had macroadenomas. The baseline level of serum prolactin was positively correlated with the size of tumor.13% patients had secondary hypothyroidism and 24% patients with lower levels of cortisol and ACTH.29% patients were treated with transsphenoidal surgery.The level of PRL maintained normal in 29% patients 2 to 18 months later after operation and in 64% patients treated with bromocriptine.Conclusion Compared with adults,the percentage of male is higher in children and adolescents prolactinoma patients and there are more macroadenomas. Dopamine agonist is effective and safe for these patients.%目的 分析儿童青少年垂体催乳素(PRL)瘤的临床特点和治疗情况.方法 回顾性总结31例儿童青少年垂体PRL瘤患者的临床特点,包括患者性别、年龄、临床表现、影像学特点、激素水平以及治疗情况.结果 本组男女比例1:2,诊断年龄(16.9±2.7)岁,发病年龄(15.0±2.7)岁.女性患者以月经异常,男性以头痛和视力障碍为主要临床表现.其中81%为大腺瘤,血PRL水平与腺瘤长径正相关(r=0.5252,p=0.0145).29%接受手术治疗的患者和64%的药物治疗患者随访2-18个月,PRL水平正常.结论 儿童青少年垂体PRL瘤与成人相比男性患者比例显著升高,大多数为垂体大肿瘤,多于青春发育后起病,多巴胺激动剂治疗安全有效.

  2. Medical management of levodopa-associated motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Stacy, Mark

    2007-01-01

    monitoring for hepatotoxicity. Amantadine is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist shown to lower dyskinesia scores and improve motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease when given adjunctively with levodopa. Dopamine agonists, also used as initial and adjunctive therapy in Parkinson's disease, improve motor response and decrease 'off' time purportedly through direct stimulation of dopamine receptors. Current dopamine agonists include bromocriptine, pergolide, cabergoline, lisuride, apomorphine, pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine. Although effective, this class of medications can be associated with cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse effects that can limit their utility. All medications used to manage levodopa-associated motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease have had differing degrees of success. Although head-to-head comparisons of drugs within classes are rare, some differences have emerged related to effects on motor fluctuations, dyskinesias and on/off times, as well as to adverse effects. When choosing a drug to treat levodopa-induced complications, it is important to consider the risks and benefits of the different classes and of the specific agents within each class, given the different efficacy and safety profiles of each. PMID:17630819

  3. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND IMMUNITY: 1. DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-08-01

    role for dopamine in modulating, mainly suppressing immune functions (Qui et al., 1994. Animals treated with bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, also showed suppression of antibody production to SRBC and LPS (Besedovsky and del Ray, 1996 and suppressed activities of lymphocytes in mixed lymphocyte culture (Hiestand et al., 1986. Moreover, the interest regarding the role of dopamine on immune system becomes more relevant when some of important neurological disease like Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia with hypo- and hyperactivity (Birtwistle et al., 1988 of central dopamine system are well-correlated with severe abnormalities of immune functions (Muller et al., 1993. Therefore, in the present review, we have evaluated information from our laboratory as well as from others regarding the role of dopamine on immune function in both human and experimental animals in order to understand the current status of dopamine-mediated control of the immunological surveillance system.

  4. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

  5. Prolaktin und HyperprolaktinämiebrStellungnahme der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie und Fortpflanzungsmedizin (DGGEF e.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2013-01-01

    -bildenden Tumors der Hypophyse (Prolaktinom zu. Die meisten Prolaktinome treten zwischen dem 20. und 40. Lebensjahr auf. Hypophysentumoren, meist Adenome, machen etwa 10–15 % aller intrakraniellen Tumoren aus. Bei den Prolaktinomen wird je nach Größe im MRT zwischen Mikro- ( 10 mm und Makroprolaktinomen ( 10 mm unterschieden. Je nach Größe, Lokalisation, Verdrängungssymptomen (z. B. Chiasma opticum, Lebensalter, Kinderwunsch stehen medikamentöse, neurochirurgische und radiologische Therapieoptionen zur Verfügung. Eine medikamentöse Therapie mit Dopamin-Agonisten ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl für die meisten Patienten mit Prolaktinomen, während eine Operation bei Resistenz gegenüber einer medikamentösen Therapie zusammen mit speziellen Indikationen in Betracht kommt. Die pharmakologischen Wirkungen, Nebenwirkungen und das pharmakologische Profil der Dopamin-Agonisten Bromocriptin, Dopergin, Quinagolid und Cabergolin wird besprochen. Bei Cabergolin kann es unter Langzeittherapie zu einer Fibrose und zu Herzklappenveränderungen kommen, allerdings nur bei hohen Dosierungen ( 2 mg im Rahmen der Parkinsontherapie. Neurochirurgische Eingriffe werden als First-line-Therapie nur bei Kinderwunschpatientinnen mit Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom oder speziellen Formen von Makroprolaktinomen indiziert. Die Differentialdiagnostik sowie das Management bei Mikro- und Makro-Prolaktinomen bei Patientinnen mit und ohne Kinderwunsch werden besprochen. Das wichtigste Therapieziel bei der Behandlung einer Hyperprolaktinämie und Prolaktinomen besteht in der Normalisierung des Prolaktinspiegels, um Nebenwirkungen einer Hyperprolaktinämie (z. B. Östrogenmangelsymptome zu verhindern, und bei Prolaktinomen ein Schrumpfen des Tumors zur erreichen – ebenfalls vor dem Hintergrund der Vermeidung ernsthafter klinischer Nebenwirkungen bei weiterem Tumorwachstum. International relevant sind Leitlinien der Endocrine Society (USA zur Diagnostik und Therapie der Hyperprolaktinämie.

  6. 儿童和青少年垂体瘤的临床诊治分析%Clinical analysis of children and adolescents patients with pituitary adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冲; 潘源; 陈高明; 丁学华; 刘志民

    2012-01-01

    14 male and 10 female adenomas were invasive. In the prolactinomas, there were 9 male and 34 female. The most common presenting features were endocrinopathy and visual disturbances. All the patients treated with microsurgery, only 9 patients (12.2%) were received dopamine agonists treatment before operation; some patients proceeded postoperative bromocriptine or radiotherapy. Forty-seven cases were followed up, 6 relapsed patients were received surgery again. Twenty-nine patients in 32 recovered or improved from visual disturbances. Conclusion Children and adolescents patients with pituitary adenoma used to appear in postpubertal age, the ratio between male and female was different in various types of pituitary adenoma. Dopamine agonists using in treating prolactinomas should be further recommended in children and adolescents. The combination of dopamine agonists and surgery, as well as radiotherapy when indicated, can achieve good efficacy in the management of pituitary neoplasm.

  7. 溴隐亭治疗垂体腺瘤后超微结构改变和相关基因表达的研究%Medical management of pituitary adenomas: a study of ultrastructural changes and receptor expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲褒; 诸葛启钏; 张亚卓; 孙异临; 陈勇; 王成德; 苏志鹏; 吕庆平; 吴近森; 郑伟明

    2011-01-01

    目的 从多巴胺2型受体表达水平和服药后细胞超微结构改变来阐明垂体腺瘤溴隐亭治疗的作用机制.方法 4例垂体无功能腺瘤和9例催乳素(PRL)腺瘤患者术前接受溴隐亭治疗,术后观察肿瘤细胞的超微结构改变.肿瘤标本送QRT-PCR检测细胞表面D2R和ER亚型的相对表达水平.结果 PRL腺瘤和临床无功能腺瘤细胞的D2S、D2L、ERα基因在mRNA水平存在差异表达(分别为P<0.01,P<0.01,P=0.019),PRL腺瘤的表达水平明显较高.除1例颗粒密集型PRL腺瘤外,颗粒稀疏型PRL腺瘤服用溴隐亭后肿瘤细胞体积缩小,染色质异常凝集,胞质空泡变性,细胞器减少,可见裸核细胞、暗细胞和不同程度的细胞坏死崩解.垂体无功能腺瘤与PRL腺瘤比较,细胞大小、形态改变较少,胞质内细胞器未见明显减少,少见染色质边聚、胞质空泡变性和裸核细胞.结论 垂体无功能腺瘤和PRL腺瘤在D2R和ER受体水平存在差异表达.垂体无功能腺瘤中D2R表达水平高者也存在溴隐亭治疗后细胞的超微结构改变.溴隐亭治疗后垂体肿瘤细胞超微结构改变和D2R表达水平存在一定的相关性.%Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the ultrastructural changes and dopamine 2 receptor(D2R) expression levels of pituitary adenomas to clarify the mechanism of medical management.Method 9patients with prolactinomas and 4 with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas( NFPAs)were treated with bromocriptine preoperatively.Ultrastructure changes of tumor cells were observed through electron microscopy.Tumor tissue samples were examined for the expression of both ER mRNA and D2R mRNA isoforms by means of QRT- PCR analysis.Results Expressions of D2S mRNA、 D2L mRNA、 ERα mRNA were significant difference between prolactinomas and NFPAs( P <0.01, P <0.01, P =0.019,respectively),in which was higher in prolac tinomas as compared to NFPAs.Except for 1 patient with densely granulated lact

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of male sexual dysfunction caused by hyperprolactinemia%血高催乳素血症导致男性性功能障碍的诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 杨土生; 郭善媚

    2014-01-01

    and after treatment.Results:1 )There were 23 cases (71.88%)of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia,4 cases (12.50%)of micro adenoma and 5 cases (15.63%)of pitu-itary adenoma among the 32 patients.There were 29 cases (90.63%) of erectile dysfunction,32 cases (100.00%)of decreased libido and 7 cases (21.88%)of orgasmic disorder among the 32 patients.2)The serum prolactin levels of 32 patients after treatment were significantly lower than that before the treatment,with statistically significant difference (P<0.01);The levels of luteinizing hormone,follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone of 32 patients after treatment were significantly higher than those before the treatment,with statistically significant difference (P<0.01).3)After treatment,the erectile dysfunction,decreased libido,orgasmic dysfunction and other symptoms of 32 patients were improved.Conclusion:Male sexual dysfunction caused by hyperprolactinemia can be confirmed through history taking,clinical characteristics,erectile function index determination,physical ex-amination,hormonal measurement and imaging of pituitary.The efficacy of Bromocriptine Mesylate and testosterone undecanoate is better and worthy of promotion.

  9. Hiperprolactinemia en niños y adolescentes, conceptos e interrogantes actuales Hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents, current questions and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fideleff

    2007-06-01

    , dopaminergic agonists are the initial therapy of choice in pediatric age patients. Bromocriptine and cabergoline have been used with similar results to those obtained in adults. The new concepts gained and the better insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hyperprolactinemic conditions in children and adolescents have brought about a change in diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives.

  10. Central nervous mechanism of bruxism%磨牙症的中枢神经机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄黄; 刘伟才

    2014-01-01

    The causes of bruxism are divided into peripheral factors and central factors, occlusal factors are known to only play a minor role. Bruxism is associated with sleep micro-arousal and appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. These neurotransmitters may be disturbed the balance between the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia which are involved in the coordination of movements of masticatory muscle in bruxers. L-dopa, bromocriptine and propranolol can inhibit bruxism activity, botulinum toxin injections can reduce the frequency of bruxism events and decrease bruxism-induced pain levels, clonidine can inhibits the rapid eye movement(REM) of bruxism patients and the levels of catecholamines are higher in bruxers. Some authors think that bruxism patients with lower sleep efficiency, but some think that bruxism patients have normal sleep structure and quality; some people think that bruxism occurred more frequently in stage 2 and REM, some think bruxism episodes are equally distributed between non-rapid eye movement(NREM) and REM sleep, but some also think bruxism are mainly occurred in light sleep and seldom occurred in REM, moreover some think that bruxism is a abnormal oral activities that secondary to sleep micro-arousal. Psychological factors like personality and anxiety are also frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism. Bruxism patients have higher life stress and anxiety, the person that severe bruxism, their work and life pressure is more heavier. In this paper, A central factors of bruxism is reviewed in detail concerning their pathophysiological and psychosocial aspects.%磨牙症的病因分为外周神经因素和中枢神经因素,(牙合)因素在磨牙症中只起一小部分作用。磨牙症与睡眠觉醒有关并受多种中枢神经化学递质的影响。中枢神经化学递质可能打乱了基底神经节的直接和间接输出通道的平衡,从而打乱咀嚼肌协调运动,引