WorldWideScience

Sample records for brominated organic contaminants

  1. Chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in fish from Shanghai markets: a case study of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yanling; Strid, Anna; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Athanasiadou, Maria; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Bergman, Åke

    2012-10-01

    In the present study were two favorite edible fish species for local residents, i.e., mandarin fish and crawfish, collected from the Shanghai market and analyzed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Efforts were also made to identify the potential sources of these contaminants. Comparable concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and HBCDD were found in muscle tissue of mandarin fish from Guangdong (GDF), the Pearl River Delta and from Taihu Lake (TLF), the Yangtze River Delta. Levels of chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs were about one magnitude lower in TLF compared to GDF. The concentrations of OCPs in the butter-like gland of the crawfish (CFB) were 2-5 times of those in the crawfish muscle (CFM) while concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were comparable. The different patterns and levels of chlorinated and brominated organohalogen contaminants seen in mandarin fish from GDF and TLF indicates that different types of chemicals might be used in the two delta regions. The present study also shows a good correlation between the concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachloroanisol (PCA) in fish for the first time. Fish consumption limits based on chemical contaminants with non-carcinogenic effects were calculated. The estimated maximum daily consumption limit for GDF, TLF, CFM and CFB were 1.5, 2.6, 3.7 and 0.08 kg, respectively, indicating no significant risk regarding the persistent organic pollutants measured in the present study.

  2. The occurrence of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Irish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Brendan; Poole, Russell; Corcoran, John; Anninou, Pinelopi; Boyle, Brian; Joyce, Eileen; Barry Foley, M; McGovern, Evin

    2010-04-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a relatively high lipid, long lived species capable of living in a variety of brackish, fresh and marine habitats. As such, eels can accumulate organic pollutants and have been incorporated into environmental monitoring programs as a suitable "bioindicator" species for the determination of the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The global eel stock is now in decline and while the cause of the collapse remains unidentified, it is likely to include a combination of anthropogenic mortality in addition to environmental degradation. This study provides valuable data on a range of contaminants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCD, TBBPA and PBBs) and extractable lipid levels in eel muscle tissue collected from five Irish catchments. Extractable lipid levels were lower in the yellow eels compared to those in the silver eels. These levels were similar to those reported elsewhere and it has been posited that a decline in the lipid content in yellow eels may have consequences for the future viability of the stock. With the exception of higher substituted dioxins (especially OCDD), in three samples collected from one catchment (Burrishoole) in the West of Ireland, POP levels in general were determined to be low in eels from Irish waters compared to those in other countries.

  3. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  4. Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-06-22

    Bromination is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using bromine and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular bromine in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of bromine, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid bromine carriers. This review outlines the use of bromine and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of bromine, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other brominating agents, and a few natural bromine sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as bromination, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.

  5. Assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium: Levels, profiles and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Pooled yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in Flanders (Belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). The current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution profiles in aquatic ecosystems. PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs, and DDTs were detected in all eel samples and some samples had high concentrations (up to 1400, 9500, 41,600 and 7000ng/g lw, respectively). PCB levels accounted for the majority of the contamination in most samples. The high variability in PBDE, HBCD, PCB and DDT concentrations reported here is likely due to the variety in sampling locations demonstrating variable local pollution pressures, from highly industrialised areas to small rural creeks. Among PBDEs, BDE-47 (57% contribution to the sum PBDEs), -100 (19%) and -99 (15%) were the predominant congeners, similar to the composition reported in the literature in eel samples. For HBCDs, α-HBCD (74%) was predominant followed by γ-(22%) and β-HBCD (4%) isomers in almost all eel samples. CB-153 (19%) was the most dominant PCB congener, closely followed by CB-138 (11%), CB-180 (9%), CB-187 (8%) and CB-149 (7%). The contribution to the total human exposure through local wild eel consumption was also highly variable. Intake of PBDEs and HBCDs, through consumption of wild eel, was below the RfD values for the average population (consuming on average 2.9g eel/day). At 16 out 60 sites, eels exceeded largely the new EU consumption threshold for PCBs (300ng/g ww for the sum of 6 indicator PCBs). The current data shows an on-going exposure of Flemish eels to PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs and DDTs through indirect release from contaminated sediments or direct releases from various industries.

  6. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs): A review on environmental contamination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Bu, Qingwei; Cao, Zhiguo; Du, Xinming; Xia, Jing; Wu, Min; Huang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which were detected extensively in environmental and biota samples worldwide, have raised significant concerns during past decades for their persistence, bioaccumulation and potential toxicity to ecological environment and human health. In this paper, we have compiled and reviewed existing literature on the contamination status of BFRs in abiotic and biotic environments in China, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromobisphenol A and new BFRs. Temporal trends were also summarized and evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that (1) high concentrations of PBDEs were generally related to the e-waste disposal processing, while the spatial distribution pattern of other BFRs was not necessarily in accordance with this; (2) extremely high concentrations of BFRs in indoor dust emphasized the importance of indoor contamination to human body burdens, while more work need to be done to confirm its contribution; (3) PBDEs in electronics dismantling workers were higher compared to the general population, indicating the occupational exposure should be of particular concern; (4) more data are now becoming available for BFRs in aquatic and terrestrial organisms not previously studied, while studies that consider the occurrence of BFRs in organisms of different trophic levels are still of urgent need for evaluating the fate of BFRs in the food web; and (5) limited data showed a decreasing trend for PBDEs, while more data on time trends of BFR contamination in various matrices and locations are still needed before the impact of regulation of BFRs can be assessed.

  7. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  8. Fire-retardant coatings based on organic bromine/phenoxy or brominated epoxy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.

    1989-06-01

    Thin phenoxy and brominated epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the bromine-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant bromine was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the brominated fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant bromine was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements of brominated hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric bromine is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived bromine compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of bromine derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total bromine. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a bromine budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of bromine from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic

  10. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China.

  11. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru

    2014-12-16

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  12. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs.

  13. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  14. Natural solar photolysis of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Municipal wastewater has been increasingly used to augment drinking water supplies due to the growing water scarcity. Wastewater-derived disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health of downstream communities during water reuse. The objective of this research was to determine the degradation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) in water by natural sunlight irradiation. Outdoor solar photolysis experiments were performed to investigate photolytic degradation of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by fulvic acid and real water and wastewater samples. The results showed that TOX degradation by sunlight irradiation followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 2.6-10.7 h for different TOX compounds produced by fulvic acid. The TOX degradation rates were generally in the order of TOI > TOBr ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOCl(Cl2). High molecular weight TOX was more susceptible to solar photolysis than corresponding low molecular weight halogenated compounds. The nitrate and sulfite induced indirect TOX photolysis rates were less than 50% of the direct photolysis rates under the conditions of this study. Fulvic acid and turbidity in water reduced TOX photodegradation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the fate of chlorinated, brominated and iodinated DBPs in surface waters.

  15. Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts--Electrophilic aromatic substitution and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Rodriguez, Eva M; Allard, Sebastien; Wellauer, Sven; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-11-15

    Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range of 10(4) to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The highest value was recorded for the reaction between HOBr and the fully deprotonated resorcinol (k = 2.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). The reactivity of phenolic compounds is enhanced by the activating character of the phenolic substituents, e.g. further hydroxyl groups. With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000. Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. The dominant process mainly depends on the relative position of the hydroxyl substituents and the possibility of quinone formation. While phenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and bisphenol A undergo EAS, hydroquinone, catechol, gallic acid and tannic acid, with hydroxyl substituents in ortho or para positions, react with bromine by ET leading to quantitative formation of the corresponding quinones. Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. For the reaction of six NOM extracts with bromine, electrophilic aromatic substitution

  16. Contrasting time trends of organic contaminants in Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W; Riddle, Martin J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; van Franeker, Jan Andries

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that pelagic Antarctic seabirds show significant decreases in concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants. Trends in Adélie penguins and Southern fulmars fit in a general pattern revealed by a broad literature review. Downward trends are also visible in pelagic fish, contrasting sharply with steady or increasing concentrations in Antarctic benthic organisms. Transfer of contaminants between Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs is associated with seasonal sea-ice dynamics which may influence the balance between the final receptors of contaminants under different climatic conditions. This complicates the predictability of future trends of emerging compounds in the Antarctic ecosystem, such as of the brominated compounds that we detected in Antarctic petrels. The discrepancy in trends between pelagic and benthic organisms shows that Antarctic biota are still final receptors of globally released organic contaminants and it remains questionable whether the total environmental burden of contaminants in the Antarctic ecosystem is declining.

  17. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of boundary layer ozone depletion events in the Polar Regions [1] and in the mid-latitudes [2], two areas of very different temperature regimes, begs the question of temperature dependence of reactions responsible for these observations [3]. These ODEs have been attributed to ozone reacting with halides leading to reactive halogens (halogen activation) of which bromide is extensively studied, R1 - R3 [4, 5] (R1 is a multiphase reaction). O3 + Br-→ O2 + OBr- (R1) OBr- + H+ ↔ HOBr (R2) HOBr + H+ + Br-→ Br2 + H2O (R3) Despite extensive studies of ozone-bromide interactions, the temperature dependence of bromine activation is not clear [3]. This limits parameterization of the involved reactions and factors in atmospheric models [3, 6]. Viscosity changes in the matrix (such as organic aerosols) due to temperature have been shown to influence heterogeneous reaction rates and products beyond pure temperature effect [7]. With the application of coated wall flow-tubes, the aim of this study is therefore to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation by ozone interaction while attempting to characterize the contributions of the bulk and surface reactions to observed ozone uptake. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix whose viscosity changes with temperature and humidity. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. Comparison of measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake at different matrix compositions (and viscosities) indicate that bulk reactive uptake dominates, but there are other factors which still need further consideration in the model. References 1. Barrie, L.A., et al., Nature, 1988. 334: p. 138 - 141. 2. Hebestreit, K., et al., Science, 1999. 283: p. 55-57. 3. Simpson, W.R., et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2007. 7: p. 4375 - 4418. 4. Haag, R.W. and J. Hoigné, Environ Sci Technol, 1983. 17: p. 261-267. 5. Oum, K.W., et

  18. [Formation of disinfection by-products by Microcystis aeruginosa intracellular organic matter: comparison between chlorination and bromination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Guo, Ting-Ting; Liu, Rui-Ping; Jefferson, William; Liu, Hui-Juan; Qu, Jiu-Hui

    2013-11-01

    In order to illustrate the effects of released algal organic matter in cyanobacteria blooms on raw water quality and water treatment process, intracellular organic matter (IOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa, which is the dominant species in cyanobacteria blooms, was chosen as a precursor and characterized. In addition, the transformation of IOM and the formation of disinfection byproducts were evaluated at different pH of 6.5, 7.1 and 8.4 after chlorination or bromination, with subsequent correlation analysis. The results indicated that IOM was primarily composed of macromolecular matter, i. e. , the species with relative molecular weight of > 30 x 10(3), constituting 68.8% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix indicated that IOM was mainly composed of aromatic protein-like matter with an intensity of 92.6 AU x L x mg(-1). After reaction with chlorine or bromine, the intensity of aromatic protein-like peaks decreased sharply by 76.6% - 93.3%, and its reduction correlated well with the formation of trihalomethane (THMs, R2 = 0.81) and haloacetic acid (HAAs, R2 = 0.77). The formation of THMs and HAAs increased with the increase in pH. Compared with chlorine, bromine formed more THMs and HAAs, and tended to form highly halogenated HAAs. However, with increasing pH, the reactivity with IOM between chlorine and bromine was closer, i.e, k(OBr-IOM)/k(OCl-(IOM) < k(HOBr-IOM/k(HOCl-IOM).

  19. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Iona; Anderson, Wayne; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean; Evans, Rhodri; Fernandes, Alwyn; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael; Keane, Declan; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general relationship

  1. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  2. Photochemical reactions of brominated diphenylethers in organic solvents and adsorbed on silicon dioxide in aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, W.U.; Kopetzky, R.; Sossinka, W.; Ruck, W. [Univ. of Lueneburg, Environmental Chemistry, Lueneburg (Germany); Zetzsch, C. [Univ. of Bayreuth, Atmos. Chem. Research, Bayreuth, and Fraunhofer-Inst. of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs) are in use as flame retardants worldwide and are found as xenobiotics in environmental samples. Photolysis by sunlight, one of the potential abiotic degradation pathways, is found to be rapid in laboratory experiments, especially for deca-BDE, the most prominent BDE as compared to commercial penta- and octa-BDEs. Due to the extremely low water solubility of BDEs, these experiments were mostly performed in organic solvents so far, and a few in environmental matrices (sand and soil) and on dry and hydrated quartz glass. However, detailed UV absorption spectra of deca-BDE and debrominated BDEs in the relevant wavelength range above 300 nm have become available only recently, besides the UV maxima of a number of synthesized congeners at shorter wavelengths and an exploratory study from our laboratory. Other important parameters to assess the abiotic degradation in the environment, such as OH-rate constants and photolytic quantum yields of BDEs are not available. Furthermore, analysis of BDEs was mostly performed by GC-MS, and the capability of HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD) has not yet been exploited. This study presents kinetic results on the photolysis of BDEs in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with detailed photolytic pathways for a tetra-BDE (2,2'4,4'-BDE), a hexa-BDE (2,2'4,4',5,5'-BDE) and deca-BDE. Employing HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD) as analytical tool, quantum yields of BDEs with N{sub Br} = 1-10 are determined. Furthermore, the formation of brominated dibenzofurans (BDFs) was investigated. Since the environmental relevance of photolysis experiments in organic solvents is questionable, first results on photolysis of deca-BDE adsorbed on silicon dioxide particles, suspended in water, are presented.

  3. The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2013-02-01

    Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively.

  4. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  5. Heterogeneous reductive dehalogenation of PCB contaminated transformer oil and brominated diphenyl ethers with zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, A; Aristov, N

    2012-09-01

    Reductive dechlorination and debromination of halogenated biphenyls (PCBs) and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) occurs efficiently at moderately elevated temperatures (350-600 °C) with zero valent iron (iron powder) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The proton donors tested were waste transformer oil, iso-octane, and n-decane. Observation of production of biphenyl and diphenyl ether and their condensation products indicates that the reaction is not simple pyrolysis, but a reduction. No halogenated organic products are observed.

  6. Levels and profiles of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in Southern Hemisphere humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Secchi, Eduardo R; Dirtu, Alin C; Weijs, Liesbeth; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Bassoi, Manuela; Cunha, Haydée A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The study documents the levels and profiles of selected contaminants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)] in blubber biopsy samples collected from humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Peninsula waters. In addition, we investigated year-to-year and sex-related differences in the bioaccumulation patterns. Except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), whose concentrations were in the same range as those found in whales from the Northern Hemisphere, levels of all other compounds were lower in Southern Hemisphere whales compared to literature data on animals from the Arctic and subarctic region. The mean contribution to the sum of all anthropogenic organohalogen compounds (ΣOHC) decreased in the following order ΣPCBs (44%)>HCB (31%)>ΣDDXs (13%)>ΣCHLs (4.6%)>ΣHCHs (4.4%)>ΣPBDEs (0.9%). The predominant compounds within each chemical class were: PCBs 153, 149, 101 and 138; p,p'-DDE; γ-HCH; trans-nonachlor; PBDEs 99 and 47. The most dominant MeO-PBDE congener was 6-MeO-BDE 47. As samples were collected during three consecutive summer seasons, year-to-year trends could be assessed indicating a significant decrease from 2000 to 2003 for ΣCHL levels. Higher ΣPBDE concentrations and higher values of the ΣPBDE / ΣMeO-PBDE ratio, as well as higher ratios between the two MeO-BDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68/6-MeO-BDE 47) were found in females compared to males. Higher ΣMeO-PBDE concentrations and higher values of the ratios between the lower chlorinated and the higher chlorinated PCBs were found in males than in females. In addition, five out of six significant differences found through discriminant function analysis were gender-related. The literature reports both feeding in mid- to low-latitudes and sex-related differences in migration patterns for humpback whales from the Southern Hemisphere, indicating that the hypothesis of dietary differences between males and

  7. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-02-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of brominated halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic bromine, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  9. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissaamckinney@gmail.com [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University (Raven Road), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J. [Wildlife Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 5320 122 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 3S5 (Canada); Peacock, Elizabeth [Department of Environment, Government of Nunavut, Igloolik, Nunavut X0A 0L0 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J., E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University (Raven Road), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-({Sigma}-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, {Sigma} DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({alpha}-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); {beta}-HCH increased (+ 8.3%/year); and {Sigma} PCB and {Sigma} chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (> 1 ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+ 3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). {Sigma} chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, {Sigma} mirex, {Sigma} MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing {Sigma} PBDE levels (+ 13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-({alpha})-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or 'weathering' of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with

  10. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  11. Responses of marine unicellular algae to brominated organic compounds in six growth media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, G.E.; Yoder, M.J.; McLaughlin, L.L.; Lores, E.M.

    1987-12-01

    Marine unicellular algae, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Chlorella sp. were exposed to the industrial brominated compounds tetrabromobisphenol A, decabromobiphenyloxide (DBBO), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromomethylbenzene (PBMB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and the herbicide bromoxynil (BROM), in six algal growth media. High concentrations of DBBO (1 mg liter-1), PBMB (1 mg liter-1), and PBEB (0.5 mg liter-1) reduced growth by less than 50%. EC50s of the other compounds varied with growth medium, with high EC50/low EC50 ratios between 1.3 and 9.9. Lowest EC50s, 9.3 to 12.0 micrograms liter-1, were obtained with S. costatum and HBCD. It is concluded that responses to toxicants in different media are the results of interactions among algae, growth medium, toxicant, and solvent carrier.

  12. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  13. Fate of higher brominated PBDEs in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-01-15

    Dietary intake studies of lower brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher brominated BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower brominated BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of bromination/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher brominated BDEs.

  14. Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and dibenzofurans (PBDFs. Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

  15. Oxidative treatment of bromide-containing waters: formation of bromine and its reactions with inorganic and organic compounds--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Michèle B; Criquet, Justine; Zimmermann-Steffens, Saskia G; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Bromide (Br(-)) is present in all water sources at concentrations ranging from ≈ 10 to >1000 μg L(-1) in fresh waters and about 67 mg L(-1) in seawater. During oxidative water treatment bromide is oxidized to hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and other bromine species. A systematic and critical literature review has been conducted on the reactivity of HOBr/OBr(-) and other bromine species with inorganic and organic compounds, including micropollutants. The speciation of bromine in the absence and presence of chloride and chlorine has been calculated and it could be shown that HOBr/OBr(-) are the dominant species in fresh waters. In ocean waters, other bromine species such as Br2, BrCl, and Br2O gain importance and may have to be considered under certain conditions. HOBr reacts fast with many inorganic compounds such as ammonia, iodide, sulfite, nitrite, cyanide and thiocyanide with apparent second-order rate constants in the order of 10(4)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7. No rate constants for the reactions with Fe(II) and As(III) are available. Mn(II) oxidation by bromine is controlled by a Mn(III,IV) oxide-catalyzed process involving Br2O and BrCl. Bromine shows a very high reactivity toward phenolic groups (apparent second-order rate constants kapp ≈ 10(3)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), amines and sulfamides (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and S-containing compounds (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(7)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). For phenolic moieties, it is possible to derive second-order rate constants with a Hammett-σ-based QSAR approach with [Formula in text]. A negative slope is typical for electrophilic substitution reactions. In general, kapp of bromine reactions at pH 7 are up to three orders of magnitude greater than for chlorine. In the case of amines, these rate constants are even higher than for ozone. Model calculations show that depending on the bromide concentration and the pH, the high reactivity of bromine may outweigh the reactions of chlorine during

  16. Organic contaminants in bats: trends and new issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Sara; Geiser, Fritz; Kristiansen, Paul; Wilson, Susan C

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to contaminants, often pesticides, has been implicated as a major factor contributing to decreases in bat populations. Bats provide essential ecosystem services and a sustained, thriving population is vital for ecosystem health. Understanding issues threatening their survival is crucial for their protection and conservation. This paper provides the first review for 12years on organic pollutants in bats and aims to investigate trends and any new issues impacting bat resilience. Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been reported most often, especially in the older literature, with the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), present at highest concentrations in tissues analyzed. The OC pesticide concentrations reported in bat tissues have declined significantly since the late 1970s, presumably as a result of restrictions in use. For example, DDE study mean concentrations over time periods 1970-1980, 1981-1999 and 2000-2013 ranged from 2.6-62, 0.05-2.31, 0.08-0.19ppm wet weight, respectively. Exposure, however, still occurs from remaining residues, many years after the compounds have been actively used. In recent years (2000-2013), a range of other organic chemicals have been reported in bat tissues including brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ether at a mean concentration of 2.9ppm lipid weight) and perfluorinated compounds (perfluorooctanyl sulfonate at a mean concentration 0.09ppm wet weight). The persistent organic compounds concentrate in tissues with higher fat content notably back-depot fat. Numerous factors influence exposure, residues detected and concentrations in different individuals, species and tissues which must be understood to provide meaningful assessment of the impacts of exposure. Exposure can lead to not only acute and lethal impacts, but also physiological sub-lethal and chronic effects, often linked to the annual cycle of fat deposition and withdrawal. Current challenges

  17. Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site.

  18. Exposure assessment of Dutch nursing infants to brominated flame retardants via breast milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Baumann RA; Hoogerbrugge R; Zeilmaker MJ; SIR

    2004-01-01

    As part of a national survey on the occurrence of persistent organic contaminants in breast milk, a group of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs) was measured in breast milk which had been collected in 1998 from Dutch primiparous women on day 6 to 10 after labour. To

  19. Bromine Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  20. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, Laurence [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); D' Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Reynders, Hans; Van Campenhout, Karen [Environment and Health Unit, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Flemish Government - Koning Albert II-laan 20, Bus 8, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cornelis, Christa; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Koppen, Gudrun [Unit Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.b [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  1. Batch leaching tests of motherboards to assess environmental contamination by bromine, platinum group elements and other selected heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, César; Grosselli, Melina; González, Patricia; Martínez, Dante; Gil, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a batch leaching test was executed to evaluate the toxicity associated with chemicals contained in motherboards. The leaching solutions used were distilled water, nitric acid, acetic acid and synthetic acid rain solution. A total of 21 elements including Ag, As, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Ir, Mn, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Rh, Se, U and Zn were analyzed. In this study, the pH values of all the leachates fell within the range of 2.33-4.88. The highest concentrations of metals were obtained from the acid rain solution, whilst the maximum value of bromine was achieved with solution of acetic acid. Appreciable concentrations of platinum group elements were detected with concentrations around 3.45, 1.43, 1.21 and 22.19 µg L(-1) for Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh, respectively. The different leaching of the motherboards revealed the predominant presence of the toxic substances in the leached from the e-waste.

  2. Brominated flame retardants and related chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in fish from river Elbe and its main tributary Vltava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajslová, Jana; Pulkrabová, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Cajka, Tomás; Randák, Tomás

    2007-10-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used industrial chemicals, residues of which can be nowadays found in all environmental compartments. The widespread presence of BFRs in various environmental compartments and food chain is a consequence of both their broad application area and physico-chemical properties, such as resistance to degradation and high lipophilicity. Alike in the case of other halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), fish can be used as a bioindicator of aquatic environment pollution. In presented study, conducted in the year 2005, altogether 80 samples representing the most abundant fresh water fish species, viz. chub (Leuciscus cephalus), bream (Abramis brama), and perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected in 11 sampling sites located at Elbe and Vltava (Moldau) rivers were examined for levels of major BFRs. Without any exception, BFRs were detected in all fish samples. BDE 47 was the dominating congener in all fish species. This fact was not surprising, since it used to be the main component in various kinds of technical mixtures. With regard to relatively high levels of BDE 47 in fish tissue, as compared to other BFRs, and considering strong correlation with the total PBDEs content, simplified laboratory examination and, consequently, increased samples throughput can be obtained when only this congener is monitored. The potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS), to provide more comprehensive information on the bioaccumulating chemicals occurring in fish samples, has been demonstrated in this study.

  3. Impact of Organic Contamination on Some Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasser, El-Nahhal; Shawkat, El-Najjar; Samir, Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtures were tested against fish and Daphnia magna. Percentage of death and immobilization were taken as indicators of toxicity. Results: Toxicity results to fish and D. magna showed that chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 0.08, and 0.001 µmol/L respectively), followed by carbaryl (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 43.19 and 0.031 µmol/L), while diuron was the least toxic one (LC50 values for fish and D. magna are 43.48 and 32.11 µmol/L respectively). Mixture toxicity (binary and tertiary mixtures) showed antagonistic effects. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among mixture toxicities to fish and D. magma. Conclusion: Fish and D. magam were sensitive to low concentrations. These data suggest potent threats to aquatic organisms from organic contamination. PMID:26862260

  4. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  5. Zinc-bromine battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  6. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  7. Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants by geosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Richard G.; Aiken, George R.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Cunningham, Scott D.; Gschwend, Philip M.; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Reinhard, Martin; Traina, Samuel J.; Weber, Walter J.; Westall, John C.

    1997-01-01

    The chemical interactions of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with soils and sediments (geosorbents) may result in strong binding and slow subsequent release rates that significantly affect remediation rates and endpoints. The underlying physical and chemical phenomena potentially responsible for this apparent sequestration of HOCs by geosorbents are not well understood. This challenges our concepts for assessing exposure and toxicity and for setting environmental quality criteria. Currently there are no direct observational data revealing the molecular-scale locations in which nonpolar organic compounds accumulate when associated with natural soils or sediments. Hence macroscopic observations are used to make inferences about sorption mechanisms and the chemical factors affecting the sequestration of HOCs by geosorbents. Recent observations suggest that HOC interactions with geosorbents comprise different inorganic and organic surfaces and matrices, and distinctions may be drawn along these lines, particularly with regard to the roles of inorganic micropores, natural sorbent organic matter components, combustion residue particulate carbon, and spilled organic liquids. Certain manipulations of sorbates or sorbent media may help reveal sorption mechanisms, but mixed sorption phenomena complicate the interpretation of macroscopic data regarding diffusion of HOCs into and out of different matrices and the hysteretic sorption and aging effects commonly observed for geosorbents. Analytical characterizations at the microscale, and mechanistic models derived therefrom, are needed to advance scientific knowledge of HOC sequestration, release, and environmental risk.

  8. Organic contaminants in soil, desorption kinetics and microbial degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of organic contaminants in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g.) soil washing or soil venting) depends on the desorption kinetics of these contaminants from the soil matrix. When the organic contaminants desorb very slow from the soil matri

  9. Sorption isotherms of brominated diphenyl ethers on natural soils with different organic carbon fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenxin, E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li Weibo [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chen Jianglin [North China Sea Standard and Metrology Center of State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Qingdao 266033 (China); Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Sorption isotherms of BDE-28 and BDE-47 on natural soils with different contents of soil organic matter (SOM) were investigated. Due to low water solubility of BDEs and resulted narrow ranges of aqueous equilibrium concentration, the linear distribution model showed similar and good fitting efficiency to the linear portion of nonlinear Freundlich curve. For the same sample, the linear and nonlinear model fitting sorption coefficients were close. At the statistically significant level of 0.05 or 0.1, significant relationships of total organic carbon fraction (fOC) with the fitting sorption coefficients can be observed. As for BDE-28, the relationships of fOC and SOM fractions with the single point partition coefficients at different aqueous concentrations of BDEs were significant; while for BDE-47, the relationships became less significant or insignificant, especially at higher aqueous concentrations. The findings in this study may facilitate more understanding on transport and fate of studied BDEs in soil systems. - Both linear distribution and nonlinear Freundlich model could well describe the sorption isotherms of PBDEs on natural soils.

  10. Characteristics of natural organic matter affect sorption of organic contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several soil samples were used to study how the characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM) affect sorption of organic compounds. These soils contains different amounts and types of NOM. Aromaticity of NOM (percentage of aromatic carbons) was determined from solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectra and the soil effective polarity was computed from the equation developed by Xing et al. Naphthalene was used to examine the sorption characteristics of NOM. Both aromaticity and polarity of NOM strongly affected sorption of naphthalene. Old NOM showed higher affinity than that in the surface, young soils. Sorption increased with increasing aromaticity and decreasing polarity. Thus, the sorption coefficients of organic contaminants cannot be accurately predicted without some consideration of NOM characteristics.

  11. Root uptake of organic contaminants into plants: Species differences

    OpenAIRE

    Orita, Naho

    2012-01-01

    Trace amounts of xenobiotic organic contaminants have been frequently identified in the environment, including surface water and wastewater streams, and some are even in drinking water. The concern of unintended ingestion by humans or wildlife of such compounds resulting from the uptake by plants has risen in recent years. Although the uptake of a variety of xenobiotic organic contaminants by plants has been reported and the contaminants are found in the fruits in some cases, the differences ...

  12. Aqueous adsorption and removal of organic contaminants by carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Zhao, Xiu-Hui; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Qiaoqin; Yu, Lin-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Organic contaminants have become one of the most serious environmental problems, and the removal of organic contaminants (e.g., dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals/drugs) and common industrial organic wastes (e.g., phenols and aromatic amines) from aqueous solutions is of special concern because they are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gradually applied to the removal of organic contaminants from wastewater through adsorption processes. This paper reviews recent progress (145 studies published from 2010 to 2013) in the application of CNTs and their composites for the removal of toxic organic pollutants from contaminated water. The paper discusses removal efficiencies and adsorption mechanisms as well as thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. CNTs are predicted to have considerable prospects for wider application to wastewater treatment in the future.

  13. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  14. Organic contaminants in urban soils: major inputs and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Cachada, Anabela Ferreira de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Urban soil quality may be severely affected by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), impairing environmental quality and human health. A comprehensive study was conducted in two contrasting Portuguese urban areas (Lisbon and Viseu) in order to assess the levels and potential risks of these contaminants, to identify sources and study their behaviour in soils. The concentrations of HOCs were related to the size of the city, with much higher contamination levels observed in ...

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis of Organic Contaminant Adsorption by Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macroscopic studies of nonionic organic contaminant (NOC) sorption by clays have revealed many important clues regarding factors that influence sorption affinity, and enabled the development of structural hypotheses for operative adsorption mechanisms. Integrating this understanding with knowledge g...

  16. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    revealed complex pattern of anthropogenic contaminants comprising a lot of still unnoticed pollutants (e.g. specific sulfones, trifluoromethyl substituted substances, nitrogen heterocycles etc.) or still unidentified compounds (such as selected brominated aromatics) of obviously high environmental relevance. In this presentation, a selection of several different contaminants will be discussed in detail comprising their emission sources, their emission behaviour, their fate within the river water bodies and in particular their structural properties. Generally. this investigation demonstrated the need to expand our analytical focus on a broader spectrum of organic contaminants, in particular to build up an adapted base for advanced monitoring studies.

  17. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  18. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  19. Dissolved Organic Matter and Emerging Contaminants in Urban Stream Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.; Delaney, K.; Sides, A.; Walbridge, M.; Mayer, P.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of urbanization on the sources, bioavailability and forms of natural and anthropogenic organic matter found in streams located in Maryland, U.S.A. We found that the abundance, biaoavailability, and enzymatic breakdown of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) increased in streams with increasing watershed urbanization suggesting that organic nutrients may represent a growing form of nutrient loading to coastal waters associated with land use change. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in urban streams were elevated several-fold compared to forest and agricultural streams. Enzymatic activities of stream microbes in organic matter decomposition were also significantly altered across watershed land use. Chemical characterization suggested that organic matter in urban streams originated from a variety of sources including terrestrial, sewage, and in-stream transformation. In addition, a characterization of emerging organic contaminants (polyaromatic cyclic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardents), showed that organic contaminants and dissolved organic matter increase with watershed urbanization and fluctuate substantially with changing climatic conditions. Elucidating the emerging influence of urbanization on sources, transport, and in-stream transformation of organic nutrients and contaminants will be critical in unraveling the changing role of organic matter in urban degraded and restored stream ecosystems.

  20. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  1. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Colby Coll., Waterville, ME (United States); Neff, J. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.

  2. Chlorinated, brominated, and fluorinated organic pollutants in Nile crocodile eggs from the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Booyens, Paul; Govender, Danny; Pienaar, Danie; Polder, Anuschka

    2014-06-01

    Repeated annual episodes of Nile crocodile deaths in two isolated areas of the Kruger National Park prompted the investigation of possible organohalogen pollutant involvement. Crocodile eggs were collected close to one of the mortality sites (Gorge) as well as from a crocodile farm (CF) as reference. ∑DDT was significantly higher in Gorge (450ng/g wm) than in CF eggs (85ng/g wet mass). Percentage DDT of ∑DDT was significantly higher in CF (14 per cent) than in Gorge eggs (5 per cent). Mean ∑DDT was almost 70 times higher than mean ∑PCB in Gorge eggs. HCB, β-HCH, mirex, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) occurred at lower concentrations. We believe that the BFR and PFCs data represent the first published results for any crocodile egg. Thickening of the outer eggshell layer of Gorge eggs was significantly associated with higher concentrations of ∑DDT. Concentrations of ∑DDT and other pollutants were in the same range as eggs from elsewhere, where there were no mortalities. Concentrations of ∑DDT in eggs from healthy Australian crocodiles were of the same orders of magnitude as the current study, making it highly unlikely that the concentrations of pollutants measured in the present study would have caused or substantially contributed towards the mortalities observed. Concerns about reproduction and behaviour remain. As large predators, crocodilians are at the apex of the freshwater aquatic food web. More research is needed to guide measures to manage African freshwater systems so that it will also sustainably accommodate these large, long-lived animals.

  3. Reducing Organic Contamination in NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and comets will require handling and storing astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. Much was learned from the rigorous attempts to minimize and monitor organic contamination during Apollo, but it was not adequate for current analytical requirements; thus [1]. OSIRIS-REx, Hayabusa-2, and future Mars sample return will require better protocols for reducing organic contamination. Future isolation con-tainment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study established the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs [2, 3]. After standard ultra-pure water (UPW) cleaning, the majority of organic contaminates found were hydrocarbons, plasticizers, silicones, and solvents. Hydro-carbons loads (> C7) ranged from 1.9 to 11.8 ng/cm2 for TD-GC-MS wafer exposure analyses and 5.0 to 19.5 ng/L for TD-GC-MS adsorbent tube exposure. Plasticizers included nano grade solution), and heat sterilization at 130degC for 48 hours to reduce organic contamination. In addition, both heat sterilization and peracetic acid sterilization were used in the atmospheric de-contamination (R) cabinets. Later, Lunar curation gloveboxes were degreased with a pressurized Freon 113 wash. Today, UPW has replaced Freon as the standard cleaning procedure, but does not have the degreasing solvency power of Freon. Future Cleaning Studies: Cleaning experiments are cur-rently being orchestrated to study how to degrease and reduce organics in a JSC curation glovebox lower than the established baseline. Several new chemicals in the industry have replaced traditional degreasing solvents such as Freon and others that are now federally

  4. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming. The ob...

  5. Low-cost in-soil organic contaminant sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossia, Charles E.; Wu, Samuel C.

    1991-03-01

    The First Omega Group Inc. has developed a low cost optical fiber sensing technique for detecting the presence of oils gasoline organic solvents and other oily contaminants in soils. The sensing means consists of a continuous optical fiber having a portion of its surface specially processed to render it sensitive to the presence of soil contandnants. The processed area of the fiber is positioned within the environment that is at risk of contaniination. Contact by a contaminant with the processed area of the optical fiber changes the attenuation of infrared light through the processed area in a characteristic way and in real time. The change in light attenuation is detected using a conven tional photo detector to provide indication of contamination within the soil.

  6. Phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Soil pollution has been attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Sorts of traditional physiochemical methods have been used to remove the organic pollutants from soils. However, the enormous costs and low efficiencies associated with these remediation technologies limit their availabilities. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to cleanup pollutants in soils. As overwhelmingly positive results have been shown, phytoremediation is a most economical and effective remediation technique for organic contaminated soils. In this paper phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils is overviewed. The mechanisms of phytoremediation mainly include the direct plant uptake of organic pollutants, degradation by plant-derived degradative enzymes, and stimulated biodegradation in plant rhizosphere. Phytoremediation efficiency is tightly related to physicochemical properties of organic pollutants, environmental characteristics, and plant types. It is no doubt that soil amendments such as surfactants change the solubilities and availabilities of organic pollutants in soils. However, little information is available about effects of soil amendments on phytoremediation efficiencies. Phytoremediation models have been developed to simulate and predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants, and progress of models is illustrated. In many ways phytoremediation is still in its initial stage, and recommendations for the future research on phytoremediation are presented.

  7. Sample Analysis at Mars Organic Contaminants Library (SAM-OCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Raul; Misra, Prabhakar; Canham, John; Mahaffy, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Organic Contaminants Library (SAM-OCL) was developed as one of several components for the Mars rover mission's Contamination Control Protocol. The purpose of SAM-OCL is to determine the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) signals of different materials composing the Mars Science Laboratory rover. In turn, this allows us to determine which GCMS signals originate from terrestrial contamination or rover material outgassing. The GCMS spectral library has several supplemental components, of which its descriptor spreadsheets are the most important, aimed to make SAM-OCL easily and readily accessible to users in and out of the Mars rover mission. One spreadsheet describes the contaminants that can be found in each file, while the other describes the information regarding each file. The library, along with its supplemental materials, is useful from an organizational and practical sense. Through them we are able to organize large volumes of GCMS data while breaking down the components that each material sample is made off. This allows us easy and fast access to information that will be critical when doing analysis in the data that the SAM instrumentation will obtain.

  8. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  9. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes.

  10. Formation of THMs and HANs during bromination of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunzhu Pu; Lingzhao Kong; Xin Huang; Guoji Ding; Naiyun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Bromine-contained disinfectants and biocides are widely used in swimming pools,recreational waters and cooling towers.The objective of this study was to evaluate the formation of thrihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) and their cytotoxicity in algae solutions during free bromine disinfection.Disinfection by-products formation potential experiments were conducted using modelsolutions containing 7mg/L (as total organic carbon) Microcystis aeruginosa cells.Effects of free bromine dosage,pH and ammonia were investigated.The results showed that brominated disinfection by-products were the major products when free bromine was applied.The total THMs formed during bromination was much as that formed during chlorination,whereas HANs were elevated by using bromination instead of chlorination.Dibromoacetonitrice (C2H2NBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3) were the only detected species during free bromine disinfection.The production of C2H2NBr2 and CHBr3 increased with disinfectant dosage but decreased with dosing ammonia.CHBr3 increased with the pH changing from 5 to 9.However,C2H2NBr2 achieved the highest production at neutral pH,which was due to a joint effect of variation in hydrolysis rate and free bromine reactivity.The hydrolysis of C2H2NBr2 was basecatalytic and nearly unaffected by disinfectant.Finally,estimation of cytotoxicity of the disinfected algae solutions showed that HANs formation was responsible for the majority of toxicity.Considering its highest toxicity among the measured disinfection by-products,the elevated C2H2NBr2 should be considered when using bromine-related algaecide.

  11. Surfactant-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Potential and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-Zheng; LING Wan-Ting; ZHU Li-Zhong; ZHAO Bao-Wei; ZHENG Qing-Song

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is becoming a cost-effective technology for the in-situ clean up of sites polluted with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The major factors limiting phytoremediation are the mass transfer, rate of plant uptake, and microbial biodegradation of HOCs. This article discusses the potential of surfactants to enhance desorption, plant uptake, and biodegradation of HOCs in the contaminated sites. Positive effects of surfactants on phytoremediation have been recently observed in greenhouse studies. The presence of some nonionic surfactants including polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and polyoxyethylene(23)dodecanol (Brij35) at relatively low concentrations resulted in significant positive effects on phytoremediation for pyrene-contaminated soil. However, the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTMAB) were not useful because of their phytotoxicity or low efficiency for surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR). The mechanisms of SEPR for HOC-contaminated sites were evaluated by considering experimental observations. In view of concerns about the cost effectiveness and toxicity of surfactants to plants, more research is needed to enhance the use of SEPR technology.

  12. Biodegradation of organic contaminants from the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Prócel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental aspects of high impact in dairy industries is the discharge of wastewaters, because of contaminating organic matter as well as the substantial generation of effluents. In the present study, a biofiltration of effluents from a dairy industry in San Miguel de Nono (Ecuador with a pollution load of 10.000 mg/L in terms of chemical oxygen demand and turbidity of 799 NTU was implemented. The system with a capacity of 55 L per batch consisted of three biofilters in series and activated zeolite assisted clarification. Organic degradation reached 98,9%; turbidity removal was 95,2%, 94,4% of nitrogen and 89,1% of phosphorus. The presence of milk fat did not decrease the efficiency of the biofiltration but increased the removal of suspended matter and pH neutralisation in the clarification. The optimal operating time was 6 hours under aerobic conditions.

  13. Sediments Contamination with Organic Micropollutants: Current State and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenda, Agnieszka; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the sediment contamination with some organic micropollutants based on the monitoring data together with available literature in Poland. The following persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides (CP) were characterized in sediments with respect to current legislations in force. Based on accessible data, higher PAHs, PCBs and CP concentrations were found in river sediments than in lake sediments. Especially, sediments of the Oder River and its tributary in the southern part of Poland, were highly polluted. In order to minimize the risk of the secondary pollution of surface waters, it is necessary to introduce consolidated management system with sediments proceeding. Furthermore, it is also of great importance to elaborate specific regulations concerning conditions of sediments management.

  14. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  15. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates.

  16. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  17. Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-08-15

    Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management.

  18. Cadmium Release in Contaminated Soils due to Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; XIE Xiao-Mei

    2004-01-01

    There is limited information on the release behavior of heavy metals from natural soils by organic acids. Thus,cadmium release,due to two organic acids (tartrate and citrate) that are common in the rhizosphere,from soils polluted by metal smelters or tailings and soils artificially contaminated by adding Cd were analyzed. The presence of tartrate or citrate at a low concentration (≤6mmol L-1 for tartrate and ≤0.5 mmol L-1 for citrate) inhibited Cd release,whereas the presence of organic acids in high concentrations (≥2 mmol L-1 for citrate and ≥15 mmol L-1 for tartrate)apparently promoted Cd release. Under the same conditions,the Cd release in naturally polluted soils was less than that of artificially contaminated soils. Additionally,as the initial pH rose from 2 to 8 in the presence of citrate,a sequential valley and then peak appeared in the Cd release curve,while in the presence of tartrate the Cd release steadily decreased.In addition,Cd release was clearly enhanced as the electrolyte concentration of KNO3 or KC1 increased in the presence of 2 mmol L-1 tartrate. Moreover,a higher desorption of Cd was shown with the KC1 electrolyte compared to KNO3 for the same concentration levels. This implied that the bioavailability of heavy metals could be promoted with the addition of suitable types and concentrations of organic acids as well as reasonable field conditions.

  19. Sorption of Emerging Organic Wastewater Contaminants to Four Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional onsite wastewater treatment system design relies on a septic tank and soil treatment unit (STU for treatment of wastewater and integration of the final effluent into the environment. Organic water contaminants (OWCs, chemicals found in pharmaceutical drugs, detergents, surfactants, and other personal care and cleaning products, have been observed in septic tank effluent and the environment. Sorption of OWC mass to soil is a key mechanism in the removal and retardation of many of these chemicals in effluent as it travels through an STU. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fraction of organic carbon of soil and the equilibrium sorption partitioning coefficient of a selected group of relevant and diverse OWCs. A secondary goal is to evaluate current methods of modeling the sorption of selected OWCs in soil. Five point Freundlich isotherms were constructed from equilibrium sorption batch tests for target OWCs with four different soils. For soils with organic carbon fraction between 0.021 and 0.054, Kd values were calculated between 60 and 185 for 4-nonylphenol, 75 to 260 for triclosan, 115 to 270 for bisphenol-A, 3 to 255 for 17β-estradiol, 40 to 55 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, and 28 to 70 for estrone. An empirically derived, direct relationship between foc and Kd may be a useful approach to estimating sorption for a soil based on organic carbon content.

  20. Heavy metals and organic compounds contamination in soil from an e-waste region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Huang, Bo; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples collected from farmland and 7 soil or dust samples collected from the workshops in South China, where e-waste was dismantled using primitive techniques. The results show that Cd, Cu and Hg were the most abundant metals, in particular Cd pollution was serious in farmland soils, and the median concentrations in farmland soils were beyond the environmental quality standard for soils (China Grade II). A correlation between Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and PCBs or PBDEs was significant indicating similar sources. Among the PCB congeners, high relative similarity was observed between the e-waste dump site soil (EW1) and Aroclor 1254, implying that the technical product Aroclor 1254 was one of the major sources of PCB contamination. High concentrations of PCBs in workshop dusts (D2 and D3) (1958 and 1675 μg kg(-1)) demonstrated that the workshops dismantling electrical wires and cables, electrical motors, compressors and aluminum apparatus containing PCBs in lubricants represent strong PCB emission sources to this area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and PBDE homologue patterns verify that farmland soils surrounding the e-waste recycling sites were enriched with lower brominated congeners, and the major source of PBDEs in dust samples might potentially be associated with the extensive use of deca-mix technical products as a flame retardant. The difference between e-waste soils, dusts and farmland soils can be observed in the PCA score plot of PCBs and PBDEs, and E-waste soils and dusts exhibited more diversity than farmland soils. Furthermore, a prediction of the particular kinds of pollution from different recycling activities through the analysis of each contamination and the connections between them was investigated.

  1. Degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants by solar photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, L; Bousselmi, L; Ghrabi, A

    2007-01-01

    Biological pre-treated landfill leachates of Djebel Chakir contains some macromolecular organic substances that are resistant to biological degradation. The aim of the present work is to assess the feasibility of removing refractory organic pollutants in biological pre-treated landfill leachate by solar photocatalyse process. Leachate pollutant contents are studied to assess their contribution to leachate pollution and their treatability by solar photocatalyse process. Phenol is chosen as model of pollutants, to evaluate its removal and the efficiency of the photocatalytic system. The experiments were carried out in suspended photocatalytic reactor, using TiO2 Degussa P25, under sunlight illumination (UV-A: 15-31 W/cm2). Under optimum operational conditions, applied to single reactant (phenol), the system presents a TOC removal of 90% (the degradation follows a first-order kinetic). Based on the TOC removal, the results shows that the degradation of biological pre-treated leachate follows a zero-order kinetic. After 5 h of sunlight exposure, 74% of COT is removed. The TOC removal is the best without any correction of the pH and at the TiO2 concentration of 2.5 g/L. The photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants as well as the formation and disappearance of the by-products were followed by GC/MS. The solar photocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix leading to more biodegradable forms: all the remaining and new compounds generated after the biological pre-treatment of leachate are degraded and other types of organics appear, mainly carboxylic acid, aliphatic hydrocarbons and phtalic acids.

  2. 9 CFR 310.18 - Contamination of carcasses, organs, or other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination of carcasses, organs, or... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.18 Contamination of carcasses... prevent contamination with fecal material, urine, bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter; however,...

  3. Characterisation of organic contaminants in the CLOUD chamber at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnitzhofer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The CLOUD experiment (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets investigates the nucleation of new particles and how this process is influenced by galactic cosmic rays in an electro-polished, stainless-steel environmental chamber at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research. Since volatile organic compounds (VOCs can act as precursor gases for nucleation and growth of particles, great efforts have been made to keep their unwanted background levels as low as possible and to quantify them. In order to be able to measure a great set of VOCs simultaneously in the low parts per trillion (pptv range, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS was used. Initially the total VOC background concentration strongly correlated with ozone in the chamber and ranged from 0.1 to 7 parts per billion (ppbv. Plastic used as sealing material in the ozone generator was found to be a major VOC source. Especially oxygen-containing VOCs were generated together with ozone. These parts were replaced by stainless steel from CLOUD4 (June 2011 on, which strongly reduced the total VOC background. An additional ozone induced VOC source is surface assisted reactions at the electropolished stainless steel walls. The change in relative humidity (RH from very dry to humid conditions increases background VOCs released from the chamber walls. This effect is especially pronounced when the RH is increased for the first time in a campaign. Also the dead volume of inlet tubes for trace gases that were not continuously flushed were found to be a short but strong VOC contamination source. For the later CLOUD campaigns lower ozone levels (below 100 ppbv were used. During these conditions the total VOC contamination was usually below 1 ppbv and therewith considerably cleaner than a comparable Teflon chamber. On average more than 80% of the total VOCs are coming from only 5 exact masses (tentatively assigned as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid, which

  4. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  5. Brominated diphenyl ethers in the sediments, porewater, and biota of the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Klosterhaus, S.; Liebert, D.; Stapleton, H. [Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Levels of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) are rapidly increasing in the environment, and in a short time these chemicals have evolved from 'emerging contaminants' to globally-distributed organic pollutants. Recent research demonstrates BDEs are sufficiently stable to be transported long distances in the environment and to accumulate in higher trophic levels. Photolysis and metabolism appear to be dominant loss processes for the parent compounds, generating a variety of lower brominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated metabolites, and other products. BDEs are hydrophobic, and therefore their transport in aquatic systems is likely controlled by sorption to sediments and perhaps exchange across the air-water interface. To date, few studies have examined the geochemistry of BDEs in natural waters. In this paper, we review our recent measurements of BDEs in the Chesapeake Bay, a shallow, productive estuary in eastern North America. We focus on the distribution of BDE congeners sediment, porewater, and in faunal benthos along a contamination gradient downstream from a wastewater treatment plant and on the spatial distribution of BDEs in bottom-feeding and pelagic fish species.

  6. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  7. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments.

  8. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  9. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    the highest potential for accumulation from soil, and concentrations in leaves may be several hundred times higher than in soil. However, for most contaminants the accumulation in vegetables or fruits is much lower. Lipophilic (log KOW > 3) contaminants are mainly transported to leaves by attached soil...

  10. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and full-scale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used.

  11. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  12. Experimental increase in availability of a PAH complex organic contamination from an aged contaminated soil: consequences on biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-06-01

    Although high PAH content and detection of PAH-degraders, the PAH biodegradation is limited in aged-contaminated soils due to low PAH availability (i.e., 1%). Here, we tried to experimentally increase the soil PAH availability by keeping both soil properties and contamination composition. Organic extract was first removed and then re-incorporated in the raw soil as fresh contaminants. Though drastic, this procedure only allowed a 6-time increase in the PAH availability suggesting that the organic constituents more than ageing were responsible for low availability. In the re-contaminated soil, the mineralization rate was twice more important, the proportion of 5-6 cycles PAH was higher indicating a preferential degradation of lower molecular weight PAH. The extraction treatment induced bacterial and fungal community structures modifications, Pseudomonas and Fusarium solani species were favoured, and the relative quantity of fungi increased. In re-contaminated soil the percentage of PAH-dioxygenase gene increased, with 10 times more Gram negative representatives.

  13. Poly-brominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other persistent organic pollutants in blood of penguins from the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S.; Ademollo, N.; Mariottini, M.; Focardi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloro ethane (pp'-DDE) including its isomers and metabolites are known as POPs very well. POPs are particularly hazardous to wildlife not only because they are toxic but because they are persistent and distributed on global scale. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of POPs used worldwide as flame retardants with an increasing trend in the market demand (67.4 ktons in 2001), but with some restrictions in their usage in Europe. PBDEs are hydrophobic, highly soluble in lipids, resistant to biodegradation and have similar behavior to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Their bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties, as well their global increasing presence, have already been reported by many authors. PBDEs have been detected in remote Arctic regions10 that seem to be their final sink. PBDEs show acute toxicity and a prolonged exposure can affect the function of thyroid and cause neurodevelopmental disorders and estrogenic and hepatic effects. Furthermore, a synergic effect with dioxin-like compounds or other POPs cannot be excluded. The two aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate accumulation levels and patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and chlorinated pesticides in blood samples of the Adelie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, the Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri and the South Polar skua, Cataracta maccormicki from three sites in the Ross Sea (Antarctica); (2) to assess the suitability of blood for the detection of POP residues in supposedly low contaminated organisms that live in protected/ecologically sensitive areas.

  14. The geochemistry of stable chlorine and bromine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggenkamp, Hans [Onderzock and Beleving, Bussum (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    First book solely dedicated to the geochemistry of chlorine and bromine isotopes. Detailed description of analytical techniques, including their advantages and disadvantages. Indication of research fields where measurement of these isotopes is especially useful. This book provides detailed information on the history, analysis and applications of chlorine and bromine isotope geochemistry. Chlorine and bromine are geochemically unique as they prefer to exist as single charged negative ions. For this reason isotope fractionation reflects mostly processes that are not related to changes in the redox state and this fractionation is generally modest. The book will describe the processes that are most easily detected using these isotopes. Also isotope variations, and processes that cause them, measured in oxidised species such as perchlorates and in organic molecules will be described in this book.

  15. Microbial interactions with organic contaminants in soil: definitions, processes and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Kirk T; Doick, Kieron J; Wick, Lukas Y; Harms, Hauke

    2007-11-01

    There has been and continues to be considerable scientific interest in predicting bioremediation rates and endpoints. This requires the development of chemical techniques capable of reliably predicting the bioavailability of organic compounds to catabolically active soil microbes. A major issue in understanding the link between chemical extraction and bioavailability is the problem of definition; there are numerous definitions, of varying degrees of complexity and relevance, to the interaction between organic contaminants and microorganisms in soil. The aim of this review is to consider the bioavailability as a descriptor for the rate and extent of biodegradation and, in an applied sense, bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil. To address this, the review will (i) consider and clarify the numerous definitions of bioavailability and discuss the usefulness of the term 'bioaccessibility'; (ii) relate definition to the microbiological and chemical measurement of organic contaminants' bioavailability in soil, and (iii) explore the mechanisms employed by soil microorganisms to attack organic contaminants in soil.

  16. Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants - partitioning, bioaccumulation and effects on sediment-dwelling organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylland, Ketil; Schaanning, Morten; Skei, Jens; Berge, John Arthur; Eriksen, Dag Oe.; Skoeld, Mattias; Gunnarsson, Jonas

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an experiment on the interactions between eutrophication and contaminants in marine sediments. The experiment was performed in 24 continuously flushed glass aquaria within which three sediment-dwelling species were kept in a marine sediment. A filter-feeder, blue mussel, was kept in downstream aquaria. The experiment combined three environmental factors: oxygen availability, the presence or absence of contaminants, the addition of organic matter. The objectives were: (1) to quantify differences in the partitioning of contaminants between sediment, pore water and biota as a result of the treatment, (2) to quantify effects of treatments and interactions between treatments on sediment-dwelling organisms, (3) to identify differences, if any, in the release of contaminants from the sediment as the result of treatments. All three contaminants bio accumulated to higher levels in sediments with increased levels of organic material. Feeding directly or indirectly appeared to be the major route for bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene and mercury. Cadmium was also controlled by the concentration in pore water. Sediment in enriched aquaria released more contaminants than sediment with low organic content. Organic enrichment strongly affected growth in the three sediment-dwelling organisms. Growth was less affected by decreased oxygen availability. The presence of contaminants had little effect on the three sediment-dwelling species at the concentrations used in the experiment. 103 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Bioavailability and mobility of organic contaminants in soil: new three-step ecotoxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Zbyněk; Nečasová, Anežka; Klánová, Jana; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach was developed for rapid assessment of bioavailability and potential mobility of contaminants in soil. The response of the same test organism to the organic extract, water extract and solid phase of soil was recorded and compared. This approach was designed to give an initial estimate of the total organic toxicity (response to organic extractable fraction), as well as the mobile (response to water extract) and bioavailable fraction (response to solid phase) of soil samples. Eighteen soil samples with different levels of pollution and content of organic carbon were selected to validate the novel three-step ecotoxicological evaluation approach. All samples were chemically analysed for priority contaminants, including aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The ecotoxicological evaluation involved determination of toxicity of the organic, mobile and bioavailable fractions of soil to the test organism, bacterium Bacillus cereus. We found a good correlation between the chemical analysis and the toxicity of organic extract. The low toxicity of water extracts indicated low water solubility, and thus, low potential mobility of toxic contaminants present in the soil samples. The toxicity of the bioavailable fraction was significantly greater than the toxicity of water-soluble (mobile) fraction of the contaminants as deduced from comparing untreated samples and water extracts. The bioavailability of the contaminants decreased with increasing concentrations of organic carbon in evaluated soil samples. In conclusion, the three-step ecotoxicological evaluation utilised in this study can give a quick insight into soil contamination in context with bioavailability and mobility of the contaminants present. This information can be useful for hazard identification and risk assessment of soil-associated contaminants. Graphical Abstract New three-step ecotoxicological

  18. Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence

  19. Organic Contamination Baseline Study: In NASA JSC Astromaterials Curation Laboratories. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for OSIRIS-REx and other future sample return missions concerned with analyzing organics, we conducted an Organic Contamination Baseline Study for JSC Curation Labsoratories in FY12. For FY12 testing, organic baseline study focused only on molecular organic contamination in JSC curation gloveboxes: presumably future collections (i.e. Lunar, Mars, asteroid missions) would use isolation containment systems over only cleanrooms for primary sample storage. This decision was made due to limit historical data on curation gloveboxes, limited IR&D funds and Genesis routinely monitors organics in their ISO class 4 cleanrooms.

  20. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analy...

  1. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA...

  2. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations and ecological risk assessment in the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and lo...

  4. Analysis of organic contaminants from silicon wafer and disk surfaces by thermal desorption-GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Mark J.; Ahmed, Latif; Kumar, Anurag

    1999-03-01

    Organic contaminants can affect semiconductor wafer processing including gate oxide integrity, polysilicon growth, deep ultraviolet photoresist line-width, and cleaning & etching steps. Organophosphates are known to counter dope silicon wafers. Organic contaminants in disk drives can cause failures due to stiction or buildup on the heads. Therefore, it is important to identify organic contaminants adsorbed on wafer or disk surfaces and find their sources so they can be either completely eliminated or at least controlled. Dynamic headspace TD-GC-MS (Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) methods are very sensitive and can be used to identify organic contaminants on disks and wafers, in air, or outgassing from running drives or their individual components.

  5. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine;

    2016-01-01

    Mixtures of organic contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment. Depending on their persistence and physicochemical properties, individual chemicals that make up the mixture partition and distribute within the environment and might then jointly elicit toxicological effects. For the assessment...

  6. Organic contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface: evolution of knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Toxic organic contaminants may enter the subsurface as slightly soluble and volatile nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) or as dissolved solutes resulting in contaminant plumes emanating from the source zone. A large body of research published in Water Resources Research has been devoted to characterizing and understanding processes controlling the transport and fate of these organic contaminants and the effectiveness of natural attenuation, bioremediation, and other remedial technologies. These contributions include studies of NAPL flow, entrapment, and interphase mass transfer that have advanced from the analysis of simple systems with uniform properties and equilibrium contaminant phase partitioning to complex systems with pore-scale and macroscale heterogeneity and rate-limited interphase mass transfer. Understanding of the fate of dissolved organic plumes has advanced from when biodegradation was thought to require oxygen to recognition of the importance of anaerobic biodegradation, multiple redox zones, microbial enzyme kinetics, and mixing of organic contaminants and electron acceptors at plume fringes. Challenges remain in understanding the impacts of physical, chemical, biological, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, pore-scale interactions, and mixing on the fate of organic contaminants. Further effort is needed to successfully incorporate these processes into field-scale predictions of transport and fate. Regulations have greatly reduced the frequency of new point-source contamination problems; however, remediation at many legacy plumes remains challenging. A number of fields of current relevance are benefiting from research advances from point-source contaminant research. These include geologic carbon sequestration, nonpoint-source contamination, aquifer storage and recovery, the fate of contaminants from oil and gas development, and enhanced bioremediation.

  7. Organic contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface: Evolution of knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-07-01

    Toxic organic contaminants may enter the subsurface as slightly soluble and volatile nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) or as dissolved solutes resulting in contaminant plumes emanating from the source zone. A large body of research published in Water Resources Research has been devoted to characterizing and understanding processes controlling the transport and fate of these organic contaminants and the effectiveness of natural attenuation, bioremediation, and other remedial technologies. These contributions include studies of NAPL flow, entrapment, and interphase mass transfer that have advanced from the analysis of simple systems with uniform properties and equilibrium contaminant phase partitioning to complex systems with pore-scale and macroscale heterogeneity and rate-limited interphase mass transfer. Understanding of the fate of dissolved organic plumes has advanced from when biodegradation was thought to require oxygen to recognition of the importance of anaerobic biodegradation, multiple redox zones, microbial enzyme kinetics, and mixing of organic contaminants and electron acceptors at plume fringes. Challenges remain in understanding the impacts of physical, chemical, biological, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, pore-scale interactions, and mixing on the fate of organic contaminants. Further effort is needed to successfully incorporate these processes into field-scale predictions of transport and fate. Regulations have greatly reduced the frequency of new point-source contamination problems; however, remediation at many legacy plumes remains challenging. A number of fields of current relevance are benefiting from research advances from point-source contaminant research. These include geologic carbon sequestration, nonpoint-source contamination, aquifer storage and recovery, the fate of contaminants from oil and gas development, and enhanced bioremediation.

  8. Assessing Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved PAHs and PCBs in the water column prior...

  9. Photochemical removal of organic contaminants from silicon surface at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominski, V. Yu.; Naoumenko, O. I.; Nevolin, V. N.; Alekhin, A. P.; Markeev, A. M.; Vyukov, L. A.

    1996-04-01

    Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we have investigated the possibility of photochemical organic contaminant removal from a silicon surface at room temperature in oxygen and fluorine containing atmospheres (O2, NF3/H2, O2/NF3/H2). In contrast to UV irradiation in O2 and NF3/H2 reagents, the possibility of complete organic contaminant removal has been observed in O2/NF3/H2 gas mixture.

  10. Gaia Paradigm: A Biotic Origin Of The Polar Sunrise Arctic Bromine Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Iudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main attention is given to discussion of the natural causes and regularities of the Arctic bromine pollution. We make notice of marine microbial organisms and their metabolism as a prime driving force for the elemental biogeochemical cycles. One of the important conclusions of this study is on similarity between ocean bromine concentrating as by-product of the marine microbial activities and nitrogen fixation by soil bacteria. In both cases, microbial organisms and their food webs maintai...

  11. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously.

  12. Endophytes and their Potential to Deal with Co-contamination of Organic Contaminants (Toluene) and Toxic Metals (Nickel) during Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Saenen, E.; Boulet, J.; Dupae, J.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-01-15

    The aim was to investigate if engineered endophytes that are capable of degrading organic contaminants, and deal with or ideally improve uptake and translocation of toxic metals, can improve phytoremediation of mixed organic-metal pollution. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive toluene/TCE degradation, and (b) the chromosomally inserted ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. As controls, plants were inoculated with B. vietnamiensis BU61 (pTOM-Bu61) and B. cepacia BU72 (containing the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system). Plants were exposed to mixes of toluene and Ni. Only inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and toluene phytotoxicity, as measured by a protective effect on plant growth and decreased activities of enzymes involved in antioxidative defence (catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) in the roots. Besides, plants inoculated with B. cepacia VM1468 and B. vietnamiensis BU61 released less toluene through the leaves than non-inoculated plants and those inoculated with B. cepacia BU72. Ni-uptake in roots was slightly increased for B. cepacia BU72 inoculated plants. These results indicate that engineered endophytes have the potential to assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation.

  13. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  14. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater risk assessment of contaminated soils implies determination of the solute concentration leaching out of the soil. Determination based on estimation techniques or simple experimental batch approach has proven inadequate. Two chemical equilibrium soil column leaching tests...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...... to measure solute phase concentration of PAHs in contaminated soils. Overall a reliable and reproducable system for determining solute concentration of a wide range of organic compounds in contaminated soils has been developed....

  15. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Kuske, C.; Willardson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  16. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Bromine plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of brominated hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of bromine within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

  17. Conversion of bromine during thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu-qi; Tao, Lin; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2011-02-15

    The conversion of bromine during the thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards (PCBs) was investigated at isothermal temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1100°C by using a quartz tube furnace. The influence of temperature, oxygen concentrations (0%, 10% and 21% in the nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere) and content of steam on conversion of bromine was studied. With the increment of temperature, the conversion from organic bromine in the PCBs to inorganic bromine in the gaseous fraction increased from 69.0% to 96.4%. The bromine was mainly evolved as HBr and Br(2) in oxidizing condition and the Br(2)/HBr mass ratio increased at stronger oxidizing atmosphere. The experimental results also indicated that the existence of steam can reduce the formation of Br(2). Furthermore, co-combustion of PCBs with S and CaO, both as addition agents, was investigated, respectively. In the presence of SO(2), Br(2)/HBr mass ratio obviously decreased. Moreover, the utilization of calcium oxide can efficiently promote the conversion of organic bromine to inorganic bromine. According to the experimental results, incinerating PCBs at high temperature can efficiently destroy the organobrominated compounds that are considered to be possible precursors of polybrominated dibenzeo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), but the Br(2) and HBr in flue gas should be efficiently controlled.

  18. Organic adlayer on inorganic materials: XPS analysis selectivity to cope with adventitious contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoulsi, Jessem; Genet, Michel J.; Fleith, Sandrine; Touré, Yetioman; Liascukiene, Irma; Méthivier, Christophe; Rouxhet, Paul G.

    2016-10-01

    This work addresses the ubiquitous presence of organic contaminants at inorganic solid surfaces and the improvement of XPS analysis selectivity to cope with it. Water contact angle measurements showed that the adsorption of organic contaminants occurs readily in ambient air, and faster and more extensively under high vacuum. It is stronger on stainless steel (SS) compared to silica and is significantly reduced when SS is sterilized by autoclaving. The reliability of XPS data was evaluated (selectivity, precision, accuracy) by correlations between spectral data incorporating a large amount of results obtained with different XPS spectrometers on SS and glass samples cleaned in different ways and conditioned with several biomacromolecules. The methodology used allows a discrimination to be made between contaminants and deliberately adsorbed biomacromolecules, and offers perspectives for tracking the source of contamination. Furthermore, a discrimination can be made between oxygen from the organic adlayer and oxygen from the substrate, and the O 1s component above 532.0 eV observed for SS is shown to be due to organic contaminants rather than adsorbed water. This approach offers new perspectives to examine the interactions (displacement or not) between contaminants and compounds of interest, e.g. proteins, at the stage of the adsorption process.

  19. Contamination of Harvested Organs in Root Crops Grown on Chlordecone-Polluted Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. M. CABIDOCHE; M. LESUEUR-JANNOYER

    2012-01-01

    Chlordecone,one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticides,was applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana fields in the French West Indies,which results in long-term pollution of soils and contamination of waters,aquatic biota,and crops.As human exposure to chlordecone is mainly due to food contamination,early research was focused on chlordecone transfer to crops.Field trials were conducted to investigate chlordecone contamination of yam,sweet potato,turnip,and radish grown on a Ferralic Nitisol polluted by chlordecone.We also carried out trials on yam,courgette,and tomato under greenhouse conditions with homogenized Andosol and Nitisol,polluted by chlordecone to various extents.Our results indicated that i) all tubers were contaminated in accordance with the chlordecone content of the soils; ii) the plant contamination capacity of the Nitisol was greater than that of the Andosol; and iii) whatever the soil type,tuber contamination was related to the soil volumetric content of dissolved chlordecone.Nevertheless,no tubers showed sufficient chlordecone uptake for efficient soil decontamination by means of plant extraction.Soil contact accounted for most of the root crop contamination,which was inversely proportional to the tuber size.Internal transfer might also increase root crop contamination when the root central cylinder contained raw sap flow,as in the case of turnip or radish.Courgette fruits showed high contamination without soil contact.Thus,further research is needed to explore the pattern of both below- and aboveground plant chlordecone contamination and assess the hypothesis of its correlation with sap flow.Finally.we used our results to build a decisionmaking tool for farmers,relating soil pollution with the maximal contamination of the harvested organs to predict crop contamination and thus assisting farmers in making crop choices at planting in order to conform with the European Union's regulations.

  20. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: Why sea ice matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pucko, M.; Stern, Gary; Macdonald, Robie

    2015-01-01

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical...... the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibriumbased on Henry's lawconstants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest...... to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic....

  1. Quantification of organic pollutant degradation in contaminated aquifers using compound specific stable isotope analysis – Review of recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thullner, M.; Centler, F.; Richnow, H.-H.; Fischer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a viable tool for proving, characterizing and assessing degradation of organic pollutants within contaminated aquifers. The fractionation of stable isotopes during contaminant degradation leads to observable shifts in stable is

  2. Removal of organic contaminants by RO and NF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeomin; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of organic and inorganic compounds were examined for six reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and two nanofiltration (NF) membranes that are commercially available. A batch stirred-cell was employed to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for solutions at various concentrations and different pH conditions. The results show that for ionic solutes the degree of separation is influenced mainly by electrostatic exclusion, while for organic solutes the removal depends mainly upon the solute radius and molecular structure. In order to provide a better understanding of rejection mechanisms for the RO and NF membranes, the ratio of solute radius (r(i,s)) to effective membrane pore radius (r(p)) was employed to compare rejections. An empirical relation for the dependence of the rejection of organic compounds on the ratio r(i,s)/r(p) is presented. The rejection for organic compounds is over 75% when r(i,s)/r(p) is greater than 0.8. In addition, the rejection of organic compounds is examined using the extended Nernst-Planck equation coupled with a steric hindrance model. The transport of organic solutes is controlled mainly by diffusion for the compounds that have a high r(i,s)/r(p) ratio, while convection is dominant for compounds that have a small r(i,s)/r(p) ratio. c2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the release of organic contaminants during compost decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunnu; Haudin, Claire-Sophie; Zhang, Yuan; Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Houot, Sabine; Garnier, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Composts, incorporated in soils as amendments, may release organic contaminants during their decomposition. COP-Soil is presented here as a new model to simulate the interaction between organic contaminants and compost, using one module for organic matter and one for organic pollutants, with these modules being linked by several assumptions. Published results of laboratory soil incubations using labeled carbon pollutants from compost were used to test the model for one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), two surfactants and one herbicide. Several simulation scenarios were tested using (i) the organic pollutant module either alone or coupled to the organic matter module, (ii) various methods to estimate the adsorption coefficients (Kd) of contaminants on organic matter and (iii) different degrading biomasses. The simulations were improved if the organic pollutant module was coupled with the organic matter module. Multiple linear regression model for Kd as a function of organic matter quality yielded the most accurate simulation results. The inclusion of specific biomass in the model made it possible to successfully predict the PAH mineralization.

  4. Leaching of chloride, sulphate, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and phenolic organic pesticides from contaminated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H

    2016-10-01

    Concrete samples from demolition waste of a former pesticide plant in Sweden were analysed for total contents and leachate concentrations of potentially hazardous inorganic substances, TOC, phenols, as well as for pesticide compounds such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols. Leachates were produced by means of modified standard column leaching tests and pH-stat batch tests. Due to elevated contents of chromium and lead, as well as due to high chloride concentrations in the first leachate from column tests at L/S 0.1, recycling of the concrete as a construction material in groundworks is likely to be restricted according to Swedish guidelines. The studied pesticide compounds appear to be relatively mobile at the materials own pH>12, 12, 9 and 7. Potential leaching of pesticide residues from recycled concrete to ground water and surface water might exceed water quality guidelines for the remediation site and the EU Water Framework Directive. Results of this study stress the necessity to systematically study the mechanism behind mobility of organic contaminants from alkaline construction and demolition wastes rather than rely on total content limit values.

  5. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and fullscale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used. © 2011 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the role of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean in determining the Arctic contamination potential of neutral organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Meyer, Torsten; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The main objective of this study was to model the contribution of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean to the total mass of neutral organic contaminants accumulated in the Arctic environment using a standardized emission scenario for sets of hypothetical chemicals and realistic emission estimates (1930-2100) for polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). Shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean are shown to be important reservoirs for neutral organic chemicals across a wide range of partitioning properties, increasing the total mass in the surface compartments of the Arctic environment by up to 3.5-fold compared to simulations excluding this compartment. The relative change in total mass for hydrophobic organic chemicals with log air-water partition coefficients ≥0 was greater than for chemicals with properties similar to typical POPs. The long-term simulation of PCB-153 generated modeled concentrations in shelf sediments in reasonable agreement with available monitoring data and illustrate that the relative importance of shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean for influencing surface ocean concentrations (and therefore exposure via the pelagic food web) is most pronounced once primary emissions are exhausted and secondary sources dominate. Additional monitoring and modeling work to better characterize the role of shelf sediments for contaminant fate is recommended.

  7. SOIL CONTAMINATION BY NITROGEN COMPOUNDS DURING ORGANIC FUEL COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bubnov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a transition mechanism of flue gas nitrogen oxides being formed due to organic fuel combustion from atmosphere into soil. Mechanisms of nitrogen compound origination and transformation in atmosphere and their transition into soil have been presented in the paper. The paper recommends a generalized equation for mathematical description of nitrogen migration into soil. 

  8. Green Photocatalysis for Degradation of Organic Contaminants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organic pesticides that were banned a few decades ago, as well as those that are currently in use in many parts of the world, pose some serious threat to human life and the ecosystem because of their persistent and bioaccumulative nature. In the recent years advanced oxidati...

  9. Production of bromine-75, a new radionuclide for marking radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paans, A.M.J.; Wiegman, T.; Hoeve, W.; Vaalburg, W. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-75 is the most useful of all bromine isotopes for nuclear medicine. Its properties like half-life, nuclear reactions, production and chemical preparation, as well as the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals containing bromine-75 are presented.

  10. Assessing Changes to Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USDA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water ...

  11. Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Borecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May-October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel and sorrel. A total of 187 samples of vegetables, fruits and soil were examined by means of a modified flotation method according to Quinn et al. (1980). Contamination with Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara eggs was found, with a higher number of positive samples revealed on conventional (34.7%), compared to organic farms (18.9%). The level of contamination in soil samples from conventional farms was higher (88.5% positive samples), than of those from organic farms (32.8%). Of the 15 geohelmints eggs, positive samples were found in vegetables: 9 Toxocara eggs, 4 Ascaris eggs and 2 Trichuris eggs. No geohelmints eggs were observed in the strawberry samples. The consumption of vegetables and fruits contaminated with the eggs of parasites may be the cause of parasitoses in humans. Stricter sanitary standards on farms of all types may limit the incidence of parasitic zoonoses.

  12. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology.

  13. Effects of dissolved organic matter from a eutrophic lake on the freely dissolved concentrations of emerging organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Qing-Hui; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA) and chloramphenicol by measuring the freely dissolved concentrations of the contaminants in solutions containing DOM that had been isolated from a mesocosm in a eutrophic lake. The abundance and aromaticity of the chromophoric DOM increased over the 25-d mesocosm experiment. The BPA freely dissolved concentration was 72.3% lower and the chloramphenicol freely dissolved concentration was 56.2% lower using DOM collected on day 25 than using DOM collected on day 1 of the mesocosm experiment. The freely dissolved concentrations negatively correlated with the ultraviolent absorption coefficient at 254 nm and positively correlated with the spectral slope of chromophoric DOM, suggesting that the bioavailability of these emerging organic contaminants depends on the characteristics of the DOM present. The DOM-water partition coefficients (log KOC ) for the emerging organic contaminants positively correlated with the aromaticity of the DOM, measured as humic acid-like fluorescent components C1 (excitation/emission=250[313]/412 nm) and C2 (excitation/emission=268[379]/456 nm). The authors conclude that the bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants in eutrophic lakes can be affected by changes in the DOM.

  14. Advanced Methods for Treatment of Organic Compounds Contamined Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDESCU Andra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The progress recorded in the field of science and advanced engineering at nanometric scale supplies largeopportunities for more efficient (from the point of view of the costs and more ecological approach of the processes ofwater purifying. This paper delivers a short description of the possibilities of using advanced materials in purifying thecontamined water with toxic metallic ions, organic and anorganic compounds. The opportunities and challenges werealso emphasized when nanomaterials were used for the surface, underground and industrial used waters treatment.

  15. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  16. Organic Contaminants in Riverine and Groundwater Systems: Aspects of the Anthropogenic Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan

    This book summarizes a selection of organic-geochemical investigations, which deal with the characterization and environmental behaviour of organic contaminations of German river and groundwater systems. The aim is to resume and present an overview of comprehensive current research activities, which have been published diversely in specialised scientific journals and, are therefore not easily available in a concise and clearly arranged way. Important topics include comprehensive non-target screening as well as isotope analysis of contaminants in water and sediments, detailed characterisation of bound residues, recording river ine pollution histories and an extensive application of the anthropogenic marker approach.

  17. Characterisation of organic contaminants in the CLOUD chamber at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzhofer, R; Breitenlechner, M; Jud, W; Heinritzi, M; Menezes, L-P; Duplissy, J; Guida, R; Haider, S; Kikby, J; Mathot, S; Minginette, P; Onnela, A; Walther, H; Wasem, A; Hansel, A; CLOUD Team

    2014-01-01

    The CLOUD experiment (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) investigates the nucleation of new particles and how this process is influenced by galactic cosmic rays in an electropolished, stainless-steel environmental chamber at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Since volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can act as precursor gases for nucleation and growth of particles, great efforts have been made to keep their unwanted background levels as low as possible and to quantify them. In order to be able to measure a great set of VOCs simultaneously in the low parts per trillion (pptv) range, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used. Initially the total VOC background concentration strongly correlated with ozone in the chamber and ranged from 0.1 to 7 parts per billion (ppbv). Plastic used as sealing material in the ozone generator was found to be a major VOC source. Especially oxygen-containing VOCs were generated together with ozone. These parts were replaced by stainless steel after ...

  18. Plausible role of nanoparticle contamination in the synthesis and properties of organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananikov, Valentine P.

    2016-12-01

    Traceless transition metal catalysis (Pd, Ni, Cu, etc.) is very difficult to achieve. Metal contamination in the synthesized products is unavoidable and the most important questions are: How to control metal impurities? What amount of metal impurities can be tolerated? What is the influence of metal impurities? In this brief review, the plausible origins of nanoparticle contamination are discussed in the framework of catalytic synthesis of organic electronic materials. Key factors responsible for increasing the probability of contamination are considered from the point of view of catalytic reaction mechanisms. The purity of the catalyst may greatly affect the molecular weight of a polymer, reaction yield, selectivity and several other parameters. Metal contamination in the final polymeric products may induce some changes in the electric conductivity, charge transport properties, photovoltaic performance and other important parameters.

  19. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: methodology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B J; Van Metre, P C

    2003-04-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  20. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: Methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  1. Using the parallelogram approach to estimate human percutaneous bioavailability for novel & legacy brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    (This is an extended abstract. The following text was taken from the Discussion and Conclusion section.) Humans are frequently exposed to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), especially via dermal contact with contaminated dust. Human and rat skin data were integrated using a pa...

  2. Toxicity of brominated flame retardants in fish, with emphasis on endocrine effects and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The abundant use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in modern polymers has over the passed decades resulted in contamination of the environment, and BFRs are increasingly found in fish. Laboratory studies have shown that a number of BFRs and BFR-metabolites can interfere with thyroid and

  3. Electrochemical Transformation of Trace Organic Contaminants in the Presence of Halide and Carbonate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment on anodes shows promise for the oxidation of organic contaminants in industrial wastewater and reverse osmosis concentrate from municipal wastewater recycling due to the high conductivity of the matrix and the concomitant low energy demand. The effect of background electrolyte composition (Cl–, HCO3–, and NH4+) on the formation and fate of electrochemically produced heterogeneous (HO•ads and Cl•ads) and homogeneous (HOCl and HOBr) oxidants was evaluated on Ti–IrO2 and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes using a suite of trace organic contaminants that exhibited varying reactivity with HO•, CO3•–, HOCl, and HOBr. The contributions of adsorbed and bulk oxidants to contaminant degradation were investigated. Results show that transformation rates for most contaminants increased in the presence of chloride and trace amounts of bromide; however, elevated concentrations of HCO3– often altered transformation rates due to formation of selective oxidants, with decreases in reactivity observed for electron-poor contaminants and increases in reactivity observed for compounds with amine and phenolic moieties. Using this information, rates of reactions on anode surfaces and measured production and loss rates for reactive homogeneous species were used to predict contaminant removal in municipal wastewater effluent. Despite some uncertainty in the reaction mechanisms, the model accurately predicted rates of removal of electron-rich contaminants but underestimated the transformation rates of compounds that exhibited low reactivity with HOCl and HOBr, possibly due to the formation of halogen radicals. The approach employed in this study provides a means of identifying key reactions for different classes of contaminants and for predicting the conditions under which anodic treatment of wastewater will be practical. PMID:27599127

  4. Enteropathogenic bacterial contamination of a latosol following application of organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Escosteguy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry manure is used as fertilizer in natura, but little is known about whether it contaminates the soil with pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of organic, organomineral and mineral fertilizers on soil contamination by enteric pathogens, using poultry manure as the organic fertilizer. Manure was applied in field experiments at rates of 7.0 ton. ha-1 (maize crop, 2008/2009, 8.0 ton. ha-1 (wheat crop, 2009 and 14 ton. ha-1 (maize crop, 2010/2011. Organomineral fertilizer was applied at the same rates but was comprised of 50% manure and 50% mineral fertilizer. At 30 and 70 days after fertilization, the organic fertilizer and the upper 0-5 cm layer of the soil were tested for the presence of helminth eggs and larvae and enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal and non-fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringes were found in the organic fertilizer, but neither Salmonella spp. nor enteroparasites were detected. The population of enteropathogenic bacteria in the soil was similar among the treatments for all crops at both evaluation times. The population of thermotolerant coliforms in the organic fertilizer was larger than the maximum level allowed in Brazil, but neither the organic or nor the organomineral fertilizer contaminated the soil.

  5. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F; Wong, Fiona; Barber, David G; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-02-15

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic.

  6. Effects of predicted climatic changes on distribution of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripszam, M., E-mail: matyas.ripszam@chem.umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Gallampois, C.M.J. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Berglund, Å. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Larsson, H. [Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Umeå University, Norrbyn, 905 71 Hörnefors (Sweden); Andersson, A. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Tysklind, M.; Haglund, P. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Predicted consequences of future climate change in the northern Baltic Sea include increases in sea surface temperatures and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff. These changes are expected to alter environmental distribution of anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs). To assess likely shifts in their distributions, outdoor mesocosms were employed to mimic pelagic ecosystems at two temperatures and two DOC concentrations, current: 15 °C and 4 mg DOC L{sup −1} and, within ranges of predicted increases, 18 °C and 6 mg DOC L{sup −1}, respectively. Selected organic contaminants were added to the mesocosms to monitor changes in their distribution induced by the treatments. OC partitioning to particulate matter and sedimentation were enhanced at the higher DOC concentration, at both temperatures, while higher losses and lower partitioning of OCs to DOC were observed at the higher temperature. No combined effects of higher temperature and DOC on partitioning were observed, possibly because of the balancing nature of these processes. Therefore, changes in OCs' fates may largely depend on whether they are most sensitive to temperature or DOC concentration rises. Bromoanilines, phenanthrene, biphenyl and naphthalene were sensitive to the rise in DOC concentration, whereas organophosphates, chlorobenzenes (PCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more sensitive to temperature. Mitotane and diflufenican were sensitive to both temperature and DOC concentration rises individually, but not in combination. - Highlights: • More contaminants remained in the ecosystem at higher organic carbon levels. • More contaminants were lost in the higher temperature treatments. • The combined effects are competitive with respect to contaminant cycling. • The individual properties of each contaminant determine their respective fate.

  7. Treatment of volatile organic contaminants in a vertical flow filter: Relevance of different removal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Reger, D.; Schmidt, A.; Jechalke, S.; Reiche, N.; Martínez-Lavanchy, P.M.; Rosell, M.; Van Afferden, M.; Maier, U.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters and vertical flow constructed wetlands are established wastewater treatment systems and have also been proposed for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates the removal processes of volatile organic compounds in a pilot-scale vertical flow filter. The

  8. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  9. Effects of nitrogen application on grain nitrogen content, deoxinivalenol contamination and weeds in organic wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Timmermans, B.G.H.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Osman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of nitrogen-fertilizer rates on Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in both conventional and organic systems. Results are often conflicting while underlying mechanisms remain illusive. This study aimed to provide

  10. Influence of nonlinear sorption kinetics on the slow-desorbing organic contaminant fraction in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.; Schraa, G.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Release rates of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from the soil matrix influence the availability of HOCs in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g., soil washing or soil venting). In this study it was shown that the initial contaminant concentration influ

  11. Penguin colonies as secondary sources of contamination with persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosens, L.; Brink, van den N.W.; Riddle, M.; Blust, R.; Neels, H.; Covaci, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although long-range atmospheric transport has been described as the predominant mechanism for exposing polar regions to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recent studies have suggested that bird activity can also contribute substantially to contaminant levels in some environments. However, becaus

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the theoretical energy consumption in the removal of organic contaminants by physical methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The essential requirements for evaluating the sustainable development of a system and the thermodynamic framework of the energy conservation mechanism in the waste-removal process are proposed.A thermodynamic method of analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics is suggested as a means to analyze the theoretical energy consumption for the removal of organic contaminants by physical methods.Moreover,the theoretical energy consumption for the removal by physical methods of different kinds of representative organic contaminants with different initial concentrations and amounts is investigated at 298.15 K and 1.01325 × 105 Pa.The results show that the waste treatment process has a high energy consumption and that the theoretical energy consumption for the removal of organic contaminants increases with the decrease of their initial concentrations in aqueous solutions.The theoretical energy consumption for the removal of different organic contaminants varies dramatically.Furthermore,the theoretical energy consumption increases greatly with the increase in the amount to be removed.

  13. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...

  14. Proposing nanofiltration as acceptable barrier for organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2010-10-01

    For water reuse applications, " tight" nanofiltration (NF) membranes (of polyamide) as an alternative to reverse osmosis (RO) can be an effective barrier against pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and other organic contaminants. The use of RO in existing water reuse facilities is addressed and questioned, taking into consideration that tight NF can be a more cost-effective and efficient technology to target the problem of organic contaminants. It was concluded that tight NF is an acceptable barrier for organic contaminants because its removal performance approaches that of RO, and because of reduced operation and maintenance (O&M) costs in long-term project implementation. Average removal of neutral compounds (including 1,4-dioxane) was about 82% and 85% for NF and RO, respectively, and average removal of ionic compounds was about 97% and 99% for NF and RO, respectively. In addition, " loose" NF after aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) can be an effective barrier against micropollutants with removals over 90%. When there is the presence of difficult to remove organic contaminants such as NDMA and 1,4-dioxane; for 1,4-dioxane, source control or implementation of treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants will be an option; for NDMA, a good strategy is to limit its formation during wastewater treatment, but there is evidence that biodegradation of NDMA can be achieved during ARR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. On the use of reporter bacteria for measuring availability of organic contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Tecon, R.

    2009-01-01

    Natural environments are constantly challenged by the release of hydrophobic organic contaminants, which represent a threat for both the ecosystem and human health. Despite a substantial degradation by naturally occurring micro-organisms, a non negligible fraction of these pollutants tend to persist in soil and sediments due to their reduced accessibility to microbial degraders. This lack of 'bioavailability' is acknowledged as a key parameter for the natural and stimulated clean-up (bioremed...

  16. [Solute transport modeling application in groundwater organic contaminant source identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Pei; Liu, Jiu-Rong; Xin, Bao-Dong; He, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Investigation and numerical simulation, based on RT3D (reactive transport in 3-dimensions)were used to identify the source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in the groundwater of a city in the north of China and reverse the input intensity. Multiple regressions were applied to analyze the influenced factors of input intensity of PCE and TCE using Stepwise function in Matlab. The results indicate that the factories and industries are the source of the PCE and TCE in groundwater. Natural attenuation was identified and the natural attenuation rates are 93.15%, 61.70% and 61.00% for PCE, and 70.05%, 73.66% and 63.66% for TCE in 173 days. The 4 source points identified by the simulation have released 0.910 6 kg PCE and 95.693 8 kg TCE during the simulation period. The regression analysis results indicate that local precipitation and the thickness of vadose zone are the main factors influencing organic solution transporting from surface to groundwater. The PCE and TCE concentration are found to be 0 and 5 mg x kg(-1) from surface to 35 cm in vadose zone. All above results suggest that PCE and TCE in groundwater are from the source in the surface. Natural attenuation occurred when PCE and TCE transporting from the surface to groundwater, and the rest was transported to groundwater through vadose zone. Local precipitation was one of the critical factors influencing the transportation of PCE and TCE to aquifer through sand, pebble and gravel of the Quaternary.

  17. Organic contaminant release from melting snow. 2. Influence of snow pack and melt characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Muradi, Ibrahim; Wania, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Large reservoirs of organic contaminants in seasonal snowpack can be released in short pulses during spring snowmelt, potentially impacting the receiving ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using artificial snow spiked with organic target substances were conducted to investigate the behavior of six organic contaminants with widely variable distribution properties in melting snow. Whereas the influence of a chemical's equilibrium phase partitioning on the elution behavior is explored in a companion paper, we discuss here the impact of snow properties and melt features, including the snowpack depth, the temperature at the interface between soil and snow, the meltwater content the internal ice surface area, and the existence of distinct snow layers. Water-soluble organic substances are released in high concentrations at the beginning of a melt period when a deep and aged snowpack undergoes intense melting. Warm ground can cause notable melting at the snow bottom leading to a delayed and dampened concentration peak. Hydraulic barriers in layered snow packs cause preferential meltwater flow which also mitigates the early contaminant flush. Hydrophobic organic pollutants that are associated with particles accumulate near the snow surface and are released at the end of melting. Dirt cones at the surface of a dense snowpack enhance this enrichment. The findings of this laboratory study will aid in the understanding of the behavior of organic pollutants during the melting of more complex, natural snow covers.

  18. Evidence of maternal offloading of organic contaminants in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Christopher G; Lyons, Kady; Blasius, Mary E; Winkler, Chuck; O'Sullivan, John B; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear.

  19. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  20. Development of a passive, in situ, integrative sampler for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Getting, D.T.; Goddard, J.P.; Manahan, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly it is being realized that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants including new generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and many chemicals associated with household, industrial, and agricultural wastes. To address this issue, we developed a passive in situ sampling device (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler [POCIS]) that integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations, and provides a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler, linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals with log KowS < 4.0 was observed for up to 56 d. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS sampling rates for appropriate exposure conditions. Use of POCIS in field validation studies targeting the herbicide diuron in the United Kingdom resulted in the detection of the chemical at estimated concentrations of 190 to 600 ng/L. These values are in agreement with reported levels found in traditional grab samples taken concurrently.

  1. [Arbuscular mycorrhizal bioremediation and its mechanisms of organic pollutants-contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Ling, Wanting; Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Fuchun; Xiong, Wei

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), the symbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plant root, has been proved to be able to improve soil structure and enhance the plant resistance to environmental stress. There are more than 170 kinds of AMF worldwide. Recently, the promoted degradation of organic pollutants in soils in the presence of AM was observed, and AM bioremediation (AMB) is becoming a promising and perspective remediation technique for organic pollutants-contaminated soils. This paper reviewed the research progress on the AMB of soils contaminated by typical organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAEs, petroleum, and pesticides. The mechanisms of AMB mainly include the metabolism of organic pollutants by AM fungi, the degradation of these pollutants by the enzymes derived from AM exudation and by the enhanced root exudation and rhizospheric microbial activity in the presence of AM, and the removal of the pollutants by plant uptake and accumulation. As a new approach for the remediation of contaminated soils, some aspects involved in AMB, e.g., the screening of high efficient AM fungi, efficacy of co-existing AM fungi, soil ageing, and plant uptake of organic pollutants from soils in the presence of AM, still need to be further investigated.

  2. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large.

  3. Removal of organic wastewater contaminants in septic systems using advanced treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bahr, J.M.; Hedman, C.J.; Hemming, J.D.C.; Barman, M.A.E.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in ground water and surface-water bodies has raised concerns about the possible ecological impacts of these compounds on nontarget organisms. On-site wastewater treatment systems represent a potentially significant route of entry for organic contaminants to the environment. In this study, effluent samples were collected and analyzed from conventional septic systems and from systems using advanced treatment technologies. Six of 13 target compounds were detected in effluent from at least one septic system. Caffeine, paraxanthine, and acetaminophen were the most frequently detected compounds, and estrogenic activity was detected in 14 of 15 systems. The OWC concentrations were significantly lower in effluent after sand filtration (p Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: serge.chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2012-10-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20{alpha}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br{center_dot}, Br{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. Black

  5. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains ... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR...

  6. No enhancement in bioconcentration of organic contaminants by low levels of DOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Akkanen, J.; Steinberg, C.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to systematically study the effect of low concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioconcentration of organic contaminants, in order to show whether the phenomenon of enhanced bioconcentration factors (BCFs), that has been reported in the literature, is generally found at low levels of DOM or if BCF enhancements are more likely due to a random scatter in the experimental data. The first part of the study tested the hypothesis that low levels of DOM affect the uptake kinetics of organic contaminants, leading to transient enhancements of BCFs, relative to DOM-free controls, which could have been reported as BCF enhancements in short-term studies. We found that the presence of low concentrations of two different types of DOM consistently decreased the bioconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the water flea Daphnia magna at all exposure times (1-24 h), and that no transient BCF enhancements occurred. The second part of the study systematically investigated if low concentrations of DOM from a wide range of different aquatic systems can cause enhancements in the bioconcentration of organic contaminants. Water fleas were exposed to combinations of four different organic contaminants (BaP, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorophenol and naphthalene) with low concentrations of 12 different types of DOM that had been collected from various regions throughout Europe. In several of the DOM treatments, we found mean BCFs being higher than mean BCFs in the controls (especially for naphthalene). This shows that the experimental setup used in this study (and similarly in previous studies) can produce seeming BCF enhancements at low concentrations of DOM. However, statistical analyses showed that treatment means were not significantly different from control means. Thus, this systematic study suggests that the BCF enhancements that have been reported in the literature are more likely the result of random, experimental variations than the

  7. Assessing the fate of biodegradable volatile organic contaminants in unsaturated soil filter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Martin; de Biase, Cecilia; Hanzel, Joanna; Reger, Daniel; Wick, Lukas; Oswald, Sascha; van Afferden, Manfred; Schmidt, Axel; Reiche, Nils; Jechalke, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of contaminant biodegradation in the subsurface is challenged by various abiotic processes leading to a reduction of contaminant concentration without a destructive mass removal of the contaminant. In unsaturated porous media, this interplay of processes is further complicated by volatilization. Many organic contaminants are sufficiently volatile to allow for significant fluxes from the water phase into the soil air, which can eventually lead to an emission of contaminants into the atmosphere. Knowledge of the magnitude of these emissions is thus required to evaluate the efficiency of bioremediation in such porous media and to estimate potential risks due to these emissions. In the present study, vertical flow constructed wetlands were investigated at the pilot scale as part of the SAFIRA II project. The investigated wetland system is intermittently irrigated by contaminated groundwater containing the volatile compounds benzene and MTBE. Measured concentration at the in- and outflow of the system demonstrate a high mass removal rate, but the highly transient flow and transport processes in the system challenge the quantification of biodegradation and volatilization and their contribution to the observed mass removal. By a combination of conservative solute tracer tests, stable isotope fractionation and measurements of natural radon concentration is the treated groundwater is was possible to determine the contribution of biodegradation and volatilization to total mass removal. The results suggest that for the investigated volatile compounds biodegradation is the dominating mass removal process with volatilization contributing only to minor or negligible amounts. These results can be confirmed by reactive transport simulations and were further supported by laboratory studies showing that also gas phase gradients of volatile compounds can be affected by biodegradation suggesting the unsaturated zone to act as a biofilter for contaminants in the soil air.

  8. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  9. Possibilities of implementation of bioavailability methods for organic contaminants in the Dutch Soil Quality Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ellen; Lijzen, Johannes; Peijnenburg, Willie; Swartjes, Frank

    2013-10-15

    In the Netherlands, risk assessment of contaminated soils is based on determining the total contaminant concentration. If this measured soil concentration exceeds the Soil Quality Standards (SQS) a higher tier risk evaluation must be performed. Experiences from the field have given rise to the perception that performing risk evaluations based on (measured) total concentrations may lead to an inaccurate assessment of the actual risks. Assuming that only the bioavailable fraction is capable of exerting adverse effects in the soil ecosystem, it is suggested, that by taking bioavailability into account in a (higher tier) risk evaluation, a more effect-based risk assessment can be performed. Bioavailability has been a subject of research for several decades. However up to now bioavailability has not been implemented in the Dutch Soil Quality Assessment Framework. First actions were taken in the Netherlands to determine whether the concept of bioavailability could be implemented in the risk assessment of contaminated soils and to find out how bioavailability can become part of the Dutch Soil Quality Assessment Framework. These actions have led to a concrete proposal for implementation of bioavailability methods in the risk assessment of organic contaminants in soils. This paper focuses on the chemical prediction of bioavailability for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils.

  10. Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2008-07-15

    A large and ever-increasing number of chemicals are used in commerce, and researchers and regulators have struggled to ascertain that these chemicals do not threaten human health or cause environmental or ecological damage. The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote environments such as the Arctic is of special concern and has international regulatory implications. Responding to the need for a way to identify chemicals of high concern, a methodology has been developed which compares experimentally measured properties, or values predicted from chemical structure alone, to a set of screening criteria. These criteria include partitioning properties that allow for accumulation in the physical Arctic environment and in the Arctic human food chain, and resistance to atmospheric oxidation. Atthe same time we quantify the extent of structural resemblance to a group of known Arctic contaminants. Comparison of the substances that are identified by a mechanistic description of the processes that lead to Arctic contamination with those substances that are structurally similar to known Arctic contaminants reveals the strengths and limitations of either approach. Within a data set of more than 100,000 distinct industrial chemicals, the methodology identifies 120 high production volume chemicals which are structurally similarto known Arctic contaminants and/or have partitioning properties that suggest they are potential Arctic contaminants.

  11. Field evidence for a protistan role in an organically-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Shay, David M.; Metge, David W.; Warren, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The association between protists, bacteria, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in an oxygen-depleted, 6 km-long wastewater contaminant plume within a sandy aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) was investigated by comparing abundance patterns along longitudinal and vertical transects and at a control site. Strong linear correlations were observed between unattached bacterial abundance and DOC for much of the upgradient-half of the plume (0.1−2.5 km downgradient from the source) that is characterized by quasi-steady state chemistry. However, a logarithmic decrease was observed between the number of protists supported per mg of DOC and the estimated age of the DOC within the plume. The relatively labile dissolved organic contaminants that characterize the groundwater sampled from the plume ≤0.1 km downgradient from the contaminant source appeared to indirectly support 3−4 times as many protists (per mg of DOC) as the older, more recalcitrant DOC in the alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS)-contaminated zone at 3 km downgradient (∼30 years travel time). Substantive numbers of protists (>104/cm3) were recovered from suboxic zones of the plume. The higher than expected ratios of protists to unattached bacteria (10 to 100:1) observed in much of the plume suggest that protists may be grazing upon both surface-associated and unattached bacterial communities to meet their nutritional requirements. In closed bottle incubation experiments, the presence of protists caused an increase in bacterial growth rate, which became more apparent at higher amendments of labile DOC (3−20 mgC/L). The presence of protists resulted in an increase in the apparent substrate saturation level for the unattached bacterial community, suggesting an important role for protists in the fate of more-labile aquifer organic contaminants.

  12. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), triclosan (TCS) and caffeine (CAF). The model overestimated concentrations in most cases, when no degradation rates in plants were entered. Subsequently, biodegradation rates were fitted so that the measured concentrations were met. Obtained degradation kinetics are in the order, BPA modeling are, despite the inherent uncertainty, indicative of the dissipation rates. The advantage of the procedure that is additional knowledge can be gained from existing experimental data. Dissipation kinetics found via inverse modeling is not a conclusive proof for biodegradation and confirmation by experimental studies is needed.

  13. Using polyacrylate-coated SPME fibers to quantify sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J-H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Jonker, Michiel T O; Hermens, Joop L M

    2013-05-07

    A passive sampling method using polyacrylate-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers was applied to determine sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The tested contaminants included pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, hormones, and pesticides and represented neutral, anionic, and cationic structures. Prior to the passive sampler application, sorption of the chemicals to the fibers was characterized. This was needed in order to accurately translate concentrations measured in fibers to freely dissolved aqueous concentrations during the sorption tests with DOC. Sorption isotherms of neutral compounds to the fiber were linear, whereas isotherms of basic chemicals covered a nonlinear and a linear range. Sorption of acidic and basic compounds to the fiber was pH-dependent and was dominated by sorption of the neutral sorbate species. Fiber- and DOC-water partition coefficients of neutral compounds were both linearly related to octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow). The results of this study show that polyacrylate fibers can be used to quantify sorption to DOC of neutral and ionic contaminants, having multiple functional groups and spanning a wide hydrophobicity range (log Kow = 2.5-7.5).

  14. Estrogenic contamination by manure fertilizer in organic farming: a case study with the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, worldwide organic farming has grown exponentially; as a consequence, the use of animal manure as a soil fertility source has become the principal agricultural choice. However, the use of manure as fertilizer can increase the amount of steroid hormone metabolites in the soil. In southern Italy, lacertidae lizards are the most abundant vertebrate group in agroecosystems and have been identified as potential model species for ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this study was to understand if the manure applied in organic farming has estrogen-like effects in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult male lizards were captured in two organic agricultural fields (manure-treated sites) and in an uncultivated field (control site). Lizards from the two organic farms displayed hepatic biosynthetic alterations typical of an estrogenic contamination; hepatocytes contained both vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha transcripts and proteins, detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The same cells did not show cadmium, lead and metallothionein accumulation, indicative of the lack of inorganic contamination. These findings suggest that exogenous estrogens, arising from the use of manure, could affect the welfare of wild animals and animal breeding, leading to bioaccumulation of estrogens in food chain, with possible risk for human consumers. For this reason, organic farming should implement the use of sustainable practices such as crop rotation to preserve the soil biological activity, rather than organic manure as fertilizer.

  15. Laccases to take on the challenge of emerging organic contaminants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Christoph A; Ammann, Erik M; Shahgaldian, Patrick; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2014-12-01

    The removal of emerging organic contaminants from municipal wastewater poses a major challenge unsatisfactorily addressed by present wastewater treatment processes. Enzyme-catalyzed transformation of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) has been proposed as a possible solution to this major environmental issue more than a decade ago. Especially, laccases gained interest in this context in recent years due to their broad substrate range and since they only need molecular oxygen as a cosubstrate. In order to ensure the stability of the enzymes and allow their retention and reuse, either immobilization or insolubilization of the biocatalysts seems to be the prerequisite for continuous wastewater treatment applications. The present review summarizes the research conducted on EOC transformation with laccases and presents an overview of the possible immobilization techniques. The goal is to assess the state of the art and identify the next necessary steps that have to be undertaken in order to implement laccases as a tertiary wastewater treatment process in sewage treatment plants.

  16. Contamination of soils and groundwater with new organic micropollutants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The input of organic micro- and nanopollutants to the environment has grown in recent years. This vast class of substances is referred to as emerging micropollutants, and includes organic chemicals of industrial, agricultural, and municipal provenance. There are three main sources of emerging pollutants coming to the environment, i.e., (1) upon soil fertilization with sewage and sewage sludge; (2) soil irrigation with reclaimed wastewater and (3) due to filtration from municipal landfills of solid wastes. These pollutants contaminate soil, affect its inhabitants; they are also consumed by plants and penetrate to the groundwater. The pharmaceuticals most strongly affect the biota (microorganisms, earthworms, etc.). The response of microorganisms in the contaminated soil is controlled not only by the composition and the number of emerging pollutants but also by the geochemical environment.

  17. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  18. First evidence of persistent organic contaminants as potential anthropogenic stressors in the Barndoor Skate Dipturus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2017-01-16

    Although exploited populations of elasmobranchs may be able to recover from fishing pressure, there is little information regarding the Barndoor Skate's ability to cope with other anthropogenic stressors such as organic contaminants (OCs). Legacy OCs were measured in liver, muscle and ova from fourteen Barndoor Skates with mature skates having significantly greater mean concentrations of OCs than immature skates, demonstrating bioaccumulation with age. Using Toxic Equivalency Factors, skates were found to have levels of PCBs that have been shown to elicit negative physiological responses in other fishes and these results highlight the need for future studies to investigate the potential impacts that bioaccumulated organic contaminants have on the recovery and conservation of this vulnerable species.

  19. New biodegradable organic-soluble chelating agents for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, Amos, E-mail: Ullmann@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Brauner, Neima; Vazana, Shlomi; Katz, Zhanna [Faculty of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Goikhman, Roman [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Robert H. Smith, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Rehovot (Israel); Seemann, Boaz; Marom, Hanit [School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gozin, Michael, E-mail: cogozin@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • New soil remediation process using phase transition of partially miscible solvents. • Design and synthesis of new bio-degradable, organic soluble chelating agents. • Feasibility tests of the process on authentically polluted sediments and sludge. • Simultaneous removal of toxic metals and organic pollutants was demonstrated. -- Abstract: Advanced biodegradable and non-toxic organic chelators, which are soluble in organic media, were synthesized on the basis of the S,S-ethylenediamine-disuccinate (S,S-EDDS) ligand. The modifications suggested in this work include attachment of a lipophilic hydrocarbon chain (“tail”) to one or both nitrogen atoms of the S,S-EDDS. The new ligands were designed and evaluated for application in the Sediments Remediation Phase Transition Extraction (SR-PTE) process. This novel process is being developed for the simultaneous removal of both heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated soils, sediments or sludge. The new chelators were designed to bind various target metal ions, to promote extraction of these ions into organic solvents. Several variations of attached tails were synthesized and tested. The results for one of them, N,N′-bis-dodecyl-S,S-EDDS (C24-EDDS), showed that the metal-ligand complexes are concentrated in the organic-rich phase in the Phase Transition Extraction process (more than 80%). Preliminary applications of the SR-PTE process with the C24-EDDS ligand were conducted also on actually contaminated sludge (field samples). The extraction of five toxic metals, namely, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was examined. In general, the extraction performance of the new ligand was not less than that of S,S-EDDS when a sufficient ligand-to-extracted ion ratio (about 4:1 was applied.

  20. CO2 Radiocarbon Analysis to Quantify Organic Contaminant Degradation, MNA, and Engineered Remediation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    natural abundance CO2 radiocarbon content, CO2 flux measurements and a zone of influence (ZOI) model for well capture volume to quantify complete...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--14-9539 CO2 Radiocarbon Analysis to Quantify Organic Contaminant Degradation, MNA...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT CO2 Radiocarbon Analysis to Quantify

  1. Are exploited mangrove molluscs exposed to persistent organic pollutant contamination in Senegal, West Africa ?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina mono) from two Senegalese stations, Falia (Sine-Saloum Estuary) and Fadiouth (Petite Cote), were analyzed for their pollutant organic persistent contamination (polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs; organochlorinated pesticides OCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs). Results revealed significant levels of PCBs, DDTs and lindane in mangrove sediments ranging fro...

  2. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kohno, Kumiko

    2004-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi [Kagoshima University (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Kohno, Kumiko [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination. (author)

  5. Analysis of diffusion-adsorption equivalency of landfill liner systems for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Ke, Han; Tang, Xiaowu; Chen, Renpeng

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption was studied. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis showed that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) could be 3-4 orders of magnitude is greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner. The GM/GCL and GM/CCL composite liner systems provide a better diffusion barrier for the hydrophilic organic compounds than that for the hydrophobic compounds due to their different Henry's coefficient. The calculated breakthrough times of the organic contaminants for the Chinese standard liner systems were found to be generally greater than those for the GCL alternatives, for the specific conditions examined. If the distribution coefficient increases to 2.8 for the hydrophobic compounds or 1.0 for the hydrophilic compounds, the thickness of the attenuation layer needed to achieve the same breakthrough time as the standard liner systems can be reduced by a factor of about 1.9-2.4. As far as diffusive and adsorption contaminant transport are concerned, GM or GCL is less effective than CCL.

  6. Analysis of diffusion-adsorption equivalency of landfill liner systems for organic contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Haijian; CHEN Yunmin; KE Han; TANG Xiaowu; CHEN Renpeng

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption is analyzed by means of an analytical method. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis show that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) can be 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner. The GM/GCL and GM/CCL composite liner systems provide a better diffusion barrier for the hydrophilic organic compounds than that for the hydrophobic compounds due to their different Henry's coefficient. The calculated breakthrough times of the organic contaminants for the Chinese standard liner systems were found to be generally greater than those for the GCL alternatives, for the specific conditions examined. If the distribution coefficient increases to 2.8 for the hydrophobic compounds or 1.0 for the hydrophilic compounds, the thickness of the attenuation layer needed to achieve the same breakthrough time as the standard liner systems can be reduced by a factor of about 1.9-2.4. As far as diffusive and adsorption contaminant transport are concerned, GM or GCL is less effective than CCL.

  7. Importance of organic amendment characteristics on bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, B; Huguenot, D; Panico, A; Fabbricino, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the importance of the organic matter characteristics of several organic amendments (i.e., buffalo manure, food and kitchen waste, fruit and vegetables waste, and activated sewage sludge) and their influence in the bioremediation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soil. The removal of low molecular weights (LMW) and high molecular weights (HMW) PAHs was monitored in four bioremediation reactors and used as an indicator of the role of organic amendments in contaminant removal. The total initial concentration of LMW PAHs was 234 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight), while the amount for HMW PAHs was 422 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). Monitoring of operational parameters and chemical analysis was performed during 20 weeks. The concentrations of LMW PAH residues in soil were significantly lower in reactors that displayed a mesophilic phase, i.e., 11 and 15 %, compared to reactors that displayed a thermophilic phase, i.e., 29 and 31 %. Residual HMW PAHs were up to five times higher compared to residual LMW PAHs, depending on the reactor. This demonstrated that the amount of added organic matter and macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the biochemical organic compound classes (mostly soluble fraction and proteins), and the operational temperature are important factors affecting the overall efficiency of bioremediation. On that basis, this study shows that characterization of biochemical families could contribute to a better understanding of the effects of organic amendments and clarify their different efficiency during a bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil.

  8. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  9. Two new brominated diterpenes from Laurencia decumbens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new brominated diterpenes, namely, laurendecumtriol and 11-deacetylpinnaterpene C, were isolated and identified from the marine red alga Laurencia decumbens. Their structures were established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR-ESI-MS analyses.

  10. A fugacity based multimedia environmental fate model of organic contaminants in Massachusetts Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, D.; Shea, D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A new sewage outfall is being constructed in Massachusetts Bay as part of the pollution abatement program in Boston Harbor. Previous models of potential environmental impact from the new sewage outfall in Massachusetts Bay have either relied upon hydrodynamic transport models that assume conservative behavior of the contaminants or on non-quantitative conceptual models of non-conservative behavior. The authors have found that a more quantitative mass balance model is necessary to better predict contaminant exposure resulting from effluent discharge through the new outfall. Hence, the authors have developed a time-variant, multimedia environmental model of organic contaminants in the air, water, and sediment phases of Massachusetts Bay. This model is based on the fugacity approach developed by Donald Mackay and is a level 4 unsteady-state model that includes flows through the system. Advection, reaction, and intermedia transport processes are incorporated into the model as first order rate processes and parameters for the model include environmental parameters, physical-chemical properties, contaminant loading estimates from major sources, and transport parameters. The model was applied to several organic contaminants found in Massachusetts Bay water and sediment: naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, dieldrin, 4,4{prime}-DDT, and the polychlorinated biphenyl C16(153). Model output includes a steady-state bay-wide average of water and sediment concentrations, relative distribution of mass after one month at steady state, time to reach steady-state, and residence times. The calculated steady-state concentrations were compared to recent observed values. In addition, sensitivity analysis of the model was performed to indicate which model parameters are most sensitive to perturbation.

  11. Natural attenuation of organic contaminants at the interface between groundwater and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middeldorp, P.; Staps, S.; Rijnaarts, H. [TNO-MEP Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Roelofsen, F.; Valstar, J. [TNO-NITG, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Smits, J. [WL/Delf Hydraulics (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    There are strong indications that the interface between groundwater and surface water plays an important role in the natural degradation of organic contaminants (NA-interface). This is especially the case for mobile contaminants that are relatively persistent in an anaerobic (subsurface) environment, and are mineralised relatively easy under more oxidized environmental conditions (e.g. benzene, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride, the light aliphatic fraction of mineral oil, etc.). These compounds are often also present as degradation products of natural or stimulated in situ biodegradation processes. Previous investigations have indicated indirectly that NA-interface processes contribute to a reduction of contaminant flux into surface water systems. Until now, no straightforward assessment and quantification of NA-interface has been performed. Moreover, limit values for allowable influx of contamination from a site into a surface water system do not exist. This prevents a possible beneficial use of NA-interface processes as a part of a cost-effective and integrated soil and water quality management. This project aims to gain more understanding of the occurrence of NA-interface processes, to quantify their contribution to emission reduction towards the surface water system and, in case of substantial contribution, to promote application of NA-interface as a part of a cost-effective integrated environmental management of contaminated sites and surrounding water bodies. The project's starting point is that the surface water is regarded as an object of risk and not as a reactor. Thus, effective degradation in the interface does not move environmental problems to surface water systems, but eliminates contaminants by natural occurring processes, thus protecting the aquatic ecosystem. (orig.)

  12. Effects Of Evaporation Rate of Some Common Organic Contaminants on Hydraulic Conductivity of Aquifer Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Q. J.; Hasan, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a larger study to investigate potential effects of hydrocarbons on the geotechnical properties of aquifer solids, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to ascertain the influence of evaporation rate of some common and widespread organic contaminants on the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer sand. Gasoline and its constituent chemicals-benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), isooctane- and trichloroethylene (TCE) were used to contaminate sand samples collected from the aquifer and vadose zone, at varying concentrations for extended periods of time. The goal was to study any change in the chemical makeup of the contaminants and its control on hydraulic conductivity of the sand. It was found that: (a) gasoline breaks down into constituent compounds when subjected to evaporation, e.g. during oil spills and leaks; and (b) lighter compounds volatilize faster and in the following order: TCE> benzene > isooctane > toluene > gasoline> ethylbenzene > xylene. In addition, these contaminants also caused a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of sand by up to 60% as compared to the uncontaminated sand. The inherent differences in the chemical structure of contaminating chemicals influenced hydraulic conductivity such that the observed decrease was greater for aliphatic than aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The presentation includes details of the experimental set up; evaporation rate, and geotechnical tests; X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope studies; and data analyses and interpretation. Rate of evaporation test indicates that residual LNAPLs will occupy a certain portion of the pores in the soil either as liquid or vapor phase in the vadose zone, and will create a coating on the adjacent solid mineral grains in the aquifer. Replacement of air by the LNAPLs along with grain coatings and the intramolecular forces would impede groundwater movement, thus affecting overall permeability of contaminated aquifers. Keywords: aquifer

  13. Organic Contamination Baseline Study in NASA Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Curation Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Allton, Judith H.

    2014-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets will require curating astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. 21st century sample return missions will focus on strict protocols for reducing organic contamination that have not been seen since the Apollo manned lunar landing program. To properly curate these materials, the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office under the Astromaterial Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center houses and protects all extraterrestrial materials brought back to Earth that are controlled by the United States government. During fiscal year 2012, we conducted a year-long project to compile historical documentation and laboratory tests involving organic investigations at these facilities. In addition, we developed a plan to determine the current state of organic cleanliness in curation laboratories housing astromaterials. This was accomplished by focusing on current procedures and protocols for cleaning, sample handling, and storage. While the intention of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the current state of organic cleanliness in JSC curation laboratories, it also provides a baseline for determining whether our cleaning procedures and sample handling protocols need to be adapted and/or augmented to meet the new requirements for future human spaceflight and robotic sample return missions.

  14. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  15. Adsorption Study of Several Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants on an Aquifer Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ruffino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aim of the present research was to determine coefficient of partition KD between soil and groundwater for five hydrophobic organic pollutants (benzene, chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene-TCE, perchloroethylene-PCE and toluene in an Italian aquifer material characterized by a low organic carbon content (fOC = 0.00262 by means of laboratory batch tests. Initial aqueous concentrations (quite different among the five compounds were representative of the pollution level of considered site. Approach: Adsorption data for five afore mentioned compounds were obtained by means of laboratory tests: Multi-contaminant adsorption tests were performed putting in contact 50 g of dried soil together with 200 mL of a contaminant solution for 72 h in order to achieve the equilibrium. After 72 h, supernatant was then analyzed by means of headspace gaschromatography providing the equilibrium concentration of the contaminants of interest in liquid phase. The concentration of contaminants of interest in solid phase (adsorbent was determined taking advantage of a mass balance performed on each contaminant. Results: Results showed that both linear isotherm (in form of Henry isotherm and Freundlich isotherm were able to fit experimental points for benzene, chlorobenzene, TCE and PCE in a satisfactory way; as for these four contaminants, PCE is more strongly adsorbed than TCE and TCE, in its turn, is more strongly adsorbed than benzene and chlorobenzene. On the other hand, Langmuir model appeared to be the most suitable in fitting toluene experimental points. The comparison between real distribution coefficient KD obtained fitting experimental points with an Henry-type isotherm and KD obtained on grounds of a theoretical model, like Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFER-based model, showed that LFER model uniformly underestimate the sorption process over whole concentration range, with the only exception of toluene. In case of toluene, LFER-based model

  16. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  17. Quantification of maternal offloading of organic contaminants in elasmobranchs using the histotrophic round stingray (Urobatis halleri) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Maternal offloading is one route by which young animals may accumulate persistent organic pollutants, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but has not been well documented in elasmobranchs despite their propensity to accumulate high concentrations of contaminants. Using the round stingray (Urobatis halleri) as a coastal elasmobranch model, we examined maternal offloading processes at two stages in the stingray's entire reproductive cycle. Post-ovulated and near-term pregnant female stingrays were sampled from southern California, and organic contaminants were measured in the ova and embryonic tissues and compared to concentrations measured in corresponding female livers to determine route and extent of transfer. Total organic contaminant loads measured in ovulated eggs were about two times lower than loads measured in embryos (p contaminants throughout pregnancy. Contaminant loads measured in pups showed a positive relationship with mother's contaminant concentrations (p contaminant load using contaminants measured in the liver as a proxy. However, histotrophy is only one form of supplemental provisioning utilized by elasmobranchs and variation in reproductive modes likely influences the extent to which female elasmobranchs may maternally offload contaminants.

  18. Characterization of unknown brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zheng, Hongdie; Yang, Min

    2014-03-18

    Brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with natural organic matter in the presence of bromide in raw water, are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. To date, only a few Br-DBPs in drinking water have been identified, while a significant portion of Br-DBPs in drinking water is still unknown. In this study, negative ion electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown Br-DBPs in artificial drinking water. In total, 441 formulas for one-bromine-containing products and 37 formulas for two-bromine-containing products, most of which had not been previously reported, were detected in the chlorinated sample. Most Br-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO composition. In addition, on-resonance collision-induced dissociation (CID) of single ultrahigh resolved bromine containing mass peaks was performed in the ICR cell to isolate single bromine-containing components in a very complex natural organic matter spectrum and provide structure information. Relatively abundant neutral loss of CO2 was observed in MS-MS spectra, indicating that the unknown Br-DBPs are rich in carboxyl groups. The results demonstrate that the ESI FT-ICR MS method could provide valuable molecular composition and structure information on unknown Br-DBPs.

  19. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, Audrey [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Université de Lorraine, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); CNRS, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); Ouvrard, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.ouvrard@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Leglize, Pierre [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Watteau, Françoise [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); CNRS, UMS 3562, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54501 (France); Derrien, Delphine [INRA, BEF, UR 1138, Centre Nancy-Lorraine, Champenoux, F-54280 (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ{sup 13}C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM.

  20. Use of Organic Solvents to Extract Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Aged Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; JIN Xin; JIANG Xin; YANG Xing-Lun; SUN Ming-Ming; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Fang; GU Cheng-Gang; WEI Hai-Jiang; SONG Yang; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated sites in China have received wide attention.To solve such problems,innovative ex-situ methods of site remediation are urgently needed.We investigated the feasibility of the extraction method with different organic solvents,ethanol,1-propanol,and three fractions of petroleum ether,using a soil collected from Wujiang (WJ),China,a region with long-term contamination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs).We evaluated different influential factors,including organic solvent concentration,washing time,mixing speed,solution-to-soil ratio,and washing temperature,on the removal of DDTs from the WJ soil.A set of relatively better parameters were selected for extraction with 100 mL L-1 petroleum ether (60-90 ℃):washing time of 180 min,mixing speed of 100 r min-1,solution-to-soil ratio of 10:1,and washing temperature of 50 ℃.These selected parameters were also applied on three other seriously OCP-polluted soils.Results demonstrated their broad-spectrum effectiveness and excellent OCP extraction performance on the contaminated soils with different characteristics.

  1. Mussel watch program for organic contaminants along the Korean coast, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2010-10-01

    The level and extent of organic contaminants along the Korean coast were estimated through the mussel watch program, established in 2001. Mussels and oysters were collected at 20 sites along the Korean coast in 2001 and at 25 sites from 2002 to 2007. The mussel tissues were analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine presticides, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs. PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs were ubiquitous contaminants along the Korean coast, showing mean detection frequencies of more than 95% over 7 years. The concentrations of organic contaminants in mussels along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. Concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs were below the action or maximum levels for humans established by USFDA and EU. Elevated concentrations above the 85th percentile were found for PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs at sites near industrial complexes or big harbors, for HCHs at sites near non-industrial complexes, and for DDTs at sites near both non-industrial and industrial complexes. Using two nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends, the Spearman test revealed that BTs and PCDD/Fs had significant decreasing trends at four sites (Gwangyang Bay, Cheonsu Bay, Garorym Bay, and the Incheon coast) and at six sites (Hupo coast, Guryongpo coast, eastern part of Geojedo, Gunsan coast, Garorym Bay, and Asan Bay), respectively.

  2. Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

    1998-12-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

  3. Mechanistic approach to multi-element isotope modeling of organic contaminant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We propose a multi-element isotope modeling approach to simultaneously predict the evolution of different isotopes during the transformation of organic contaminants. The isotopic trends of different elements are explicitly simulated by tracking position-specific isotopologues that contain the isotopes located at fractionating positions. Our approach is self-consistent and provides a mechanistic description of different degradation pathways that accounts for the influence of both primary and secondary isotope effects during contaminant degradation. The method is particularly suited to quantitatively describe the isotopic evolution of relatively large organic contaminant molecules. For such compounds, an integrated approach, simultaneously considering all possible isotopologues, would be impractical due to the large number of isotopologues. We apply the proposed modeling approach to the degradation of toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and nitrobenzene observed in previous experimental studies. Our model successfully predicts the multi-element isotope data (both 2D and 3D), and accurately captures the distinct trends observed for different reaction pathways. The proposed approach provides an improved and mechanistic methodology to interpret multi-element isotope data and to predict the extent of multi-element isotope fractionation that goes beyond commonly applied modeling descriptions and simplified methods based on the ratio between bulk enrichment factors or on linear regression in dual-isotope plots.

  4. Expanded target-chemical analysis reveals extensive mixed-organic-contaminant exposure in USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Romanok, Kristin; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jones, Daniel K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66–84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L–1 to greater than 10 μg L–1, with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L–1 and 10 ng L–1, respectively. Cumulative detections and concentrations ranged 4–161 compounds (median 70) and 8.5–102 847 ng L–1, respectively, and correlated significantly with wastewater discharge, watershed development, and toxic release inventory metrics. Log10 concentrations of widely monitored HHCB, triclosan, and carbamazepine explained 71–82% of the variability in the total number of compounds detected (linear regression; p-values: direct environment application (pesticides), designed-bioactive organics (median 41 per site at μg L–1 cumulative concentrations) in developed watersheds present aquatic health concerns, given their acknowledged potential for sublethal effects to sensitive species and lifecycle stages at low ng L–1.

  5. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance.

  6. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation from biodegradable organic contaminants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K. M.; Girardi, C.; Miltner, A.; Schäffer, A.; Kästner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil is actually understood as their transformation into various primary metabolites, microbial biomass, mineralisation products and non-extractable residues (NER). NER are generally considered to be composed of parent compounds or primary metabolites with hazardous potential. Up to date, however, their chemical composition remains still unclear. Studies on NER formation are limited to quantitative analyses in soils or to simple humic acids-contaminant systems. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, NER may also contain microbial biomass components, e.g. fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are incorporated into soil organic matter (SOM) and stabilised, ultimately forming biogenic residues which are not any more extractable. We investigated the incorporation of the 13C-label into FA and AA and their fate during biodegradation experiments in soil with isotope-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (13C6-2,4-D) and ibuprofen (13C6-ibu) as model organic contaminants. Our study proved for the first time that nearly all NER formed from 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu in soil derived from harmless microbial biomass components stabilised in SOM. 13C-FA and 13C-AA contents in the living microbial biomass fraction decreased over time and these components were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool in biotic experiments with 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu. The 13C-AA in the non-living SOM were surprisingly stable from day 32 (13C6-2,4-D) and 58 (13C6-ibu) until the end of incubation. We also studied the transformation of 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu into NER in the abiotic soil experiments. In these experiments, the total NER contents were much lower than in the corresponding biotic experiments. The absence of labelled biomolecules in the NER fraction in abiotic soils demonstrated that they consist of the potentially hazardous parent compounds and / or their metabolites. Biogenic

  7. Pulsed Bromine-81 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy of Brominated Flame Retardants and Associated Polymer Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrse, Anthony A.; Lee, Youngil; Bryant, Pamela L.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Butler, Leslie G.; Simeral, Larry S.

    1998-03-01

    The dispersion of brominated flame retardants in polymers is monitored with bromine-81 NQR using a pulse NQR spectrometer. The NQR spectrometer consists of a homemade 10-300 MHz single-channel NMR console coupled to a broadly tunable probe. The probe is a loop-gap resonator usable from 220 to 300 MHz, and automatically tuned over any 5 MHz region with a stepping motor and an RF bidirectional coupler. Bromine-81 NQR spectra of several brominated aromatic flame retardants, as pure materials and in polymers, were recorded in the range of 227 to 256 MHz in zero applied magnetic field. Two factors affect the bromine-79/81 NQR transition frequencies in brominated aromatics: electron withdrawing substituents on the ring and intermolecular contacts with other bromine atoms in the crystal structure. An existing model for substituents is updated and a point charge model for the intermolecular contacts is developed. In this study, we exploit the bromine-81 NQR transition frequency dependence on intermolecular contacts to learn how a flame retardant is dispersed in a polymer matrix.

  8. Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrijel, Ondrasek [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: gondrasek@agr.hr; Davor, Romic [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Marija, Romic; Monika, Zovko [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    Human-induced salinization and trace element contamination are widespread and increasing rapidly, but their interactions and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Phytoaccumulation, as the crucial entry pathway for biotoxic Cd into the human foodstuffs, correlates positively with rhizosphere salinity. Hypothesising that organic matter decreases the bioavailable Cd{sup 2+} pool and therefore restricts its phytoextraction, we assessed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl) and three Cd levels (0.3, 5.5 and 10.4 mg kg{sup -1}) in peat soil on mineral accumulation/distribution as well as vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) in a greenhouse. Salt stress reduced shoot biomass and fruit production, accompanied by increased Na and Cl and decreased K concentration in above-ground tissues. A 25- and 50-day exposure to salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves up to 87% and 46%, respectively. Accumulation of Cd in the fruits was up to 43 times lower than in leaves and remained unaltered by salinity. Soil contamination by Cd enhanced its accumulation in muskmelon tissues by an order of magnitude compared with non-contaminated control. In the drainage solution, concentrations of Na and Cl slightly exceeded those in the irrigation solution, whereas Cd concentration in drainage solution was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the total amount added. Chemical speciation and distribution modelling (NICA-Donnan) using Visual MINTEQ showed predominance of dissolved organic ligands in Cd chemisorption and complexation in all treatments; however, an increase in salt addition caused a decrease in organic Cd complexes from 99 to 71%, with free Cd{sup 2+} increasing up to 6% and Cd-chlorocomplexes up to 23%. This work highlights the importance of soil organic reactive surfaces in reducing trace element bioavailability and phytoaccumulation. Chloride salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves but not in fruit

  9. Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrasek, Gabrijel; Gabrijel, Ondrasek; Romic, Davor; Davor, Romic; Rengel, Zed; Zed, Rengel; Romic, Marija; Marija, Romic; Zovko, Monika; Monika, Zovko

    2009-03-15

    Human-induced salinization and trace element contamination are widespread and increasing rapidly, but their interactions and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Phytoaccumulation, as the crucial entry pathway for biotoxic Cd into the human foodstuffs, correlates positively with rhizosphere salinity. Hypothesising that organic matter decreases the bioavailable Cd(2+) pool and therefore restricts its phytoextraction, we assessed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl) and three Cd levels (0.3, 5.5 and 10.4 mg kg(-1)) in peat soil on mineral accumulation/distribution as well as vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) in a greenhouse. Salt stress reduced shoot biomass and fruit production, accompanied by increased Na and Cl and decreased K concentration in above-ground tissues. A 25- and 50-day exposure to salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves up to 87% and 46%, respectively. Accumulation of Cd in the fruits was up to 43 times lower than in leaves and remained unaltered by salinity. Soil contamination by Cd enhanced its accumulation in muskmelon tissues by an order of magnitude compared with non-contaminated control. In the drainage solution, concentrations of Na and Cl slightly exceeded those in the irrigation solution, whereas Cd concentration in drainage solution was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the total amount added. Chemical speciation and distribution modelling (NICA-Donnan) using Visual MINTEQ showed predominance of dissolved organic ligands in Cd chemisorption and complexation in all treatments; however, an increase in salt addition caused a decrease in organic Cd complexes from 99 to 71%, with free Cd(2+) increasing up to 6% and Cd-chlorocomplexes up to 23%. This work highlights the importance of soil organic reactive surfaces in reducing trace element bioavailability and phytoaccumulation. Chloride salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves but not in fruit peel and

  10. [Contamination of soil with geohelminth eggs on vegetable organic farms in the Lublin voivodeship, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming, despite being more difficult and labour consuming than traditional farming, gains increasingly more followers among farmers. Currently in Poland there are approximately 10 000 organic farms. Pure, uncontaminated soil in the Lublin voivodeship makes this area an ideal location for organic agriculture production. In 2006-2007, 102 soil samples were examined from 40 organic farms specializing in vegetables and berries. Farms for the study were selected by ecology- and food-production specialists from the Lublin Agriculture Advisory Centre in Końskowola. The following plants were cultivated on the farms examined: berry-bearing plants, carrots, parsley, zucchini, cabbage, lettuce, cucumbers, cauliflowers, leeks, onions, kidney beans, beetroots, potatoes, pumpkins, broad beans, rhubarb and herbs. The presently reported parasitological survey was performed on 102 soil samples. Each sample consisted of 100 g of soil and the methodology followed that of the Polish Standard PN-Z-19000-4 (flotation method by Quinn et al.). The survey yielded eggs of parasites representing genera: Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara. Contamination with eggs of intestinal parasites was noted in 43 (42.16%) soil samples. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 24 samples (55.81%). Eggs of Ascaris spp. were detected in 18 samples (41.86%) while eggs of Trichuris spp were present in one sample (2.32%). In total, 29 eggs of Toxocara spp., 19 eggs of Ascaris spp., and 1 egg of Trichuris spp. were found. The largest amount of soil for examination was taken across the plantations of berry-bearing plants - 57 samples. In the group examined, plantations of raspberries and strawberries dominated. The soil was contaminated with the eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. No eggs of Trichuris spp. were detected. The presence of eggs of intestinal parasites in soil poses a threat of geohelminthoses to people who eat contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables.

  11. Applicability and Limits of Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater by Organic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taboure Aboubacar; Lin Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives in some ways a broad look at the Bioremediation Technology in the treatment of polluted groundwater. Environmentalists and Hydrologeologists around the world, especially in the developed countries welcomed this revolutionizing technique at a moment when other methods were becoming rather expensive and sources of secondary and more challenging pollution problems across sole fresh groundwater. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater is based on the use of bacteria which breakdown organic matters to more stable forms, which will not create nuisance or give off foul odors. The Applicability of this technology at a specific site lies in the understanding of the site's hydrogeologic, physiochemical backgrounds and the knowledge of the properties of the designated bacteria colonies, which would likely stabilize the contaminants. These are key points, which determine the success of the all process. Only, by complying with all those measures, Bioremediation can meet all the expectations.

  12. POLANYI-BASED MODELS FOR THE COMPETITIVE SORPTION OF LOW-POLARITY ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS ON A NATURAL SORBENT. (R825406)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of appropriate equilibrium sorption relationships for anthropogenic organic contaminants with soils and sediments is essential to predicting the extents and rates of solid-water interactions in the environment. In this context, we previously reported results that ...

  13. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost ({approximately}$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb{sup 2+}) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants.

  14. The characterization of organic contaminants during the development of the Space Station water reclamation and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H.; Habercom, M.; Crenshaw, M.; Johnson, S.; Manuel, S.; Martindale, W.; Whitman, G.; Traweek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of the application of various methods for characterizing samples for alcohols, fatty acids, detergents, and volatile/semivolatile basic, neutral, and phenolic acid contaminants are presented. Data, applications, and interpretations are given for a variety of methods including sample preparation/cleanup procedures, ion chromatography, and gas chromatography with various detectors. Summaries of the major organic contaminants that contribute to the total organic carbon content are presented.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of trace organic contaminants in reverse osmosis concentrate using RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Bagastyo, Arseto; Rozendal, René A; Mu, Yang; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2011-02-01

    During membrane treatment of secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants, a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) containing trace organic contaminants is generated. As the latter are of concern, effective and economic treatment methods are required. Here, we investigated electrochemical oxidation of ROC using Ti/Ru(0.7)Ir(0.3)O(2) electrodes, focussing on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254)), and 28 pharmaceuticals and pesticides frequently encountered in secondary treated effluents. The experiments were conducted in a continuously fed reactor at current densities (J) ranging from 1 to 250 A m(-2) anode, and a batch reactor at J = 250 A m(-2). Higher mineralization efficiency was observed during batch oxidation (e.g. 25.1 ± 2.7% DOC removal vs 0% removal in the continuous reactor after applying specific electrical charge, Q = 437.0 A h m(-3) ROC), indicating that DOC removal is depending on indirect oxidation by electrogenerated oxidants that accumulate in the bulk liquid. An initial increase and subsequent slow decrease in SUVA(254) during batch mode suggests the introduction of auxochrome substituents (e.g. -Cl, NH(2)Cl, -Br, and -OH) into the aromatic compounds. Contrarily, in the continuous reactor ring-cleaving oxidation products were generated, and SUVA(254) removal correlated with applied charge. Furthermore, 20 of the target pharmaceuticals and pesticides completely disappeared in both the continuous and batch experiments when applying J ≥ 150 A m(-2) (i.e. Q ≥ 461.5 A h m(-3)) and 437.0 A h m(-3) (J = 250 A m(-2)), respectively. Compounds that were more persistent during continuous oxidation were characterized by the presence of electrophilic groups on the aromatic ring (e.g. triclopyr) or by the absence of stronger nucleophilic substituents (e.g. ibuprofen). These pollutants were oxidized when applying higher specific electrical charge in batch mode (i.e. 1.45 kA h m(-3) ROC

  16. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  17. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  18. Removal of volatile to semi-volatile organic contaminants from water using hollow fiber membrane contactors and catalytic destruction of the contaminants in the gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafder, Shamsul Abedin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chlorinated organic compounds and ether compounds are frequently found in groundwater and efficient treatment options are needed. In this study, the efficient transferal of the compounds from the water phase to the gas phase was studied followed by the catalytic treatment of the gas phase. For the removal of the organic contaminants from water, a microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module was operated under low strip gas flow to water flow ratios (_< 5:1). Rem...

  19. Farmland mercury contamination in the vicinity of an organic chemical factory in Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junfang; QU Liya; FENG Xinbin; ZHANG Wei; GUO Yanna; LIN Kai; LI Mei

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the level of contamination of Hg in farmland soils along the irrigating channel downstream from Guizhou Organic Chemical Factory (GOCF), where metallic mercury is used as a catalyst to produce acetic acid. The total input of mercury into the environment, as announced by GOCF, is 140 t in the past 30 years (1971-2000). Sampling sites were chosen based on the distance from the source of pollution-the chemical factory. A total of 39 samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for total mercury concentrations and methyl mercury concentrations. The characteristics of vertical and horizontal distributions of total mercury and methyl mercury in the study area (farmland) are described in this paper. Much attention was paid to the transformation of inorganic Hg into organic mercury species in soils as well. The results showed that the farmland has been heavily contaminated by Hg. Land cultivation activity, land utilization style and distance from the pollution source could be the dominant factors controlling the distribution of THg and MeHg. It is observed that active transformation of inorganic Hg into organic mercury species (MeHg) usually takes place in paddy soils.

  20. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios.

  1. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  2. Contaminant immobilization and nutrient release by biochar soil amendment: roles of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and releasing essential nutrients like sulfur. Information is currently lacking in how aging impacts the integrity of biochars as soil amendment for both agricultural and environmental remediation purposes. Major contributors to biochar aging in soils are: sorption of environmental constituents, especially natural organic matter (NOM), and oxidation. To investigate the impact of NOM and organic fractions of chars, we employed broiler litter-derived chars and steam-activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of carbonization, in the presence and absence of NOM having known carboxyl contents. For aging by oxidation, we employed phosphoric acid activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of oxidation during activation. The results suggest that the organic fractions of biochars, and NOM having high carboxyl contents can mobilize Cu(II) retained by alkaline soil. Base treatment of broiler litter-derived char formed at low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees C) improved the immobilization of all heavy metals investigated, and the extent of immobilization was similar to, or slightly greater than pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons. Portions of total sulfur were released in soluble form in soil amended with broiler litter-derived carbons, but not pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons.

  3. Preparation of Silica/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheet Composites for Removal of Organic Contaminants from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Liu, Wei; Wang, Haifei; Lu, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-based composites open up new opportunities as effective adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants from water. In this article, we report a novel and facile process to synthesize well-dispersed silica/reduced graphene oxide (SiO2/RGO) nanosheet composites. The SiO2/RGO nanosheet composites are prepared through a modified sol-gel process with in situ hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet, followed by reduction of GO to graphene. In comparison with the RGO nanosheets, the as-prepared SiO2/RGO nanosheet composites have a larger surface area and good aqueous disperse ability. In addition, the application of SiO2/RGO nanosheet composites was demonstrated on removing organic dyes from water. The SiO2/RGO nanosheet composites show rapid and stable adsorption performance on removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and thionine (TH) from water. It is indicated that the resulting SiO2/RGO composites can be utilized as efficient adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants from water.

  4. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Wolfe, David M; Celejewski, Magda A; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)--based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms.

  5. Development of HUMASORB{trademark}, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastave, K.C.; Walia, D.S. [ARCTECH, Inc., Chantilly, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project.The objective of this project is to develop a lignite-derived adsorbent, Humasorb{sup TM} to remove heavy metals and organics from ground water and surface water streams.

  6. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was not possible, and control programs should therefore include thorough cleaning......, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79 % of the eggs were viable. Conclusion: The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum...

  7. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  8. Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S. (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (France))

    1993-06-01

    A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

  9. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...... for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus meanas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact...

  10. Removal of organic contaminants from water or wastewater with liquefied gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study utilized liquefied gases (LG) as extractant to remove various organic contaminants including halogenated hydrocarbons and phenols as well as aromatic compounds from aqueousmatrices. Orthogonal experiments were performed to optimize theoperating conditions such as temperature, co-solvents and so on.Under favorable conditions, high removal efficiencies can bereadily achieved for a great number of representative model organiccontaminants, the removal efficiencies for most of the hydrophobiccontaminants were greater than 90% in a single extraction stage.Tentative effort was also done for the removal of extractedcontaminants from recycled liquefied gases.

  11. The role of clay in enhancing attenuation of trace organic contaminants during managed aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J.; Strasser, A.; Hake, E.; Wing, A.; Drewes, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    For more hydrophobic trace organic contaminants present in surface water or reclaimed water applied for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), sorption onto organic matter can play a major role in attenuation in subsurface systems as the retardation allows more time for biotransformation. In case of low organic matter, other sorptive processes such as interactions with mineral surfaces gain importance. Especially for positively charged molecules, sorption onto clay materials by cation exchange will play a significant role. However, if the cation exchange capacity is limited or sorption of trace organic contaminants to clay materials is reversible due to changes in geochemical conditions (i.e., pH, ion strength), this might not provide a sustainable removal pathway. The objective of this study is to investigate how sorption to clay can enhance the removal of trace organic contaminants during MAR with the goal of evaluating the feasibility (i.e., infiltration capacity) and benefit (i.e., retardation of recalcitrant compounds) of introducing clay materials as reactive barriers in MAR systems. Laboratory-scale soil column experiments and batch sorption experiments using well characterized soil mixtures with different clay percentages under abiotic conditions and spiked at environmentally relevant concentration levels were conducted to derive soil water distribution coefficients for a suite of 15 trace organic chemicals (i.e., pharmaceutical residues, personal care products, household chemicals) and to quantify their sorption/desorption potential. All clay materials used in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction to obtain information regarding their sorption processes. Furthermore, results were compared with geochemical field data from a full-scale MAR site in Colorado where significant amounts of clay in the subsurface were present. Preliminary results indicated that certain clay materials bear a great potential to retain moderately hydrophobic compounds such as

  12. Occurrence, bioavailability and toxic effects of trace metals and organic contaminants in mangrove ecosystems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    Although their ecological and socioeconomic importance has received recent attention, mangrove ecosystems are one of the most threatened tropical environments. Besides direct clearance, hydrological alterations, climatic changes or insect infestations, chemical pollution could be a significant contributor of mangrove degradation. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on the occurrence, bioavailability and toxic effects of trace contaminants in mangrove ecosystems. The literature confirmed that trace metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and Endocrine Disrupters Compounds (EDCs) have been detected in various mangrove compartments (water, sediments and biota). In some cases, these chemicals have associated toxic effects on mangrove ecosystem species, with potential impact on populations and biodiversity in the field. However, nearly all studies about the bioavailability and toxic effects of contaminants in mangrove ecosystems focus on selected trace metals, PAHs or some "conventional" POPs, and virtually no data exist for other contaminant groups. The specificities of mangrove ecosystems (e.g. biology, physico-chemistry and hydrology) support the need for specific ecotoxicological tools. This review highlights the major data and methodological gaps which should be addressed to refine the risk assessment of trace pollutants in mangrove ecosystems.

  13. The Elbe flood in August 2002--organic contaminants in sediment samples taken after the flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, Burkhard; Jantzen, Eckard; Knoth, Wilhelm; Krüger, Frank; Lepom, Peter; Oetken, Matthias; Reincke, Heinrich; Sawal, Georg; Schwartz, René; Uhlig, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    In the course of this study 37 sediment samples were analyzed. They were taken after the flooding in September 2002 along the Elbe and at the mouths of its major tributaries. The sampling program covered the entire river stretch that was affected by the floods, from Obristvi (Czech Republic) to the Elbe estuary (North Sea) on the German coast. Analyses were performed for dioxins, nonylphenols, nonylphenol ethoxylates, bisphenol A, DEHP, musk fragrances, polybrominated diphenylethers, chloroalkylphosphates, organochlorine compounds, PAH, and organotin compounds. The results show that only a few weeks after the flood, contaminant concentrations in solid matter were comparable to those prevailing beforehand. Significant sources of contaminant input proved to be the tributaries Vltava (Moldau), Bilina (both in the Czech Republic), and the Mulde (Germany), as well as industrial and municipal sewage treatment works (STW) located along the Elbe. Further point sources are to be found in still water zones such as harbors and abandoned channels. These sources are activated when erosive action stirs up older sediments. Statistical analyses of the congener distribution of the dioxins provided evidence on the sources of these contaminants and freight levels in different river sections. The chemical analyses were complemented by results of ecotoxicological investigations with two sediment organisms (Chironomus riparius and Potamopyrgus antipodarum).

  14. Impact of Biochar on Organic Contaminants in Soil: A Tool for Mitigating Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk T. Semple

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biochar in soils through natural processes (forest fires, bush burning or through application to soil (agriculture, carbon storage, remediation, waste management has received a significant amount of scientific and regulatory attention. Biochar alters soil properties, encourages microbial activity and enhances sorption of inorganic and organic compounds, but this strongly depends on the feedstock and production process of biochar. This review considers biochar sources, the production process and result of pyrolysis, interactions of biochar with soil, and associated biota. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the interactions between biochar and common anthropogenic organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, pesticides, and dioxins, which are often deposited in the soil environment. It then considers the feasibility of applying biochar in remediation technologies in addition to other perspective areas yet to be explored.

  15. Evaluation of an Innovative Technology for Treatment of Water Contaminated with Perchlorate and Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    Environment: Emerging Contaminants /MERIT: Emerging Contaminants (EC): EC Action List: Perchlorate. Retrieved 2 July 2008, from: https...Trichloroethylene, Perchlorate, and Other Emerging Contaminants . Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Readiness, Committee on Armed Services, House of

  16. Biomarkers of Organic Contamination in the South-American Fishes Poecilia vivipara and Jenynsia multidentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke Ferreira, Roger; Monserrat, José Maria; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler Luís; Kalb, Ana Cristina; Stegeman, John; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso; Zanette, Juliano

    2017-01-01

    South American Cyprinodontiform fishes are potential candidates to be used as model species in environmental toxicology. We sought for molecular and biochemical biomarkers of pollution in Poecilia vivipara (Poecilidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae). Partial nucleotide sequences for the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1A), a classical biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants in fish, were identified in P. vivipara and J. multidentata (∼ 650 nucleotides) using degenerated primers and PCR. These sequences shared ∼ 90 % identity in the predicted amino acid sequence with the corresponding Cyp1A region of Fundulus heteroclitus. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that cyp1A transcription was strongly induced in the liver and gills of J. multidentata (∼185-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively) and P. vivipara (122-fold and 739-fold, respectively), after 24-hrs exposure to 1 μM of the synthetic cyp1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF). After 24 hs of injection with 1 μg.g-1 of the environmental carcinogenic contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a decreased total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals was observed both in liver of J. multidentata and gills of P. vivipara. BaP injection in both fishes did not cause changes in lipid peroxides (TBARS) levels, suggesting an absence of an oxidative stress situation caused by BaP injection in this study. The newly identified cyp1As would serve as general biomarkers of exposure to organic contaminant in future studies using P. vivipara and J. multidentata. The results also points out to the important species-specific differences in the biomarker responses in those South American cyprinodontiform fishes, which would suggests distinct resistance/susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:22852852

  17. An immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-11-15

    The tightly regulated expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E from a multi-copy plasmid led to the stable production of an Salmonella Enteritidis bacterial ghost. The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced after single or double intramuscular immunization with the S. Enteritidis ghost and to assess its protective effect on colonization of the intestinal tract, visceral and reproductive organs, internal egg contamination, and egg production of laying chickens. A total of 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n=20); group A (non-immunized control), group B (immunized at 8 and 16 weeks of age) and group C (immunized at 16th week of age). Chickens from both immunized groups B and C demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. The population of CD3+CD4+ positive T cells in the immunized chickens was also significantly increased after immunization and virulent challenge. In addition, the immunized groups B and C showed significantly higher egg production and a lower percentage of S. Enteritidis contaminated eggs after challenge compared to those of group A. A comparison of challenge strain isolation from the immunized-challenged and non-immunized-challenged layer hens showed that the double immunization group induced excellent protection against intestinal, liver, splenic, and ovarian Salmonella colonization; however, the single immunized chickens showed lower counts only in the splenic and ovarian organs. Overall, the data give compelling evidence that vaccination with the S. Enteritidis ghost induced robust protective immunity against experimental avian salmonellosis and may contribute to the reduce incidence of egg contamination.

  18. Modeling of multiphase transport of multicomponent organic contaminants and heat in the subsurface: Numerical model formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenekan, A. E.; Patzek, T. W.; Pruess, K.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical compositional simulator (Multiphase Multicomponent Nonisothermal Organics Transport Simulator (M2NOTS)) has been developed for modeling transient, three-dimensional, nonisothermal, and multiphase transport of multicomponent organic contaminants in the subsurface. The governing equations include (1) advection of all three phases in response to pressure, capillary, and gravity forces; (2) interphase mass transfer that allows every component to partition into each phase present; (3) diffusion; and (4) transport of sensible and latent heat energy. Two other features distinguish M2NOTS from other simulators reported in the groundwater literature: (1) the simulator allows for any number of chemical components and every component is allowed to partition into all fluid phases present, and (2) each phase is allowed to completely disappear from, or appear in, any region of the domain during a simulation. These features are required to model realistic field problems involving transport of mixtures of nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants, and to quantify performance of existing and emerging remediation methods such as vacuum extraction and steam injection.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  1. Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals worldwide are awaiting remediation activities; bioremediation is often considered as a cost-effective remediation approach. Potential bioapproaches are biostimulation, e.g. by addition of nutrients, fertiliser and organic substrates, and bioaugmentation by addition of compound-degrading microbes or of organic amendments containing active microorganisms, e.g. activated sludge or compost. In most contaminated soils, the abundance of the intrinsic metabolic potential is too low to be improved by biostimulation alone, since the physical and chemical conditions in these soils are not conducive to biodegradation. In the last few decades, compost or farmyard manure addition as well as composting with various organic supplements have been found to be very efficient for soil bioremediation. In the present minireview, we provide an overview of the composting and compost addition approaches as 'stimulants' of natural attenuation. Laboratory degradation experiments are often biased either by not considering the abiotic factors or by focusing solely on the elimination of the chemicals without taking the biotic factors and processes into account. Therefore, we first systemise the concepts of composting and compost addition, then summarise the relevant physical, chemical and biotic factors and mechanisms for improved contaminant degradation triggered by compost addition. These factors and mechanisms are of particular interest, since they are more relevant and easier to determine than the composition of the degrading community, which is also addressed in this review. Due to the mostly empirical knowledge and the nonstandardised biowaste or compost materials, the field use of these approaches is highly challenging, but also promising. Based on the huge metabolic diversity of microorganisms developing during the composting processes, a highly complex metabolic diversity is established as a 'metabolic memory' within developing and mature

  2. Organic Contaminants and Treatment Chemicals in Steam-Water Cycles: Thermal stability, decomposition products and flow-accelerated corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moed, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler feedwater and steam have to be of high purity, because of the susceptibility of the steam-water cycle to corrosion. Organic contaminants break down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam-water cycle comp

  3. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments from the Korean coast: Spatial distribution and temporal trends (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were estimated through a nationwide environmental monitoring program from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. The mean detection frequencies of organic contaminants during the seven years were highest for PAHs and PCDD/Fs, followed by PCBs, DDTs, TBT and HCHs in decreasing order. Based on published sediment quality guidelines, the ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in sediments along the Korean coast were low, despite exceedances of the ERL at 2-6 sites for DDTs, and the TEL at 9-18 sites for PCDD/Fs. Nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends revealed significant decreasing trends for PCBs and PCDD/Fs at four and three sites, respectively (pcontaminants.

  4. Levels of emerging and traditional organic Pollutants in Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Trøndelag. Potential Effects on oxidative Stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Lene Norstrand

    2016-01-01

    Due to the implemented restrictions and bans of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the production and use of alternative chemicals are increasing. The lack of knowledge regarding the environmental occurrence, persistence and potential toxic effects of these unrestricted substitutes causes concern. In the present study, levels of legacy POPs and emerging organic contaminants, being novel brominated flame retardants (nBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), were investigated...

  5. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  6. The Cyclotron Production and Nuclear Imaging of BROMINE-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Eduardo

    In this investigation, bromine-77 was produced with a medical cyclotron and imaged with gamma cameras. Br -77 emits a 240 kev photon with a half life of 56 hours. The C-Br bond is stronger than the C-I bond and bromine is not collected in the thyroid. Bromine can be used to label many organic molecules by methods analogous to radioiodination. The only North American source of Br-77 in the 70's and 80's was Los Alamos National Laboratory, but it discontinued production in 1989. In this method, a p,3n reaction on Br-77 produces Kr-77 which decays with a 1.2 hour half life to Br-77. A cyclotron generated 40 MeV proton beam is incident on a nearly saturated NaBr or LiBr solution contained in a copper or titanium target. A cooling chamber through which helium gas is flowed separates the solution from the cyclotron beam line. Helium gas is also flowed through the solution to extract Kr-77 gas. The mixture flows through a nitrogen trap where Kr-77 freezes and is allowed to decay to Br-77. Eight production runs were performed, three with a copper target and five with a titanium target with yields of 40, 104, 180, 679, 1080, 685, 762 and 118 uCi respectively. Gamma ray spectroscopy has shown the product to be very pure, however corrosion has been a major obstacle, causing the premature retirement of the copper target. Phantom and in-vivo rat nuclear images, and an autoradiograph in a rat are presented. The quality of the nuclear scans is reasonable and the autoradiograph reveals high isotope uptake in the renal parenchyma, a more moderate but uniform uptake in pulmonary and hepatic tissue, and low soft tissue uptake. There is no isotope uptake in the brain or the gastric mucosa.

  7. Influence of dissimilatory metal reduction on fate of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Anderson, Robert T.

    Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to destroy organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions by oxidizing them to carbon dioxide. Some Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can also reductively dechlorinate chlorinated contaminants. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can reduce a variety of contaminant metals and convert them from soluble forms to forms that are likely to be immobilized in the subsurface. Studies in petroleum-contaminated aquifers have demonstrated that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be effective agents in removing aromatic hydrocarbons from groundwater under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to remove uranium from contaminated groundwaters. The activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be stimulated in several ways to enhance organic contaminant oxidation and metal reduction. Molecular analyses in both field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that microorganisms of the genus Geobacter become dominant members of the microbial community when Fe(III)-reducing conditions develop as the result of organic contamination, or when Fe(III) reduction is artificially stimulated. These results suggest that further understanding of the ecophysiology of Geobacter species would aid in better prediction of the natural attenuation of organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions and in the design of strategies for the bioremediation of subsurface metal contamination. Des micro-organismes simulant la réduction du fer ont la capacité de détruire des polluants organiques dans des conditions anérobies en les oxydant en dioxyde de carbone. Certains micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent aussi dé-chlorer par réduction des polluants chlorés. Des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent réduire tout un ensemble de métaux polluants et les faire passer de formes solubles à des formes qui sont susceptibles d'être immobilisées dans le milieu

  8. Application of isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants sorbed to dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura, E-mail: laura.delgado@eez.csic.es; Wu, Laosheng; Gan, Jay

    2015-08-15

    Natural waters such as surface water and sediment porewater invariably contain dissolved organic matter (DOM). Association of strongly hydrophobic contaminants (HOCs) with DOM leads to decreased toxicity and bioavailability, but bioavailability of DOM-sorbed HOCs is difficult to measure. Current methods to estimate bioavailability of HOCs in water are based on only the freely dissolved concentration (C{sub free}). The ignorance of the exchangeable fraction of HOCs sorbed on DOM may result in an underestimation of the toxicity potential of HOCs to aquatic organisms. Here we explore the applicability of an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measuring the desorption fraction of DOM-sorbed pyrene and bifenthrin and determining their exchangeable pool (E) as an approximation of bioavailability. E values, expressed as percentage of the total concentration, ranged between 0.80 and 0.92% for pyrene and 0.74 and 0.85% for bifenthrin, depending primarily on the amount of chemical in the freely dissolved form. However, between 34 and 78% of the DOM-sorbed pyrene was exchangeable. This fraction ranged between 23% and 82% for bifenthrin. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a significant relationship (r{sup 2} > 0.72, P < 0.0001) between E and bioaccumulation into Daphnia magna. Therefore, IDM may be used to improve the bioavailability measurement and risk assessment of HOCs in aquatic systems.

  9. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  10. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  11. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  12. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-09-30

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  13. Development of surrogate correlation models to predict trace organic contaminant oxidation and microbial inactivation during ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Gamage, Sujanie; Jones, Darryl; Korshin, Gregory V; Lee, Yunho; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; von Gunten, Urs; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-12-01

    The performance of ozonation in wastewater depends on water quality and the ability to form hydroxyl radicals (·OH) to meet disinfection or contaminant transformation objectives. Since there are no on-line methods to assess ozone and ·OH exposure in wastewater, many agencies are now embracing indicator frameworks and surrogate monitoring for regulatory compliance. Two of the most promising surrogate parameters for ozone-based treatment of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents are differential UV(254) absorbance (ΔUV(254)) and total fluorescence (ΔTF). In the current study, empirical correlations for ΔUV(254) and ΔTF were developed for the oxidation of 18 trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), including 1,4-dioxane, atenolol, atrazine, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), phenytoin, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, trimethoprim, and tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) (R(2) = 0.50-0.83) and the inactivation of three microbial surrogates, including Escherichia coli, MS2, and Bacillus subtilis spores (R(2) = 0.46-0.78). Nine wastewaters were tested in laboratory systems, and eight wastewaters were evaluated at pilot- and full-scale. A predictive model for OH exposure based on ΔUV(254) or ΔTF was also proposed.

  14. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system.

  15. Removal of prioritary pesticides contamining r'mel ground water by using organic waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakouri, H; Morillo, J; Usero, J; Ouassini, A

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated pesticide contamination of R'mel ground water located in northwest Morocco. The study area is densely populated and thriving, with intensive agriculture. Various techniques, including stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection (GC-MS), were used for the quantitative determination of 13 pesticides including alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The survey results showed that contamination by pesticide residues is widespread in the area. With the exception of atrazine, the average concentrations were all below the regulatory limits established by the European Union. The potential of ten natural organic substances to eliminate pesticides included in the European Water Framework Directive was evaluated. The absorbents with the highest removal efficiency were date and olives stones and, to a Lesser degree, Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. The adsorption tests gave very satisfying results and pointed to the possible application of these supports as ecoLogical remediation techniques to prevent pesticide pollution of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption of aromatic organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets: comparison with carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apul, Onur Guven; Wang, Qiliang; Zhou, Yang; Karanfil, Tanju

    2013-03-15

    Adsorption of two synthetic organic compounds (SOCs; phenanthrene and biphenyl) by two pristine graphene nanosheets (GNS) and one graphene oxide (GO) was examined and compared with those of a coal base activated carbon (HD4000), a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in distilled and deionized water and in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Graphenes exhibited comparable or better adsorption capacities than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and granular activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of NOM. The presence of NOM reduced the SOC uptake of all adsorbents. However, the impact of NOM on the SOC adsorption was smaller on graphenes than CNTs and activated carbons. Furthermore, the SOC with its flexible molecular structure was less impacted from NOM preloading than the SOC with planar and rigid molecular structure. The results indicated that graphenes can serve as alternative adsorbents for removing SOCs from water. However, they will also, if released to environment, adsorb organic contaminants influencing their fate and impact in the environment.

  18. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine; Witt, Gesine; Haase, Nora; Escher, Beate I

    2016-06-07

    Mixtures of organic contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment. Depending on their persistence and physicochemical properties, individual chemicals that make up the mixture partition and distribute within the environment and might then jointly elicit toxicological effects. For the assessment and monitoring of such mixtures, a variety of cell-based in vitro and low-complexity in vivo bioassays based on algae, daphnids or fish embryos are available. A very important and sometimes unrecognized challenge is how to combine sampling, extraction and dosing to transfer the mixtures from the environment into bioassays, while conserving (or re-establishing) their chemical composition at adjustable levels for concentration-effect assessment. This article outlines various strategies for quantifiable transfer from environmental samples including water, sediment, and biota into bioassays using total extraction or polymer-based passive sampling combined with either solvent spiking or passive dosing.

  19. Uptake of Organic Contaminants by Plants from Oil Sands Fine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the performance of different plant species growing in different kinds of oil sands fine tailings,and to estimate the uptake of organic contaminants by plants from the oil sands fine tailings.In general,total hydrocarbon in the plant could be ranked(beginning with the highest)as:unweathered plant 4 tailings (UWT),Freeze-Thawtailings(FT),weathered plant 4 tailings(WT),and consolidated tailings(CT) for the willow,poplar and cattails.For grass,CT amended with tailings sand and muskeg had the highest hydrocarbon level in the field treatment,however,other three kinds of tailings(FT,WT and UWT) had lower but similar to each other hydrocarbon levels.

  20. Permeable sorptive walls for treatment of hydrophobic organic contaminant plumes in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grathwohl, P.; Peschik, G. [Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Highly hydrophobic contaminants are easily adsorbed from aqueous solutions. Since for many of these compounds sorption increases with increasing organic carbon content natural materials such as bituminous shales and coals may be used in permeable sorptive walls. This, however, only applies if sorption is at equilibrium, which may not always be the case in groundwater treatment using a funnel-and-gate system. In contrast to the natural solids, granular activated carbons (GACs) have very high sorption capacities and reasonably fast sorption kinetics. The laboratory results show that application of GACs (e.g. F100) is economically feasible for in situ removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site (MGP). For less sorbing compounds (such as benzene, toluene, xylenes) a combination of adsorption and biodegradation is necessary (i.e. sorptive + reactive treatment).

  1. Anaerobic Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge: 15 Years of Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. BARRET; L. DELGADILLO-MIRQUEZ; E. TRABLY; N. DELGENES; F. BRAUN; G. CEA-BARCIA; J. P. STEYER; D. PATUREAU

    2012-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TOCs) correspond to a broad range of molecules generated either directly or indirectly by human activity.Even though TOCs are found at low concentrations in the environment,they often accumulate by biomagnification and bioaccumulation into biological organisms and cause irreversible damages in biological systems through direct or indirect toxic effects such as endocrine disruption and tumour initiation.This manuscript presents the main findings of over fifteen years of research focusing on biological removal of various TOCs found in sewage sludge from urban treatment plants.A special focus of the research was made on microbial processes in complex anaerobic ecosystems.Four families of compounds mostly retrieved in urban plants were studied:the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),the polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs),the phthalic acid esters (PAEs),and the nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs).It was observed that the microbial capability for removing low amounts of TOCs required a long adaptation time and was often limited by the bioavailability of these compounds.In fact,the overall biodegradation resulted from the numerous interactions existing between the matrix (organic matter) and the microbial ecosystems according to the physico-chemical sorption properties of these compounds.Mechanistic aspects were also tackled in depth and specific models were developed for better understanding the network of interactions between TOCs,microorganisms,and organic matter.These findings could be extrapolated to other ecosystems such as soils and sediments.Finally,it was shown that microbial cometabolism was essential for TOC removal,and the concept of bioavailability was not only dependent on the nature,the level,and the sorption properties of TOCs but was alsostrongly dependent on the nature and the concentration of the sludge organic matter.Specific parameters were proposed for better evaluating the fate of TOCs in microbial anaerobic processes and

  2. Use of on-site high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate the magnitude and extent of organic contaminants in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Franks, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Appraisal of ground water contaminated by organic substances raises problems of difficult sample collection and timely chemical analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated for on-site determination of specific organic contaminants in ground water samples and was used at three study sites. Organic solutes were determined directly in water samples, with little or no preparation, and usually in less than an hour after collection. This information improved sampling efficiency and was useful in screening for subsequent laboratory analysis. On two occasions, on-site analysis revealed that samples were undergoing rapid change, with major solutes being upgraded and alteration products being formed. In addition to sample stability, this technique proved valuable for monitoring other sampling factors such as compositional changes with respect to pumping, filtration, and cross contamination. -Authors

  3. Non-invasive monitoring of the degradation of organic contaminants: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Perrine M.; Bloem, Esther; Philippe, Romain; Binley, Andrew; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    Degradation of organic chemicals under various fluid saturation conditions is a process highly relevant to the protection of groundwater quality. Redox potential drives the degradation of organic compounds; its variation affects the water chemistry, gas release and also the geo-electrical signature. This study explores how non-invasive measurements sensitive to geo-electrical properties provides quantitative information about the in-situ redox conditions. Our laboratory experiment focuses on the degradation of de-icing chemicals commonly used, for example, in Norwegian airports. The experiment was conducted in a number of (1.0x0.5x0.4 m) sand boxes. Two ends of each box was contaminated with propylene glycol, an aircraft deicing fluid. Each source was placed near the water table under static hydraulic conditions. At one side of the tank, a conductor linking the contamination zone, near the water table and the unsaturated zone with a low water content, was placed to improve the degradation by facilitating the electron exchange. At the other side, degradation occurred under natural conditions. Each box was equipped with 288 electrodes, distributed on six faces to perform 3D resistivity measurements. In addition, self-potential measurements were taken from electrodes on the sand surface. Four observation wells were installed above and below the water table to provide more information on the degradation processes. Moreover, measurements of carbon dioxide on the surface were performed as higher concentrations were expected where the pollutant degraded. We would like to present and discuss a selection of the preliminary results of 3D electrical resistivity and self-potential techniques from our laboratory setup.

  4. Time-trends of metals and organic contaminants in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Ulrika; Bignert, Anders; Haglund, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The occurrence of chemicals in sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is of concern for human health and the environment. Legislations and regulations are put in place to minimize the release of harmful chemicals into the environment and arable land, e.g. via application of sewage sludge. Temporal trends analysis of sludge contaminants can be used to assess the effectiveness of such actions. Such analyses can be performed retrospectively, using sludge stored in environmental specimen banks, to investigate new or emerging environmental contaminants. The present study provides data from time-trend analyses of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other organic compounds in sludge from Swedish. The analysis showed that sludge is a suitable matrix for time-trend studies and it can take on average 12 years (range, 5-26 years) to track an annual change of ±10% (with a power of 80%). Statistically significant trends were found for 18 out of the 77 compounds subjected to analysis, of which 75% showed decreasing trends. Triclosan and the antibiotic norfloxacin followed the same trend as the national recorded usage and decreased annually by 65% and 60%, respectively. The opposite was true for the methylsiloxanes, which showed an annual average increase of about 30%. A downward trend (about 20% year⁻¹) was observed for the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs 154 and 183), while PBDE 209 increased by 16%. Further measurements are required to determine if the substitution of PBDEs by chlorinated paraffins or organophosphorus compounds have resulted in increased concentrations of the latter in sludge.

  5. Application of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of organic contaminants, bioactive and nutritional compounds in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanwen; Ge, Xusheng; Lv, Yunkai; Wang, Anbang

    2012-05-11

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has become a popular green extraction technology for different classes of organic contaminants present in numerous kinds of food and feed for food safety. The parameters affecting ASE efficiency and application advancement of ASE in the analysis of organic contaminants, natural toxins compounds as well as bioactive and nutritional compounds in animal origin food, plant origin food and animal feed are reviewed in detail. ASE is a fully automated and reliable extraction technique with many advantages over traditional extraction techniques, so it could be especially useful for routine analyses of pollutants in food and feed.

  6. Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brits, Martin; de Vos, Jayne; Weiss, Jana M; Rohwer, Egmont R; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies.

  7. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  8. Comparison of the removal of hydrophobic trace organic contaminants by forward osmosis and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-05-15

    We compared the rejection behaviours of three hydrophobic trace organic contaminants, bisphenol A, triclosan and diclofenac, in forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO). Using erythritol, xylose and glucose as inert reference organic solutes and the membrane pore transport model, the mean effective pore size of a commercial cellulose-based FO membrane was estimated to be 0.74 nm. When NaCl was used as the draw solute, at the same water permeate flux of 5.4 L/m(2) h (or 1.5 μm/s), the adsorption of all three compounds to the membrane in the FO mode was consistently lower than that in the RO mode. Rejection of bisphenol A and diclofenac were higher in the FO mode compared to that in the RO mode. Because the molecular width of triclosan was larger than the estimated mean effective membrane pore size, triclosan was completely rejected by the membrane and negligent difference between the FO and RO modes could be observed. The difference in the separation behaviour of these hydrophobic trace organics in the FO (using NaCl the draw solute) and RO modes could be explained by the phenomenon of retarded forward diffusion of solutes. The reverse salt flux of NaCl hinders the pore diffusion and subsequent adsorption of the trace organic compounds within the membrane. The retarded forward diffusion effect was not observed when MgSO(4) and glucose were used as the draw solutes. The reverse flux of both MgSO(4) and glucose was negligible and thus both adsorption and rejection of BPA in the FO mode were identical to those in the RO mode.

  9. GC/MS Based Non-target Screening of Organic Contaminants in River Indus and its Tributaries in Sindh (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Shaikh1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate presence of organic contaminants in river Indus and its tributaries screening studies were carried out. Two years screening studies were based on four sampling campaigns in 13 sampling points out of which 9 sampling points belong to river Indus and its tributaries, 4 to municipal sewerage and 1 to industrial sewerage. Deconvolution Reporting Software (DRS was used to analyze scan data. Deconvolution is capable of screening the compounds whose peaks become invisible due to co-extracted compounds. Furthermore it significantly reduces analysis time and chromatographic resolution requirements. Results reveal that all the sampling points were greatly polluted with phthalate esters and tributyl phosphate (TBP. Apart from these, numerous long chain hydrocarbons, toxic phenols i.e. bisphenol A, analgesic i.e. ibuprofen and mefenamic acid, pesticides i.e. endosulfan, PCPIs, etc have significantly contaminated water bodies. In this screening analysis many compounds are identified that can be possible emerging contaminants and that are rarely documented. The identified contaminants are debated in accordance with their use, possible emission source and pathway. To the best of our knowledge this study holds first detailed screening of organic contaminants in river Indus and its tributaries. The information gathered in this analysis can be useful for future studies based on individual contamination in river Indus.

  10. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aschmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Very short-lived substances (VSLS still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2. The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly

  11. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aschmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Very short-lived substances (VSLS still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a~three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2. The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a~significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principal, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly

  12. Comparison of PoraPak Rxn RP and XAD-2 adsorbents for monitoring dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, Mark; Holsen, Thomas M; Xia, Xiaoyan; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Hopke, Philip K

    2014-11-01

    Accurate determination of the levels of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is an important step in estimating the dynamics of their inputs and losses in aqueous systems. This study explores an alternative method for efficiently sampling dissolved HOCs while mitigating a number of sampling artifacts associated with traditional methods. The adsorption characteristics of a new polymeric resin, PoraPak Rxn RP (PPR), were assessed using sorption isotherm experiments and fixed bed adsorption studies. The adsorption capacities and breakthrough times for four model contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, naphthalene, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were proportional to the contaminant's hydrophobicity. The ability of PPR to isolate dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in real samples was compared with that of XAD-2, a well-known macroporous polymer that suffers from high background contamination. The results indicated that the PPR resin can be effectively used for monitoring HOCs, with low ∑PCB levels in blanks, decreasing solvent use, and reducing extraction times.

  13. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is characteristic of terrestrial higher plant origin. Low CPI values (1.6-3.4) were recorded only in Acheloos river, where very low n-alkane concentrations were also found, suggesting transport of limited amounts of terrigenous organic material in this case. The highest PAH concentrations were again measured in Asopos and Evros estuary (800-1200 ng/g), followed by Axios, Aliakmons, Strymon, Acheloos and Acherontas (220 - 650 ng/g), whereas very low

  14. Activated carbon prepared from coffee pulp: potential adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.

  15. Graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide as promising adsorbents for removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liangliang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2013-01-01

    Graphenes are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials whose adsorption properties toward organic compounds have not been well understood. In the present study, graphene nanosheets were prepared by reoxidation and abrupt heating of graphite oxide, which was prepared by sequential chemical oxidation of commercial nonporous graphite powder. Adsorption properties of three aromatic compounds (naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and 1-naphthylamine) and one pharmaceutical compound (tylosin) on graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide were examined to explore the potential of these two adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solutions. Compared with the literature data of adsorption on carbon nanotubes, adsorption of bulky, flexible tylosin on graphene nanosheets exhibited markedly faster adsorption kinetics, which can be attributed to their opened-up layer structure. Graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide showed similar sequences of adsorption affinity: 1-naphthylamine > 2-naphthol > tylosin > naphthalene (with much larger differences observed on graphite oxide). It was proposed that the strong adsorption of the three aromatic compounds was mainly due to π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions with the graphitic surfaces of adsorbents. Additionally, Lewis acid-base interaction was likely an important factor contributing to the strong adsorption of 1-naphthylamine and tylosin, especially for the O-functionality-abundant graphite oxide. After being normalized on the basis of adsorbent surface area, adsorption affinities of all four tested adsorbates on graphene nanosheets were very close to those on nonporous graphite powder, reflecting complete accessibility of the adsorbent surface area in adsorption.

  16. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  17. Flow dynamics and potential for biodegradation of organic contaminants in fractured rock vadose zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J. T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, G.; Conrad, M. E.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Cevera, J. C.

    2000-04-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fractured rock vadose zones. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the United States Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) identification of important features of liquid distribution by means of seepage experiments in the fracture plane; (3) identification of the presence and activity of microorganisms by non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock "geocosms". Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Flow visualization and tracer breakthrough curves in transparent fracture replicas for unsaturated inlet conditions exhibited the channelized and intermittent nature of liquid seepage. The seepage of water and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) of varying physical and chemical properties into an initially dry replica showed only subtle differences in liquid distribution. In contrast, the seepage of a NAPL into the fracture replica containing residual water resulted in complex trapping of NAPL along the solid/water/air contact lines and diversion of NAPL to previously dry parts of the fracture. We found that a mixed culture of viable bacteria exists on the natural rock surfaces

  18. Hybrid composites of nano-sized zero valent iron and covalent organic polymers for groundwater contaminant degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, J.; Hwang, Yuhoon

    and prevents particle agglomeration; but also still allows for contaminant diffusion into the composite matrix, leading to degradation. In this study, the effect of various covalent organic polymers (COPs) as effective supporting materials for nZVI for optimal pollutant degradation was assessed. These COPs...... demonstrate promising results for the ability to adsorb and remove carbon dioxide, yielding the notion that they are capable of groundwater contaminant removal. Composites of nZVI impregnated within COPs of high surface areas exhibit effective ability to degrade azo dyes, up to 95%, over a 30-minute reaction...... period. Dye decolorization results were designated a precursor for effectiveness of pollutant decontamination; pollutants ranging in chlorinated organics, heavy metals, and various other groundwater contaminants. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dimensional extrapolation of composite widths...

  19. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2013-01-01

    , as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...... of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler...

  20. Iodine and bromine speciation in snow and the effect of orographically induced precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential trace element for all mammals and may also influence climate through new aerosol formation. Atmospheric bromine cycling is also important due to its well-known ozone depletion capabilities. Despite precipitation being the ultimate source of iodine in the terrestrial environment, the processes effecting its distribution, speciation and transport are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of orographically induced precipitation on iodine concentrations in snow and also to quantify the inorganic and organic iodine and bromine species. Snow samples were collected over an altitude profile (~840 m from the northern Black Forest and were analysed by ion-chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS for iodine and bromine species and trace metals (ICP-MS. All elements and species concentrations in snow showed significant (r2>0.65 exponential decrease relationships with altitude despite the short (5 km horizontal distance of the transect. In fact, total iodine more than halved (38 to 13 nmol/l over the 840 m height change. The results suggest that orographic lifting and subsequent precipitation has a major influence on iodine concentrations in snow. This orographically induced removal effect may be more important than lateral distance from the ocean in determining iodine concentrations in terrestrial precipitation. The microphysical removal process was common to all elements indicating that the iodine and bromine are internally mixed within the snow crystals. We also show that organically bound iodine is the dominant iodine species in snow (61–75%, followed by iodide. Iodate was only found in two samples despite a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/l. Two unknown but most likely anionic organo-I species were also identified in IC-ICP-MS chromatograms and comprised 2–10% of the total iodine. The majority of the bromine was inorganic bromide with a max. of 32% organo-Br.

  1. Molecular characterization of brominated persistent pollutants using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Skyllberg, Ulf [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeaa (Sweden); Persson, Per [Umeaa University, Department of Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy spectra were collected for three brominated persistent pollutants: 6-bromo-2,4,5-trichlorophenol (BrTriClP), pentabromophenol (PentaBrP) and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). The substances were selected to be symmetrical (BrTriClP and TBBA) or asymmetrical (PentaBrP) with respect to the atomic Br positions and to differ in the number of bromine and other halide atoms, as well as their relative positions. The asymmetrical PentaBrP was modelled with special detail as not all bromine atoms have identical coordination environments. The studied substances displayed unique EXAFS spectra, which could be used to determine the molecular structure in fair detail. We conclude that EXAFS spectroscopy is a suitable technique for molecular characterization of the comparatively complex molecules within the class of compounds of brominated organic persistent pollutants. A detailed understanding of the EXAFS spectra of the pure compounds opens up possibilities to study the interactions with soil and sediment matrices by means of EXAFS spectroscopy. (orig.)

  2. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-05

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion.

  3. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton’s reage

  4. Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, S. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +301 713 3028; fax: +301 713 4388. (Hartwell, S. Ian) (Hartwell, S. Ian) NOAA/NOS/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment 1305 East West Hwy Silver Spring - MD 20910--> - (Hartwell, S. Ian) UNITED STATES (Hartwell, S. Ia...

  5. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Assessing Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms Exposed to Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    between log Ka and log K,. for biocon - centration (reprinted with permission from Connell 1990) chemicals by organisms but at the same time favors...contaminated relative to the water that it respires. Connell (1990) noted that biomagnification is likely to be of more significance than biocon - centration

  6. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R

    2013-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  7. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    CERN Document Server

    Braff, W A; Buie, C R

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm$^{-2}$ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92\\% at 25\\% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  8. Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites, Ver 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Typical GC fingerprint for the heavy fuel, fuel oil no. 4.................................82 Figure 21. Histogram for three ESTCP field sites...contaminant solubility due to biosurfactants or pH changes near the root surface, and by “pseudo-mixing” of soil due to root exploration. The benefits of...removal of organic and/ or metal contaminants). A. Phytoextraction: contaminant uptake and accumulation for removal. B. Rhizofiltration: contaminant

  9. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.

  10. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  11. Fate of PBDEs during food processing: Assessment of formation of mixed chlorinated/brominated diphenyl ethers and brominated dioxins/furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of food processing on PBDE levels, in particular influence of heat treatment on degradation of PBDEs, including possible formation of chlorinated diphenyl ethers or brominated dioxins/furans as degradation products. It was shown that PBDEs heated in the presence of chlorine (from either organic or inorganic sources) formed mixed chlorinated/brominated diphenyl ethers. However, no PCDEs were formed in the presence of lipids. Lipid medium increased stability of PBDEs exposed to UV irradiation. Profile of congeners formed in result of the debromination reaction was significantly different than profiles observed by some other authors in aliphatic organic solvents. Grilling processes increased concentrations (calculated on the fresh product basis) of the studied compounds by 4-8/22-34% for electric/coal grill, respectively. Depending on the congener and on the applied heat treatment, PBDE mass in pork meat after grilling dropped by 26-53%. No detectable quantities of either brominated dioxins or furans were formed during thermal processing of food containing typical levels of PBDEs.

  12. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  13. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  14. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Chen, Yanru; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; Kong, Xiangzhen; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang

    2017-01-01

    The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp) pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC) or adsorption chromatography column (CC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system. PMID:28348919

  15. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC or adsorption chromatography column (CC, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p<0.05 for OCPs, and SC performed better than CC for PBDEs (p<0.05. We also emphasized the limitations and advantages of SC and CC and finally proposed SC as the promising cleanup method because of its low-cost materials, time-saving steps, being free of manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system.

  16. Relating rejection of trace organic contaminants to membrane properties in forward osmosis: measurements, modelling and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-02-01

    This study elucidates the relationship between membrane properties and the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in forward osmosis (FO). An asymmetric cellulose triacetate (CTA) and a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide FO membrane were used for this investigation. The effective average pore radius (rp), selective barrier thickness over porosity parameter (l/ε), surface charge, support layer structural parameter (S), pure water permeability coefficient (A) and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficient (B) of the two membranes were systematically characterised. Results show that measured rejection of TrOCs as a function of permeate water flux can be well described by the pore hindrance transport model. This observation represents the first successful application of this model, which was developed for pressure-driven nanofiltration, to an osmotically-driven membrane process. The rejection of charged TrOCs by the CTA and TFC membranes was high and was governed by both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. The TFC membrane exhibited higher rejection of neutral TrOCs with low molecular weight than the CTA membrane, although the estimated pore size of the TFC membrane (0.42 nm) was slightly larger than that of the CTA membrane (0.37 nm). This higher rejection of neutral TrOCs by the TFC membrane is likely attributed to its active layer properties, namely a more effective active layer structure, as indicated by a larger l/ε parameter, and pore hydration induced by the negative surface charge.

  17. Comparing Modeled and Measured Mercury Speciation in Contaminated Groundwater: Importance of Dissolved Organic Matter Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Bischoff, Cornelia; Biester, Harald

    2016-07-19

    In addition to analytical speciation, reliable Hg species modeling is crucial for predicting the mobility and toxicity of Hg, but geochemical speciation codes have not yet been tested for their prediction accuracy. Our study compares analyses of Hg species in highly Hg-contaminated groundwater (Hgtot: 0.02-4 μmol·L(-1)) at three sites with predictions of Hg speciation obtained from three geochemical codes (WHAM, Visual MINTEQ, PHREEQC) with and without implementation of Hg complexation by dissolved organic matter (DOM). Samples were analyzed for chemical composition, elemental, inorganic, and DOM-bound Hg (Hg(0), Hginorg, HgDOM). Hg-DOM complexation was modeled using three approaches: binding to humic/fulvic acids, binding to thiol-groups, or a combination of both. Results of Hg(0) modeling were poor in all scenarios. Prediction accuracy for Hginorg and HgDOM strongly depended on the assumed DOM composition. Best results were achieved when weaker binding sites, simulated by WHAMs DOM submodel, were combined with strongly binding thiol groups. Indications were found that thiol-DOM ratios in groundwater are likely to be lower than in surface water, highlighting the need for analytical thiol quantification in groundwater DOM. This study shows that DOM quality is a crucial parameter for prediction of Hg speciation in groundwater by means of geochemical modeling.

  18. Understanding and modeling removal of anionic organic contaminants (AOCs) by anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S

    2014-07-01

    Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ≥ aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH.

  19. Effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the removal of emerging contaminants by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming-Jhih; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2016-05-01

    Removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment is essential to ensure the ecological health of the receiving water bodies. Ozonation is a promising technology to achieve this purpose but important wastewater characteristics affecting the optimal removal efficiency need to be elucidated. Secondary effluents contain effluent organic matter (EfOM), which can react directly with ozone as well as react as the initiator, promoter and inhibitor in the hydroxyl radical (.OH) chain reactions resulting from ozone decomposition. These different reaction modes of EfOM, coupled with alkalinity and pH value, collectively determine the ozone and .OH exposures and the degradation of pharmaceutical compounds by ozonation. In this study, we determined the rate constants of EfOM collected from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in terms of direct ozone reaction, initiation, promotion and inhibition at various pH values (pH 6.0-7.5) and temperatures (10-30 °C). The rate constants of direct reaction and initiation generally increased with the increasing pH value while the rate constants of promotion and inhibition did not vary significantly. All rate constants increased with the increasing temperature. The removal of ibuprofen, acetylsulfamethoxazole and metoprolol in diluted secondary effluent by ozonation can be fairly-well modeled by using the determined rate constants of EfOM.

  20. Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water and in Untreated Drinking Water Sources in the United States, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data from two nationwide studies on the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater contaminants. These data are part of the continuing effort of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program to collect baseline information on the environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants.

  1. Influence of Vacuum Organic Contaminations on Laser-Induced Damage of 1064 nm Anti-Reflective Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yun; LIU Shi-Jie; HE Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yuan-An; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of vacuum organic contaminations on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings. Anti-reflective (AR) coatings at 1064nm made by Ta2O5/SiO2 are deposited by the ion beam sputtering method. The LIDTs of AR coatings are measured in vacuum and in atmosphere, respectively. It is exhibited that contaminations in vacuum are easily to be absorbed onto optical surface because of lower pressure,and they become origins of damage, resulting in the decrease of LIDT from 24.5 J/cm2 in air to 15.7J/cm2 in vacuum. The LIDT of coatings in vacuum has is slightly changed compared with the value in atmosphere after the organic contaminations are wiped off. These results indicate that organic contaminations are the main reason of the LIDT decrease in vacuum. Additionally, damage morphologies have distinct changes from vacuum to atmosphere because of the differences between the residual stress and thermal decomposability of filmy materials.

  2. NMR investigation of non-brominated and brominated epoxy ester prepolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, M.; Osredkar, U.; Šebenik, A.

    1992-03-01

    1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of epoxy ester prepolymers, based on non-brominated DGEBA-type or brominated DGETBBA-type epoxy resins, and on an oligomeric carboxylic acid. In the presence of a quaternary phosphonium salt, besides diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or diglycidylether of tetrabromobisphenol A (DGETBBA) and their higher oligomers, monoesters with characteristic R-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-OCOR' groups were detected in prevailing quantities. In dependence of the epoxy-carboxy ratio, isomeric monoesters with hydroxymethyl groups, diesters and diols might also be present.

  3. Covalent organic polymer functionalized activated carbon: A novel material for water contaminant removal and CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) have emerged as one of the leading advanced materials for environmental applications, such as the capture and recovery of carbon dioxide and the removal of contaminants from polluted water. COPs exhibit many remarkable properties that other leading advanced...... materials do not all-encompassing possess. Moreover, COPs have proven to be extremely stable in a wide variety of conditions, i.e. extremely high temperatures and boiling water for weeks at a time, which make them ideal for environmental applications; ranging from CO2 capture and recovery to organic solvent...... uptake in concentrated streams to metal and organic pollutant adsorption in contaminated waters. However, given the nanoscale structure of these COPs, real-world application has yet remained elusive for these materials. Herein, we report the functionalization of COPs onto the surface of activated carbon...

  4. Bioanalytical effect-balance model to determine the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments affected by black and natural carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Jennifer; Tang, Janet Y M; Warne, Michael St J; Escher, Beate I

    2016-08-01

    In sediments several binding phases dictate the fate and bioavailability of organic contaminants. Black carbon (BC) has a high sorptive capacity for organic contaminants and can limit their bioavailability, while the fraction bound to organic carbon (OC) is considered to be readily desorbable and bioavailable. We investigated the bioavailability and mixture toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants by combining different extraction techniques with in vitro bioanalytical tools. Sediments from a harbour with high fraction of BC, and sediments from remote, agricultural and urban areas with lower BC were treated with exhaustive solvent extraction, Tenax extraction and passive sampling to estimate total, bioaccessible and bioavailable fractions, respectively. The extracts were characterized with cell-based bioassays that measure dioxin-like activity (AhR-CAFLUX) and the adaptive stress response to oxidative stress (AREc32). Resulting bioanalytical equivalents, which are effect-scaled concentrations, were applied in an effect-balance model, consistent with a mass balance-partitioning model for single chemicals. Sediments containing BC had most of the bioactivity associated to the BC fraction, while the OC fraction played a role for sediments with lower BC. As effect-based sediment-water distribution ratios demonstrated, most of the bioactivity in the AhR-CAFLUX was attributable to hydrophobic chemicals while more hydrophilic chemicals activated AREc32, even though bioanalytical equivalents in the aqueous phase remained negligible. This approach can be used to understand the fate and effects of mixtures of diverse organic contaminants in sediments that would not be possible if single chemicals were targeted by chemical analysis; and make informed risk-based decisions concerning the management of contaminated sediments.

  5. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  6. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  7. [Effects of organic fertilization on arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) on arsenic-contaminated red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Fang; Geng, Zhi-Xi; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment with arsenic-contaminated red soil was conducted to study the effects of applying pig dung and chicken manure on the growth and arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis), and on soil available arsenic. Applying pig dung and chicken manure to the arsenic-contaminated red soil increased the biomass of pakchoi to some extent. Comparing with the control, applying pig dung increased the pakchoi biomass significantly (P Organic fertilization promoted the arsenic absorption of pakchoi, with the arsenic uptake after applying pig dung increased by 20.7%-53.9%. The application of pig dung and chicken manure to arsenic-contaminated red soil could somewhat increase the soil available arsenic content and the arsenic uptake by crops, and thus, increase the risks of agricultural product quality and environment.

  8. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants via Low Profile Aeration Technology (WaterRF Report 4439)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a change in the way contaminants are regulated as a part of their new drinking water strategy (DWS). The strategy will regulate contaminants as groups rather than individually. The first group consists of 16 VOCs, and ...

  9. Brominated flame retardants in fish and shellfish - levels and contribution of fish consumption to dietary exposure of Dutch citizens to HBCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Boer, de J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contamination with brominated flame retardants (BFR) in fish regularly consumed by Dutch citizens, 44 samples of freshwater fish, marine fish, and shellfish were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and its methylated derivative

  10. Organic contamination identification in sediments from a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem: The case of the Nador lagoon (Eastern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim Bloundi, Mohamed; Faure, Pierre; Duplay, Joëlle

    2008-12-01

    The Nador lagoon ecosystem (North-East of Morocco) displays a major socioeconomic interest. In fact, it is essential to evaluate consequences of anthropogenic activities in the lagoon especially by organic matter studies (nature and distribution) in the sedimentary compartment. Surface sediments show variable rates in total organic carbon and in sulfur, high in some cases (7.5 and 1.8% respectively). These high contents are recorded in the center of the lagoon. Their distributions are controlled by the hydrodynamism and the anthropogenic degree. The molecular biomarkers analyses and especially n-alkanes distribution reveal: a zone of marine influence; and a zone of continental influence. The occurrence of pentacyclic triterpanes with a typical distribution of a thermally mature organic matter reveals a contamination due to petroleum products in the entire lagoon except for the center. Coprostanol occurrence near cities indicates wastewater effluents inputs and reducing conditions underlined by high values of stanols/sterol ratios. Thus, the organic contamination (petroleum by-products and wastewater effluents) occurs in the vicinity of the cities whereas the littoral edge and center remain weakly affected by these contaminations.

  11. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  12. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-bromine complex: Mild and efficient polymeric reagent for bromination of activated aromatic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Mokhtary; Moslem M. Lakouraj

    2011-01-01

    Mild and efficient method for bromination of electron-rich aromatic compounds is described using polyvinylpolypyrrolidonebromine complex (PVPP-Br2). The reaction proceeded smoothly with phenols and N,N-alkylated amines to afford the corresponding monobrominated product in good yields at ambient temperature.

  13. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  14. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Danet, Andrei-Florin [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Str., Bucharest 050657 (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed.

  15. Temporal development of brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland (1986-2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Falk, Knud;

    2005-01-01

    A time trend between 1986 and 2003 was found for brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon eggs from South Greenland, with significantly increasing concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209. For BDE-99 and -100, the concentration increased...... with increasing time trends exist for the BDEs 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209, while a decreasing contamination with the BDEs 183, 49, 47, 66 and 153 was indicated in a subset of eggs....

  16. Effect of oxidation and catalytic reduction of trace organic contaminants on their activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoutteten, Klaas V K M; Hennebel, Tom; Dheere, Ellen; Bertelkamp, Cheryl; De Ridder, David J; Maes, Synthia; Chys, Michael; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2016-12-01

    The combination of ozonation and activated carbon (AC) adsorption is an established technology for removal of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). In contrast to oxidation, reduction of TrOCs has recently gained attention as well, however less attention has gone to the combination of reduction with AC adsorption. In addition, no literature has compared the removal behavior of reduction vs. ozonation by-products by AC. In this study, the effect of pre-ozonation vs pre-catalytic reduction on the AC adsorption efficiency of five TrOCs and their by-products was compared. All compounds were susceptible to oxidation and reduction, however the catalytic reductive treatment proved to be a slower reaction than ozonation. New oxidation products were identified for dinoseb and new reduction products were identified for carbamazepine, bromoxynil and dinoseb. In terms of compatibility with AC adsorption, the influence of the oxidative and reductive pretreatments proved to be compound dependent. Oxidation products of bromoxynil and diatrizoic acid adsorbed better than their parent TrOCs, but oxidation products of atrazine, carbamazepine and dinoseb showed a decreased adsorption. The reductive pre-treatment showed an enhanced AC adsorption for dinoseb and a major enhancement for diatrizoic acid. For atrazine and bromoxynil, no clear influence on adsorption was noted, while for carbamazepine, the reductive pretreatment resulted in a decreased AC affinity. It may thus be concluded that when targeting mixtures of TrOCs, a trade-off will undoubtedly have to be made towards overall reactivity and removal of the different constituents, since no single treatment proves to be superior to the other.

  17. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  18. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Båverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed.

  19. Subacute effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A on hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germer, Silke; Piersma, Aldert H; Ven, Leo T M van der; Kamyschnikow, Andreas; Fery, Yvonne; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Schrenk, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The brominated flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are found in the environment, e.g., in sediments and organisms, in food items, human blood samples and mother's milk. In this study, the effects of both compounds on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) leve

  20. Trace organic contaminants, including toxaphene and trifluralin, in cotton field soils from Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Battula, S; Loganathan, B G; Hong, C S; Lam, W H; Villeneuve, D L; Sajwan, K; Giesy, J P; Aldous, K M

    2003-07-01

    Residues of organic contaminants--including toxaphene, DDT, trifluralin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonylphenol--were measured in 32 cotton field soils collected from South Carolina and Georgia in 1999. Toxaphene, trifluralin, DDT and PAHs were the major contaminants found in these soils. The maximum concentration of toxaphene measured was 2,500 ng/g dry weight. Trifluralin was detected in all the soils at concentrations ranging from 1 to 548 ng/g dry weight. Pesticide residues were not proportional to soil organic carbon content, indicating that their concentrations were a reflection of application history and dissipation rates rather than air-soil equilibrium. Soil extracts were also subjected to in vitro bioassays to assess dioxinlike, estrogenic, and androgenic/glucocorticoid potencies. Relatively more polar fractions of the soils elicited estrogenic and androgenic/glucocorticoid activities, but the magnitude of response was much less than those found in coastal marine sediments from industrialized locations.

  1. Application of a novel modeling tool with multistressor functionality to support management of organic contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Gustafsson, Bo G; Humborg, Christoph; McLachlan, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Organic contaminants constitute one of many stressors that deteriorate the ecological status of the Baltic Sea. When managing environmental problems in this marine environment, it may be necessary to consider the interactions between various stressors to ensure that averting one problem does not exacerbate another. A novel modeling tool, BALTSEM-POP, is presented here that simulates interactions between climate forcing, hydrodynamic conditions, and water exchange, biogeochemical cycling, and organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea. We discuss opportunities to use the model to support different aspects of chemicals management. We exemplify these opportunities with a case study where two emission-reduction strategies for a chemical used in personal care products (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) are evaluated, and where the confounding influence of future climate change and eutrophication on the impact of the emission-reduction strategies are assessed.

  2. A Simplified Method for Sampling and Analysis of High Volume Surface Water for Organic Contaminants Using XAD-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Do, L.V.; Young, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple compressed-gas driven system for field processing and extracting water for subsequent analyses of hydrophobic organic compounds is presented. The pumping device is a pneumatically driven pump and filtration system that can easily clarify at 4L/min. The extraction device uses compressed gas to drive filtered water through two parallel XAD-2 resin columns, at about 200 mL/min. No batteries or inverters are required for water collection or processing. Solvent extractions were performed directly in the XAD-2 glass columns. Final extracts are cleaned-up on Florisil cartridges without fractionation and contaminants analyzed by GC-MS. Method detection limits (MDLs) and recoveries for dissolved organic contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides are reported along with results of surface water analysis for the San Francisco Bay, CA.

  3. Inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfotransferase activity by brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Craig M; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-11-18

    Many halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) are considered endocrine disruptors and affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, often by interfering with circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated one potential mechanism for TH disruption, inhibition of sulfotransferase activity. One of the primary roles of TH sulfation is to support the regulation of biologically active T3 through the formation of inactive THs. We investigated TH sulfotransferase inhibition by 14 hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH BDEs), BDE 47, triclosan, and fluorinated, chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated analogues of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenol and bisphenol A (BPA). A new mass spectrometry-based method was also developed to measure the formation rates of 3,3'-T2 sulfate (3,3'-T2S). Using pooled human liver cytosol, we investigated the influence of these HOCs on the sulfation of 3,3'-T2, a major substrate for TH sulfation. For the formation of 3,3'-T2S, the Michaelis constant (Km) was 1070 ± 120 nM and the Vmax was 153 ± 6.6 pmol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). All chemicals investigated inhibited sulfotransferase activity with the exception of BDE 47. The 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols were the most potent inhibitors followed by the OH BDEs and then halogenated BPAs. The IC50 values for the OH BDEs were primarily in the low nanomolar range, which may be environmentally relevant. In silico molecular modeling techniques were also used to simulate the binding of OH BDE to SULT1A1. This study suggests that some HOCs, including antimicrobial chemicals and metabolites of flame retardants, may interfere with TH regulation through inhibition of sulfotransferase activity.

  4. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  5. Biosurfactants and increased bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants: Measurements using a biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Applegate, B.; Saylor, G.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic materials that sorb onto the soil matrix is very difficult due to reduced microbial (bio)availability. Following biosurfactant addition, we have measured an increase in contaminant bioavailability by using a lux biosensor. Direct microbial bioavailability was determined by using a genetically engineered microbial bioreporter strain of Pseudomonas putida. This strain was engineered so the lux genes, which code for light production, are transcriptionally fused with genes that code for contaminant degradation and are thus induced in the presence of specific compounds. By using a bioreporter we can quantify the actual microbial bioavailability of the contaminants and compare it to concentrations measured by other analytical methods (e.g. gas chromatograph). It is possible that these values are not equal to each other. Thus, bioremediation rates may not be accurately predicted if bioavailability is not considered.

  6. Sources, interactions, and ecological impacts of organic contaminants in water, soil, and sediment: an introduction to the special series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, Joseph J; Katz, Brian G; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and urban activities result in the release of a large number of organic compounds that are suspected of impacting human health and ecosystems: herbicides, insecticides, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic hormones, personal care products, surfactants, plasticizers, fire retardants, and others. Sorbed reservoirs of these compounds in soil represent a potentially chronic source of water contamination. This article is an introduction to a series of technical papers stemming from a symposium at the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting, which was held jointly with The Geological Society of America, The Gulf Coast Association of Geological Scientists, and the Houston Geological Society, under one of the Joint Meeting's overarching themes: Emerging Trace Contaminants in Surface and Ground Water Generated from Waste Water and Solid Waste Application. The symposium emphasized the role of soils as sources, sinks, and reaction catalysts for these contaminants and the occurrence and fate of these contaminants in surface and underground water supplies. Topics covered included novel advances in analytical techniques, transport of infectious agents, occurrence and fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals, characterization of sorption mechanism, biotic and abiotic transformation reactions, the role of soil components, occurrence and fate in wastewater treatment systems, transport of engineered nanoparticles, groundwater contamination resulting from urban runoff, and issues in water reuse. Overviews of the reports, trends, gaps in our knowledge, and topics for further research are presented in this special series of papers. The technical papers in this special series reflect current gains in knowledge and simultaneously underscore how poorly we are able to predict the fate and, hence, the associated risk to ecological and human receptors of these contaminants.

  7. Successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Wang, W.; Lampi, M.A.; Zhang, C.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A large number of aquatic and terrestrial environments are polluted with various levels of toxicants. Metals, organics and total petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources pose a risk to both human health and the health of ecosystems. Although these persistent contaminants are difficult to remediate, several industrial sites throughout North America are being remediated as part of land reclamation and restoration programs. This paper addressed the issue of phytoremediation for removing contaminants from soils. Phytoremediation is considered to be a viable remediation strategy because the increased biomass of plants, relative to the biomass of soil microbes in the absence of plants, allows for higher throughput. Extensive root systems can infiltrate large volumes of soil, thus promoting degradation of contaminants over a wide area. This paper described a newly developed multi-process phytoremediation system with accelerated remediation kinetics to effectively remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) from soils. The system combines land farming/sunlight exposure; inoculation of contaminant degrading bacteria; and, plant growth with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which mitigates the effects of stress ethylene in plants. The primary factor for success was the interaction between the plant and the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Several field tests were conducted following successful greenhouse tests. Results at a TPH contaminated site in Sarnia, Ontario showed that over a 2 year period, 60 to 70 per cent remediation of 15 per cent TPH was achieved. At a site in Turner Valley, Alberta, 35 per cent remediation of 1 per cent recalcitrant TPH was achieved, while a DDT contaminated site near Simcoe, Ontario had nearly 30 per cent of CHC removed in a 3 month period. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. New infrared spectroscopic database for bromine nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared measurements of bromine nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric bromine nitrate error budget substantially.

  9. The effect of representing bromine from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.

  10. On the age of stratospheric air and inorganic chlorine and bromine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. S.; Schauffler, S. M.; Pollock, W. H.; Solomon, S.; Weaver, A.; Heidt, L. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1996-07-01

    We estimate the average transport time from the tropical tropopause to various regions of the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere (stratospheric age) using simultaneous mixing ratio measurements of CFC-115 and CO2 measured by the Whole Air Sampler (WAS) during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II). Our inferred ages are consistent with those presented in previous studies. We discuss sources of uncertainties that affect age estimates in general, as well as specific uncertainties arising from inferring ages using CO2 and CFC-115 abundances. We infer inorganic chlorine (Cly) and bromine (Bry) at various lower stratospheric locations using the WAS organic chlorine and bromine measurements in combination with modeled tropospheric halocarbon trends and with our estimated ages. Inferred Cly and Bry abundances generally increase with increasing latitude and altitude. For our analyzed locations inside the polar vortex, we estimate a maximum Cly abundance of about 2.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and a maximum Bry abundance of about 13.7 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The locations of these maxima correspond to an average N2O mixing ratio of about 100 ppbv, and to a fractional dissociation of organic chlorine and bromine of 0.85 and 0.90, respectively. Finally, we discuss the expected future limitations of using CFC-115 to estimate stratospheric age due to the production limitations prescribed by the amendments and adjustments to the Montreal Protocol.

  11. Mechanochemical conversion of brominated POPs into useful oxybromides: a greener approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Liu, Han; Zhang, Kunlun; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Brominated organic pollutants are considered of great concern for their adverse effect on human health and the environment, so an increasing number of such compounds are being classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mechanochemical destruction is a promising technology for POPs safe disposal because it can achieve their complete carbonization by solvent-free high energy ball milling at room temperature. However, a large amount of co-milling reagent usually is necessary, so a considerable volume of residue is produced. In the present study a different approach to POPs mechanochemical destruction is proposed. Employing stoichiometric quantities of Bi2O3 or La2O3 as co-milling reagent, brominated POPs are selectively and completely converted into their corresponding oxybromides (i.e. BiOBr and LaOBr), which possess very peculiar properties and can be used for some actual and many more potential applications. In this way, bromine is beneficially reused in the final product, while POPs carbon skeleton is safely destroyed to amorphous carbon. Moreover, mechanochemical destruction is employed in a greener and more sustainable manner.

  12. ESTCP Technology Demonstration Final Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands With Application to Northern FUD Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    fingerprint for the heavy fuel, fuel oil no. 4. ............................................75 Figure 21. Histogram for three ESTCP field sites - decalin...possibly by greater contaminant solubility due to biosurfactants or pH changes near the root surface, and by “pseudo-mixing” of soil due to root...containment or removal of organic and/ or metal contaminants). A. Phytoextraction: contaminant uptake and accumulation for removal. B

  13. Changes in surface area and concentrations of semivolatile organic contaminants in aging snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Debbie A; Strachan, William J M; Hoff, John T; Wania, Frank

    2007-07-15

    During the winter of 1999/2000 five snowpacks at Turkey Lake Watershed east of Lake Superior were sampled immediately after falling and again after several days of aging for the analysis of specific snow surface area and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The snow surface could be determined with a relative coefficient of variation of 6% using frontal chromatography, measuring the retention of ethyl acetate, a substance with known adsorption coefficient on the ice surface. The snow surface area of fresh snow varied from 1000 to 1330 cm2/g and was higher for snow falling during colder days. The aged snow samples had consistently lower surface areas ranging from 520 to 780 cm2/g, corresponding to an average loss of half of the initial surface area during aging. The rate of loss of surface area was faster at higher temperatures. Dieldrin, alpha-HCH, and gamma-HCH were the most abundant OCPs in snowmelt water, but endosulfan, chlordane-related substances, heptachlor epoxide, pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE, and chlorinated benzenes were also consistently present. Three midwinter snowpacks that aged during relatively cold temperatures generally experienced a loss of PCBs and OCPs that was of the same order of magnitude as the observed loss of snow surface area. However, no relationship between the extent of loss and the strength of a contaminants' sorption to snow was apparent. Few significant changes in snowpack concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were observed in a snowpack that fell at relatively high temperatures and aged under colder conditions. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs increased in a late-winter snowpack that aged while temperatures rapidly increased to above freezing. Concentrations of pp'-DDE and endosulfan-II that increased in snowpacks that saw simultaneous decreases in the levels of pp'-DDT and endosulfan-I hint at the occurrence of sunlight induced conversions in snow. While surface area decreases clearly

  14. Are exploited mangrove molluscs exposed to Persistent Organic Pollutant contamination in Senegal, West Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, N; N'Gom Ka, R; Le Loc'h, F; Raffray, J; Budzinski, H; Peluhet, L; Tito de Morais, L

    2011-06-01

    The surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina morio) from two Senegalese stations, Falia (Sine-Saloum Estuary) and Fadiouth (Petite Côte), were analyzed for their pollutant organic persistent contamination (polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs; organochlorinated pesticides OCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs). Results revealed significant levels of PCBs, DDTs and lindane in mangrove sediments ranging from 0.3 to 19.1, 0.3 to 15.9, and 0.1 to 1.9 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Among the other POPs analysed, only hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and trans-nonachlor for OCPs, as well as BDE47 and BDE99 congeners for PBDEs were detected at very low concentrations, generally not of concern. POP levels and patterns were in good accordance with literature data available for other tropical developing countries. A seasonal quantitative difference was highlighted with higher levels of PCBs and DDTs in sediments after the wet season, likely due to the strong wash-out of residues from inland to the marine ecosystems during the rainy season. The observed pattern of DDT and its metabolites pointed out probable recent applications of DDT for public health emergencies in Senegal. Exploited molluscs were exposed to the same POP compounds as those measured in sediments. They presented OCP levels within the same range as in sediments, while significant higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in shellfish soft tissues revealing a higher bioaccumulation potential mainly due to the lipophilicity of these compounds. Finally, the influence of the reproduction cycle on POP levels through lipid content variations was highlighted, minimizing potential differences in POP bioaccumulation between shellfish species. From an ecotoxicological and public health point of view, results from this study revealed that POPs in sediments from the Petite Côte and the Sine-Saloum Estuary would not cause toxic effects

  15. Genetically Engineering Bacillus subtilis with a Heat-Resistant Arsenite Methyltransferase for Bioremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Organic Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Chen, Chuan; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-10-01

    Organic manures may contain high levels of arsenic (As) due to the use of As-containing growth-promoting substances in animal feed. To develop a bioremediation strategy to remove As from organic waste, Bacillus subtilis 168, a bacterial strain which can grow at high temperature but is unable to methylate and volatilize As, was genetically engineered to express the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (CmarsM) from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The genetically engineered B. subtilis 168 converted most of the inorganic As in the medium into dimethylarsenate and trimethylarsine oxide within 48 h and volatized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine. The rate of As methylation and volatilization increased with temperature from 37 to 50°C. When inoculated into an As-contaminated organic manure composted at 50°C, the modified strain significantly enhanced As volatilization. This study provides a proof of concept of using genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation of As-contaminated organic waste during composting.

  16. Simultaneous extraction and cleanup of high-lipid organs from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for multiple legacy and emerging organic contaminants using QuEChERS sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Sieve, Kristal K; Ratajczak, Robert E; Bringolf, Robert B; Belden, Jason B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to utilize the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to extract a broad range of persistent organic pollutants from sturgeon organs (liver and gonad) as indicators of exposure. The analyte list was prioritized to include carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most commonly occurring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs), and emergent contaminants of concern (ECCs) as indicators of human sewage exposure. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for this study to support a larger ecotoxicological study to monitor contaminants as an assessment of fish health. Organ tissues contained high lipid content with percentages of 15% and 34% for liver and gonad, respectively. Overall recoveries from fortified sturgeon tissues were high, 71-98% for PAHs, 60-107% for PBDEs and PCBs, 86-107% for PBT chemicals, and 88-107% for ECCs with the exception of octinoxate (28%) from liver tissues. Analyte recovery trends decreased as analyte lipophilicity and molecular weight increased. These recoveries demonstrate that extraction using QuEChERS can be used for screening of the most common bioaccumulating organic compounds in high lipid fish tissue using a single extraction and analysis.

  17. A model compound study: the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone.

  18. Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60°C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Åsa; Kjerstadius, H.; Haghighatafshar, S.

    2014-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic......The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However, sludge needs to be safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual...... digestion of mixed primary and waste-activated sludge at 35, 55 and 60°C and during pasteurization at 70°C. The study showed the difficulty of analysing pharmaceutical compounds in low concentrations in the sludge matrix. No general reduction of these compounds was seen during treatment, but for individual...

  19. Steroid markers to assess sewage and other sources of organic contaminants in surface sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, I; Mesa, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

    2014-09-15

    Analyses of faecal steroids in coastal sediments from Cienfuegos Bay Cuba indicate chronic sewage contamination at the main outfalls from the city, where concentrations of coprostanol up to 5400ngg(-)(1) (dry wt) were measured. In contrast, steroid concentrations and compositions from sites from the south part of the Bay are characteristic of uncontaminated sewage environments. The levels of coprostanol in the Cienfuegos sediments compares to the lower to mid-range of concentrations reported for coastal sediments on a world-wide basis, with sedimentary levels markedly below those previously reported for heavily impacted sites. This study delivers baseline data for further investigation of the effectiveness of the proposed sewerage plan promoted by the GEF project in Cienfuegos. Investigations on the correlations between faecal steroids and other organic contaminants confirmed that the major source of petroleum hydrocarbons within the bay was associated with the sewage effluents from the Cienfuegos city.

  20. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, Veerle [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be; Maervoet, Johan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, Stefan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, Paul [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  1. Western Canadian Arctic ringed seal organic contaminant trends in relation to sea ice break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaden, A; Ferguson, Steve H; Harwood, L; Melling, H; Alikamik, J; Stern, G A

    2012-04-17

    The association between changing sea ice conditions and contaminant exposure to Arctic animals interests Inuvialuit harvesters, communities, and researchers. We examined organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in the blubber of 90 male adult ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled from the subsistence harvest in Ulukhaktok (formerly Holman), NT, Canada, just prior to break-up of the sea ice (1993-2008). OC blubber concentrations were assessed with respect to year and sea ice break-up date. HCB and age- and blubber-adjusted concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ΣCHB (chlorobornane) significantly decreased over the study period. With respect to the timing of the spring break-up, highly lipophlic OCs, such as p,p'-DDE and PCB 153, were higher during years of early ice clearing (at least 12 days earlier than the mean annual break-up date), whereas no trends were observed for α, β, and γ isomers of HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, or ΣCHB. The higher contaminant concentrations found in earlier break-up years is likely due to earlier and/or increased foraging opportunities. This situation also has potential for enhancing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants over the long-term if projected changes continue to result in lighter and earlier ice conditions.

  2. PREDICTING THE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM ADSORBENT AND ADSORBATE PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed and combined with the Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model to predict adsorption isotherms of emerging contaminants on activated carbons with a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Affinity coefficients (βl

  3. Influence of Iron Speciation on Redox Cycling and Reactivity with Persistent Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of past studies have been aimed at characterizing iron's redox properties in aqueous systems and its contribution to natural attenuation processes of groundwater contaminants, many questions remain. It is especially important to understand the molecular properties that control the reactivity of both Fe[superscript II] and…

  4. Arsenic Speciation in Plankton Organisms from Contaminated Lakes: Transformations at the Base of the Freshwater Food Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban; Reimer, Ken J. (Royal)

    2012-02-06

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 {micro}g L{sup -1} in a noncontaminated lake to 250 {micro}g L{sup -1} in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MS in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed AsV-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and AsIII-S and AsV-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic.

  5. Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, F; Arocena, J M; Thring, R W; Whitcombe, T

    2013-02-15

    Pyromorphite (PY) and some zinc phosphates (Zn-P) are very sparingly soluble minerals and hence can immobilize Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. However, mechanisms leading to the poor efficiency of PY and Zn-P formation in contaminated soils amended with P still remain unclear. We studied the influence of two low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) - oxalic acid and citric acid and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) - in PY and Zn-P formation in a P-amended contaminated soil. Despite the high levels of metals (∼4% Pb and 21% Zn) in the study soil, the addition of up to 1% inorganic P transformed only up to 37% and 17% of the total Pb and Zn to PY and Zn-P, respectively. Semi-quantitative estimates from a linear combination fitting of X-ray absorption near edge spectra (LC-XANES fitting) showed that the formation of PY decreased from 37% to 3% of the total Pb in the presence of oxalic acid and the addition of 1% P. The reduced PY formation may be associated with the increase in organic-bound Pb from 9% to 54% and decrease in carbonate associated Pb from 42% to 12% with oxalic acid addition as indicated by a chemical sequential extraction (SE) technique. Citric acid seemed to have a less adverse effect in PY formation than oxalic acid. Our data also suggests both oxalic and citric acids have less adverse effects on the efficiency of Zn-P formation. From this study we conclude that the abundance of LMWOA in soil environments can be one factor contributing to the poor efficiency of P amendments practices to effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in metal contaminated soils.

  6. Evaluation of organic amendment on the effect of cadmium bioavailability in contaminated soils using the DGT technique and traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2015-08-19

    Organic amendments have been widely proposed as a remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils, but there exist controversial results on their effectiveness. In this study, the effect of pig manure addition on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils was systematically evaluated by one dynamic, in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and four traditional methods based on the equilibrium theory (soil solution concentration and the three commonly used extractants, i.e., acetic acid (HAc), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Wheat and maize were selected for measurement of plant Cd uptake. The results showed that pig manure addition could promote the growth of two plants, accompanied by increasing biomasses of shoots and roots with increasing doses of pig manure addition. Correspondingly, increasing additions of pig manure reduced plant Cd uptake and accumulation, as indicated by the decreases of Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The bioavailable concentrations of Cd in Cd-contaminated soils reflected by the DGT technique obviously decreased with increasing doses of pig manure addition, following the same changing trend as plant Cd uptake. Changes in soil solution Cd concentration and extractable Cd by HAc, EDTA, and CaCl2 in soils were similar to DGT measurement. Meanwhile, the capability of Cd resupply from solid phase to soil solution decreased with increasing additions of pig manure, as reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of C DGT to C sol. Positive correlations were observed between various bioavailable indicators of Cd in soils and Cd concentrations in the tissues of the two plants. These findings provide stronger evidence that pig manure amendment is effective in reducing Cd mobility and bioavailability in soils and it is an ideal organic material for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  7. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not

  8. TG-MS investigation of brominated products from the degradation of brominated flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Guido; Karakita, Daiki; Ishibashi, Jun; Kameda, Tomohito; Bhaskar, Thallada; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2011-10-01

    The thermal degradation of flame retardant containing high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), one of the most commonly employed plastics in electric and electronic appliances, was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) in order to understand the threat that is posed by the release of hazardous brominated compounds. The HIPS samples contained decabromodiphenylether (DPE) and decabromodibenzyl (DDB) as the flame retardants as well as Sb2O3 as the synergist. The largest number of brominated compounds was obtained in the presence of DPE and Sb2O3 and DDB without Sb2O3. From the degradation of DPE, brominated benzenes, phenols, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans were identified, and from the degradation of DDB, brominated benzenes, dibenzyls, and phenanthrenes were formed. The interaction between the flame retardant and the polymer matrix resulted in α-bromoethylbenzene. The formation of brominated dibenzodioxins was not observed, probably, due to the low phenol concentration in the polymer melt. No other report has, to our knowledge, ever reported on the formation of brominated phenanthrenes from flame retardants. Because they share similar steric features, it may well be that brominated phenanthrenes are similar in their carcinogen and mutagen potential to dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the observed compounds is presented, and the role of the synergist is considered.

  9. Discrimination of hexabromocyclododecane from new polymeric brominated flame retardant in polystyrene foam by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannerat, Damien; Pupier, Marion; Schweizer, Sébastien; Mitrev, Yavor Nikolaev; Favreau, Philippe; Kohler, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) and major additive to polystyrene foam thermal insulation that has recently been listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. During a 2013/2014 field analytical survey, we measured HBCDD content ranging from 0.2 to 2.4% by weight in 98 polystyrene samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses indicated that expandable (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams significantly differed in the α/γ HBCDD isomer ratio, with a majority of α and γ isomers in XPS and EPS, respectively. Interestingly, this technique indicated that some recent materials did not contain HBCDD, but demonstrated bromine content when analysed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Further investigation by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was able to discriminate between the BFRs present. In addition to confirming the absence or presence of HBCDD in polystyrene samples, high-field NMR spectroscopy provided evidence of the use of brominated butadiene styrene (BBS) as copolymer in the production of polystyrene. Use of this alternative flame retardant is expected to cause fewer health and environmental concerns. Our results highlight a trend towards the use of copolymerized BFRs as an alternative to HBCDD in polystyrene foam boards. In addition to providing a rapid NMR method to identify polymeric BFR, our analytical approach is a simple method to discriminate between flame-retardants in polystyrene foam insulating materials.

  10. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  11. TOOL FOR MONITORING HYDROPHILIC CONTAMINANTS IN WATER: POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLER (POCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global emissions of persistent bioconcentratable organic chemicals have resulted in a wide range of adverse ecological effects. Consequently, industry was led to develop less persistent, more water soluble, polar or hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs), which generally have low ...

  12. Novel Cu₂O quantum dots coupled flower-like BiOBr for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenquan; An, Weijia; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Liang, Yinghua

    2014-09-15

    Here we report a highly efficient novel photocatalyst consisting of Cu2O quantum dots (QDs) incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) flower-like hierarchical BiOBr (hereafter designated QDs-Cu2O/BiOBr), which were synthesized via a simple reductive solution chemistry route and applied to decontaminate the hazardous wastewater containing phenol and organic dyes. The deposition of Cu2O QDs onto the surface of the BiOBr was confirmed by structure and composition characterizations. The QDs-Cu2O/BiOBr composites exhibited superior activity for organic contaminant degradation under visible light and 3 wt% QDs-Cu2O/BiOBr composite showed the highest degrade rate for phenol and methylene blue (MB), which was 11.8 times and 1.4 times than that of pure BiOBr, indicated the QDs-Cu2O/BiOBr composite has the great potential application in purifying hazardous organic contaminant. The incorporated Cu2O QDs played an important role in improving the photocatalytic performance, due to the enhancement of visible light absorption efficiency as well as the efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers originating from the intimately contacted interface and the well-aligned band-structures, which was confirmed by the results of PL, photocurrent and EIS measurements. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the experiments and theoretical results.

  13. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated.

  14. Nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers as an in situ remediation strategy for hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hairong; Kim, Bojeong; Wunder, Stephanie L

    2015-01-06

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent environmental organic contaminants due to their low water solubility and strong sorption onto organic/mineral surfaces. Here, nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (NP-SLBs) made of 100-nm SiO2 nanoparticles and the zwitterionic lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) are investigated as constructs for removing PAHs from contaminated sites, using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as an example. DMPC in the form of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or DMPC-NP-SLBs with excess DMPC-SUVs to support colloidal stability, when added to saturated BaP solutions, sorb BaP in ratios of up to 10/1 to 5/1 lipid/BaP, over a 2-week period at 33 °C. This rate increases with temperature. The presence of humic acid (HA), as an analog of soil organic matter, does not affect the BaP uptake rate by DMPC-NP-SLBs and DMPC-SUVs, indicating preferential BaP sorption into the hydrophobic lipids. HA increases the zeta potential of these nanosystems, but does not disrupt their morphology, and enhances their colloidal stability. Studies with the common soil bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate viability and growth using DMPC-NP-SLBs and DMPC-SUVs, with and without BaP, as their sole carbon source. Thus, NP-SLBs may be an effective method for remediation of PAHs, where the lipids provide both the method of extraction and stability for transport to the contaminant site.

  15. Effect of fresh and mature organic amendments on the phytoremediation of technosols contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, Nour; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Faure, Olivier; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-15

    Organic compounds resulting from the decomposition of organic amendments are used in the remediation of trace element (TE) contaminated soils. The mobility, phytoavailability and soil exposure intensity of molybdenum (Mo), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Arsenic (As) were evaluated in the phytoremediation of contaminated technosols after the addition of two organic matter types, fresh ramial chipped wood (RCW) and composted sewage sludge (CSS). The experiment consisted of nine main treatment blocks: (A) 3X unamended soil (NE), (B) 3X soil amended with RCW and (C) 3X soil amended with mature CSS. Total dissolved TE concentrations were determined in soil pore water (SPW) sampled by Rhizon samplers. The soil exposure intensity was assessed by standard Chelex 100 DGT (diffusive gradient in thin films) probes. TE phytoavailability was characterized by growing dwarf beans on potted soils and analyzing their foliar TE concentrations. The results of the present study indicate that the addition of fresh RCW and CSS has a positive effect on contaminated technosols. RCW decreased the mobility of all the studied TE in the SPW, whereas CSS reduced the mobility of Mo, Cr and Co, while it increased the mobility of Zn, Cu and As compared with the NE soil. The Zn soil exposure intensity assessed by DGT was not significantly changed by the addition of RCW and CSS, while the Cr soil exposure intensity was significantly decreased after RCW addition compared with the soil treated with CSS and the NE soil. In contrast Cu and Co were non labile in the three soils. Both RCW and CSS decreased the foliar concentration and the mineral mass of Mo, Zn, Cr, As and Co in the bean leaves but increased the foliar Cu concentration.

  16. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  17. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  18. Characterization of Organic Carbon and Its Bioavailability in Recharge Waters and Aquifer Sediments: Implications for Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, L. E.; Ardissono, R. J.; Polizzotto, M.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ali, M. A.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Neumann, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh affects millions of people, as groundwater is the primary source of both drinking and irrigation water in the country. The arsenic is of geologic origin, naturally-occurring in the aquifer sediment. However, the source of organic carbon that fuels the microbial reactions responsible for mobilizing arsenic off the sediment and into the groundwater has been debated for over a decade. The outstanding question is whether this organic carbon is sedimentary carbon that was co-deposited when the aquifers were formed, or surface-derived organic carbon transported into the subsurface along with recharge water. The answer to this question has implications for managing the contamination problem. Here we present results of recent laboratory incubations of aquifer sediment with recharge waters collected from our field site in Bangladesh. The incubations revealed a hitherto undocumented pool of biodegradable sedimentary organic carbon. Despite the carbon being old (thousands of years), it was rapidly utilized by the native microbial population. The results imply that within the aquifer this pool of sedimentary organic carbon is largely unavailable to the microbial community, but that chemical and/or physical perturbations to the subsurface, induced, for example, by large-scale groundwater pumping or microbial activity, could mobilize this bioavailable organic carbon off the sediment. Currently, we are using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques to understand the initial character of the mobilized organic carbon in our incubation experiments, and to track how its composition changes over time as it is degraded by microbes. These efforts will help clarify the in situ processes that could destabilize the sedimentary organic carbon and identify the components that make the carbon biologically available. Collectively, our data suggest a possible role for both surface-derived and

  19. Signaling in a polluted world: oxidative stress as an overlooked mechanism linking contaminants to animal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage colouration, indicators of individual’s quality or condition. The condition-dependent nature of signals makes them ideally suited as indicators of environmental quality, implying that signal production might be affected by contaminants. In this mini-review article, we have made the point that oxidative stress (OS is one overlooked mechanism linking exposure to contaminants to signaling because (i many contaminants can influence the individual’s oxidative balance, and (ii generation of both visual and non-visual signals is sensitive to oxidative stress. To this end, we have provided the first comprehensive review on the way both non-organic (heavy metals, especially mercury and organic (persistent organic pollutants contaminants may influence either OS or sexual signaling. We have also paid special attention to emerging classes of pollutants like brominated flame-retardants and perfluoroalkoxy alkanes in order to stimulate research in this area. We have finally provided suggestions and warnings for future work on the links among OS, sexual signaling and contaminant exposure.

  20. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of lead contamination using tree rings and organic soil layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, J-C; Richer-Laflèche, M; Bégin, C; Rodrigue, R

    2008-12-15

    An atmospheric dispersion model predicting ground-level concentrations from a point source of metal emissions (Murdochville smelter) was calibrated on tree rings in black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. B.S.P.) in order to reconstruct the spatial and temporal Pb-contamination pattern in the Gaspé Peninsula (Canada). Model predictions were validated with forest-floor Pb concentrations that resulted from accumulation of this element over the years and that provide a robust spatial-deposition pattern. Atmospheric emission records were also used to verify the good agreement between the smelter emissions and the temporal-information pattern present in tree rings. Tree rings that formed during the period of smelter emissions exhibited Pb concentrations that correlated with those measured in humus. Temporal variability in tree-ring concentrations was closely associated with the smelter emissions, suggesting that black spruce trees were able to record Pb pollution from a point source. However, a time gap of at least 15years must be considered between the emissions and the actual uptake and incorporation of Pb in the tree rings. A decrease in the level of contamination in the area was associated with the decrease in smelting activities, suggesting a natural resilience of the forest ecosystems to the contamination. This study highlights the strong potential for combining dendrochemical, soil, and modeling approaches in environmental research.

  1. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  2. A comparison of the in vitro cyto- and neurotoxicity of brominated and halogen-free flame retardants : prioritization in search for safe(r) alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Meijer, Marieke; Muilwijk, Mirthe; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are abundant persistent organic pollutants with well-studied toxicity. The toxicological and ecological concerns associated with BFRs argue for replacement by safe(r) alternatives. Though previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ f

  3. Distribution of DDT and other persistent organic contaminants in Canyons and on the continental shelf off the central California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S Ian

    2008-04-01

    Sediment samples were collected to delineate the distribution of contaminants along the central California coast. Sampling included a variety of Canyons and shelf/slope areas to evaluate contaminant transport patterns and potential delivery to Canyons and the continental slope to a depth of 1200 m. Sediments were collected and analyzed for organic contaminants using standard techniques of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program (NS&T). DDT is distributed on the shelf within a zone of fine-grained sediments between Half Moon and Monterey Bays. DDT was found at higher concentrations in Ascension, Año Nuevo, and Monterey/Soquel Canyons than in Pioneer and Carmel Canyons, the Gulf of the Farallones, or the continental slope. The Monterey Bay watershed appears to be the primary source of DDT. In contrast, PAHs and PCBs on the shelf appear to be derived primarily from San Francisco Bay. DDT appears to be delivered to the deep ocean via the Canyons more than from cross-shelf sediment transport. Sediment budget estimates for the continental shelf north of Monterey Bay need further refinement and more data to account for the movement of material from Monterey Bay onto the shelf.

  4. Pilot-scale evaluation of ozone and biological activated carbon for trace organic contaminant mitigation and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Gamage, Sujanie; Holady, Janie C; Mawhinney, Douglas B; Quiñones, Oscar; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to validate the use of ozone for contaminant oxidation and disinfection in water reclamation, extensive pilot testing was performed with ozone/H(2)O(2) and biological activated carbon (BAC) at the Reno-Stead Water Reclamation Facility in Reno, Nevada. Three sets of samples were collected over a five-month period of continuous operation, and these samples were analyzed for a suite of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), total estrogenicity, and several microbial surrogates, including the bacteriophage MS2, total and fecal coliforms, and Bacillus spores. Based on the high degree of microbial inactivation and contaminant destruction, this treatment train appears to be a viable alternative to the standard indirect potable reuse (IPR) configuration (i.e., membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, UV/H(2)O(2), and aquifer injection), particularly for inland applications where brine disposal is an issue. Several issues, including regrowth of coliform bacteria in the BAC process, must be addressed prior to full-scale implementation.

  5. Terminal elimination half-lives of the brominated flame retardants TBBPA, HBCD, and lower brominated PBDEs in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, H.J.; Schramm, K.W.; Feicht, E.A.; Fried, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Lenoir, D. [GSF-National Research Center, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Neuherberg (Germany); Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M. [Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Schmid, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, EMPA Duebendorf (Switzerland); McDonald, T.A. [Office of Environmental Health Assessment, California EPA, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in electronic equipment, construction materials, and furniture for the purpose of fire prevention. BFRs with the highest production volume are tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs: {alpha}-HBCD + {beta}-HBCD + {gamma}-HBCD), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Several BFRs are highly lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which have been identified in the aquatic and terrestrial environment including wildlife and humans. In exposed organisms including humans toxic effects, bioaccumulation, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics (especially half-life t{sub 1/2}) are important criterions in the hazard assessment. The aim of the present study was to estimate the terminal elimination half-lives (t{sub 1/2H}) of the main BFRs from the whole body (also named body-burden half-life) and/or from the adipose tissue (fat) of adult humans. The t{sub 1/2H} data for the following BFRs were evaluated: TBBPA, HBCD, 2,2',4,4'- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE- 100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6-hexaBDE (BDE-154).

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the great lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A. (ed.) [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    2006-07-01

    The environment around the Laurentian Great Lakes region has been adversely affected by agricultural runoff, urban waste, industrial discharge, landfill leachate, and atmospheric deposition. Although there have been some improvements over the last 20 years, persistent toxic organic pollutants are now a serious problem. This book brings together what is known about the major classes of these pollutants in the Great Lakes. Each chapter reviews our knowledge of the extent of contamination of the various parts of the Great Lakes ecosystem (air, water, sediment, fishes, birds, etc.), what is known about the trends over time of this contamination, and knowledge about the mechanisms by which these pollutants are mobilized in the lakes. Detailed information is presented on polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pesticides, toxaphene, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl acids. These reviews make this volume an invaluable resource for all those involved in environmental research, measurements, and decision making. (orig.)

  7. Occurrence of POPs and other persistent organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Loire estuary, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, M; Poirier, L; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Marchand, P; Vénisseau, A; Veyrand, B; Mouneyrac, C; Le Bizec, B

    2015-02-01

    The chemical contamination of the Loire estuary by three classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), and three families of organic contaminants, the alkylphenols (APs), the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (OH-PAHs) and the bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in the muscles and bile of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Yellow eels (n=30) were caught in three different points along the estuary to highlight variations between sites and sources of contaminations. Silver eels (n=15) were also studied to compare contaminant impregnation between different life stages of the species. Average concentrations in the muscles of the eel ranged between: 857 and 4358 ng/gLW for the PCBs, 26 and 46 ng/gLW for the PBDEs, 130 and 1293 ng/gLW for the PFAS; and in bile: 31 and 286 μg/g protein for the APs, 9 and 26 μg/g protein for the OH-PAHs and ND-1213 μg/g protein for the BPA. Among PCBs, PCB 153 (40% contribution to the sum of PCBs) was predominant in all eel muscles. PBDE 47 (60%) was the most predominant PBDE congeners, while perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (85%) was the most widely detected PFAS. For APs, 4p-nonylphenol (91%) was the most abundant and for the OH-PAHs, it was 1OH-Pyrene (63%). All the eels exceeded the environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota for the PBDEs and about 75% were higher than the EQS specific to PFOS. Finally, 20% of the analyzed eels presented TEQ concentrations above the maximum limits for lipid-rich species. These results supplied new data on the occurrence, levels, and patterns of 53 organic chemicals in the eels from the Loire estuary and they highlighted the need of further investigations focused notably on the potential effects of these chemicals on this species and their analysis in the water and sediments of the estuary.

  8. Estimating the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Predictions from the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model EPI Suite were modified to estimate the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems. The modified prediction included the effects of sorption, biodegradation, and oxidation that may occur during sub-surface transport. A retardation factor was used to simulate the mobility of adsorbed compounds during sub-surface transport to a recovery well. A set of compounds with measured persistent properties during sub-surface transport was used to validate the results of the modifications to the predictions of EPI Suite. A comparison of the predicted values and measured values was done and the residual sum of the squares showed the importance of including oxidation and sorption. Sorption was the most important factor to include in predicting the fates of organic chemicals in the sub-surface environment.

  9. The partitioning behavior of persistent toxicant organic contaminants in eutrophic sediments: Coefficients and effects of fluorescent organic matter and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Yilong; Kong, Xiangzhen; Lan, Xinyu; Xu, Fuliu

    2016-12-01

    In the shallow lakes, the partitioning of organic contaminants into the water phase from the solid phase might pose a potential hazard to both benthic and planktonic organisms, which would further damage aquatic ecosystems. This study determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) in both the sediment and the pore water from Lake Chaohu and calculated the sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KD) and the organic carbon normalized sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KOC), and explored the effects of particle size, organic matter content, and parallel factor fluorescent organic matter (PARAFAC-FOM) on KD. The results showed that log KD values of PAHs (2.61-3.94) and OCPs (1.75-3.05) were significantly lower than that of PAEs (4.13-5.05) (p  PAHs (4.61-5.86) > OCPs (3.62-4.97). A modified MCI model can predict KOC values in a range of log 1.5 at a higher frequency, especially for PAEs. The significantly positive correlation between KOC and the octanol - water partition coefficient (KOW) were observed for PAHs and OCPs. However, significant correlation was found for PAEs only when excluding PAEs with lower KOW. Sediments with smaller particle sizes (clay and silt) and their organic matter would affect distributions of PAHs and OCPs between the sediment and the pore water. Protein-like fluorescent organic matter (C2) was associated with the KD of PAEs. Furthermore, the partitioning of PARAFAC-FOM between the sediment and the pore water could potentially affect the distribution of organic pollutants. The partitioning mechanism of PAEs between the sediment and the pore water might be different from that of PAHs and OCPs, as indicated by their associations with influencing factors and KOW.

  10. Analysis of organic matter at the soil-water interface by NMR spectroscopy: Implications for contaminant sorption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Simpson, A.

    2009-05-01

    Contaminant sorption to soil organic matter (OM) is the main fate of nonionic, hydrophobic organic contaminants in terrestrial environments and a number of studies have suggested that both soil OM structure and physical conformation (as regulated by the clay mineral phase) govern contaminant sorption processes. To investigate this further, a number of soil samples were characterized by both solid-state 13 C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS) NMR and 1H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR- MAS) NMR. HR-MAS NMR is an innovative NMR method that allows one to examine samples that are semi- solid using liquid state NMR methods (ie: observe 1H which is more sensitive than 13C). With HR-MAS NMR, only those structures that are in contact with the solvent are NMR visible thus one can probe different components within a mixture using different solvents. The 1H HR-MAS NMR spectrum of a grassland soil swollen in water (D2O) is dominated by signals from alkyl and O-alkyl structures but signals from aromatic protons are negligible (the peak at ~8.2ppm is attributed to formic acid). When the soil is swollen in DMSO-d6, a solvent which is more penetrating and capable of breaking hydrogen bonds, aromatic signals are visible suggesting that the aromatic structures are buried within the soil matrix and do not exist at the soil-water interface. The 13C solid-state NMR data confirms that aromatic carbon is present in substantial amounts (estimated at ~40% of the total 13C signal) therefore, the lack of 1H aromatic signals in the HR-MAS NMR spectrum indicates that aromatic structures are buried and that the soil-water interface is dominated by aliphatic chains, carbohydrates, and peptides. The NMR data indicates that the mineral component of soils governs the physical conformation of OM at the soil-water interface.

  11. Copper Contamination of Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a "Click" Reaction Characterized with LAPS and SPIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Zhang, De-Wen; Wang, Jian; Watkinson, Michael; Krause, Steffi

    2017-03-24

    A copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction combined with microcontact printing was used successfully to pattern alkyne-terminated self-assembled organic monolayer-modified silicon surfaces. Despite the absence of a copper peak in X-ray photoelectron spectra, copper contamination was found and visualized using light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy (SPIM) after the "click"-modified silicon surfaces were rinsed with hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution, which was frequently used to remove copper residues in the past. Even cleaning with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution did not remove the copper residue completely. Different strategies for avoiding copper contamination, including the use of bulky chelators for the copper(I) catalyst and rinsing with different reagents, were tested. Only cleaning of the silicon surfaces with an EDTA solution containing trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) after the click modification proved to be an effective method as confirmed by LAPS and SPIM results, which showed the expected potential shift due to the surface charge introduced by functional groups in the monolayer and allowed, for the first time, imaging the impedance of an organic monolayer.

  12. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: II. Biological and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Alvarenga, P; Bernal, M P

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost) in combination with hydrated lime for the remediation of a highly acidic trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil was assessed in a mesocosm experiment. The effects of the amendments on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological properties were evaluated and related with the main physicochemical characteristics of soil and soil solution. The original soil showed impaired basic ecological functions due to the high availability of TEs, its acidic pH and high salinity. The three amendments slightly reduced the direct and indirect soil toxicity to plants, invertebrates and microorganisms as a consequence of the TEs' mobility decrease in topsoil, reducing therefore the soil associated risks. The organic amendments, especially compost, thanks to the supply of essential nutrients, were able to improve soil health, as they stimulated plant growth and significantly increased enzyme activities related with the key nutrients in soil. Therefore, the use of compost or pig slurry, in combination with hydrated lime, decreased soil ecotoxicity and seems to be a suitable management strategy for the remediation of highly acidic TEs contaminated soils.

  13. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, E; Gustafsson, E; Gustafsson, B G

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical-biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2-4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1-700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter-water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment.

  14. Mobile organic compounds in biochar - a potential source of contamination - phytotoxic effects on cress seed (Lepidium sativum) germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Mašek, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    Biochar can be contaminated during pyrolysis by re-condensation of pyrolysis vapours. In this study two biochar samples contaminated by pyrolysis liquids and gases to a high degree, resulting in high volatile organic compound (high-VOC) content, were investigated and compared to a biochar with low volatile organic compound (low-VOC) content. All biochar samples were produced from the same feedstock (softwood pellets) under the same conditions (550 °C, 20 min mean residence time). In experiments where only gaseous compounds could access germinating cress seeds (Lepidium sativum), application amounts ranging from 1 to 30 g of high-VOC biochar led to total inhibition of cress seed germination, while exposure to less than 1 g resulted in only partial reduction. Furthermore, leachates from biochar/sand mixtures (1, 2, 5 wt.% of biochar) induced heavy toxicity to germination and showed that percolating water could dissolve toxic compounds easily. Low-VOC biochar didn't exhibit any toxic effects in either germination test. Toxicity mitigation via blending of a high-VOC biochar with a low-VOC biochar increased germination rate significantly. These results indicate re-condensation of VOCs during pyrolysis can result in biochar containing highly mobile, phytotoxic compounds. However, it remains unclear, which specific compounds are responsible for this toxicity and how significant re-condensation in different pyrolysis units might be.

  15. The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the potential benefits, economics, and challenges of applying biochar in water treatment operations to remove organic and microbial contaminants was reviewed. Minimizing the use of relatively more expensive traditional sorbents in water treatment is a motivating aspect of biochar production, e.g., $246/ton non-activated biochar to $1500/ton activated carbon. Biochar can remove organic contaminants in water, such as some pesticides (0.02-23 mg g(-1)), pharmaceutical and personal care products (0.001-59 mg g(-1)), dyes (2-104 mg g(-1)), humic acid (60 mg g(-1)), perfluorooctane sulfonate (164 mg g(-1)), and N-nitrosomodimethylamine (3 mg g(-1)). Including adsorption/filtration applications, biochar can potentially be used to inactivate Escherichia coli via disinfection, and transform 95% of 2-chlorobiphenyl via advanced oxidation processes. However, more sorption data using biochar especially at demonstration-scale, for treating potable and reuse water in adsorption/filtration applications will help establish the potential of biochars to serve as surrogates for activated carbons.

  16. Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-10-01

    Fluoride (F) contamination is a global environmental problem, as there is no cure of fluorosis available yet. Prosopis juliflora is a leguminous perennial, phreatophyte tree, widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of world. It extensively grows in F endemic areas of Rajasthan (India) and has been known as a "green" solution to decontaminate cadmium, chromium and copper contaminated soils. This study aims to check the tolerance potential of P. juliflora to accumulate fluoride. For this work, P. juliflora seedlings were grown for 75 d on soilrite under five different concentrations of F viz., control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg NaF kg(-1). Organ-wise accumulation of F, bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF), growth ratio (GR) and F tolerance index (TI) were examined. Plant accumulated high amounts of F in roots. The organ-wise distribution showed an accumulation 4.41 mg kg(-1)dw, 12.97 mg kg(-1)dw and 16.75 mg kg(-1)dw F, in stem, leaves and roots respectively. The results indicated significant translocation of F from root into aerial parts. The bioaccumulation and translocation factor values (>1.0) showed high accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to F. It is concluded that P. juliflora is a suitable candidate for phytoremediation purpose and can be explored further for the decontamination of F polluted soils.

  17. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ∼1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (∼1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.

  18. Continental and oceanographic data information system, codis version 1.0: Protocols, software, compilation and appraisal of meta-data of organic contaminants in the Fraser River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyles, T.M.; King, B.; West, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Description of the continental and oceanographic data information system (CODIS), a PC-based index that searches, reports, and maps information on organic contaminants in the Fraser River Basin. The report also documents the historical development of CODIS, the protocol used to evaluate the quality of the organic data, and the software development and cataloguing process used for inputting the data.

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Contaminants (Blubber, serum, and whole blood persistent organic pollutants) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on persistent organic pollutant analysis of Hawaiian monk seal whole blood and blubber samples from the northwestern Hawaiian...

  20. Influence of Chlorsulfuron Contamination on Ratios of Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen to Total Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The extent and seriousness of the contamination of soils by pesticides still remain to be determined. In agricultural systems, herbicides are the largest class of pesticides used (Shea, 1985). Chlorsulfuron is one of the most important sulfonylurea herbicides with important feature of very high herbicidal activity, which results in extremely low application rates of 10~40 g ha-1 (Blair and Martin, 1988). The sulfonylurea herbicides can persist in the soil for more than 1 year (Brown, 1990). Therefore, there has been considerable interest in the side effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms, including soil microorganisms (Greaves and Malkomes, 1980). It is generally recognized that the microbial biomass is the eye of the needle through which all organic materials that enter the soil must pass (Jenkinson, 1988). Changes in the microbial biomass-C (Cmic) can provide an early indication of long-term trends in the total organic-C (Corg) of soils (Carter, 1986). The Cmic/Corg ratio has been found useful as an index of changes in soil organic matter resulting from land management changes (Hart et al., 1989). Many studies were done on relative effect of heavy metals on the ratio of Cmic/Corg but few studies have laid particular attention to the effect of herbicides on this ratio. The present paper reports on the Cmic/Corg and microbial biomass-N/total N (Nmic/Ntotal) ratios in soil as affected by chlorsulfuron.

  1. Screening evaluation of the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of soils contaminated with organic and inorganic nanoparticles: The role of ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R., E-mail: ruthp@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T.A.P. [ISEIT/Viseu, Instituto Piaget, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Galifonge, 3515-776 Lordosa, Viseu (Portugal); Antunes, F.E.; Rasteiro, M.G. [CIEPQPF - Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Polo II, Universidade de, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [IMAR - CMA, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, P-3004 517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Lopes, I. [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} In general ageing decreases toxicity/genotoxicity of soil spiked with aqueous suspensions of NMs. {yields} Ageing may promote degradation of organic shells of metallic NPs increasing toxicity. {yields} Toxicity was recorded despite aggregation of NPs in the aqueous suspensions. {yields} Soils spiked with Au nanorods, quantum dots, TiSiO{sub 4} induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. - Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of soils, and corresponding elutriates, contaminated with aqueous suspensions of two organic (vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide and of monoolein and sodium oleate) and five inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) (TiO{sub 2}, TiSiO{sub 4}, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, Fe/Co magnetic fluid and gold nanorods) to Vibrio fischeri and Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 strains). Soil samples were tested 2 h and 30 days after contamination. Suspensions of NPs were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering. Soils were highly toxic to V. fischeri, especially after 2 h. After 30 days toxicity was maintained only for soils spiked with suspensions of more stable NPs (zeta potential > 30 mV or <-30 mV). Elutriates were particularly toxic after 2 h, except for soil spiked with Fe/Co magnetic fluid, suggesting that ageing may have contributed for degrading the organic shell of these NPs, increasing the mobility of core elements and the toxicity of elutriates. TA98 was the most sensitive strain to the mutagenic potential of soil elutriates. Only elutriates from soils spiked with gold nanorods, quantum dots (QDs) and TiSiO{sub 4} induced mutations in both strains of S. typhimurium, suggesting more diversified mechanisms of genotoxicity.

  2. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  3. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments.

  4. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D J; Baran, N; Stuart, M E; Manamsa, K; Talbot, J

    2015-08-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n=16), pesticides (n=14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n=12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings.

  5. Modeling PAH mass transfer in a slurry of contaminated soil or sediment amended with organic sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.; Werner, D.; Luthy, R.G. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2008-06-15

    A three-compartment kinetic partitioning model was employed to assess contaminant mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion in systems comprising dense slurries of polluted soil or aquifer sediment with or without sorbent amendments to sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The model was applied to simulate temporal changes in aqueous and particle-bound PAH concentrations comparing different pollution sources (heavy oil or tar sludge) and various sorbent amendments (polyoxymethylene (POM), coke breeze, and activated carbon). For the model evaluation, all the parameters needed were directly measured from a series of experiments, allowing full calibration and verification of model predictions without parameter fitting. The numerical model reproduced two separate laboratory-scale experiments reasonably: PAH uptake in POM beads and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices. PAH mass transfer was then simulated for various scenarios, considering different sorbent doses and mass transfer rates as well as biodegradation. Such model predictions provide a quick assessment tool for identifying mass transfer limitations during washing, stabilization, or bioslurry treatments of polluted soil or sediment in mixed systems. It appears that PAHs would be readily released from materials contaminated by small oil droplets, but not tar decanter sludge. Released PAHs would be sequestered rapidly by activated carbon amendment but to a much lesser extent by coke breeze. If sorbing black carbon is present in the slurries, POM pellets would not be effective as a sequestration amendment. High first-order biodegradation rates in the free aqueous phase, e.g., in the order of 0.001 s{sup -1} for phenanthrene, would be required to compete effectively with adsorption and mass transfer for strong sorbents.

  6. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  7. Evaluations of combined zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Ythan catchment, Scotland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Heger, Sebastian; Hollert, Henner; Bresnan, Eileen; Best, Jennifer; Moffat, Colin F

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of organic contaminants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have previously been detected in surface waters in the river Ythan catchment, North East Scotland UK. While the concentrations detected were below Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards (WFD-EQSs) environmental exposures to the diverse mixtures of contaminants, known and unknown, may pose chronic and/or sublethal effects to non target organisms. The present study assessed the embryo and algal toxicity potential of freely dissolved organic contaminants from the Ythan catchment using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and miniaturised bioassay techniques. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and marine phytoplankton species (Diacronema lutheri) were exposed to extracts from SR-PSDs deployed at different locations along the river Ythan and an undeployed procedural blank. Statistically significant developmental and algal toxicities were measured in all tests of extracts from deployed samples compared with the procedural blanks. This indicates environmental exposure to, and the combined toxicity potential of, freely dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. The present and previous studies in the Ythan catchment, coupling SR-PSDs and bioassay techniques, have both helped to understand the interactions and combined effects of dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. They have further revealed the need for improvement in the techniques currently used to assess environmental impact.

  8. Predictors of hospital surface contamination with Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: patient and organism factors

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of the hospital environment in transmission of ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and ESBL-Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is poorly defined. Recent data however suggest that in the hospital setting, ESBL-KP is more transmissible than ESBL-EC. We sought therefore to measure the difference in hospital contamination rates between the two species and to identify key risk factors for contamination of the hospital environment with these organisms. Methods We systematically sampled...

  9. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia, EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, NaOAc (sodium acetate, CaCl2, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p < 0.01 with the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, however, all of the methods could not reflect plant growth status. Additionally, the capability of Cd to change from solid phase to become available in a soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only

  10. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Miao, Ling-Zhan; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2016-06-15

    Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl₂, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p plant tissues, however, all of the methods could not reflect plant growth status. Additionally, the capability of Cd to change from solid phase to become available in a soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to

  11. Fate of organic contaminants in the redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Samples from 75 sample locations in a landfill leachate pollution plume reveal a significant disappearance of specific organic compounds (SOC's) within the first 100 m of the plume. Only the herbicide Mecoprop® (MCPP) migrates further. Since sorption and dilution cannot account for the decreasing...... concentrations, degradation is considered to be the governing process. Non-volatile organic carbon shows a corresponding fate probably acting as a substrate for the microbial processes. The first 20 m of the plume are methanogenic/sulfidogenic, judged on the chemistry of the groundwater, followed...

  12. Long-term stability of organic carbon-stimulated chromatereduction in contaminated soils, and its relation to manganese redoxstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton,Steve R.; Newville, Matthew; Rao, William

    2007-03-13

    In-situ reduction of toxic Cr(V1) to less hazardous Cr(II1)is becoming a popular strategy for remediating contaminated soils.However, the long term stability of reduced Cr remains to be understood,especially given the common presence of MnfIIIJV) oxides that reoxidizeCr(II1). This 4.6 year laboratory study tracked Cr and Mn redoxtransformations in soils contaminated with Cr(V1) which were then treatedwith different amounts of organic carbon (OC). Changes in Cr and Mnoxidation states within soils were directly and nondestructively measuredusing micro X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Chromatereduction was roughly lst-order, and the extent of reduction was enhancedwith higher OC additions. However, significant Cr(||1) reoxidationoccurred in soils exposed to the highest Cr(V1) concentrations (2,560 mgkg"'). Transient Cr(II1) reoxidation up to 420 mg kg1 was measured at 1.1years after OC treatment, followed by further reduction. Chromateconcentrations increased by 220 mg kgm1a t the end of the study (4.6years) in one soil. The causal role that Mn oxidation state had inreoxidizing Cr was supported by trends in Mn K-edge energies. Theseresults provide strong evidence for longterm dependence of soil Croxidation states on balances between OC availability and Mn redoxstatus.

  13. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide on trace organic contaminants and NDMA in drinking water and water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Yan, Dongxu; Gerrity, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-02-01

    An ozone and ozone/peroxide oxidation process was evaluated at pilot scale for trace organic contaminant (TOrC) mitigation and NDMA formation in both drinking water and water reuse applications. A reverse osmosis (RO) pilot was also evaluated as part of the water reuse treatment train. Ozone/peroxide showed lower electrical energy per order of removal (EEO) values for TOrCs in surface water treatment, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased EEO values during wastewater treatment. TOrC oxidation was correlated to changes in UV(254) absorbance and fluorescence offering a surrogate model for predicting contaminant removal. A decrease in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (after chloramination) was observed after treatment with ozone and ozone/peroxide. However, during spiking experiments with surface water, ozone/peroxide achieved limited destruction of NDMA, while in wastewaters net direct formation of NDMA of 6-33 ng/L was observed after either ozone or ozone/peroxide treatment. Once formed during ozonation, NDMA passed through the subsequent RO membranes, which highlights the significance of the potential for direct NDMA formation during oxidation in reuse applications.

  14. Monitoring Organic Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal Utilizing Passive Sampler Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of riverine habitats and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., USEPA, NOAA, USDA), as well as non-profit conservation organizations (e.g., American Rivers). Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credi...

  15. Contrasting time trends of organic contaminants in Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Riddle, M.J.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that pelagic Antarctic seabirds show significant decreases in concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants. Trends in Adélie penguins and Southern fulmars fit in a general pattern revealed by a broad literature review. Downward trends are also visible in pelagic fish, contrast

  16. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajendra Dongre; Minakshi Thakur; Dinesh Ghugal; Jostna Meshram

    2012-10-01

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine pretreatment alters porosity and specific surface area of chitosan by means of physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of chitosan skeleton, besides imparting anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan, to remove lead (II) by chemical interactions on superfluous active sites as characterized by FTIR, SEM, DTA and elemental analysis. Lead adsorptions were studied in batch mode by varying parameters viz. pH, bromine loading, sorbent dosage, initial lead concentration, contact time and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted to Freundlich isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1.755 g/kg with 85–90% lead removal efficiency. Though cost and applicability of sorbent is unproven, yet contrast to raw chitosan derivatives, activated carbons and some resins, 30% bromine pretreated chitosan endow benign and efficient lead abatement technique.

  17. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: part 2. Seasonal occurrence of persistent and emerging organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Schroeder, V.L.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Clark, R.C.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Mullican, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence of organic contaminants, many of which are potential endocrine disruptors, entering the Potomac River, USA, watershed was investigated using a two-pronged approach during the fall of 2005 and spring of 2006. Passive samplers (semipermeable membrane device and polar organic chemical integrative sampler [POCIS]) were deployed in tandem at sites above and below wastewater treatment plant discharges within the watershed. Analysis of the samplers resulted in detection of 84 of 138 targeted chemicals. The agricultural pesticides atrazine and metolachlor had the greatest seasonal changes in water concentrations, with a 3.1 - to 91 -fold increase in the spring compared with the level in the previous fall. Coinciding with the elevated concentrations of atrazine in the spring were increasing concentrations of the atrazine degradation products desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine in the fall following spring and summer application of the parent compound. Other targeted chemicals (organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic wastewater chemicals) did not indicate seasonal changes in occurrence or concentration; however, the overall concentrations and number of chemicals present were greater at the sites downstream of wastewater treatment plant discharges. Several fragrances and flame retardants were identified in these downstream sites, which are characteristic of wastewater effluent and human activities. The bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen in vitro assay of the POCIS extracts indicated the presence of chemicals that were capable of producing an estrogenic response at all sampling sites. ?? 2009 SETA.

  18. Combined effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on mobilization of arsenic and lead from multi-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia; Qin, Junhao

    2017-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the combined effects of three common low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the mobilization of arsenic and lead in different types of multi-contaminated soils. The capacity of individual LMWOAs (at a same molar concentration) to mobilize soil-borne As and Pb varied significantly. The combination of the organic acids did not make a marked "additive" effect on the mobilization of the investigated three elements. An "antagonistic" effect on element mobilization was clear in the treatments involving oxalic acid for some soils. The acid strength of a LMWOA did not play an important role in controlling the mobilization of elements. While the mobilization of As and Pb was closely associated with the dissolution of soil-borne Fe, soil properties such as original soil pH, organic matter contents and the total amount of the element relative to the total Fe markedly complicated the mobility of that element. Aging led to continual consumption of proton introduced from addition of LMWOAs and consequently caused dramatic changes in solution-borne Fe, which in turn resulted in change in As and Pb in the soil solution though different elements behaved differently.

  19. Assessing trace metal contamination and organic matter in the brackish lakes as the major source of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Strmečki, Slađana; Plavšić, Marta

    2017-03-14

    On small and medium karstic coastal islands in the Adriatic Sea, brackish lakes are often the only source of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to adequately evaluate the biogeochemical processes occurring in these complex water systems, as well as to determine the origin of contaminants present. In this study, the distribution and origin of trace metals (Tl, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co) and organic matter in the water column, sediment, and surrounding soil of the brackish lakes on Mljet Island, South Adriatic Sea, Croatia, were evaluated. Thallium and mercury concentrations in the lake water were up to two orders of magnitude higher compared to ranges found in the adjacent coastal sea water. Elevated thallium concentrations were of anthropogenic origin resulting from previous use of rodenticide, while elevated mercury content was naturally enhanced. Levels for the other metals were characteristic of uncontaminated water systems. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn were mostly associated with organic matter, while Tl, Co, and Ni were present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. The presence of organic matter (OM) clearly influenced the speciation and distribution of some trace metals. OM was characterised by the determination of the complexing capacity for Cu ions (CuCC), surface active substances, and catalytically active compounds. Reduced sulphur species (glutathione and other thiols) representing significant Cu-binding ligands were determined and discussed as well.

  20. Sonication-induced pathways in the synthesis of light-active catalysts for photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Juan Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is becoming increasingly important due to the variety of its applications and multidisciplinary aspects. Applications such as water/air detoxification-disinfection, solar-energy storage, high-value-chemical production, optoelectronics, and sensors are some of the most promising. In recent years, the development of environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient procedures for material synthesis that could substitute the old ones has been on demand. Unconventional and soft techniques, such as sonication, offer enormous possibilities for the synthesis of a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, among them photocatalysts. This Review will focus the readers' attention on ultrasound-induced methodologies used for the preparation of nanostructured photocatalysts (e.g., supported nanoparticles, semiconductors) and their application in the photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants.

  1. Hollow microsphere with mesoporous shell by Pickering emulsion polymerization as a potential colloidal collector for organic contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yinyan; Meng, Xiaohui; Qiu, Dong

    2014-04-08

    Submicrometer hollow microspheres with mesoporous shells were prepared by a simple one-pot strategy. Colloidal silica particles were used as a particle stabilizer to emulsify the oil phase, which was composed of a polymerizable silicon monomer (TPM) and an inert organic solvent (PEA). The low interfacial tension between colloidal silica particles and TPM helped to form a Pickering emulsion with small droplet sizes. After the polymerization of TPM, the more hydrophobic PEA formed a liquid core, leading to a hollow structure after its removal by evaporation. BET results indicated that the shell of a hollow particle was mesoporous with a specific surface area over 400 m(2)·g(-1). With PEA as the core and silica as the shell, each resultant hollow particle had a hydrophobic cavity and an amphiphilic surface, thus serving as a good colloidal collector for hydrophobic contaminants in water.

  2. Forensic differentiation of biogenic organic compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons in biogenic and petrogenic compounds cross-contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Kelly-Hooper, F; Hollebone, B P; Peng, X; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Yang, Z

    2009-02-13

    "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPHs) or "petroleum hydrocarbons" (PHCs) are one of the most widespread soil pollutants in Canada, North America, and worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils and sediments costs the Canadian economy hundreds of million of dollars annually. Much of this activity is driven by the need to meet regulated levels of PHC in soil. These PHC values are legally required to be assessed using standard methods. The method most commonly used in Canada, specified by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), measures the total hydrocarbon concentrations in a soil by carbon range (Fraction 1: C(6)-C(10); Fraction 2: C(10)-C(16), Fraction 3: C(16)-C(34): and Fraction 4: C(34)+). Using the CCME method, all of the materials extractible by a mixture of 1:1 hexane:acetone are considered to be petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants. Many hydrocarbon compounds and other extractible materials in soil, however, may originate from non-petroleum sources. Biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) is a general term used to describe a mixture of organic compounds, including alkanes, sterols and sterones, fatty acids and fatty alcohols, and waxes and wax esters, biosynthesized by living organisms. BOCs are also produced during the early stages of diagenesis in recent aquatic sediments. BOC sources could include vascular plants, algae, bacteria and animals. Plants and algae produce BOCs as protective wax coating that are released back into the sediment at the end of their life cycle. BOCs are natural components of thriving plant communities. Many solvent-extraction methods for assessing soil hydrocarbons, however, such as the CCME method, do not differentiate PHCs from BOCs. The naturally occurring organics present in soils and wet sediments can be easily misidentified and quantified as regulated PHCs during analysis using such methods. In some cases, biogenic interferences can exceed regulatory levels, resulting in remediation of petroleum impacts that

  3. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.c [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Butt, Craig M.; Mabury, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C{sub 11}-C{sub 15} PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. {Sigma}TEQ was comprised mainly of {Sigma}TEQ{sub PCDF}. Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. - Northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic demonstrate sex-specific, colony-specific, and regional differences in contaminant profiles.

  4. A coupled advanced oxidation-biological process for recycling industrial wastewater containing persistent organic contaminants (CADOX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Maldonado, M.I.; Alarcon, D.C.; Fernandez, P.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W. [Platforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This article concentrates on coupled processes to treat seven highly water-soluble pesticides and three non-biodegradable chlorinated solvents. These are considered priority substances by the European Union and are thus the focus of some attention. The coupled processes include three oxidation processes: photocatalysis by titanium dioxide, photo-Fenton, and ozone; as well as biological degradation. The article reports on work in progress. The full project will include building two small prototypes embodying these technologies, the construction of a demonstration treatment plant based on the results obtained from the prototypes, conceptual design of a full size plant. New solar collectors were built to facilitate the photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. To date it has been determined that the photo-catalysis and photo-Fenton are suitable if the concentrations of the above contaminants is high enough. Ozone can enhance the treatment in the case of the pesticides, but not in the case of the non-biodegradable chlorinated solvents. Biotreatment is also not suitable for the solvents. The best biological system has been determined and the optimal recovery of catalyst has also been found. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

  6. Qualitative analysis of halogenated organic contaminants in American eel by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Jonathan D; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Lebeuf, Michel; Brown, R Stephen; Backus, Sean; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran

    2014-12-01

    Target compound analysis with scanning mass spectrometers such as quadrupole or magnetic sector instruments is used extensively in environmental chemistry because of the selectivity, sensitivity, and robustness. Yet, target compound analysis selectively ignores the majority of compounds present in a sample, especially in complex matrices like fish. In this study, time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to screen for and identify halogenated compounds in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). Individual and then pooled eel samples were analysed using electron ionization and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes. Eels were differentiated by principal component analysis of chemical profiles and were grouped corresponding to their capture location, all with a single instrument injection per sample. Bromine containing compounds were further investigated by taking advantage of the selectivity of ECNI by utilizing the Br(-) ion m/z 79 and 81. A total of 51 brominated compounds were detected and their identities were attempted by authentic standards, library searching, and/or chemical formula prediction based on accurate mass measurements. Several PBDEs were identified in the samples, and the majority of the non-PBDEs identified were bromophenols, bromoanisoles, and bromobenzenes. These classes of compounds are synthesized for use in flame retardant production either as intermediates or as final products. However, their occurrence in eels was most likely the result of metabolism or break-down products of high production volume flame retardants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bromophenoxy compounds.

  7. Validation of an automated screening method for persistent organic contaminants in fats and oils by GC×GC-ToFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; Tienstra, Marc; Lommen, Arjen; Mol, Hans G J

    2016-11-15

    An screening method, comprised of straightforward sample treatment based on silica clean-up, GC×GC-ToFMS detection and automated data processing with the non-proprietary free downloadable software MetAlignID, has been successfully validated with respect to false negatives for the sum PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), for the sum of BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183, for the four markers of PAHs and for a number of emerging brominated flame retardants. A screening detection limit (SDL) equal to or lower than the maximum regulatory level was always achieved. MetAlignID considerably decreased the time needed for data treatment from 20 to 5min/file. Automated identification of the signature mass spectral patterns was applied to identify chlorinated- and brominated-containing substances with more than two halogen atoms, and PAH derivates. Although the success rate was variable and needs to be further improved, the tool was considered to be of added value.

  8. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  9. Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

    2005-10-15

    We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper.

  10. Heavy metal and organic contaminants in mangrove ecosystems of China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zai-Wang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Shen; Chen, Yong-Shan; Peng, Jia-Xi

    2014-10-01

    China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by increasing environmental pollution. Mangrove ecosystems are now facing greater pollution pressures due to elevated chemical discharges from various land-based sources. Data on the levels of heavy metals and organic pollutants in mangrove compartments (sediments, plants, zoobenthos, and fish) in China over the past 20 years have been summarized to evaluate the current pollution status of the mangrove ecosystem. Overall, the Pearl River and Jiulong River estuaries were severely polluted spots. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in mangrove sediments of Guangdong, Fujian, and Hong Kong were higher than those from Guangxi and Hainan. The pollution status was closely linked to industrialization and urbanization. The highest concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found in mangrove sediments from Hong Kong, followed by Fujian and Guangdong. Mangrove plants tend to have low-enriched ability for heavy metals and organic pollutants. Much higher levels of Pb, Cd, and Hg were observed in mollusks.

  11. Synergistic role of different soil components in slow sorption kinetics of polar organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Hou, Lei; Zhu, Dongqiang; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We observed that the sorption kinetics of nitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (two model polar compounds) was significantly slower than that of 1,4-dichlorobenzene and phenanthrene (two model apolar compounds). The difference was attributable to the strong non-hydrophobic interactions between the polar molecules and soil. Interestingly, sorption kinetics of the polar sorbates to the soil organic matter-free soil, humic/fulvic acid-free soil, and extracted humic acids was very fast, indicating that different soil components played a synergetic role in the observed slow kinetics. We propose that slow sorption kinetics of highly polar sorbates stems mainly from the strong specific interactions (H-bonding, electron donor-acceptor interactions, etc.) with humic/fulvic acids; such specific interactions occur when sorbate molecules diffuse through humic/fulvic acids coiled, in relatively compressed confirmations, within the complex, tortuous, and porous soil matrices formed by mineral grains/particles and soil organic matter.

  12. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Yudha Perwira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC and total nitrogen (TN in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally positively correlated with TC and TN contents in the soil, but some soils had a low bacterial biomass despite containing high amounts of TC and TN. Soils of two fields (fields A and B with low bacterial biomass but high TC and TN contents were investigated. Long-term pesticide use (dichloropropane-dichloropropene and fosthiazate in field A and chloropicrin in field B appeared to have contributed to the low bacterial biomass observed in these soils. Soil from field A was treated with different organic materials and incubated for 1 month under laboratory conditions. The bacterial biomass in field A soil was enhanced in treatments containing organic materials rich in TN. Application of organic materials stimulated the growth of microorganisms with the potential to bioremediate pesticide-polluted soils.

  13. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant.

  14. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guan-Bu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg{sup −1}) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L{sup −1} DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH{sub 4}) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively.

  15. Fate and Transport of Organic Contaminants in Coastal Marsh Sediments Resulting from the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natter, M.; Keevan, J.; Lee, M.; Keimowitz, A.; Savrda, C.; Son, A.; Okeke, B.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating explosion and subsequent sinking of the oil platform Deepwater Horizon at the British Petroleum Macondo-1 well in the Northern Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, released approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf before the well was capped on July 15, 2010. Although most light compounds of oil may be easily degraded by natural microbes on the short term, saturated heavy oil (e.g., asphaltenes, resins, polycyclic aromatics, etc.) and those adsorbed by sediments could persist in the environment for decades. The long-term effects of high levels of persistent oil compounds on biogeochemical evolution and ecosystems of salt marshes remain unclear. This research investigates the spatial range and changes in levels of oil and their biogeochemical impacts. A total of ten marsh sampling sites that varied from pristine, non-effected marshes (e.g., Weeks Bay and Wolf Bay, Alabama) to heavily oiled wetlands (e.g., Bay Jimmy and Bayou Dulac, Louisiana) were utilized for this study. Sediment cores, bulk sediments, surface water samples, degraded oil, oiled dead marsh grass, and live marsh grass were collected from these sites in an attempt to study the source, distribution, and evolution of organic compounds and oil present in sediments and pore-waters. Geochemical analyses show alarmingly high organic carbon loads in pore-waters and sediments at heavily contaminated sites months after the influx of oil ceased. Very high levels (10-28%) of total organic carbon (TOC) within the heavily oiled sediments (down to 30 cm) are clearly distinguished from those found in pristine wetland sediments (generally oil dispersants. Furthermore, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels of pore-waters extracted from oiled sediments, ranging up to hundreds of mg/kg, are on the order of one to two magnitudes higher than those at pristine and slightly contaminated sites. These DOC levels also interestingly increase with depth, possibly indicating saltwater

  16. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  17. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  18. An Efficient and Facile Methodology for Bromination of Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleosides with Sodium Monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stromberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and facile strategy has been developed for bromination of nucleosides using sodium monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI. Our methodology demonstrates bromination at the C-5 position of pyrimidine nucleosides and the C-8 position of purine nucleosides. Unprotected and also several protected nucleosides were brominated in moderate to high yields following this procedure.

  19. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  20. Mind the Gap: Persistent and Mobile Organic Compounds-Water Contaminants That Slip Through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Berger, Urs; Arp, Hans Peter H; Gallard, Hervé; Knepper, Thomas P; Neumann, Michael; Quintana, José Benito; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-10-04

    The discharge of persistent and mobile organic chemicals (PMOCs) into the aquatic environment is a threat to the quality of our water resources. PMOCs are highly polar (mobile in water) and can pass through wastewater treatment plants, subsurface environments and potentially also drinking water treatment processes. While a few such compounds are known, we infer that their number is actually much larger. This Feature highlights the issue of PMOCs from an environmental perspective and assesses the gaps that appear to exist in terms of analysis, monitoring, water treatment and regulation. On this basis we elaborate strategies on how to narrow these gaps with the intention to better protect our water resources.

  1. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12 h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic > citric > acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric > oxalic > acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil.

  2. Biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in child populations living near contaminated sites in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Van Brussel, E; Cubillas-Tejeda, A C; Carrizales-Yáñez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a POP biomonitoring programme for children in high-risk areas. We evaluated 247 serum samples from children between the ages of 6 and 12years old from two zones in Mexico: (1) indigenous zones, which included Cuatlamayan (CUA), Tocoy (TOC), and Santa Maria Picula (SAM); and (2) industrial zones, which included Tercera Chica (TC), Industrial San Luis (IND) and Rincon de San Jose (SJR); Mundo Nuevo (MN); and Alpuyeca (ALP). Our results showed that α-endosulfan was similar to CUA, TOC, SAM, TC and MN (178.6-306.9ng/g lipid). β-Endosulfan levels were higher in ALP (901.5ng/g lipid), followed by CUA (139.9ng/g lipid) and TOC, SAM, TC and MN, which had similar levels (55.4-64.5ng/g lipid). For endosulfan sulfate, the ALP community had the highest concentration levels (1096.4ng/g lipid), whereas CUA and TOC (212.3 and 289ng/g lipid, respectively) had concentrations similar to those found in SAM and TC (99.5 and 119.1ng/g lipid, respectively). DDE levels were found in malaria-endemic areas of SAM, CUA and TOC (1782.2, 1358.3 and 57.0ng/g lipid), followed by MN (35.1ng/g lipid). HCB concentration levels were found to be higher in MN and SJR (691.8 and 575.4ng/g lipid, respectively), followed by CUA and TC (363.9 and 269.1ng/g lipid, respectively), with levels similar to those found in TOC and SAM (191.8 and 181.9ng/g lipid, respectively). Finally, PCB 101 concentration levels were found to be the highest in ALP (1032.7ng/g lipid), followed by similar levels of SJR and IND (567.5 and 327.3ng/g lipid, respectively) and TC and MN, with 109.1 and 144.5ng/g lipid, respectively. The evidence provided by this exploratory study indicates that the evaluation of the health risks posed to children living in contaminated areas is a high priority health issue.

  3. Modeling the transport behavior of 16 emerging organic contaminants during soil aquifer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nham, Hang Thuy Thi; Greskowiak, Janek; Nödler, Karsten; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Spachos, Thomas; Rusteberg, Bernd; Massmann, Gudrun; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    In this study, four one-dimensional flow and transport models based on the data of a field scale experiment in Greece were constructed to investigate the transport behavior of sixteen organic trace pollutants during soil aquifer treatment. At the site, tap water and treated wastewater were intermittently infiltrated into a porous aquifer via a small pilot pond. Electrical conductivity data was used to calibrate the non-reactive transport models. Transport and attenuation of the organic trace pollutants were simulated assuming 1st order degradation and linear adsorption. Sorption was found to be largely insignificant at this site for the compounds under investigation. In contrast, flow path averaged first order degradation rate constants were mostly higher compared to the literature and lay between 0.036 d(-1) for clofibric acid and 0.9 d(-1) for ibuprofen, presumably owing to the high temperatures and a well adapted microbial community originating from the wastewater treatment process. The study highlights the necessity to obtain intrinsic attenuation parameters at each site, as findings cannot easily be transferred from one site to another.

  4. An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides.

  5. Assessment and Control of Organic and Other Contaminants Associated with the Stardust Sample Return from Comet 81P/Wild 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, S.; Bajt, S; Clemett, S; Cody, G; Cooper, G; Degregorio, B; DeVera, V; Dworkin, J; Elsila, J; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous potential sources of organic contaminants could have greatly complicated the interpretation of the organic portions of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft. Measures were taken to control and assess potential organic (and other) contaminants during the design, construction, and flight of the spacecraft, and during and after recovery of the sample return capsule. Studies of controls and the returned samples suggest that many of these potential sources did not contribute any significant material to the collectors. In particular, contamination from soils at the recovery site and materials associated with the ablation of the heatshield do not appear to be significant problems. The largest source of concern is associated with the C present in the original aerogel. The relative abundance of this carbon can vary between aerogel tiles and even within individual tiles. This C was fortunately not distributed among a complex mixture of organics, but was instead largely present in a few simple forms (mostly as Si-CH{sub 3} groups). In most cases, the signature of returned cometary organics can be readily distinguished from contaminants through their different compositions, nonterrestrial isotopic ratios, and/or association with other cometary materials. However, some conversion of the carbon indigenous to the flight aerogel appears to have happened during particle impact, and some open issues remain regarding how this C may be processed into new forms during the hypervelocity impact collection of the comet dust.

  6. Assessment and Control of Organic and other Contaminants Associated with the Stardust Sample Return from Comet 81P/Wild 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, S.; Bajt, S; Clemett, S; Cody, G; Cooper, G; Degregorio, B; de Vera, V; Dworkin, J; Flynn, G; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous potential sources of organic contaminants could have greatly complicated the interpretation of the organic portions of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft. Measures were taken to control and assess potential organic (and other) contaminants during the design, construction, and flight of the spacecraft, and during and after recovery of the sample return capsule. Studies of controls and the returned samples suggest that many of these potential sources did not contribute any significant material to the collectors. In particular, contamination from soils at the recovery site and materials associated with the ablation of the heatshield do not appear to be significant problems. The largest source of concern is associated with the C present in the original aerogel. The relative abundance of this carbon can vary between aerogel tiles and even within individual tiles. This C was fortunately not distributed among a complex mixture of organics, but was instead largely present in a few simple forms (mostly as Si-CH{sub 3} groups). In most cases, the signature of returned cometary organics can be readily distinguished from contaminants through their different compositions, nonterrestrial isotopic ratios, and/or association with other cometary materials. However, some conversion of the carbon indigenous to the flight aerogel appears to have happened during particle impact, and some open issues remain regarding how this C may be processed into new forms during the hypervelocity impact collection of the comet dust.

  7. The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlbachova, G. [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Sagova-Mareckova, M., E-mail: sagova@vurv.cz [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Omelka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Prague 8, Karlin (Czech Republic); Szakova, J.; Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Life Sciences, Department of Agroenvironmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague 6, Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200 years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes. - Highlights: • Soil organic carbon affected all interactions between metals and microorganisms. • Soil organic carbon adjustment changed correlations from positive to negative. • Ammonium nitrate extractable metals were the most influencing fraction. • Dehydrogenase activity was the most affected soil parameter. • Zinc was the most toxic metal among studied metals.

  8. Characterization of black carbon and organic contaminants in wood ash from different feedstocks and types of furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Agustin; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Due to their important concentration of nutrient and charcoal, wood ash from biomass power plants (WA) can be used as a fertilizer and organic amendment in intensively managed soils. Unlike biochar produced in under anoxic conditions, the nature of the organic compounds present in wood ash has been scarcely studied. Due to the incomplete combustion, wood ash may contain a wide range of organic compounds, from charred to highly condensed refractory biomass, which determines the possibilities of WA as an organic amendment. In addition, the possible environmental risk of this practice must be assessed by determining the content of water-soluble and insoluble organic contaminants. due to the incomplete combustion of organic matter, organic pollutants, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be formed and can remain in the combustion residue. Also, the four alkyl benzene volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the ortho, para, and meta xylenes) can be formed, depending on certain conditions during combustion. For this study 15 biomass power stations in Spain were selected. In all of them the feedstock is pine or eucalyptus branches and bark. Nine of them were bottom wood ash generated from wood fires furnaces, obtained from grate-fired or water-tube boilers. Whereas four of them were fly ash, obtained in cyclone separators. The samples were collected following a common procedure to ensure the representiveness of the sampling. Bottom ash samples were fraccionated in three fractions: 5mm. Each fraction was characterized for organic matter and BTEX, styrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. For each analyzes, three replicates were analyzed per sample. Mixes wood ash shows higher amounts of charred material than fly ash. The 13 C CPMAS NMR, DSC/TG and FTIR analysis showed the loss of carbohydrates and aliphatic constituents and revealed the formation of aromatic compounds. The atomic H/C ratios, NMR

  9. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety.

  10. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth; Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2015-06-30

    Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO-TiO2 photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV-vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO-TiO2 more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO2 and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC-MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO2 based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  11. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the introduced marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum in European populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de; Gonzalez, Patrice; Jude, Florence; Raymond, Natalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Paillard, Christine [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale-IUEM, LEMAR UMR 6539 CNRS, Place Nicolas Copernic, Technopole Brest Iroise, 29280 Plouzane (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-11-15

    In natural environment, marine organisms are concomitantly exposed to pollutants and multiple disease agents resulting in detrimental interactions. The present study evaluated interactive effects of metal contamination (cadmium) and pathogenic organisms (trematode parasites Himasthla elongata and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination on the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, an introduced species to Europe, under laboratory controlled conditions. After 7 days, metal bioaccumulation and pathogen load were analyzed as well as metallothionein (MT) response and hemocyte concentrations and activities. Results showed that infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation, leading to maximal Cd accumulation in co-infected clams. Among stressors only V. tapetis induced significant effects on immune parameters whereas a particular interaction 'trematode-bacteria' was shown on MT responses. Despite low trematode infection in agreement with the resistant status of R. philippinarum to these macroparasites, significant interaction with bacteria and metal occurred. Such results highlight the necessity of taking pathogens into account in ecotoxicological studies. - Co-infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation and some defense-related activities in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

  12. Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

  13. Isolation of a Halophilic Bacterium, Bacillus sp. Strain NY-6 for Organic Contaminants Removal in Saline Wastewater on Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Zhenjiang Yu; Xiaohui Zhang; Dan Zhao; Fangbo Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria,could survive in dry powder products and if so,could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship.As part of the study,we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1,NY2,…,and NY7,the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months.NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius,based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties.Its optimal growth conditions were as follows:salinity was 2%; temperature was 37℃; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C∶ N∶ P was 100∶5∶1.The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity.The spores in the dry powder were 1.972× 108 g1.

  14. Wrinkles and Folds of Activated Graphene Nanosheets as Fast and Efficient Adsorptive Sites for Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Baoliang; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-04-01

    To create more wrinkles and folds as available adsorption sites, graphene nanosheets (GNS) were thermally treated with KOH for morphological alteration. The surface structures and properties of the activated graphene nanosheets (AGN) were characterized by BET-N2, SEM, TEM, Raman, XRD, XPS, and FTIR. After KOH etching, the highly crystal structure was altered, self-aggregation of graphene layers were evidently relieved, and more single to few layer graphene nanosheets were created with wrinkles and folds. Also both specific surface area and micropore volume of AGN increased relative to GNS. The adsorption of AGN toward p-nitrotoluene, naphthalene and phenanthrene were greatly enhanced in comparison with GNS, and gradually promoted with increasing degree of KOH etching. Adsorption rate of organic contaminants on AGN was very fast and efficient, whereas small molecules showed higher adsorption rates due to the more porous surface of graphene. In addition to π-π interaction, the high affinities of p-nitrotoluene to AGN are suggested from strong electron charge transfer interactions between nitro groups on p-nitrotoluene and defect sites of AGN. A positively linear correlation between organic molecule uptake and the micropore volume of AGN indicated that pore-filling mechanism may play an important role in adsorption. Morphological wrinkles and folds of graphene nanosheets can be regulated to enhance the adsorption capability and kinetics for efficient pollutant removal and to selectively preconcentrate adsorbates with different sizes for detection.

  15. Landfill leachate treatment by MBR: Performance and molecular weight distribution of organic contaminant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shaohua; LIU Junxin

    2006-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) with an air-lift bioreactor and gravity flow is applied to'treating landfill leachate. More than 99% of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand for five days) removal efficiency is achieved with less than 35 mg/L of BOD5 in the effluent at less than 1.71 kg BOD5/m3.d of BOD5 loading rate. When DO (dissolved oxygen) is maintained at the range of 2.3-2.8 mg/L and the loading rate of NH4+-N (ammonium nitrogen) is kept at 0.16-0.24 kg NH4+-N/m3.d, the NH4+-N in the effluent is less than 15 mg/L. However, compared with high removal rates of BOD5 and NH4+-N, the removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)varies between 70% and 96%. The investigation of molecular weight (MW) distribution has been carried out by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) so as to understand the fate of organic matters in the MBR treating of landfill leachate. Results indicate that organic matters of the landfill leachate are composed of a high MW fraction (MW of the peak, MWp =11480-13182 Da) and a low MW fraction (MWp =158-275 Da). The high MW fraction is not biodegradable, but can be decreased with microfiltration membrane. The most of the low MW fraction is biodegradable, but the residue of the low MW fraction is able to permeate through the membrane, thus resulting in high SCOD in the effluent of the MBR.

  16. Sensing and inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne by polymer-bromine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Paola A; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan; Wilusz, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    We report on the performance of brominated poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP-Br), brominated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Br), and brominated poly(allylamine-co-4-aminopyridine) (PAAm-APy-Br) for their ability to decontaminate Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in solution while also allowing for the sensing of the spores. The polymers were brominated by bromine using carbon tetrachloride or potassium tribromide as solvents, with bromine loadings ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 mEq/g of polymer. B. anthracis Sterne spores were exposed to increasing concentrations of brominated polymers for 5 min, while the kinetics of the sporicidal activity was assessed. All brominated polymers demonstrated spore log-kills of 8 within 5 min of exposure at 12 mg/mL aqueous polymer concentration. Sensing of spores was accomplished by measuring the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from the spore using time-resolved fluorescence. Parent, non-brominated polymers did not cause any release of DPA and the spores remained viable. In contrast, spores exposed to the brominated polymers were inactivated and the release of DPA was observed within minutes of exposure. Also, this release of DPA continued for a long time after spore inactivation as in a controlled release process. The DPA release was more pronounced for spores exposed to brominated PVP and brominated PEG-8000 compared to brominated PAAm-APy and brominated PEG-400. Using time-resolved fluorescence, we detected as low as 2500 B. anthracis spores, with PEG-8000 being more sensitive to low spore numbers. Our results suggest that the brominated polymers may be used effectively as decontamination agents against bacterial spores while also providing the sensing capability.

  17. Maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in European eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sühring, Roxana, E-mail: roxana.suehring@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Freese, Marko [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, Mandy [Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Schubert, Sophia; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Alaee, Mehran [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, L7R4A6 Canada (Canada); Wolschke, Hendrik [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Hanel, Reinhold [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Marohn, Lasse [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. Scientists are in agreement that the “quality of spawners” is a vital factor for the survival of the species. This quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. Especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. To our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eels. We analysed the concentrations of in total 53 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their halogenated substitutes in muscle, gonads and eggs of artificially matured European eels and in muscle and gonads of untreated European eels that were used for comparison. We found evidence that persistent organic pollutants such as PBDEs, as well as their brominated and chlorinated substitutes are redistributed from muscle tissue to gonads and eggs. Concentrations ranged from 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for sum Dechlorane metabolites (DPMA, aCL{sub 10}DP, aCl{sub 11}DP) to 2.1 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in eggs, 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 9.4 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in gonads and 0.002 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 54 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in muscle tissue. Average egg muscle ratios (EMRs) for compounds detectable in artificially matured eels from both Schlei Fjord and Ems River ranged from 0.01 for Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) to 10.4 for PBEB. Strong correlations were found between flame retardant concentrations and lipid content in the analysed tissue types, as well as transfer rates and octanol–water partitioning coefficient, indicating that these parameters were the driving factors for the observed maternal transfer. Furthermore, indications were found, that TBP-DBPE, TBP-AE, BATE and TBA have a significant uptake from the surrounding water, rather than just food and might additionally be formed by metabolism or

  18. Degradation of Polymeric Brominated Flame Retardants: Development of an Analytical Approach Using PolyFR and UV Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christoph; Dundua, Alexander; Aragon-Gomez, Jackelyn; Nachev, Milen; Stephan, Susanne; Willach, Sarah; Ulbricht, Mathias; Schmitz, Oliver J; Schmidt, Torsten C; Sures, Bernd

    2016-12-06

    Many well-established methods for studying the degradation of brominated flame retardants are not useful when working with polymeric and water insoluble species. An example for this specific class of flame retardants is PolyFR (polymeric flame retardant; CAS No 1195978-93-8), which is used as a substituent for hexabromocyclododecane. Although it has been on the market for two years now, almost no information is available about its long time behavior in the environment. Within this study, we focus on how to determine a possible degradation of both pure PolyFR as well as PolyFR in the final insulation product, expanded polystyrene foam. Therefore, we chose UV radiation followed by analyses of the total bromine content at different time points via ICP-MS and identified possible degradation products such as 2,4,6-tribromophenol through LC-MS. These results were then linked with measurements of the adsorbable organically bound bromine and total organic carbon in order to estimate their concentrations. With respect to the obtained (1)H NMR, GPC, and contact angle results, the possibility for further degradation was discussed, as UV irradiation can influence the decomposition of molecules in combination with other environmental factors like biodegradation.

  19. Formation potentials of bromate and brominated disinfection by-products in bromide-containing water by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Wu, Shouke; Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The ozonation involved in drinking water treatment raises issues of water quality security when the raw water contains bromide (Br(-)). Br(-) ions may be converted to bromate (BrO3 (-)) during ozonation and some brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs) in the following chlorination. In this study, the effects of ozone (O3) dosage, contact time, pH, and Br(-) and ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations on the formation of BrO3 (-) and Br-DBPs have been investigated. The results show that decreasing the initial Br(-) concentration is an effective means of controlling the formation of BrO3 (-). When the concentration of Br(-) was lower than 100 μg/L, by keeping the ratio of O3 dosage to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at less than 1, BrO3 (-) production was effectively suppressed. The concentration of BrO3 (-) steadily increased with increasing O3 dosage at high Br(-) concentration (>900 μg/L). Additionally, a longer ozonation time increased the concentrations of BrO3 (-) and total organic bromine (TOBr), while it had less impact on the formation potentials of brominated trihalomethanes (Br-THMFP) and haloacetic acids (Br-HAAFP). Higher pH value and the presence of ammonia may lead to an increase in the formation potential of BrO3 (-) and Br-DBPs.

  20. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  1. Sample handling strategies for the determination of persistent trace organic contaminants from biota samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Used, Natalia; Blanco-González, Elisa; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2007-05-02

    Even after emergence of most advanced instrumental techniques for the final separation, detection, identification and determination of analytes, sample handling continues to play a basic role in environmental analysis of complex matrices. In fact, sample preparation steps are often the bottleneck for combined time and efficiency in many overall analytical procedures. Thus, it is not surprising that, in the last two decades, a lot of effort has been devoted to the development of faster, safer, and more environment friendly techniques for sample extraction and extract clean up, prior to actual instrumental analysis. This article focuses on the state of the art in sample preparation of environmental solid biological samples dedicated to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) analysis. Extraction techniques such as Soxhlet extraction, sonication-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) are reviewed and their most recent applications to the determination of POPs in biota samples are provided. Additionally, classical as well as promising novel extraction/clean-up techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) are also summarized. Finally, emerging trends in sample preparation able to integrate analytes extraction and their adequate clean-up are presented.

  2. Occurrence and Biological Fate of Persistent Organic Contaminants in Yellow Sea Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, namely, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlors, mirex and chlordane compounds were investigated in muscle and liver tissues of Yellow Sea croakers (Collichthys niveatus and Pseudosciaena crocea from 16 stations on the off shore waters of South Korea within the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME. The sum concentration (minimum-maximum - ng/g lipid wt. was: PCBs: non-detectable to 21; Pesticides non-detectable to 63. Among the 26 individual pesticide compounds measured in fishes, except 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCBZ, all the other compounds were determined in almost in all samples. The levels in Yellow Sea croakers were similar to levels reported in the Baltic fish. The differential ratios of isomers/congeners in biota in comparison to the original commercial mixtures suggest possible metabolism by cytochrome P450 isozymes. The induction of such drug metabolizing enzymes suggests an ecotoxicological stress. Principle Component Analysis identifies ‘hot spots’ within the sampled area including the Korean off shore sewage dumpsite.

  3. Target and non-target screening strategies for organic contaminants, residues and illicit substances in food , environmental and human biological samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Díaz San Pedro, Ramón; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Ibáñez Martínez, María

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the potential of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) for large scale screening of organic contaminants in different types of samples. Thanks to the full-spectrum acquisition at satisfactory sensitivity, it is feasible to apply both (post)-target and non-target approaches for the rapid qualitative screening of organic pollutants in food, biological and environmental samples. ...

  4. The influence of interfacial properties on the two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater. Final report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demond, A.H.; Desai, F.N.; Hayes, K.F.

    1992-12-31

    DOE`s waste sites are contaminated with a variety of organic liquids. Because of their low solubility in water, organic liquids such as these will persist as separate liquid phases and be transported as such in the subsurface. Thus, an improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in the subsurface is important to DOE`s efforts to control groundwater contamination. Wettability is sometimes cited as the most important factor influencing two-phase flow in porous media. The wetting phase migrates preferentially through the smaller pores, whereas the nonwetting phase is concentrated in the larger pores. Typically, aquifers are thought of as strongly water-wet, implying that the organic liquid preferentially occupies the larger pores. But in fact, that state depends on the properties of the three interfaces of the system: between the organic liquid and water, water and the solid, and the organic liquid and the solid. Characteristics of the system which affect the interfacial properties also impact the wettability, such as the nature of the aquifer solids` surfaces, the composition of the goundwater and the properties of the organic contaminant. The alteration of wettability at DOE waste sites may be dominated by the presence of co-contaminants such as organic acids and bases which behave as surface-active agents or surfactants. Because of their physicochemical nature, surfactants will sorb preferentially at the interfaces of the system, thereby impacting the wettability and the distribution of the liquids in the porous medium. The over-all objective of this research was to determine how changes in interfacial properties affect two-phase flow. Specifically, the objective was to examine the effect of surfactant sorption on capillary pressure relationships by correlating measurements of sorption, zeta potential, interfacial tension and contact angle, with changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationships.

  5. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    A broad spectrum of organic chemicals is essential to modern society. Once discharged from industrial, domestic and urban sources into the urban wastewater collection system they may transfer to the residual solids during wastewater treatment and assessment of their significance and implications for beneficial recycling of the treated sewage sludge biosolids is required. Research on organic contaminants (OCs) in biosolids has been undertaken for over thirty years and the increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the majority of compounds studied do not place human health at risk when biosolids are recycled to farmland. However, there are 143,000 chemicals registered in the European Union for industrial use and all could be potentially found in biosolids. Therefore, a literature review of 'emerging' OCs in biosolids has been conducted for a selection of chemicals of potential concern for land application based upon human toxicity, evidence of adverse effects on the environment and endocrine disruption. To identify monitoring and research priorities the selected chemicals were ranked using an assessment matrix approach. Compounds were evaluated based upon environmental persistence, human toxicity, evidence of bioaccumulation in humans and the environment, evidence of ecotoxicity and the number and quality of studies focussed on the contaminant internationally. The identified chemicals of concern were ranked in decreasing order of priority: perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS, PFOA); polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs); organotins (OTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC); benzothiazoles; antibiotics and pharmaceuticals; synthetic musks; bisphenol A, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), steroids; phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs). A number of issues were identified and recommendations for the prioritisation of further research and monitoring of 'emerging' OCs for the

  6. A Sternheimer-like response property of the bromine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.; Peebles, S. A.; Legon, A. C.

    The generalised polarisability describing the response to an applied field of the electric field gradient at a nucleus in Br2 is calculated ab initio. A value of 110.55 a-10 is found at the self-consistent -field level. This is about half the value derived by modelling the measured nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of theammonia-bromine complex.

  7. Brominated flame retardants in waste electrical and electronic equipment: substance flows in a recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Huber, Yvonne; Stengele, Markus; Zennegg, Markus

    2005-11-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic additives mainly used in electrical and electronic appliances and in construction materials. The properties of some BFRs are typical for persistent organic pollutants, and certain BFRs, in particular some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), are suspected to cause adverse health effects. Global consumption of the most demanded BFRs, i.e., penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and HBCD, has doubled in the 1990s. Only limited and rather uncertain data are available regarding the occurrence of BFRs in consumer goods and waste fractions as well as regarding emissions during use and disposal. The knowledge of anthropogenic substance flows and stocks is essential for early recognition of environmental impacts and effective chemicals management. In this paper, actual levels of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, TBBPA, and HBCD in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as a major carrier of BFRs are presented. These BFRs have been determined in products of a modern Swiss recycling plant applying gas chromatography/electron capture detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A substance flow analysis (SFA) technique has been used to characterize the flows of target substances in the recycling process from the bulk WEEE input into the output products. Average concentrations in small size WEEE, representing the relevant electric and electronic appliances in WEEE, sampled in 2003 amounted to 34 mg/kg for pentaBDE, 530 mg/kg for octaBDE, 510 mg/kg for decaBDE, 1420 mg/kg for TBBPA (as an additive), 17 mg/kg for HBCD, 5500 mg/kg for bromine, and 1700 mg/kg for antimony. In comparison to data that have been calculated by SFA for Switzerland from literature for the 1990s, these measured concentrations in small size WEEE were 7 times higher for pentaBDE, unexpectedly about 50% lower for decaBDE, and agreed fairly well for TBBPA (as an additive) and

  8. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  9. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  10. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik

    2011-11-15

    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures.

  11. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  12. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  13. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trudeau, Suzanne [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jeffrey, Deborah A. [Bancroft, Ontario, K0L 1C0 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT{sub 3}, TT{sub 4}) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: > EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. > No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. > Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  14. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.

  15. Seasonal variations in fate and removal of trace organic chemical contaminants while operating a full-scale membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Trang; van den Akker, Ben; Coleman, Heather M; Stuetz, Richard M; Drewes, Jörg E; Le-Clech, Pierre; Khan, Stuart J

    2016-04-15

    Trace organic chemical (TrOC) contaminants are of concern for finished water from water recycling schemes because of their potential adverse environmental and public health effects. Understanding the impacts of seasonal variations on fate and removal of TrOCs is important for proper operation, risk assessment and management of treatment systems for water recycling such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Accordingly, this study investigated the fate and removal of a wide range of TrOCs through a full-scale MBR plant during summer and winter seasons. TrOCs included 12 steroidal hormones, 3 xeno-estrogens, 2 pesticides and 23 pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Seasonal differences in the mechanisms responsible for removing some of the TrOCs were evident. In particular the contribution of biotransformation and biomass adsorption to the overall removal of estrone, bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol and triclosan were consistently different between the two seasons. Substantially higher percentage removal via biotransformation was observed during the summer sampling period, which compensated for a reduction in removal attributed to biomass adsorption. The opposite was observed during winter, where the contribution of biotransformation to the overall removal of these TrOCs had decreased, which was offset by an improvement in biomass adsorption. The exact mechanisms responsible for this shift are unknown, however are likely to be temperature related as warmer temperatures can lower sorption efficiency, yet enhance biotransformation of these TrOCs.

  16. Radiation synthesis of CdS/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Youwei; Cao, Pengfei; Ma, Huiling; Liu, Pinggui; He, Lihua; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-06-01

    CdS/reduced graphene oxide (CdS/RGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a one-step gamma-ray radiation-induced reduction method. The composition and structure of the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, micro FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that increasing dose could improve the degree of reduction of graphite oxide (GO), and the feed ratio of GO to CdCl2·2.5H2O significantly influenced the size and dispersion of the CdS nanoparticles. The nanocomposites prepared under dose of 300 kGy and the feed ratio of GO to CdCl2·2.5H2O 1.0 wt% exhibited high visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B with degradation efficiency of 93%. This work provides a novel and facile method to produce the nanocomposites as efficient photocatalysts for the removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solution.

  17. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively.

  18. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  19. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p water quality in surface drinking water sources.

  20. Non-target screening of organic contaminants in marine salts by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Roque; Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Portolés, Tania; Amat, Francisco; Hernández, Félix

    2011-08-15

    Gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to characterize the organic pollution pattern of marine salt samples collected in saltworks from the Spanish Mediterranean coast. After dissolving the samples in water, a solid-phase extraction was applied reaching with a 250-preconcentration factor. The screening methodology allowed the detection of sample components without any kind of pre-selection of target pollutants. The identity of components detected was established by accurate mass measurements and comparison of experimental full-acquisition spectra with theoretical MS libraries. Several organic pollutants were identified in the samples, like plasticizers - potentially toxic to humans - and fr