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Sample records for brominated noscapine analogs

  1. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating brominated noscapine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughaier, Susu; Karna, Prasanthi; Stephens, David; Aneja, Ritu

    2010-02-11

    Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify brominated noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.

  2. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating brominated noscapine analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Zughaier

    Full Text Available Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify brominated noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.

  3. Noscapine and its Analogs as Chemotherapeutic Agent: Current updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Vartika; Kukreti, Shrikant; Prakash, Satya; Madan, Jitender; Chandra, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Recently, noscapine was reported as anticancer drug. Unlike, colchicine and podophyllotoxin, noscapine did not depolymerize microtubules even at stoichiometric concentrations but rather only mitigated their dynamics. Other microtubule-interacting chemotherapeutics, although quite effective, have therapy-limiting toxicities including immunosuppression and peripheral neuropathies. Recurrent cancers often become resistant. Noscapine however remains effective in some such instances, e.g., taxane-resistant ovarian cancer. Noscapine and analogs also do not show signs of neurotoxicity or immunosuppression. In addition, 9-bromo noscapine, Red-9-Br-Nos and other analogs were characterized for their structure and further studied in detail. On the other hand, noscapine was shown to be neuroprotective in mouse model of neurodegenerative disease and in stroke patients. Like low doses of colchicine, noscapine and its analog 9-Br-Noscapine also show anti-inflammatory activities. There are indications of a preventive use of noscapine in ischemiareperfusion injury and fibrosis. The entire biosynthetic pathway of noscapine is encoded as gene cluster within 401 kilo bases of genomic DNA, opening up opportunities for the large-scale biotechnological production of noscapine for medicinal needs. Thus, noscapine and its derivatives (noscapinoids) might be cost-effective and safe components for cancer chemotherapy. Owing to its low toxicity, it also might be useful for preventive use in high-risk situations. This brief review is an update of current research activity and patents on noscapine and its analogs.

  4. Novel third-generation water-soluble noscapine analogs as superior microtubule-interfering agents with enhanced antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henary, Maged; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Ahad, Shazia; Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Sharma, Vibhuti; Owens, Eric A; Yadav, Yogesh; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Hamelberg, Donald; Tandon, Vibha; Panda, Dulal; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-11-15

    Noscapine, an opium-derived 'kinder-gentler' microtubule-modulating drug is in Phase I/II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. However, its limited water solubility encumbers its development into an oral anticancer drug with clinical promise. Here we report the synthesis of 9 third-generation, water-soluble noscapine analogs with negatively charged sulfonato and positively charged quaternary ammonium groups using noscapine, 9-bromonoscapine and 9-aminonoscapine as scaffolds. The predictive free energy of solvation was found to be lower for sulfonates (6a-c; 8a-c) compared to the quaternary ammonium-substituted counterparts, explaining their higher water solubility. In addition, sulfonates showed higher charge dispersability, which may effectively shield the hydrophobicity of isoquinoline nucleus as indicated by hydrophobicity mapping methods. These in silico data underscore efficient net charge balancing, which may explain higher water solubility and thus enhanced antiproliferative efficacy and improved bioavailability. We observed that 6b, 8b and 8c strongly inhibited tubulin polymerization and demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines compared to noscapine. Molecular simulation and docking studies of tubulin-drug complexes revealed that the brominated compound with a four-carbon chain (4b, 6b, and 8b) showed optimal binding with tubulin heterodimers. Interestingly, 6b, 8b and 8c treated PC-3 cells resulted in preponderance of mitotic cells with multipolar spindle morphology, suggesting that they stall the cell cycle. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of 6b, 8b and 8c revealed at least 1-2-fold improvement in their bioavailability compared to noscapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate novel water-soluble noscapine analogs that may pave the way for future pre-clinical drug development.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of di-substituted noscapine analogs as potent and microtubule-targeted anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram C; Gundala, Sushma R; Karna, Prasanthi; Lopus, Manu; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Hamelberg, Donald; Tandon, Vibha; Panda, Dulal; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an opium-derived kinder-gentler microtubule-modulating drug, currently in Phase I/II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we report the synthesis of four more potent di-substituted brominated derivatives of noscapine, 9-Br-7-OH-NOS (2), 9-Br-7-OCONHEt-NOS (3), 9-Br-7-OCONHBn-NOS (4), and 9-Br-7-OAc-NOS (5) and their chemotherapeutic efficacy on PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The four derivatives were observed to have higher tubulin binding activity than noscapine and significantly affect tubulin polymerization. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the interaction between tubulin and 2, 3, 4, 5 was found to be, 55±6μM, 44±6μM, 26±3μM, and 21±1μM respectively, which is comparable to parent analog. The effects of these di-substituted noscapine analogs on cell cycle parameters indicate that the cells enter a quiescent phase without undergoing further cell division. The varying biological activity of these analogs and bulk of substituent at position-7 of the benzofuranone ring system of the parent molecule was rationalized utilizing predictive in silico molecular modeling. Furthermore, the immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from cells treated with 4 and 5, revealed the induction of apoptosis and down-regulation of survivin levels. This result was further supported by the enhanced activity of caspase-3/7 enzymes in treated samples compared to the controls. Hence, these compounds showed a great potential for studying microtubule-mediated processes and as chemotherapeutic agents for the management of human cancers.

  6. Synthesis of microtubule-interfering halogenated noscapine analogs that perturb mitosis in cancer cells followed by cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Ritu; Vangapandu, Surya N; Lopus, Manu; Viswesarappa, Vijaya G; Dhiman, Neerupma; Verma, Akhilesh; Chandra, Ramesh; Panda, Dulal; Joshi, Harish C

    2006-08-14

    We have previously identified the naturally occurring non-toxic antitussive phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid, noscapine as a tubulin-binding agent that arrests mitosis and induces apoptosis. Here we present high-yield efficient synthetic methods and an evaluation of anticancer activity of halogenated noscapine analogs. Our results show that all analogs display higher tubulin-binding activity than noscapine and inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and CEM). Surprisingly, the bromo-analog is approximately 40-fold more potent than noscapine in inhibiting cellular proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The ability of these analogs to inhibit cellular proliferation is mediated by cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, in that all analogs except 9-iodonoscapine, caused selective mitotic arrest with a higher efficiency than noscapine followed by apoptotic cell death as shown by immunofluorescence and quantitative FACS analyses. Furthermore, our results reveal the appearance of numerous fragmented nuclei as evidenced by DAPI staining. Thus, our data indicate a great potential of these compounds for studying microtubule-mediated processes and as chemotherapeutic agents for the management of human cancers.

  7. Second generation benzofuranone ring substituted noscapine analogs: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Chandra; Karna, Prasanthi; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Pannu, Vaishali; Stanton, Richard A; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Robinson, M Hope; Lopus, Manu; Wilson, Leslie; Henary, Maged; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-07-15

    Microtubules, composed of α/β tubulin heterodimers, represent a validated target for cancer chemotherapy. Thus, tubulin- and microtubule-binding antimitotic drugs such as taxanes and vincas are widely employed for the chemotherapeutic management of various malignancies. Although quite successful in the clinic, these drugs are associated with severe toxicity and drug resistance problems. Noscapinoids represent an emerging class of microtubule-modulating anticancer agents based upon the parent molecule noscapine, a naturally occurring non-toxic cough-suppressant opium alkaloid. Here we report in silico molecular modeling, chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of novel analogs derived by modification at position-7 of the benzofuranone ring system of noscapine. The synthesized analogs were evaluated for their tubulin polymerization activity and their biological activity was examined by their antiproliferative potential using representative cancer cell lines from varying tissue-origin [A549 (lung), CEM (lymphoma), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreatic), MCF-7 (breast) and PC-3 (prostate)]. Cell-cycle studies were performed to explore their ability to halt the cell-cycle and induce subsequent apoptosis. The varying biological activity of these analogs that differ in the nature and bulk of substituent at position-7 was rationalized utilizing predictive in silico molecular modeling.

  8. Wheat germ agglutinin anchored chitosan microspheres of reduced brominated derivative of noscapine ameliorated acute inflammation in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Sodhi, Rupinder Kaur; Katyal, Anju; Aneja, Ritu; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katare, Om Prakash; Madan, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    Reduced brominated derivative of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos, EM012), has potent anti-inflammatory property. However, physicochemical limitations of Red-Br-Nos like low aqueous solubility (0.43×10(-3) g/mL), high lipophilicity (logP∼2.94) and ionization at acidic pH greatly encumber the scale-up of oral drug delivery systems for the management of colitis. Therefore, in present investigation, chitosan microspheres bearing Red-Br-Nos (CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) were prepared by emulsion polymerization method and later coated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) to boost the bioadhesive property. The mean particle size and zeta-potential of CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos were measured to be 10.5±5.4 μm and 8.1±2.2 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lesser than, 30.2±3.2 μm and 19.2±2.3 mV of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos. Furthermore, various spectral techniques like SEM, FT-IR, DSC and PXRD substantiated that Red-Br-Nos was molecularly dispersed in tailored microspheres in amorphous state. Surface bioadhesive property of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos promoted the affinity toward colon mucin cells in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH∼7.2). In vitro release studies carried out on WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos indicated that SCF with colitis milieu (pH∼4.7) favored the controlled release of Red-Br-Nos, owing to solubilization at acidic pH. Consistently, in vivo investigation also demonstrated the utility of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos, which remarkably attenuated the DSS encouraged neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in C57BL6J mice, as compared to CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and Red-Br-Nos suspension. The noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos against acute colitis may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery, affinity and utmost drug exposure at inflamed mucosal layers of colon. In conclusion, WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos warrants further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations to scale-up the technology for clinical

  9. The anti-cancer activity of noscapine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    Noscapine is an isoqiunoline alkaloid found in opium latex. Unlike most other alkaloids obtained from opium latex, noscapine is not sedative and has been used as antitussive drug in various countries. Recently, it has been introduced as an anti-mitotic agent. This drug can be used orally. When the resistance to other anti-cancer drugs such as paclitaxel manifests, noscapine might be effective. Therefore, noscapine and its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer agents.

  10. Copper(I) mediated facile synthesis of potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor, 9-amino-α-noscapine from natural α-noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchukonda, Naresh K; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Naik, Pradeep K; Joshi, Harish C; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2012-04-15

    Facile synthesis of natural α-noscapine analogue, 9-amino-α-noscapine, a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization for cancer therapy, is achieved via copper(I) iodide mediated in situ aromatic azidation and reduction of 9-bromo-α-noscapine (obtained by bromination of natural α-noscapine) with NaN(3) in DMSO at 130°C in the presence of L-proline as an amino acid promoter. The protocol developed here avoided isolation of 9-azido-α-noscapine and did not cleave the sensitive C-C bond between two heterocyclic phthalide and isoquinoline units.

  11. Noscapine comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid, which represents a class of plant specialized metabolites within the large and structurally diverse group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Along with the narcotic analgesic morphine, noscapine is a major alkaloid in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) that has long been used as a cough suppressant and has undergone extensive investigation as a potential anticancer drug. Cultivated opium poppy plants remain the only commercial source of noscapine. Despite its isolation from opium more than two centuries ago, the almost complete biosynthesis of noscapine has only recently been established based on an impressive combination of molecular genetics, functional genomics, and metabolic biochemistry. In this review, we provide a historical account of noscapine from its discovery through to initial investigations of its formation in opium poppy. We also describe recent breakthroughs that have led to an elucidation of the noscapine biosynthetic pathway, and we discuss the pharmacological properties that have prompted intensive evaluation of the potential pharmaceutical applications of noscapine and several semi-synthetic derivatives. Finally, we speculate on the future potential for the production of noscapine using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in plants and microbes.

  12. A review on noscapine, and its impact on heme metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Singh, Prashant; Kumari, Kamlesh; Chandra, Ankush; Dass, Sujata K; Chandra, Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    This review introduces the Noscapine, which is being used as an antitussive drug for a long time has been recently discovered as a novel tubulin-binding, anti-angiogenic anticancer drug that causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in cancer cells both in vitro as well as in vivo. Noscapine is a multifunctional molecule i.e. it possesses various functional moieties. We maneuvered various amenable sites and have synthesized analogs, which might prove to be more efficacious and less cytotoxic. Moreover, development of oral controlled release anticancer formulation of noscapine is severely hampered due to short biological half-life (<2-h), poor absorption, low aqueous solubility, and extensive first pass metabolism, thereby requiring large doses for effective treatment.

  13. The Noscapine Chronicle: A Pharmaco-Historic Biography of the Opiate Alkaloid Family and its Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Padmashree C G; LiVecche, Dillon; Ogden, Angela; Zhou, Jun; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-01

    Given its manifold potential therapeutic applications and amenability to modification, noscapine is a veritable "Renaissance drug" worthy of commemoration. Perhaps the only facet of noscapine's profile more astounding than its versatility is its virtual lack of side effects and addictive properties, which distinguishes it from other denizens of Papaver somniferum. This review intimately chronicles the rich intellectual and pharmacological history behind the noscapine family of compounds, the length of whose arms was revealed over decades of patient scholarship and experimentation. We discuss the intriguing story of this family of nontoxic alkaloids, from noscapine's purification from opium at the turn of the 19th century in Paris to the recent torrent of rationally designed analogs with tremendous anticancer potential. In between, noscapine's unique pharmacology; impact on cellular signaling pathways, the mitotic spindle, and centrosome clustering; use as an antimalarial drug and cough suppressant; and exceptional potential as a treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome, strokes, and diverse malignancies are catalogued. Seminal experiments involving some of its more promising analogs, such as amino-noscapine, 9-nitronoscapine, 9-bromonoscapine, and reduced bromonoscapine, are also detailed. Finally, the bright future of these oftentimes even more exceptional derivatives is described, rounding out a portrait of a truly remarkable family of compounds.

  14. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and t...

  15. Anxiolytic effect of noscapine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahmi, Parvin; Rostami, Parvin; Rashidi, Armin; Khodarahmi, Iman

    2006-01-01

    The anxiety-related effects of noscapine were investigated using male Balb-c mice. Since noscapine-induced locomotion may alter the animals' activity level in the dark-light model, the anxiety-related effects of noscapine were studied at doses with no effect on locomotion (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/kg). The parameter measured in dark-light model was the time spent in lit compartment. Intraperitoneal administration of noscapine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) did not produce a significant effect on the time spent in the light, whereas higher doses (0.8, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/kg) increased it significantly, implying an anxiolytic effect.

  16. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides str...

  17. Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in TMZ-resistant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Niyati; Cho, Heeyeon; Torres, Shering; Wang, Weijun; Schönthal, Axel H; Petasis, Nicos A; Louie, Stan G; Hofman, Florence M; Chen, Thomas C

    2011-12-22

    Noscapine, a common oral antitussive agent, has been shown to have potent antitumor activity in a variety of cancers. Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with temozolomide (TMZ), its current standard of care, is problematic because the tumor generally recurs and is then resistant to this drug. We therefore investigated the effects of noscapine on human TMZ-resistant GBM tumors. We found that noscapine significantly decreased TMZ-resistant glioma cell growth and invasion. Using the intracranial xenograft model, we showed that noscapine increased survival of animals with TMZ-resistant gliomas. Thus noscapine can provide an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of TMZ-resistant gliomas.

  18. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Peter E; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Tuszynski, Jack A; West, F G

    2016-06-28

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug.

  19. Metabolism profiling of amino-noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua-Jun; Qian, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Amino-noscapine is a promising noscapine derivative undergoing R&D as an efficient anti-tumor drug. In vitro phase I metabolism incubation system was employed. In vitro samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In vitro recombinant CYP isoforms screening was used to identify the drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino-noscapine. Multiple metabolics were formed, including the formation of metabolite undergoing cleavage of methylenedioxy group, hydroxylated metabolites, demethylated metabolites, and metabolites undergoing C-C cleavage. Nearly, all the CYP isoforms were involved in the metabolism of metabolites II, III, VII, IX, and X. CYP1A1 was demonstrated to be the major CYP isoform for the formation of metabolites IV and V. CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 mainly catalyzed the formation of metabolite VI. The metabolic formation of VIII was mainly catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. CYP3A4 was the main enzyme for the formation of XI. CYP2C9 mainly catalyzed the generation of metabolite XII. In conclusion, the metabolic pathway of amino-noscapine was elucidated in the present study using in vitro phase I incubation experiment, including the structural elucidation of metabolites and involved phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes. This information was helpful for the R&D of amino-noscapine.

  20. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D

    2016-07-05

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery.

  1. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4′-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery. PMID:27378283

  2. Bromine Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  3. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  4. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...... in vitro and in vivo and is therefore not a suitable dosage form. Only a lozenge formulation containing noscapine base fulfilled the requirements of taste acceptability and adequate release properties....

  5. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of haloderivatives of noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Bansal, Sandhya; Singh, Jaspal; Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar; Kasi Sankar, V; Tandon, Vibha; Chandra, Ramesh

    2006-10-01

    Three haloderivatives of noscapine 2-4 were synthesized chemoselectively and their in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay on U-87 human glioblastoma cell lines. At 50 microM concentration after 72 h, 9-chloronoscapine 2, 9-bromonoscapine 3 (EM011), and 9-iodonoscapine 4 killed 87.8%, 51.2%, and 56.8% cells, respectively, however noscapine kills only 40% of the cells; revealing 9-chloronoscapine as a potential cytotoxic agent than noscapine and 9-bromonoscapine (EM011). At low concentration (1 microM) 9-bromonoscapine (46.7%) and 9-chloronoscapine (45.7%) did not show any significant difference.

  6. Noscapine as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc, S

    2000-01-24

    In this short report the evidence is given (based on the analyses of 22 case samples) that noscapine can be used as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples. In this context, the appearance of illicit heroin samples characterised by a high noscapine content (up to 61%) and a high noscapine/whole morphine ratio (up to 3.5) is highlighted. All samples discussed in the paper (132) were seized in Slovenia, in the period from 1997 to 1999 and were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  7. Identification of novel and improved antimitotic agents derived from noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James T; Ting, Anthony E; Boozer, Sherry; Brunden, Kurt R; Crumrine, Chris; Danzig, Joel; Dent, Tom; Faga, Laurel; Harrington, John J; Hodnick, William F; Murphy, Steven M; Pawlowski, Gary; Perry, Robert; Raber, Amy; Rundlett, Stephen E; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Wang, Jianmin; Bennani, Youssef L

    2005-11-17

    Analogues of the natural product noscapine were synthesized and their potential as antitumor agents evaluated. The discovery of a novel regioselective O-demethylation facilitated the synthesis of the potent aniline 6, which arrests mammalian cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle at 0.1 microM and also affects tubulin polymerization. Aniline 6 is orally bioavailable and is 250-fold more potent than noscapine in reducing cell proliferation in rapidly dividing cells.

  8. Characterization of Inhibition Kinetics of (S)-Warfarin Hydroxylation by Noscapine: Implications in Warfarin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Seguin, Ryan P.; Kunze, Kent L.; ZHANG, YAN-YAN; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Noscapine is an antitussive and potential anticancer drug. Clinically significant interactions between warfarin and noscapine have been previously reported. In this study, to provide a basis for warfarin dosage adjustment, the inhibition kinetics of noscapine against warfarin metabolism was characterized. Our enzyme kinetics data obtained from human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2C9 proteins indicate that noscapine is a competitive inhibitor of the (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation reaction ...

  9. Apoptotic pathway induced by noscapine in human myelogenous leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Nastaran; Goliaei, Bahram; Moghaddam, Parvaneh Rahimi; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2007-11-01

    It has been shown that noscapine, an opium-derived phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently being used as an oral antitussive drug, induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of noscapine is poorly understood. In the current study, the apoptotic effects of noscapine on two myeloid cell lines, apoptosis-proficient HL60 cells and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, were analyzed. An increase in the activity of caspase-2, -3, -6, -8 and -9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, detection of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the cell membrane, nucleation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Noscapine increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression accompanied with Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Using an inhibitory approach, the activation of the caspase cascade involved in the noscapine-induced apoptosis was analyzed. We observed no inhibitory effect of the caspase-8 inhibitor on caspase-9 activity. In view of these results and taking into consideration that K562 cells are Fas-null, we suggested that caspase-8 is activated in a Fas-independent manner downstream of caspase-9. In conclusion, noscapine can induce apoptosis in both apoptosis-proficient and apoptosis-resistant leukemic cells, and it can be a novel candidate in the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  10. Relative bioavailability in man of noscapine administered in lozenges and mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.N.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Jacobsen, L.

    1992-01-01

    The bioavailability of noscapine base administered in lozenges in a dose of 100 mg to twelve healthy volunteers, in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with that of 100 mg of noscapine hydrochloride given perorally as a mixture. The bioavailability of noscapine after...... administration in lozenges was significantly higher than that after administration of the drug as a mixture. It is concluded that the lozenges containing noscapine base may be a valuable alternative to the conventional noscapine hydrochloride mixture....

  11. Development of a novel nitro-derivative of noscapine for the potential treatment of drug-resistant ovarian cancer and T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Ritu; Vangapandu, Surya N; Lopus, Manu; Chandra, Ramesh; Panda, Dulal; Joshi, Harish C

    2006-06-01

    We have shown previously that an antitussive plant alkaloid, noscapine, binds tubulin, displays anticancer activity, and has a safe pharmacological profile in humans. Structure-function analyses pointed to a proton at position-9 of the isoquinoline ring that can be modified without compromising tubulin binding activity. Thus, many noscapine analogs with different functional moieties at position-9 were synthesized. Those analogs that kill human cancer cells resistant to other antimicrotubule agents, vincas and taxanes, were screened. Here, we present one such analog, 9-nitro-noscapine (9-nitro-nos), which binds tubulin and induces apoptosis selectively in tumor cells (ovarian and T-cell lymphoma) resistant to paclitaxel, vinblastine, and teniposide. 9-Nitro-nos treatment at doses as high as 100 microM did not affect the cell cycle profile of normal human fibroblasts. This selectivity of 9-nitro-nos for cancer cells represents a unique edge over the other available antimitotics. 9-Nitro-nos perturbs the progression of cell cycle by mitotic arrest, followed by apoptotic cell death associated with increased caspase-3 activation and appearance of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells. Thus, we conclude that 9-nitro-nos has great potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for ovarian and T-cell lymphoma cancers, even those that have become drug-resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic drugs.

  12. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment.

  13. Characterization of inhibition kinetics of (S)-warfarin hydroxylation by noscapine: implications in warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Seguin, Ryan P; Kunze, Kent L; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2013-12-01

    Noscapine is an antitussive and potential anticancer drug. Clinically significant interactions between warfarin and noscapine have been previously reported. In this study, to provide a basis for warfarin dosage adjustment, the inhibition kinetics of noscapine against warfarin metabolism was characterized. Our enzyme kinetics data obtained from human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2C9 proteins indicate that noscapine is a competitive inhibitor of the (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation reaction by CYP2C9. Interestingly, noscapine also inhibited (S)-warfarin metabolism in a NADPH- and time-dependent manner, and removal of unbound noscapine and its metabolites by ultrafiltration did not reverse inhibition of (S)-warfarin metabolism by noscapine, suggesting mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C9 by noscapine. Spectral scanning of the reaction between CYP2C9 and noscapine revealed the formation of an absorption spectrum at 458 nm, indicating the formation of a metabolite-intermediate complex. Surprisingly, noscapine is a 2- to 3-fold more efficient inactivator of CYP2C9.2 and CYP2C9.3 variants than it is of the wild type, by unknown mechanisms. Based on the inhibitory kinetic data, (S)-warfarin exposure is predicted to increase up to 7-fold (depending on CYP2C9 genotypes) upon noscapine coadministration, mainly due to mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C9 by noscapine. Together, these results indicate that mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C9 by noscapine may dramatically alter pharmacokinetics of warfarin and provide a basis for warfarin dosage adjustment when noscapine is coadministered.

  14. Antifibrotic effects of noscapine through activation of prostaglandin E2 receptors and protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kach, Jacob; Sandbo, Nathan; La, Jennifer; Denner, Darcy; Reed, Eleanor B; Akimova, Olga; Koltsova, Svetlana; Orlov, Sergei N; Dulin, Nickolai O

    2014-03-14

    Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. We have shown previously that differentiation of myofibroblasts is regulated by microtubule polymerization state. In this work, we examined the potential antifibrotic effects of the antitussive drug, noscapine, recently found to bind microtubules and affect microtubule dynamics. Noscapine inhibited TGF-β-induced differentiation of cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLFs). Therapeutic noscapine treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of the disease. Noscapine did not affect gross microtubule content in HLFs, but inhibited TGF-β-induced stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor without affecting Smad signaling. Furthermore, noscapine stimulated a rapid and profound activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which mediated the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs, as assessed with the PKA inhibitor, PKI. In contrast, noscapine did not activate PKA in human bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells. Finally, activation of PKA and the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs were blocked by the EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, but not by the antagonists of EP4, prostaglandin D2, or prostacyclin receptors. Together, we demonstrate for the first time the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in vitro and in vivo, and we describe a novel mechanism of noscapine action through EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor-mediated activation of PKA in pulmonary fibroblasts.

  15. Noscapine inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Niu, Z; Dong, J; Zhao, Y; Zhang, Y; Li, X

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been demonstrated as a promising anti-tumor compound against various cancers. However, the anti-cancer activity of noscapine in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been defined. In this study, we investigate the inhibitive effects of noscapine on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using both in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro proliferation assay showed that noscapine suppressed HepG2 and Huh7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. With a mouse xenograft model, noscapine showed notable inhibition on HCC tumor growth in vivo without suppression of body weight. Moreover, apoptotic induction and regulation of related signalings by noscapine were examined by nuclear DNA staining, TUNEL, and western blotting assays. Results showed that noscapine induced apoptosis in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies indicated that noscapine induced antive-capsase-3, cleavage PARP, and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Hence, these data indicates that noscapine selectively suppresses HCC cell growth through apoptosis induction, providing evidence for application of noscapine as a novel agent against human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in delivery and targeting tubulin binding agent, noscapine in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender; Singh, Prashant; Chandra, Ankush; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Vartika; Dass, Sujata K

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine, a tubulin binding anticancer agent undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials, inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostrate origin. The analogues of noscapine like 9-bromonoscapine (EM011) are 5 to 10-fold more active than parent compound, noscapine. Noscapinoids inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that are resistant to paclitaxel and epothilone. Noscapine also potentiated the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic (ED50˜300-600 mg/kg bodyweight) limitations of noscapine present hurdle in development of commercial anticancer formulations. Therefore, objectives of the present review are to summarize the chemotherapeutic potential of noscapine and implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of noscapine in cancer cells. We have constructed noscapine-enveloped gelatin nanoparticles, NPs and poly (ethylene glycol) grafted gelatin NPs as well as inclusion complex of noscapine in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and evaluated their physicochemical characteristics. The Fe3O4 NPs were also used to incorporate noscapine in its polymeric nanomatrix system where molecular weight of the polymer governed the encapsulation efficiency of drug. The enhanced noscapine delivery using μPAR-targeted optical-MR imaging trackable NPs offer a great potential for image directed targeted delivery of noscapine. Human Serum Albumin NPs (150-300 nm) as efficient noscapine drug delivery systems have also been developed for potential use in breast cancer.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of noscapine loaded magnetic polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed O.; Aneja, Ritu; Dean, Derrick; Rangari, Vijay; Russell, Albert; Jaynes, Jessie; Yates, Clayton; Turner, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of noscapine therapies directly to the site of the tumor would ultimately allow higher concentrations of the drug to be delivered, and prolong circulation time in vivo to enhance the therapeutic outcome of this drug. Therefore, we sought to design magnetic based polymeric nanoparticles for the site directed delivery of noscapine to invasive tumors. We synthesized Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average size of 10±2.5 nm. These Fe 3O 4 NPs were used to prepare noscapine loaded magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (NMNP) with an average size of 252±6.3 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed the encapsulation of noscapine on the surface of the polymer matrix. The encapsulation of the Fe 3O 4 NPs on the surface of the polymer was confirmed by elemental analysis. We studied the drug loading efficiency of polylactide acid (PLLA) and poly (l-lactide acid-co-gylocolide) (PLGA) polymeric systems of various molecular weights. Our findings revealed that the molecular weight of the polymer plays a crucial role in the capacity of the drug loading on the polymer surface. Using a constant amount of polymer and Fe 3O 4 NPs, both PLLA and PLGA at lower molecule weights showed higher loading efficiencies for the drug on their surfaces.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of noscapine loaded magnetic polymeric nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Mohamed O. [Department of Biology, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Aneja, Ritu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dean, Derrick [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Rangari, Vijay [Tuskegee-Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, United States, (United States); Russell, Albert [Department of Chemistry, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, United States, (United States); Jaynes, Jessie [George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Yates, Clayton [Department of Biology, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Turner, Timothy, E-mail: turner@tuskegee.ed [Department of Biology, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The delivery of noscapine therapies directly to the site of the tumor would ultimately allow higher concentrations of the drug to be delivered, and prolong circulation time in vivo to enhance the therapeutic outcome of this drug. Therefore, we sought to design magnetic based polymeric nanoparticles for the site directed delivery of noscapine to invasive tumors. We synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average size of 10+-2.5 nm. These Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were used to prepare noscapine loaded magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (NMNP) with an average size of 252+-6.3 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed the encapsulation of noscapine on the surface of the polymer matrix. The encapsulation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on the surface of the polymer was confirmed by elemental analysis. We studied the drug loading efficiency of polylactide acid (PLLA) and poly (l-lactide acid-co-gylocolide) (PLGA) polymeric systems of various molecular weights. Our findings revealed that the molecular weight of the polymer plays a crucial role in the capacity of the drug loading on the polymer surface. Using a constant amount of polymer and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs, both PLLA and PLGA at lower molecule weights showed higher loading efficiencies for the drug on their surfaces.

  19. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China); Dong, Wei-Guo, E-mail: dongwg1966@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  20. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala,; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry a...

  1. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  2. Clinically significant CYP2C inhibition by noscapine but not by glucosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenborg, S; Stenberg, M; Otto, S; Ostervall, J; Masquelier, M; Yue, Q-Y; Bertilsson, L; Eliasson, E

    2010-09-01

    Noscapine and glucosamine reportedly interact with warfarin. We investigated the effects of these drugs on various cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity markers. Twelve healthy subjects were phenotyped at baseline and during separate treatments with noscapine and glucosamine. Whereas glucosamine had no significant effect on CYP activity, noscapine caused marked inhibition of CYP2C9 (4.9-fold increase in urinary losartan/E3174 ratio) and CYP2C19 (3.6-fold increase in the plasma omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole ratio). Noscapine-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 may explain the interaction with warfarin.

  3. Molecular cycloencapsulation augments solubility and improves therapeutic index of brominated noscapine in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jitender; Baruah, Bharat; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Abdalla, Mohamed O; Yates, Clayton; Turner, Timothy; Rangari, Vijay; Hamelberg, Donald; Aneja, Ritu

    2012-05-07

    We have previously shown that a novel microtubule-modulating noscapinoid, EM011 (9-Br-Nos), displays potent anticancer activity by inhibition of cellular proliferation and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and preclinical mice models. However, physicochemical and cellular barriers encumber the development of viable formulations for future clinical translation. To circumvent these limitations, we have synthesized EM011-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to improve solubility and enhance therapeutic index of EM011. Phase solubility analysis indicated that EM011 formed a 1:1 stoichiometric complex with β-CD and methyl-β-CD, with a stability constant (K(c)) of 2.42 × 10(-3) M and 4.85 × 10(-3) M, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested the penetrance of either a O-CH(2) or OCH(3)-C(6)H(4)-OCH(3) moiety of EM011 in the β-CD or methyl-β-CD cavity. In addition, multifarious techniques, namely, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and computational studies validated the cage complex of EM011 with β-CD and methyl-β-CD. Moreover, rotating frame overhauser enhancement spectroscopy showed that the H(a) proton of the OCH(3)-C(6)H(4)-OCH(3) moiety was in close proximity with H3 proton of the β-CD or methyl-β-CD cavity. Furthermore, we found that the solubility of EM011 in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was enhanced by ~11 fold and ~21 fold upon complexation with β-CD and methyl-β-CD, respectively. The enhanced dissolution of the drug CD-complexes in aqueous phase remarkably decreased their IC(50) to 28.5 μM (9-Br-Nos-β-CD) and 12.5 μM (9-Br-Nos-methyl-β-CD) in PC-3 cells compared to free EM011 (~200 μM). This is the first report to demonstrate the novel construction of cylcodextrin-based nanosupramolecular vehicles for enhanced delivery of EM011 that warrants in vivo evaluation for the superior management of prostate cancer.

  4. Rational design of novel anti-microtubule agent (9-azido-noscapine) from quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) evaluation of noscapinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshi, Seneha; Naik, Pradeep K; Joshi, Harish C

    2011-10-01

    An anticough medicine, noscapine [(S)-3-((R)4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinolin-5-yl)-6,7-dimethoxyiso-benzofuran-1(3H)-one], was discovered in the authors' laboratory as a novel type of tubulin-binding agent that mitigates polymerization dynamics of microtubule polymers without changing overall subunit-polymer equilibrium. To obtain systematic insight into the relationship between the structural framework of noscapine scaffold and its antitumor activity, the authors synthesized strategic derivatives (including two new ones in this article). The IC(50) values of these analogs vary from 1.2 to 56.0 µM in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CEM). Geometrical optimization was performed using semiempirical quantum chemical calculations at the 3-21G* level. Structures were in agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of molecular flexibility in solution and crystal structures. A genetic function approximation algorithm of variable selection was used to generate the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model. The robustness of the QSAR model (R(2) = 0.942) was analyzed by values of the internal cross-validated regression coefficient (R(2) (LOO) = 0.815) for the training set and determination coefficient (R(2) (test) = 0.817) for the test set. Validation was achieved by rational design of further novel and potent antitumor noscapinoid, 9-azido-noscapine, and reduced 9-azido-noscapine. The experimentally determined value of pIC(50) for both the compounds (5.585 M) turned out to be very close to predicted pIC(50) (5.731 and 5.710 M).

  5. Peloruside, laulimalide, and noscapine interactions with beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Melissa M; Alisaraie, Laleh; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the recent findings regarding the binding sites, binding modes and binding affinities of three novel antimitotic drugs peloruside, laulimalide and noscapine with respect to tubulin as the target of their action. These natural compounds are shown to bind to β-tubulin and stabilize microtubules for the cases of peloruside A and laulimalide, and prolong the time spent in pause for noscapine. Particular attention is focused on β-tubulin isotypes as targets for new cancer chemotherapy agents and the amino acid differences in the binding site for these compounds between isotypes. We propose a new strategy for antimitotic drug design that exploits differential distributions of tubulin isotypes between normal and cancer cells and corresponding differential affinities between various drug molecules and tubulin isotypes.

  6. Effect of noscapine and vincristine combination on demyelination and cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, Laree; Herrington, Betty; Lobert, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common, dose-limiting side effect of vincristine, a frontline therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Combination chemotherapy that reduces the neurotoxicity without compromising the efficacy of vincristine would improve patient outcomes. We performed in vitro studies using a combination of microtubule-binding antimitotics, noscapine and vincristine. In cell cultures containing neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, vincristine caused demyelination as shown by transmission electron microscopy. A combination of vincristine and noscapine protected against demyelination. Human acute lymphoblastic and acute myelogenous leukemia cell lines CCRF-CEM and HL-60, respectively, were used to determine the antiproliferative effect of this novel drug combination. Vincristine and noscapine decreased cell proliferation with IC(50) concentrations of 1 nM and 20 microM, respectively. Analysis of dose-effect relationships using isobolograms and combination indices demonstrated that noscapine acts synergistically with vincristine. Thus, noscapine is a promising candidate for use with vincristine to decrease neurotoxicity and enhance antineoplastic effectiveness.

  7. Sterically stabilized gelatin microassemblies of noscapine enhance cytotoxicity, apoptosis and drug delivery in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jitender; Pandey, Ravi S; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katare, Om P; Aneja, Ritu; Katyal, Anju

    2013-07-01

    Noscapine, recently identified as anticancer due to its microtubule-modulating properties. It is presently in Phase I/II clinical trials. The therapeutic efficacy of noscapine has been established in several xenograft models. Its pharmacokinetic limitations such as low bioavailability and high ED50 impede development of clinically relevant treatment regimens. Here we present design, synthesis, in vitro and in vivo characterization of sterically stabilized gelatin microassemblies of noscapine (SSGMS) for targeting human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The average size of the sterically stabilized gelatin microassemblies of noscapine, SSGMS was 10.0±5.1 μm in comparison to noscapine-loaded gelatin microassemblies, GMS that was 8.3±5.5 μm. The noscapine entrapment efficiency of SSGMS and GMS was 23.99±4.5% and 24.23±2.6%, respectively. Prepared microassemblies were spherical in shape and did not show any drug and polymer interaction as examined by FTIR, DSC and PXRD. In vitro release data indicated that SSGMS and GMS follow first-order release kinetics and exhibited an initial burst followed by slow release of the drug. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluated using A549 cells showed a low IC50 value of SSGMS (15.5 μM) compared to GMS (30.1 μM) and free noscapine (47.2 μM). The SSGMS can facilitate a sustained therapeutic effect in terms of prolonged release of noscapine as evident by caspase-3 activity in A549 cells. Concomitantly, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution analysis showed that SSGMS increased the plasma half-life of noscapine by ~9.57-fold with an accumulation of ~48% drug in the lungs. Our data provides evidence for the potential usefulness of SSGMS for noscapine delivery in lung cancer.

  8. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  9. Noscapine induces apoptosis in human glioma cells by an apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Smirnova, Iva; Schnee, Tona; Zagzag, David

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we identified noscapine as a small molecule inhibitor of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway in hypoxic human glioma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Noscapine is a nontoxic ingredient in cough medicine currently used in clinical trials for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia to assess antitumor efficacy. Here, we have evaluated the sensitivity of four human glioma cell lines to noscapine-induced apoptosis. Noscapine was a potent inhibitor of proliferation and inducer of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was associated with activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway concomitant with inactivation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase signaling pathway and phosphorylation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Noscapine-induced apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and/or cytochrome c. In some glioma cell lines, only AIF release occurred without cytochrome c release or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Knock-down of AIF decreased noscapine-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest the potential importance of noscapine as a novel agent for use in patients with glioblastoma owing to its low toxicity profile and its potent anticancer activity.

  10. Antitumor activity of Noscapine in combination with Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir B Chougule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity and mechanism of action of Noscapine alone and in combination with Doxorubicin against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. METHODS: TNBC cells were pretreated with Noscapine or Doxorubicin or combination and combination index values were calculated using isobolographic method. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Female athymic Nu/nu mice were xenografted with MDA-MB-231 cells and the efficacy of Noscapine, Doxorubicin and combination was determined. Protein expression, immunohistochemical staining were evaluated in harvested tumor tissues. RESULTS: Noscapine inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells with the IC(50 values of 36.16±3.76 and 42.7±4.3 µM respectively. The CI values (<0.59 were suggestive of strong synergistic interaction between Noscapine and Doxorubicin and combination treatment showed significant increase in apoptotic cells. Noscapine showed dose dependent reduction in the tumor volumes at a dose of 150-550 mg/kg/day compared to controls. Noscapine (300 mg/kg, Doxorubicin (1.5 mg/kg and combination treatment reduced tumor volume by 39.4±5.8, 34.2±5.7 and 82.9±4.5 percent respectively and showed decreased expression of NF-KB pathway proteins, VEGF, cell survival, and increased expression of apoptotic and growth inhibitory proteins compared to single-agent treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Noscapine potentiated the anticancer activity of Doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against TNBC tumors via inactivation of NF-KB and anti-angiogenic pathways while stimulating apoptosis. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of oral Noscapine and Doxorubicin combination therapy for treatment of more aggressive TNBC.

  11. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrangiz Khanmoradi; Seyyed Ali Mard; Nahid Aboutaleb; Malihe Nobakht; Masoud Mahmoudian

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion inj...

  12. Molecular modeling and competition binding study of Br-noscapine and colchicine provides insight into noscapinoid-tubulin binding site

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Pradeep K.; Santoshi, Seneha; Rai, Ankit; Joshi, Harish C.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously discovered the tubulin-binding anti-cancer properties of noscapine and its derivatives (noscapinoids). Here, we present three lines of evidence that noscapinoids bind at or near the well studied colchicine binding site of tubulin: 1) In silico molecular docking studies of Br-noscapine and noscapine yield highest docking score with the well characterised colchicine-binding site from the co-crystal structure; 2) the molecular mechanics-generalized Born/surface area (MM-GB/SA)...

  13. Opium alkaloid noscapine is an antitumor agent that arrests metaphase and induces apoptosis in dividing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Keqiang; Ke, Yong; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Shanks, John; Kapp, Judith A; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Petros, John; Joshi, Harish C.

    1998-01-01

    An alkaloid from opium, noscapine, is used as an antitussive drug and has low toxicity in humans and mice. We show that noscapine binds stoichiometrically to tubulin, alters its conformation, affects microtubule assembly, and arrests mammalian cells in mitosis. Furthermore, noscapine causes apoptosis in many cell types and has potent antitumor activity against solid murine lymphoid tumors (even when the drug was administered orally) and against human breast and bladder tumors implanted in nud...

  14. Noscapine sensitizes chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of HIF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenjing; Huang, Lei; Ao, Qilin; Zhang, Qinghua; Tian, Xun; Fang, Yong; Lu, Yunping

    2011-06-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is closely related with chemoresistance of solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of noscapine to inhibit HIF-1α and sensitize ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin (DDP) under hypoxic conditions. Herein, we report that noscapine sensitized cobalt-induced chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to DDP-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Noscapine also promoted proteasome-mediated degradation of cobalt-stabilized HIF-1α protein, with subsequent inhibition of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. These data establish noscapine as a small molecule inhibitor of HIF-1α and provide an evidence for its combination with DDP in combating ovarian cancer chemoresistance.

  15. A Papaver somniferum 10-gene cluster for synthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Gazda, Valeria; He, Zhesi; Kaminski, Filip; Kern, Marcelo; Larson, Tony R; Li, Yi; Meade, Fergus; Teodor, Roxana; Vaistij, Fabián E; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2012-06-29

    Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F(2) mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel biaryl type α-noscapine congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchukonda, Naresh K; Naik, Pradeep K; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2014-12-15

    Natural α-noscapine, a known antitussive drug, is also now known to possess weak anticancer efficacy with relatively safe toxicity profile. In this study, we report synthesis and evaluation of novel biaryl type α-noscapine congeners designed by adding aryl unit to the tetrahydroisoquinoline part of natural α-noscapine core. Palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross coupling of 9-bromo α-noscapine with aryl boronic acids was employed using mild and inexpensive reagents to attain desired noscapinoids 5a-g in excellent yields. Screening anti-proliferative activity for new noscapinoids 5b-g, on human cancer cell lines resulted three compounds 5b, 5d and 5f as potent analogues, active against human breast epithelial (MCF-7), human cervix cancer (HeLa) and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines.

  17. Metabolic pathway profiling of the derivative of important herbal component noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonghua; Xiong, Yang

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of metabolic behavior by the introduction of bromo atom into the structure of noscapine. Oral gavage of 50 mg/kg bromo-noscapine for 6- to 8-week-old male mice with C57BL/6 background resulted in the detection of the metabolite undergoing cleavage of methylenedioxy group (II), demethylated bromo-noscapine (III, IV), meconine (V), bromo-cotarnine (VI), bisdemethylated bromo-noscapine (VII), and their corresponding glucuronides (G1-G4) in urine, feces, and serum (24 h). In vitro human liver microsomes or mice liver microsomes incubation system can also give the formation of phase I metabolites. Furthermore, the phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of bromo-noscapine was screened. Many CYP isoforms were involved in the formation of metabolite II, and CYP3A4, CYP1A1, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 were major CYP isoforms. All the determined CYP isoforms showed the catalytic activity towards the formation of metabolites III, V, and VI. The major CYP isoforms involved in the catalytic formation of metabolite IV were CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. In conclusion, to date, many structural derivatives of noscapine have been synthesized based on the efficiency. However, the metabolic behavior remains to be elucidated, and the present study gave an example through the investigation of metabolic pathway of bromo-noscapine. The introduction of bromo atom into the structure of noscapine did not alter the metabolites profile, but changed the drug-metabolizing enzyme profiles.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-substituted noscapine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Aaron J; Xie, Jin Han; Ventura, Sabatino; Pouton, Colin W; Capuano, Ben; Scammells, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. It has long been used as an antitussive agent, but has more recently been found to possess microtubule-modulating properties and anticancer activity. Herein we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of 6'-substituted noscapine derivatives. To underpin this structure-activity study, an efficient synthesis of N-nornoscapine and its subsequent reduction to the cyclic ether derivative of N-nornoscapine was developed. Reaction of the latter with a range of alkyl halides, acid chlorides, isocyanates, thioisocyanates, and chloroformate reagents resulted in the formation of the corresponding N-alkyl, N-acyl, N-carbamoyl, N-thiocarbamoyl, and N-carbamate derivatives, respectively. The ability of these compounds to inhibit cell proliferation was assessed in cell-cycle cytotoxicity assays using prostate cancer (PC3), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (Caco-2) cell lines. Compounds that showed activity in the cell-cycle assay were further evaluated in cell viability assays using PC3 and MCF-7 cells.

  19. Validated stability-indicating TLC method for the determination of noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Hegazy, Maha Abdel Monem; Moustafa, Azza Aziz; Kelani, Khadiga Omar; Fattah, Laila Elsayed Abdel

    2009-07-01

    A sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of noscapine, both as a bulk drug and in its formulation. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol (10:0.5 v/v). Densitometric analysis of noscapine and its degradation products was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. This system was found to give compact symmetrical spots for noscapine (R(f) value 0.85 +/- 0.04). Noscapine was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation and photo degradation. The drug undergoes photo degradation and also degrades under acidic and basic conditions. The prepared degradation products were identified and verified through infrared (IR) and mass spectral analyses. The degraded products were also well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different R(f) values and they were quantitatively determined. The method was validated for linearity, precision, robustness, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), specificity and accuracy. Linearity was found to be in the 1.0-10.0 microg, 0.4-3.2 microg, 1.0-9.0 microg and 0.5-5.0 microg/band ranges for noscapine, cotarnine, meconine and opionic acid, respectively. The polynomial regression analysis for the calibration plots showed a good polynomial relationship with r(2) of 0.9998, 9989, 9996 and 0.9997 for noscapine and its three degradation products, cotarnine, meconine and opionic acid, respectively. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and specific for the estimation of noscapine. As this approach could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products it can be employed as a stability-indicating method in Quality Control laboratories.

  20. Molecular modelling and competition binding study of Br-noscapine and colchicine provide insight into noscapinoid-tubulin binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K; Santoshi, Seneha; Rai, Ankit; Joshi, Harish C

    2011-06-01

    We have previously discovered the tubulin-binding anti-cancer properties of noscapine and its derivatives (noscapinoids). Here, we present three lines of evidence that noscapinoids bind at or near the well studied colchicine binding site of tubulin: (1) in silico molecular docking studies of Br-noscapine and noscapine yield highest docking score with the well characterised colchicine-binding site from the co-crystal structure; (2) the molecular mechanics-generalized Born/surface area (MM-GB/SA) scoring results ΔΔG(bind-cald) for both noscapine and Br-noscapine (3.915 and 3.025 kcal/mol) are in reasonably good agreement with our experimentally determined binding affinity (ΔΔG(bind-Expt) of 3.570 and 2.988 kcal/mol, derived from K(d) values); and (3) Br-noscapine competes with colchicine binding to tubulin. The simplest interpretation of these collective data is that Br-noscapine binds tubulin at a site overlapping with, or very close to colchicine-binding site of tubulin. Although we cannot rule out a formal possibility that Br-noscapine might bind to a site distinct and distant from the colchicine-binding site that might negatively influence the colchicine binding to tubulin.

  1. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwang Li

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  2. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwang; He, Jing; Li, Shuai; Cao, Guoqing; Tang, Shaotao; Tong, Qiangsong; Joshi, Harish C

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15)-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  3. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of morphine and noscapine by adsorptive differential pulse stripping method and least-squares support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Ali; Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Zendehdel, Mojgan

    2007-11-30

    An adsorptive differential pulse stripping method for the simultaneous determination of morphine and noscapine is proposed. The procedure involves an adsorptive accumulation of morphine and noscapine on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), followed by oxidation of adsorbed morphine and noscapine by voltammetric scan using differential pulse modulation. The optimum experimental conditions are: pH 10.0, accumulation potential of -100 mV versus Ag/AgCl, accumulation time of 150 s, scan rate of 40 mV s(-1) and pulse height of 100 mV. Morphine and noscapine peak currents were observed in same potential region at about +0.25 V. The simultaneous determination of morphine and noscapine by using voltammetry is a difficult problem in analytical chemistry, due to voltammogram interferences. The resolution of mixture of morphine and noscapine by the application of least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was performed. The linear dynamic ranges were 0.01-3.10 and 0.015-2.75 microg mL(-1) and detection limits were 3 and 7 ng mL(-1) for morphine and noscapine, respectively. The capability of the method for the analysis of real samples was evaluated by the determination of morphine and noscapine in addict's human plasma with satisfactory results.

  4. Effect of bromine substituents in the formation of PXDD from poly halogenated phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T.; Ohono, T.; Weber, R.

    2002-07-01

    The condensation of chlorophenols has been studied extensively in the last two decades and was discussed as one mechanism in particular for the formation of PCDD in thermal processes. Brominated flame retardants and brominated and brominated-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans have received increased attention recently due to the growing use of brominated flame retardants during the last decade. This is resulting than increase of brominated compounds in waste (e.g. Electric and electronic shredder waste), containing a considerable amount of bromine, in the form of brominated flame retardants. Many studies reported on the formation of PBDD/PBDF from brominated diphenylethers, or bromophenosl. However with the exception of Sodhu et al, a comparison of the condensation behaviour of bromophenols and chlorophenols was not done. The condensation of brominated phenols is interesting from several aspects. Bromophenols are used as flame retardants and might be a source of PBDD/F during thermal stress. Bromophenols can also be generated during the combustion/pyrolysis of bromodiphenylether or tetrabromobisphenol A containing material, serving as potential precursors for the formation of PBDD/PBDF. Further, in municipal waste incinerators with sufficient secondary combustion, the largest amount of chlorinated aromatic compounds (PCDD, PCDF, PCBs, PCNs, and chlorophenols) are formed in the cooling section (boiler, duct, dust filtration). Therefore in combustion processes involving high concentrations of brominated flame retardants, mixed PXDD/PXDF might be formed by condensation reactions of precursors or de novo synthesis in the cooling zone. Therefore we investigated the condensation of abrominated phenol in more detail and compare it to the condensation reaction of the analogous chlorophenol. (Author)

  5. Zinc-bromine battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  6. Noscapine protects OLN-93 oligodendrocytes from ischemia-reperfusion damage: Calcium and nitric oxide involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafi, S; Ebrahimi, S-A; Rahbar-Roshandel, N

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) elevation (P noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca(2+) was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) overload and NO production.

  7. Progress Toward the Development of Noscapine and Derivatives as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Aaron; Capuano, Ben; Scammells, Peter J

    2015-08-13

    Many nitrogen-moiety containing alkaloids derived from plant origins are bioactive and play a significant role in human health and emerging medicine. Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Papaver somniferum, has been used as a cough suppressant since the mid 1950s, illustrating a good safety profile. Noscapine has since been discovered to arrest cells at mitosis, albeit with moderately weak activity. Immunofluorescence staining of microtubules after 24 h of noscapine exposure at 20 μM elucidated chromosomal abnormalities and the inability of chromosomes to complete congression to the equatorial plane for proper mitotic separation ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1998 , 95 , 1601 - 1606 ). A number of noscapine analogues possessing various modifications have been described within the literature and have shown significantly improved antiprolific profiles for a large variety of cancer cell lines. Several semisynthetic antimitotic alkaloids are emerging as possible candidates as novel anticancer therapies. This perspective discusses the advancing understanding of noscapine and related analogues in the fight against malignant disease.

  8. Characterization of three O-methyltransferases involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Papaveraceae. It has been used as a cough suppressant and more recently was shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy has not been established. A proposed pathway leading from (S)-reticuline to noscapine includes (S)-scoulerine, (S)-canadine, and (S)-N-methylcanadine as intermediates. Stem cDNA libraries and latex extracts of eight opium poppy cultivars displaying different alkaloid profiles were subjected to massively parallel pyrosequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative transcript and metabolite profiling revealed the occurrence of three cDNAs encoding O-methyltransferases designated as SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 that correlated with the accumulation of noscapine in the eight cultivars. SOMT transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs but were most abundant in aerial organs, where noscapine primarily accumulates. SOMT2 and SOMT3 showed strict substrate specificity and regiospecificity as 9-O-methyltransferases targeting (S)-scoulerine. In contrast, SOMT1 was able to sequentially 9- and 2-O-methylate (S)-scoulerine, yielding (S)-tetrahydropalmatine. SOMT1 also sequentially 3'- and 7-O-methylated both (S)-norreticuline and (S)-reticuline with relatively high substrate affinity, yielding (S)-tetrahydropapaverine and (S)-laudanosine, respectively. The metabolic functions of SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 were investigated in planta using virus-induced gene silencing. Reduction of SOMT1 or SOMT2 transcript levels resulted in a significant decrease in noscapine accumulation. Reduced SOMT1 transcript levels also caused a decrease in papaverine accumulation, confirming the selective roles for these enzymes in the biosynthesis of both alkaloids in opium poppy.

  9. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid noscapine involves a purported dehydrogenation of the narcotinehemiacetal keto moiety. A short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), designated noscapine synthase (NOS), that catalyzes dehydrogenation of narcotinehemiacetal to noscapine was identified in opium poppy and functionally characterized. The NOS gene was isolated using an integrated transcript and metabolite profiling strategy and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Noscapine synthase is highly divergent from other characterized members of the NADPH-dependent SDR superfamily involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism, and it exhibits exclusive substrate specificity for narcotinehemiacetal. Kinetic analyses showed that NOS exhibits higher catalytic efficiency with NAD+ as the cofactor compared with NADP+. Suppression of NOS transcript levels in opium poppy plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a corresponding reduction in the accumulation of noscapine and an increase in narcotinehemiacetal levels in the latex. Noscapine and NOS transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs, but both were most abundant in stems. Unlike other putative biosynthetic genes clustered in the opium poppy genome, and their corresponding proteins, NOS transcripts and the cognate enzyme were abundant in latex, indicating that noscapine metabolism is completed in a distinct cell type compared with the rest of the pathway.

  10. Radiolabeling, biodistribution and gamma scintigraphy of noscapine hydrochloride in normal and polycystic ovary induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshani Anjali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noscapine, an alkaloid from Papaver somniferum, widely used as an antitussive, is being clinically studied in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and a few other cancers primarily because of its anti-angiogenesis properties. With the advent of diverse application of noscapine, we sought to determine whether the radiolabeling method can be useful in studying uptake and kinetics of the molecule in-vivo. Specific objectives of this study were to radiolabel noscapine with Technetium-99m (Tc-99m, to determine its organ biodistribution in rat model and study its uptake kinetics in PCOS model. Methods A method for radiolabeling noscapine with Tc-99m was standardized using stannous reduction method and its in vitro and in vivo stability parameters were studied. The radiopharmaceutical was also evaluated for blood kinetics and biodistribution profile. An animal model of PCOS was created by using antiprogesterone RU486 and uptake of 99mTc-noscapine in normal and PCOS ovaries was compared using gamma scintigraphy. Results Noscapine hydrochloride was successfully radiolabeled with Tc-99m with high labeling efficiency and in vitro stability. Most of the blood clearance of the drug (80% took place in first hour after intravascular injection with maximum accumulation being observed in liver, spleen, kidney followed by the ovary. At 4 hours post injection, radiolabeled complex accumulation doubled in PCOS ovaries in rats (0.9 ± 0.03% ID/whole organ compared to normal cyclic rats (0.53 ± 0.01% ID/whole organ. This observation was further strengthened by scintigraphic images of rats taken at different time intervals (1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 24 h where SPECT images suggested discrete accumulation in the PCOS ovaries. Conclusion Through our study we report direct radiolabeling of noscapine and its biodistribution in various organs and specific uptake in PCOS that may show its utility for imaging ovarian pathology. The increased ovarian

  11. Noscapine targets EGFRp-Tyr1068 to suppress the proliferation and invasion of MG63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Jiang, Linlin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Jiashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear. In this paper, we found the mechanism of noscapine effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of MG63 cell line by inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream pathway. PMID:27830833

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of noscapine analogues as microtubule-interfering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hou-ling; Zheng, Jian-bin; Lin, Min; Zheng, Jing; Zhou, Fu-sheng; Dong, Xiao-chun; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jian-wen; Wen, Ren

    2012-10-01

    A series of noscapine analogues have been synthesized via 13-step reaction starting from 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde. Anti-tumor activities of these compounds were evaluated against HL-60 cell lines in vitro by the standard MTT assay. It was found that most of these derivatives showed appreciable inhibitory activity against HL-60 and tubulin polymerization. The results also indicated that the potency of compound 31 is about three times more than that ofnoscapine against HL-60 cell line and tubulin polymerization. Moreover, it induced a massive accumulation of cells in G2/M phase. These results showed noscapine and its derivatives were worth to be intensively studied further.

  13. Rational design of biaryl pharmacophore inserted noscapine derivatives as potent tubulin binding anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshi, Seneha; Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Charu; Sharma, Manya; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Joseph, Silja; Lopus, Manu; Kantevari, Srinivas; Baitharu, Iswar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-03-01

    We have strategically designed a series of noscapine derivatives by inserting biaryl pharmacophore (a major structural constituent of many of the microtubule-targeting natural anticancer compounds) onto the scaffold structure of noscapine. Molecular interaction of these derivatives with α,β-tubulin heterodimer was investigated by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation. The predictive binding affinity indicates that the newly designed noscapinoids bind to tubulin with a greater affinity. The predictive binding free energy (ΔGbind, pred) of these derivatives (ranging from -5.568 to -5.970 kcal/mol) based on linear interaction energy (LIE) method with a surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation model showed improved binding affinity with tubulin compared to the lead compound, natural α-noscapine (-5.505 kcal/mol). Guided by the computational findings, these new biaryl type α-noscapine congeners were synthesized from 9-bromo-α-noscapine using optimized Suzuki reaction conditions for further experimental evaluation. The derivatives showed improved inhibition of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), compared to natural noscapine. The cell cycle analysis in MCF-7 further revealed that these compounds alter the cell cycle profile and cause mitotic arrest at G2/M phase more strongly than noscapine. Tubulin binding assay revealed higher binding affinity to tubulin, as suggested by dissociation constant (Kd) of 126 ± 5.0 µM for 5a, 107 ± 5.0 µM for 5c, 70 ± 4.0 µM for 5d, and 68 ± 6.0 µM for 5e compared to noscapine (Kd of 152 ± 1.0 µM). In fact, the experimentally determined value of ΔGbind, expt (calculated from the Kd value) are consistent with the predicted value of ΔGbind, pred calculated based on LIE-SGB. Based on these results, one of the derivative 5e of this series was used for further toxicological

  14. Radiation induced destruction of thebaine, papaverine and noscapine in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantoğlu, Ömer; Ergun, Ece

    2016-07-01

    The presence of methanol decreases the efficiency of radiation-induced decomposition of alkaloids in wastewater. Intermediate products were observed before the complete degradation of irradiated alkaloids. In order to identify the structure of the by-products and the formation pathway, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine solutions were prepared in pure methanol and irradiated using a 60Co gamma cell at absorbed doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 30, 50 and 80 kGy. The dose-dependent alkaloid degradation and by-product formation were monitored by ESI mass spectrometer. Molecular structures of the by-products and reaction pathways were proposed. Oxygenated and methoxy group containing organic compounds was observed in the mass spectra of irradiated alkaloids. At initial dose values oxygenated by-products were formed due to the presence of dissolved oxygen in solutions. After the consumption of dissolved oxygen with radicals, the main mechanism was addition of solvent radicals to alkaloid structure. However, it was determined that alkaloids and by-products were completely degraded at doses higher than 50 kGy. The G-value and degradation efficiency of alkaloids were also evaluated.

  15. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods:In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9 were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml. Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO–Ethidium Bromide (EB double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P

  16. Graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of heroine, morphine and noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir

    2012-01-15

    In the present study, the graphene nanosheets (GNSs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is employed for simultaneous determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of these three important opiate drugs based on their direct electrochemical oxidation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique is utilized in order to study the surface morphology of the modified electrode. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of morphine, noscapine and heroin at reduced overpotentials in wide pH range. In the performed experiments, differential pulse voltammetric determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin yields calibration curves with the following characteristics; linear dynamic range up to 65, 40 and 100 μM, sensitivity of 275, 500 and 217 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and detection limits of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 μM at 3S(B), respectively. Fast response time, signal stability, high sensitivity, low cost and ease of preparation method without using any specific electron-transfer mediator or specific reagent are the advantageous of the proposed sensor. The modified electrode can be used for simultaneous or individual detection of three major narcotic components, heroin, noscapine and morphine at micromolar concentration without any separation or pretreatment steps.

  17. Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, sensitizes leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents and cytokines by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Bokyung; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, was recently reported to exhibit activity against a variety of cancers through a poorly understood mechanism. Because the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) has been linked with inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumors, we hypothesized that noscapine mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB activation pathway. We found that noscapine potentiates apoptosis induced by cytokines an...

  18. Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, sensitizes leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents and cytokines by modulating the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bokyung; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-04-15

    Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, was recently reported to exhibit activity against a variety of cancers through a poorly understood mechanism. Because the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been linked with inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumors, we hypothesized that noscapine mediates its effects by modulating the NF-kappaB activation pathway. We found that noscapine potentiates apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. Noscapine alone suppressed proliferation of human leukemia and myeloma cells and downregulated the constitutive expression of cell survival proteins. Noscapine also abrogated the inducible expression of proteins involved in survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, all of which are regulated by NF-kappaB. Noscapine suppressed both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation in tumor cells through inhibition of IkappaB kinase, leading to inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha. Noscapine also suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, leading to inhibition of NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by various components of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. Activity of the NF-kappaB-containing cyclooxygenase-2 promoter was also inhibited by noscapine. Thus, noscapine inhibits the proliferation of leukemia cells and sensitizes them to tumor necrosis factor and chemotherapeutic agents by suppressing the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  19. Noscapine Induced Apoptosis via Downregulation of Survivin in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Having Wild Type or Null p53

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwang Li; Jing He; Shuai Li; Guoqing Cao; Shaotao Tang; Qiangsong Tong; Joshi, Harish C.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein exp...

  20. Rational design, synthesis and biological evaluations of amino-noscapine: a high affinity tubulin-binding noscapinoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K.; Chatterji, Biswa Prasun; Vangapandu, Surya N.; Aneja, Ritu; Chandra, Ramesh; Kanteveri, Srinivas; Joshi, Harish C.

    2011-05-01

    Noscapine and its derivatives are important microtubule-interfering agents shown to have potent anti-tumor activity. The binding free energies (Δ G bind) of noscapinoids computed using linear interaction energy (LIE) method with a surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation model were in agreement with the experimental Δ G bind with average root mean square error of 0.082 kcal/mol. This LIE-SGB model guided us in designing a novel derivative of noscapine, amino-noscapine [(S)-3-((R)-9-amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro [1, 3] dioxolo[4,5- g]isoquinolin-5-yl)-6,7-dimethoxy isobenzo-furan-1(3 H)-one] that has higher tubulin binding activity (predicted Δ G bind = -6.438 kcal/mol and experimental Δ G bind = -6.628 kcal/mol) than noscapine, but does not significantly change the total extent of the tubulin subunit/polymer ratio. The modes of interaction of amino-noscapine with the binding pocket of tubulin involved three hydrogen bonds and are distinct compared to noscapine which involved only one hydrogen bond. Also the patterns of non-bonded interactions are albeit different between both the lignads. The `blind docking' approach (docking of ligand with different binding sites of a protein and their evaluations) as well as the reasonable accuracy of calculating Δ G bind using LIE-SGB model constitutes the first evidence that this class of compounds binds to tubulin at a site overlapping with colchicine-binding site or close to it. Our results revealed that amino-noscapine has better anti-tumor activity than noscapine.

  1. Tubulin binding, protein-bound conformation in solution, and antimitotic cellular profiling of noscapine and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Youssef L; Gu, Wenxin; Canales, Angeles; Díaz, Fernando J; Eustace, Brenda K; Hoover, Russell R; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesus; Nezami, Azin; Wang, Tiansheng

    2012-03-08

    Noscapine and its 7-hydroxy and 7-amino derivatives were characterized for their binding to tubulin. A solution NMR structure of these compounds bound to tubulin shows that noscapine and its 7-aniline derivative do not compete for the same binding site nor does its small molecule crystal structure match its tubulin-bound conformation. These compounds were also tested for their antiproliferative effects on a panel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

  2. CYP82Y1 is N-methylcanadine 1-hydroxylase, a key noscapine biosynthetic enzyme in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-24

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid investigated for its potent pharmacological properties. Although structurally elucidated more than a century ago, the biosynthesis of noscapine has not been established. Radiotracer studies have shown that noscapine is derived from the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine and has been proposed to proceed through (S)-N-methylcanadine. However, pathway intermediates involved in the conversion of N-methylcanadine to noscapine have not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P-450 CYP82Y1, which catalyzes the 1-hydroxylation of N-methylcanadine to 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine. Comparison of transcript and metabolite profiles of eight opium poppy chemotypes revealed four cytochrome P-450s, three from the CYP82 and one from the CYP719 families, that were tightly correlated with noscapine accumulation. Recombinant CYP82Y1 was the only enzyme that accepted (R,S)-N-methylcanadine as a substrate with strict specificity and high affinity. As expected, CYP82Y1 was abundantly expressed in opium poppy stems where noscapine accumulation is highest among plant organs. Suppression of CYP82Y1 using virus-induced gene silencing caused a significant reduction in the levels of noscapine, narcotoline, and a putative downstream secoberbine intermediate and also resulted in increased accumulation of the upstream pathway intermediates scoulerine, tetrahydrocolum-bamine, canadine, and N-methylcanadine. The combined biochemical and physiological data support the 1-hydroxylation of (S)-N-methylcanadine catalyzed by CYP82Y1 as the first committed step in the formation of noscapine in opium poppy.

  3. Production of bromine-75, a new radionuclide for marking radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paans, A.M.J.; Wiegman, T.; Hoeve, W.; Vaalburg, W. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-75 is the most useful of all bromine isotopes for nuclear medicine. Its properties like half-life, nuclear reactions, production and chemical preparation, as well as the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals containing bromine-75 are presented.

  4. Noscapine recirculates enterohepatically and induces self-clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-18

    Noscapine (Nos), an antitussive benzylisoquinoline opium alkaloid, is a non-toxic tubulin-binding agent currently in Phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. While preclinical studies have established its tumor-inhibitory properties in various cancers, poor absorptivity and rapid first-pass metabolism producing several uncharacterized metabolites for efficacy, present an impediment in translating its efficacy in humans. Here we report novel formulations of Nos in combination with dietary agents like capsaicin (Cap), piperine (Pip), eugenol (Eu) and curcumin (Cur) known for modulating Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), organ toxicity evaluation of combinations, microsomal stability and in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition effects of Nos, Cap and Pip using human liver microsomes were performed. Single-dose PK screening of combinations revealed that the relative exposure of Nos (2 μg h/mL) was enhanced by 2-fold (4 μg h/mL) by Cap and Pip and their plasma concentration-time profiles showed multiple peaking phenomena for Nos indicating enterohepatic recirculation or differential absorption from intestine. CYP inhibition studies confirmed that Nos, Cap and Pip are not potent CYP inhibitors (IC50>1 μM). Repeated oral dosing of Nos, Nos+Cap and Nos+Pip showed lower exposure (Cmax and AUClast) of Nos on day 7 compared to day 1. Nos Cmax decreased from 3087 ng/mL to 684 ng/mL and AUClast from 1024 ng h/mL to 508 ng h/mL. In presence of Cap and Pip, the decrease in Cmax and AUClast of Nos was similar. This may be due to potential enzyme induction leading to rapid clearance of Nos as the trend was observed in Nos alone group also. The lack of effect on intrinsic clearance of Nos suggests that the potential drug biotransformation modulators employed in this study did not contribute toward increased exposure of Nos on repeated dosing. We envision that Nos-induced enzyme induction could alter the therapeutic efficacy of co

  5. p53 and p21 determine the sensitivity of noscapine-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Ritu; Ghaleb, Amr M; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Vincent W; Joshi, Harish C

    2007-04-15

    We have previously discovered the naturally occurring antitussive alkaloid noscapine as a tubulin-binding agent that attenuates microtubule dynamics and arrests mammalian cells at mitosis via activation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway. It is well established that the p53 protein plays a crucial role in the control of tumor cell response to chemotherapeutic agents and DNA-damaging agents; however, the relationship between p53-driven genes and drug sensitivity remains controversial. In this study, we compared chemosensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis on noscapine treatment in four cell lines derived from the colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells: p53(+/+) (p53-wt), p53(-/-) (p53-null), p21(-/-) (p21-null), and BAX(-/-) (BAX-null). Using these isogenic variants, we investigated the roles of p53, BAX, and p21 in the cellular response to treatment with noscapine. Our results show that noscapine treatment increases the expression of p53 over time in cells with wild-type p53 status. This increase in p53 is associated with an increased apoptotic BAX/Bcl-2 ratio consistent with increased sensitivity of these cells to apoptotic stimuli. Conversely, loss of p53 and p21 alleles had a counter effect on both BAX and Bcl-2 expression and the p53-null and p21-null cells were significantly resistant to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of noscapine. All but the p53-null cells displayed p53 protein accumulation in a time-dependent manner on noscapine treatment. Interestingly, despite increased levels of p53, p21-null cells were resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic role of p21 and implying that p53 is a necessary but not sufficient condition for noscapine-mediated apoptosis.

  6. The Effect of Noscapine on Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation on Primary Murine Cortical Neurons in High Glucose Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Gelareh; Ebrahimi, Soltan-Ahmed; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we set out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of noscapine (0.5-2 µM) in presence of D-glucose on primary murine foetal cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 h. recovery. Cell viability, nitric oxide production and intracellular calcium ((ca(2+))i) levels were evaluated by MTT assay, the modified Griess method and Fura-2 respectively. 25 and 100 mM D-glucose could, in a concentration dependent manner, improve cell viability and decrease NO production and (ca(2+))i level in neuronal cells after ischemic insult. Moreover, pre-incubation of cells with noscapine, noticeably enhanced protective effects of 25 and 100 mM D-glucose compared to similar conditions without noscapine pre-treatment. In fact, noscapine attenuated NO production in a dose-dependent fashion, after 30 minutes (min) OGD, during high-glucose (HG) condition in cortical neurons. Pretreatment with 2 μM noscapine and 25 or 100 mM D-glucose, was shown to decrease the rise in (ca(2+))i induced by Sodium azide/glucose deprivation (chemical OGD) model. These effects were more pronounced than that of 25 or 100 mM D-glucose alone. The present study demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of HG before an ischemic insult were augmented by pre-treatment with noscapine. Our results also suggested that the neuroprotection offered by both HG and noscapine involve attenuation of NO production and (ca(2+))i levels stimulated by the experimental ischemia in cortical neurons.

  7. Cloning and characterization of canadine synthase involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-03

    Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy is thought to occur via N-methylcanadine, which would be produced through 9-O-methylation of (S)-scoulerine, methylenedioxy bridge formation on (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, and N-methylation of (S)-canadine. Only scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase has been functionally characterized. We report the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP719A21) from opium poppy that converts (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine. Recombinant CYP719A21 displayed strict substrate specificity and high affinity (Km=4.63±0.71 μM) for (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. Virus-induced gene silencing of CYP719A21 caused a significant increase in (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine accumulation and a corresponding decrease in the levels of putative downstream intermediates and noscapine in opium poppy plants.

  8. Acetylation serves as a protective group in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    We have characterized four sequential enzymes that transform 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine to narcotoline hemiacetal, completing our elucidation of noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze hydroxylations at C13 and C8 on the protoberberine scaffold, the latter step inducing ring opening and the formation of an aldehyde moiety. Acetylation at C13 before C8 hydroxylation introduces a protective group subsequently hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase, which triggers rearrangement to a cyclic hemiacetal.

  9. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  10. Chiral differentiation of the noscapine and hydrastine stereoisomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tibor; Kuki, Ákos; Antal, Borbála; Nagy, Lajos; Purgel, Mihály; Sipos, Attila; Nagy, Miklós; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimers [2 M + Cat](+) of the noscapine and hydrastine stereoisomers was studied where Cat stands for Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+) ions. These dimers were generated 'in situ' from the electrosprayed solution. The survival yield (SY) method was used for distinguishing the noscapine and hydrastine dimers. Significant differences were found between the characteristic collision energies (CE50, i.e. the collision energy necessary to obtain 50% fragmentation) of the homo- (R,R; S,S) and heterochiral (R,S; S,R) stereoisomers. To distinguish the enantiomer pairs L-, D-tyrosine ([M + Tyr + Cat](+)) and L-, D-lysine ([M + Lys + Cat](+)) were used as chiral selectors. Furthermore, these heterodimers [M + amino acid + Cat](+) were also applied to determine the stereoisomeric composition. It was found that the characteristic collision energy (CE50) of the noscapine and hydrastine homodimers ([2 M + Cat](+)) was inversely proportional to the ionic radius of the cations. Furthermore, the structures of the dimers [2 M + Cat](+) were studied by high level quantum chemical calculations.

  11. Simultaneous chemiluminescence determination of thebaine and noscapine using support vector machine regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Hasanpour, F.; Khayamian, T.; Mokhtari, A.; Taei, M.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a batch chemiluminescence (CL) method has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of two structurally similar alkaloids, noscapine and thebaine. The method is based on the kinetic distinction of the CL reactions of noscapine and thebaine with Ru(bipy) 32+ and Ce(IV) system in a sulfuric acid medium. The least squared support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression was applied for relating the concentrations of both compounds to their CL profiles. The parameters of the model consisting of σ2 and γ were optimized by constructing LS-SVM models with all possible combinations of these two parameters to select the model with the minimum root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) as the best. The parameters of this model were then selected as optimized values. Under the optimized experimental conditions for both compounds, the detection limits obtained using the LS-SVM regression were 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L -1 for noscapine and thebaine, respectively. The proposed method was utilized for the simultaneous determination of the compounds in pharmaceutical formulations and plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Cell cycle arrest and apoptogenic properties of opium alkaloids noscapine and papaverine on breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadian, Saharolsadat; Vatankhah, Melody; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Kouhsari, Shide Montaser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Previous report of the vast effectiveness of opium derivatives in cancer therapy is leading us to see possible effects of these derivatives on cancer stem cells in order to find new agent for cancer therapy. In this study, cells were stained for CSC markers and sorted by magnetic beads. CSCs exhibit the characteristic CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ESA(+) phenotype. Noscapine and papaverine (alkaloids) showed anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It was observed that noscapine has more cytotoxic effect on CSC derived from both cell lines compared with their parental cells. Papaverine has more cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 CSCs in comparison with parental cells, while CSCs population of MDA-MB-231 is more resistant to papaverine compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Noscapine enhances apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 CSCs more than parent cells, while in MCF-7 CSCs the apoptosis is less than parent cells. Our results show that papverine is less active in terms of apoptotic effect on CSCs in both cell lines. Moreover, noscapine arrests MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 CSCs cell cycle at G2/M phase, while papverine arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. It was suggested different mechanism for apoptotic cytotoxicity. The results of this study show possible specific effects of noscapine on these breast cell lines CSCs.

  13. The Cyclotron Production and Nuclear Imaging of BROMINE-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Eduardo

    In this investigation, bromine-77 was produced with a medical cyclotron and imaged with gamma cameras. Br -77 emits a 240 kev photon with a half life of 56 hours. The C-Br bond is stronger than the C-I bond and bromine is not collected in the thyroid. Bromine can be used to label many organic molecules by methods analogous to radioiodination. The only North American source of Br-77 in the 70's and 80's was Los Alamos National Laboratory, but it discontinued production in 1989. In this method, a p,3n reaction on Br-77 produces Kr-77 which decays with a 1.2 hour half life to Br-77. A cyclotron generated 40 MeV proton beam is incident on a nearly saturated NaBr or LiBr solution contained in a copper or titanium target. A cooling chamber through which helium gas is flowed separates the solution from the cyclotron beam line. Helium gas is also flowed through the solution to extract Kr-77 gas. The mixture flows through a nitrogen trap where Kr-77 freezes and is allowed to decay to Br-77. Eight production runs were performed, three with a copper target and five with a titanium target with yields of 40, 104, 180, 679, 1080, 685, 762 and 118 uCi respectively. Gamma ray spectroscopy has shown the product to be very pure, however corrosion has been a major obstacle, causing the premature retirement of the copper target. Phantom and in-vivo rat nuclear images, and an autoradiograph in a rat are presented. The quality of the nuclear scans is reasonable and the autoradiograph reveals high isotope uptake in the renal parenchyma, a more moderate but uniform uptake in pulmonary and hepatic tissue, and low soft tissue uptake. There is no isotope uptake in the brain or the gastric mucosa.

  14. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  15. Two new brominated diterpenes from Laurencia decumbens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new brominated diterpenes, namely, laurendecumtriol and 11-deacetylpinnaterpene C, were isolated and identified from the marine red alga Laurencia decumbens. Their structures were established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR-ESI-MS analyses.

  16. Enhanced noscapine delivery using uPAR-targeted optical-MR imaging trackable nanoparticles for prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed O; Karna, Prasanthi; Sajja, Hari Krishna; Mao, Hui; Yates, Clayton; Turner, Timothy; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-02-10

    The tubulin-binding anticancer activity of noscapine, an orally available plant-derived anti-tussive alkaloid, has been recently identified. Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of hematopoietic, breast, lung, ovarian, brain and prostate origin. Despite its nontoxic attributes, significant elimination of the disease has not been achieved, perhaps since the bioavailability of noscapine to tumors saturates at an oral dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. To enable the selective and specific delivery of noscapine to prostate cancer cells, we have engineered a multifunctional nanoscale delivery vehicle that takes advantage of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) overexpression in prostate cancer compared to normal prostate epithelia and can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Specifically, we employed the human-type 135 amino-acid amino-terminal fragment (hATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a high-affinity natural ligand for uPAR. Noscapine (Nos) was efficiently adsorbed onto the amphiphilic polymer coating of uPAR-targeted nanoparticles (NPs). Nos-loaded NPs were uniformly compact-sized, stable at physiological pH and efficiently released the drug at pH 4 to 5 within a span of 4h. Our results demonstrate that these uPAR-targeted NPs were capable of binding to the receptor and were internalized by PC-3 cells. uPAR-targeted Nos-loaded NPs enhanced intracellular noscapine accumulation as evident by the ~6-fold stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 growth compared to free noscapine. In addition, Nos-loaded iron oxide NPs maintained their T2 MRI contrast effect upon internalization into tumor cells owing to their significant susceptibility effect in cells. Thus, our data provide compelling evidence that these optically and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-trackable uPAR-targeted NPs may offer a great potential for image-directed targeted delivery of noscapine for the management of

  17. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  18. Pulsed Bromine-81 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy of Brominated Flame Retardants and Associated Polymer Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrse, Anthony A.; Lee, Youngil; Bryant, Pamela L.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Butler, Leslie G.; Simeral, Larry S.

    1998-03-01

    The dispersion of brominated flame retardants in polymers is monitored with bromine-81 NQR using a pulse NQR spectrometer. The NQR spectrometer consists of a homemade 10-300 MHz single-channel NMR console coupled to a broadly tunable probe. The probe is a loop-gap resonator usable from 220 to 300 MHz, and automatically tuned over any 5 MHz region with a stepping motor and an RF bidirectional coupler. Bromine-81 NQR spectra of several brominated aromatic flame retardants, as pure materials and in polymers, were recorded in the range of 227 to 256 MHz in zero applied magnetic field. Two factors affect the bromine-79/81 NQR transition frequencies in brominated aromatics: electron withdrawing substituents on the ring and intermolecular contacts with other bromine atoms in the crystal structure. An existing model for substituents is updated and a point charge model for the intermolecular contacts is developed. In this study, we exploit the bromine-81 NQR transition frequency dependence on intermolecular contacts to learn how a flame retardant is dispersed in a polymer matrix.

  19. The synthesis and biological evaluation of multifunctionalised derivatives of noscapine as cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Aaron J; Mistry, Sarah J; Xie, Jinhan; Muthiah, Divya; Phillips, Jackson; Ventura, Sabatino; Callaghan, Richard; Pouton, Colin W; Capuano, Ben; Scammells, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Papaver somniferum, is a well-known antitussive drug that has a relatively safe in vitro toxicity profile. Noscapine is also known to possess weak anticancer efficacy, and since its discovery, efforts have been made to design derivatives with improved potency. Herein, the synthesis of a series of noscapine analogues, which have been modified in the 6', 9', 1 and 7-positions, is described. In a previous study, replacement of the naturally occurring N-methyl group in the 6'-position with an N-ethylaminocarbonyl was shown to promote cell-cycle arrest and cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines. Here, this modification has been combined with other structural changes that have previously been shown to improve anticancer activity, namely halo substitution in the 9'-position, regioselective O-demethylation to reveal a free phenol in the 7-position, and reduction of the lactone to the corresponding cyclic ether in the 1-position. The incorporation of new aryl substituents in the 9'-position was also investigated. The study identified interesting new compounds able to induce G2/M cell-cycle arrest and that possess cytotoxic activity against the human prostate carcinoma cell line PC3, the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, and the human pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma cell line PANC-1. In particular, the ethyl urea cyclic ether noscapinoids and a compound containing a 6'-ethylaminocarbonyl along with 9'-chloro, 7-hydroxy and lactone moieties exhibited the most promising biological activities, with EC50 values in the low micromolar range against all three cancer cell lines, and these derivatives warrant further investigation.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  1. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  2. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  3. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  4. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  5. A novel effect of Noscapine on patients with massive ischemic stroke: A pseudo-randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Mahmoudian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Massive ischemic stroke causes significant mortality and morbidity in stroke patients. The main treatments for massive ischemic stroke are recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA, craniotomy, and endovascular interventions. Due to destructive effects of bradykinin on the nervous system in ischemic stroke, it seems reasonable that using Noscapine as a Bradykinin antagonist may improve patients' outcome after ischemic stroke. The effect of Noscapine on massive ischemic stroke was shown by the previous pilot study by our group. This pseudo-randomized clinical trial study was designed to assess the result of the pilot study.Patients who had clinical symptoms or computed tomography scan indicative of massive stroke (in full middle cerebral artery territory were entered to the study. The cases received the drugs according to their turns in emergency ward (pseudo-randomized. The patient group received Noscapine, and the control group received common supportive treatments. The patients and data analyzer were blinded about the data. At the end of the study, to adjust confounding variables we used logistic regression.After 1-month follow-up, 16 patients in the control group and 11 patients in the case group expired (P = 0.193. Analyzing the data extracted from Rankin scale and Barthel index check lists, revealed no significant differences in the two groups.Despite the absence of significant statistical results in our study, the reduction rate of 16% for mortality rate in Noscapine recipients is clinically remarkable and motivates future studies with larger sample sizes.

  6. Simultaneous determination of codeine and noscapine by flow-injection chemiluminescence method using N-PLS regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, B; Khayamian, T; Mokhtari, A

    2009-02-20

    A flow injection chemiluminescent (FI-CL) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of codeine and noscapine using N-PLS regression. The method is based on the fact that kinetic characteristics of codeine and noscapine are different in the Ru(phen)(3)(2+)-Ce(IV) CL system. In flow injection mode, codeine gives broad peak with the highest CL intensity at 4.4s, whereas the maximum CL intensity of the noscapine appears at about 2.6s. Moreover, the effect of increasing H(2)SO(4) concentration was different on the CL intensity of the compounds. An experimental design, central composite design (CCD), was used to realize the optimized variables such as Ru(II) and Ce(IV) concentrations for the both compounds. At the optimized condition, a three-way data structure (samples, H(2)SO(4) concentration, time) was constructed and followed by N-PLS regression. The number of factors for the N-PLS regression was selected based on the minimum values for the root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV). The proposed method is applied to the simultaneous quantification of codeine and noscapine in the pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  8. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  9. Long-circulating poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles customized for intracellular delivery of noscapine: preparation, in-vitro characterization, structure elucidation, pharmacokinetics, and cytotoxicity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jitender; Dhiman, Neerupma; Sardana, Satish; Aneja, Ritu; Chandra, Ramesh; Katyal, Anju

    2011-07-01

    Noscapine, the tubulin-binding anticancer agent, when administered orally, requires high ED(50) (300-600 mg/kg), whereas intravenous administration (10 mg/kg) results in rapid elimination of the drug with a half-life of 0.39 h. Hence, the development of long-circulating injectable nanoparticles can be an interesting option for designing a viable formulation of noscapine for anticancer activity. Noscapine-enveloped gelatin nanoparticles and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles were constructed and characterized. Data indicate that smooth and spherical shaped nanoparticles of 127 ± 15 nm were engineered with maximum entrapment efficiency of 65.32 ± 3.81%. Circular dichroism confirms that nanocoacervates retained the α-helical content of gelatin in ethanol whereas acetone favored the formation of a random coil. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and powder X-ray diffraction pattern prevents any significant change in the noscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles in comparison with individual components. In-vitro release kinetic data suggest a first-order release of noscapine (85.1%) from gelatin nanoparticles with a release rate constant of 7.611×10(-3). It is to be noted that there is a 1.43-fold increase in the area under the curve up to the last sampling point for the noscapine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles over the noscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and a 13.09-fold increase over noscapine. Cytotoxicity analysis of the MCF-7 cell line indicated that the IC(50) value of the noscapine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles was equivalent to 20.8 μmol/l, which was significantly (Pnoscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (26.3 μmol/l) and noscapine (40.5 μmol/l).Noscapine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles can be developed as a promising therapeutic agent for the management of breast cancer.

  10. 40 CFR 721.2925 - Brominated aromatic ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 Brominated aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a brominated aromatic ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  12. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  13. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  14. Noscapine inhibits hypoxia-mediated HIF-1alpha expression andangiogenesis in vitro: a novel function for an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Schnee, Tona; Ali, M Aktar; Lan, Li; Zagzag, David

    2006-05-01

    Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a common feature in solid malignancies related to oxygen deficiency. Since increased HIF-1 expression correlates with advanced disease stage, increased angiogenesis and poor prognosis, HIF-1 and its signaling pathway have become targets for cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we identified noscapine to be a novel small molecule inhibitor of the HIF-1 pathway based on its structure-function relation-ships with HIF-1 pathway inhibitors belonging to the benzylisoquinoline class of plant metabolites and/or to microtubule binding agents. We demonstrate that noscapine treatment of human glioma U87MG and T98G cell lines exposed to the hypoxic mimetic agent, CoCl2, inhibits hypoxia-mediated HIF-1alpha expression and transcriptional activity as measured by decreased secretion of VEGF, a HIF-1 target gene. Inhibition of hypoxia-mediated HIF-1alpha expression was due, in part, to its ability to inhibit accumulation of HIF-1alpha in the nucleus and target it for degradation via the proteasome. One mechanism of action of microtubule binding agents is their antiangiogenic activity associated with disruption of endothelial tubule formation. We show that noscapine has similar properties in vitro. Thus, noscapine may possess novel antiangiogenic activity associated with two broad mechanisms of action: first, by decreasing HIF-1alpha expression in hypoxic tumor cells, upregulation of target genes, such as VEGF, would be decreased concomitant with its associated angiogenic activity; second, by inhibiting endothelial cells from forming blood vessels in response to VEGF stimulation, it may limit the process of neo-vascularization, correlating with antitumor activity in vivo. For more than 75 years, noscapine has traditionally been used as an oral cough suppressant with no known toxic side effects in man. Thus, the studies reported here have found a novel function for an old drug. Given its low toxicity profile, its demonstrated

  15. Formulation, Pharmacokinetic, and Efficacy Studies of Mannosylated Self-Emulsifying Solid Dispersions of Noscapine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrick Andey

    Full Text Available To formulate hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-stabilized self-emulsifying solid dispersible carriers of noscapine to enhance oral bioavailability.Formulation of noscapine (Nos self-emulsifying solid dispersible microparticles (SESDs was afforded by emulsification using an optimized formula of Labrafil M1944, Tween-80, and Labrasol followed by spray-drying with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, with and without mannosamine (Mann-Nos_SESDs and Nos_SESDs respectively; self-microemulsifying liquid dispersions (SMEDDs with and without mannosamine (Mann-Nos_SMEDDs and Nos_SMEDDs respectively were also prepared. SMEDDs and SESDs were characterized for size, polydispersity, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, in vitro permeability, in vitro release kinetics, and oral pharmacokinetics in Sprague-Dawley rats (10 mg/kg p.o. The antitumor efficacy of Mann-Nos_SESDs on the basis of chemosensitization to cisplatin (2.0 mg/kg, i.v. was investigated in a chemorefractory lung tumor Nu/Nu mouse model up to a maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg.The oil/surfactant/co-surfactant mixture of Labrafil M1944, Tween-80, and Labrasol optimized at weight ratios of 62.8:9.30:27.90% produced stable self-microemulsifying dispersions (SMEDDs at a SMEDD to water ratio of 1-3:7-9 parts by weight. SMEDDs had hydrodynamic diameters between 231 and 246 nm; surface charges ranged from -16.50 to -18.7 mV; and entrapment efficiencies were between 32 and 35%. SESDs ranged in size between 5.84 and 6.60 μm with surface charges from -10.62 to -12.40 mV and entrapment efficiencies of 30.96±4.66 and 32.05±3.72% (Nos_SESDs and Mann-Nos_SESDs respectively. Mann-Nos_SESDs exhibited saturating uptake across Caco-2 monolayers (Papp = 4.94±0.18 × 10(-6 cm/s, with controlled release of 50% of Nos in 6 hr at pH 6.8 following Higuchi kinetics. Mann-Nos_ SESDs was 40% more bioavailable compared to Nos_SESDs; and was effective in sensitizing H1650 SP cells to Cisplatin in vitro and in an orthotopic

  16. Formulation, Pharmacokinetic, and Efficacy Studies of Mannosylated Self-Emulsifying Solid Dispersions of Noscapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andey, Terrick; Patel, Apurva; Marepally, Srujan; Chougule, Mahavir; Spencer, Shawn D.; Rishi, Arun K.; Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To formulate hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-stabilized self-emulsifying solid dispersible carriers of noscapine to enhance oral bioavailability. Methods Formulation of noscapine (Nos) self-emulsifying solid dispersible microparticles (SESDs) was afforded by emulsification using an optimized formula of Labrafil M1944, Tween-80, and Labrasol followed by spray-drying with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), with and without mannosamine (Mann-Nos_SESDs and Nos_SESDs respectively); self-microemulsifying liquid dispersions (SMEDDs) with and without mannosamine (Mann-Nos_SMEDDs and Nos_SMEDDs respectively) were also prepared. SMEDDs and SESDs were characterized for size, polydispersity, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, in vitro permeability, in vitro release kinetics, and oral pharmacokinetics in Sprague-Dawley rats (10 mg/kg p.o). The antitumor efficacy of Mann-Nos_SESDs on the basis of chemosensitization to cisplatin (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was investigated in a chemorefractory lung tumor Nu/Nu mouse model up to a maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg. Results The oil/surfactant/co-surfactant mixture of Labrafil M1944, Tween-80, and Labrasol optimized at weight ratios of 62.8:9.30:27.90% produced stable self-microemulsifying dispersions (SMEDDs) at a SMEDD to water ratio of 1–3:7–9 parts by weight. SMEDDs had hydrodynamic diameters between 231 and 246 nm; surface charges ranged from -16.50 to -18.7 mV; and entrapment efficiencies were between 32 and 35%. SESDs ranged in size between 5.84 and 6.60 μm with surface charges from -10.62 to -12.40 mV and entrapment efficiencies of 30.96±4.66 and 32.05±3.72% (Nos_SESDs and Mann-Nos_SESDs respectively). Mann-Nos_SESDs exhibited saturating uptake across Caco-2 monolayers (Papp = 4.94±0.18 × 10−6 cm/s), with controlled release of 50% of Nos in 6 hr at pH 6.8 following Higuchi kinetics. Mann-Nos_ SESDs was 40% more bioavailable compared to Nos_SESDs; and was effective in sensitizing H1650 SP cells to Cisplatin in vitro

  17. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  18. Enhanced noscapine delivery using estrogen-receptor-targeted nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jitender; Gundala, Sushma R; Kasetti, Yoganjaneyulu; Bharatam, Prasad V; Aneja, Ritu; Katyal, Anju; Jain, Upendra K

    2014-07-01

    Noscapine (Nos), an orally available plant-derived antitussive alkaloid, is in phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. It has extensively been shown to inhibit tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of hematopoietic, breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostate origin. However, high tumor-suppressive Nos dosages encumber the development of oral controlled-release formulations because of a short biological half-life (noscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (Nos-ES-GN) for targeting estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Gelatin nanoparticles (GN) were a uniformly compact size, stable at physiological pH, and showed a drug entrapment efficiency of 66.1±5.9 and 65.2±5.6% for Nos-GN and Nos-ES-GN, respectively. The secondary structure of gelatin nanocoacervates was predicted using circular dichroism and in-silico molecular modeling. Our data suggest that ethanol-fabricated GN retained the α-helical content of gelatin, whereas acetone favored the formation of random coils. The conjugation of estrone to Nos-GN did not affect the release rate of the drug, and both formulations followed first-order release kinetics with an initial burst, followed by a slow release. The IC50 value of Nos-ES-GN was 21.2 μmol/l, which was ∼50% lower than the free drug (43.3 μmol/l), suggesting targeted drug delivery. Our cell uptake study carried out in an estrogen-receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines showed greater accumulation of Nos-ES-GN in MCF-7 cells instead of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data indicated that estrone-conjugated nanoparticles may potentially be used for targeting breast cancer cells.

  19. In silico inspired design and synthesis of a novel tubulin-binding anti-cancer drug: folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K.; Lopus, Manu; Aneja, Ritu; Vangapandu, Surya N.; Joshi, Harish C.

    2012-02-01

    Our screen for tubulin-binding small molecules that do not depolymerize bulk cellular microtubules, but based upon structural features of well known microtubule-depolymerizing colchicine and podophyllotoxin, revealed tubulin binding anti-cancer property of noscapine (Ye et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:2280-2286, 1998). Guided by molecular modelling calculations and structure-activity relationships we conjugated at C9 of noscapine, a folate group—a ligand for cellular folate receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is over-expressed on some solid tumours such as ovarian epithelial cancers. Molecular docking experiments predicted that a folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin) accommodated well inside the binding cavity (docking score -11.295 kcal/mol) at the interface between α- and β-tubulin. The bulky folate moiety of Targetin is extended toward lumen of microtubules. The binding free energy (Δ G bind) computed based on molecular mechanics energy minimization was -221.01 kcal/mol that revealed favourable interaction of Targetin with the receptor. Chemical synthesis, tubulin-binding experiments, and anti-cancer activity in vitro corroborate fully well with the molecular modelling experiments. Targetin binds tubulin with a dissociation constant ( K d value) of 149 ± 3.0 μM and decreases the transition frequencies between growth and shortening phases of microtubule assembly dynamics at concentrations that do not alter the total polymer mass. Cancer cells in general were more sensitive to Targetin compared with the founding compound noscapine (IC50 in the range of 15-40 μM). Quite strikingly, ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 and A2780), known to overexpress FRα, were much more sensitive to targetin (IC50 in the range of 0.3-1.5 μM).

  20. In silico inspired design and synthesis of a novel tubulin-binding anti-cancer drug: folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K; Lopus, Manu; Aneja, Ritu; Vangapandu, Surya N; Joshi, Harish C

    2012-02-01

    Our screen for tubulin-binding small molecules that do not depolymerize bulk cellular microtubules, but based upon structural features of well known microtubule-depolymerizing colchicine and podophyllotoxin, revealed tubulin binding anti-cancer property of noscapine (Ye et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:2280-2286, 1998). Guided by molecular modelling calculations and structure-activity relationships we conjugated at C9 of noscapine, a folate group-a ligand for cellular folate receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is over-expressed on some solid tumours such as ovarian epithelial cancers. Molecular docking experiments predicted that a folate conjugated noscapine (Targetin) accommodated well inside the binding cavity (docking score -11.295 kcal/mol) at the interface between α- and β-tubulin. The bulky folate moiety of Targetin is extended toward lumen of microtubules. The binding free energy (ΔG (bind)) computed based on molecular mechanics energy minimization was -221.01 kcal/mol that revealed favourable interaction of Targetin with the receptor. Chemical synthesis, tubulin-binding experiments, and anti-cancer activity in vitro corroborate fully well with the molecular modelling experiments. Targetin binds tubulin with a dissociation constant (K (d) value) of 149 ± 3.0 μM and decreases the transition frequencies between growth and shortening phases of microtubule assembly dynamics at concentrations that do not alter the total polymer mass. Cancer cells in general were more sensitive to Targetin compared with the founding compound noscapine (IC(50) in the range of 15-40 μM). Quite strikingly, ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 and A2780), known to overexpress FRα, were much more sensitive to targetin (IC(50) in the range of 0.3-1.5 μM).

  1. Heterogeneous processing of bromine compounds by atmospheric aerosols: Relation to the ozone budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.M.; Henson, B.F.; Dubey, M.K.; Casson, J.L.; Johal, M.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Wilson, K.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The depletion of ozone, particularly above Antarctica, has been investigated extensively to formulate public policy on the use of halocarbons. While it has been shown that heterogeneous reactions of chlorine compounds on stratospheric particulates cause the ozone hole, little is known of the analogous bromine mechanisms, even though it has been recognized for two decades that catalytic destruction of ozone by bromine could be more efficient than chlorine. Furthermore, field measurements and modeling calculations suggest that these heterogeneous (gas/surface) reactions are not restricted to the Antarctic regions but occur globally. The authors have performed laboratory measurements of the uptake of bromine compounds and other halogens on simulated stratospheric aerosols to help elucidate their role in catalytic ozone destruction cycles. Their studies contribute to the data base required to make assessments of the effects of human activities on global change, including the Montreal Protocol.

  2. Induction of acetylation and bundling of cellular microtubules by 9-(4-vinylphenyl) noscapine elicits S-phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyamundath, Sanith; Mahaddalkar, Tejashree; Kantevari, Srinivas; Lopus, Manu

    2017-02-01

    Noscapine is an alkaloid present in the latex of Papaver somniferum. It has been known for its anticancer efficacy and lack of severe toxicities to normal tissues. Structural alterations in noscapine core architecture have produced a number of potent analogues of noscapine. Here, we report an unusual activity of a novel noscapine analogue, 9-(4-vinylphenyl)noscapine (VinPhe-Nos) on cancer cells. As we reported earlier, VinPhe-Nos inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation with an IC50 of 6μM. The present study elucidated a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action of VinPhe-Nos. The noscapinoid significantly inhibited clonogenic propagation of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, unlike the majority of tubulin-binding agents, it did not induce mitotic arrest; instead, it prolonged S-phase. Although prolonged presence of the drug show some disruption of cellular microtubule architecture, it did not affect microtubule recovery after cold-induced depolymerization. VinPhe-Nos, nevertheless, induced acetylation and bundling of microtubules. Our data suggest that rational modification of parent compound can alter its mechanism of action on cell cycle and that VinPhe-Nos can be investigated further as a less-toxic, S-phase-preferred, cytostatic anticancer agent.

  3. A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of noscapine with Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Behzad; Mokhtari, Ali; Khayamian, Taghi

    2007-08-01

    A new flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) system was used for the determination of noscapine. This technique is based on the reduction effect of noscapine on the Ru(phen)3(3+), which is produced by reaction between Ru(phen)3(2+) and acidic Ce(IV) solutions, and this rapid reduction produces strong CL. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 3.0 x 10(-7) - 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and 2.0 x 10(-6) - 2.0 x 10(-4) mol L(-1). The CL intensity was so high, that it is able to produce a detection limit of 6.6 x 10(-8) M noscapine (3sigma). The relative standard deviation of 2.0 x 10(-6) M noscapine was 1.0% (n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of noscapine in cough and Tonin syrup samples. The results of real sample analyses show good recovery percentages (97.3-102.4%). The minimum sampling rate was 100 samples per hour.

  4. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R

    2013-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  5. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    CERN Document Server

    Braff, W A; Buie, C R

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm$^{-2}$ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92\\% at 25\\% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  6. NMR investigation of non-brominated and brominated epoxy ester prepolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, M.; Osredkar, U.; Šebenik, A.

    1992-03-01

    1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of epoxy ester prepolymers, based on non-brominated DGEBA-type or brominated DGETBBA-type epoxy resins, and on an oligomeric carboxylic acid. In the presence of a quaternary phosphonium salt, besides diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or diglycidylether of tetrabromobisphenol A (DGETBBA) and their higher oligomers, monoesters with characteristic R-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-OCOR' groups were detected in prevailing quantities. In dependence of the epoxy-carboxy ratio, isomeric monoesters with hydroxymethyl groups, diesters and diols might also be present.

  7. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-bromine complex: Mild and efficient polymeric reagent for bromination of activated aromatic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Mokhtary; Moslem M. Lakouraj

    2011-01-01

    Mild and efficient method for bromination of electron-rich aromatic compounds is described using polyvinylpolypyrrolidonebromine complex (PVPP-Br2). The reaction proceeded smoothly with phenols and N,N-alkylated amines to afford the corresponding monobrominated product in good yields at ambient temperature.

  8. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  9. Fire-retardant coatings based on organic bromine/phenoxy or brominated epoxy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.

    1989-06-01

    Thin phenoxy and brominated epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the bromine-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant bromine was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the brominated fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant bromine was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Synthesis of Analogs of Amathamide A and Their Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aguirre

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of three non-brominated analogs of amathamide A (1, a natural alkaloid isolated from the Tasmanian marine bryozoan Amathia wilsoni, are described. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, and Candida albicans was tested. Test results for amathamide A (1 showed a weak activity against C. albicans and E. coli. The three non-natural analogs 2-4 proved to be inactive compounds.

  11. Formation of THMs and HANs during bromination of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunzhu Pu; Lingzhao Kong; Xin Huang; Guoji Ding; Naiyun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Bromine-contained disinfectants and biocides are widely used in swimming pools,recreational waters and cooling towers.The objective of this study was to evaluate the formation of thrihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) and their cytotoxicity in algae solutions during free bromine disinfection.Disinfection by-products formation potential experiments were conducted using modelsolutions containing 7mg/L (as total organic carbon) Microcystis aeruginosa cells.Effects of free bromine dosage,pH and ammonia were investigated.The results showed that brominated disinfection by-products were the major products when free bromine was applied.The total THMs formed during bromination was much as that formed during chlorination,whereas HANs were elevated by using bromination instead of chlorination.Dibromoacetonitrice (C2H2NBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3) were the only detected species during free bromine disinfection.The production of C2H2NBr2 and CHBr3 increased with disinfectant dosage but decreased with dosing ammonia.CHBr3 increased with the pH changing from 5 to 9.However,C2H2NBr2 achieved the highest production at neutral pH,which was due to a joint effect of variation in hydrolysis rate and free bromine reactivity.The hydrolysis of C2H2NBr2 was basecatalytic and nearly unaffected by disinfectant.Finally,estimation of cytotoxicity of the disinfected algae solutions showed that HANs formation was responsible for the majority of toxicity.Considering its highest toxicity among the measured disinfection by-products,the elevated C2H2NBr2 should be considered when using bromine-related algaecide.

  12. New infrared spectroscopic database for bromine nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared measurements of bromine nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric bromine nitrate error budget substantially.

  13. Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-06-22

    Bromination is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using bromine and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular bromine in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of bromine, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid bromine carriers. This review outlines the use of bromine and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of bromine, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other brominating agents, and a few natural bromine sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as bromination, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.

  14. TG-MS investigation of brominated products from the degradation of brominated flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Guido; Karakita, Daiki; Ishibashi, Jun; Kameda, Tomohito; Bhaskar, Thallada; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2011-10-01

    The thermal degradation of flame retardant containing high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), one of the most commonly employed plastics in electric and electronic appliances, was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) in order to understand the threat that is posed by the release of hazardous brominated compounds. The HIPS samples contained decabromodiphenylether (DPE) and decabromodibenzyl (DDB) as the flame retardants as well as Sb2O3 as the synergist. The largest number of brominated compounds was obtained in the presence of DPE and Sb2O3 and DDB without Sb2O3. From the degradation of DPE, brominated benzenes, phenols, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans were identified, and from the degradation of DDB, brominated benzenes, dibenzyls, and phenanthrenes were formed. The interaction between the flame retardant and the polymer matrix resulted in α-bromoethylbenzene. The formation of brominated dibenzodioxins was not observed, probably, due to the low phenol concentration in the polymer melt. No other report has, to our knowledge, ever reported on the formation of brominated phenanthrenes from flame retardants. Because they share similar steric features, it may well be that brominated phenanthrenes are similar in their carcinogen and mutagen potential to dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the observed compounds is presented, and the role of the synergist is considered.

  15. Noscapine chemosensitization enhances docetaxel anticancer activity and nanocarrier uptake in triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Ravi; Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensitization and enhanced delivery to solid tumor are widely explored strategies to augment the anticancer efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics agents. The aim of current research was to investigate the role of low dose Noscapine (Nos) in potentiating docetaxel cytotoxicity and enhancing tumor penetration of nanocarriers. The objectives are; (1) To evaluate the chemo-sensitizing effect of Nos in combination with docetaxel (DTX), and to elucidate the possible mechanism (2) To investigate the effect of low dose Nos on tumor stroma and enhancing nanocarrier uptake in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) bearing nude mice. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometry analysis of DTX in Nos (4 µM) pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed 3.0-fold increase in cell killing and 30% increase in number of late apoptotic cells, respectively. Stress transducer p38 phosphorylation was significantly upregulated with Nos exposure. DTX showed remarkable downregulation in expression of bcl-2, survivin and pAKT in Nos pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Nos pre-sensitization significantly (p < 0.02) enhanced the anti-migration effect of DTX. In vivo studies in orthotopic TNBC tumor bearing mice showed marked reduction in tumor collagen-I levels and significantly (p < 0.03) higher intra-tumoral uptake of coumarin-6 loaded PEGylated liposomes (7-fold) in Nos treated group. Chemo-sensitization and anti-fibrotic effect of Nos could be a promising approach to increase anticancer efficacy of DTX which can be used for other nanomedicinal products. PMID:27177833

  16. Synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated nicotine analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.M.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Marten, D.F.; Sadek, S.; Magarian, R.A.; Grunder, J.R.; Ice, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reported previously on the synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated 5-iodonicotine. In their continuous effort to search for a potential brain as well as adrenal medulla imaging agent, the authors synthesized four radioiodinated nicotine analogs. The labeled compounds were prepared by brominating nicotinic acid, and reacting the acylated product with the appropriate amines to give the respective amides which were then reduced with diborane to the amines. I-125 labeling was done by halogen exchange. Biodistribution studies performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that all these compounds were taken up rapidly by the brain and the adrenal. The highest uptake of all these compounds in both organs occurred at 2 minutes after tail vein injections. The organ:blood ratios at 2 minutes and the T/sub 1/3/ (min.) of radioactivity in these organs were compared.

  17. Synergistic suppression of noscapine and conventional chemotherapeutics on human glioblastoma cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi QI; Xia LIU; Shiyong LI; Harish C JOSHI; Keqiang YE

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Noscapine (NOS) is a non-narcotic opium alkaloid with anti-tumor activity.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of NOS with conventional chemotherapeutics temozolamide (TMZ),bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU),or cisplatin (ClS)on human glioblastoma cells.Methods:U87MG human glioblastoma cells were examined.Cell proliferation was quantified using MTT assay.Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to examine apoptosis and the expression of active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP.Mouse tumor xenograft model bearing U87MG cells was treated with TMZ (2 mg·kg1~-1,ip) or ClS (2 mg/kg,ip 3 times a week) alone or in combination with NOS (200 mg·kg-l·d-1,ig) for 3 weeks.Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of active caspase-3 and Ki67 following treatment in vivo.The safety of the combined treatments was evaluated based on the body weight and histological studies of the animal's organs.Results:NOS (10 or 20 mol/L) markedly increased the anti-proliferation effects of TMZ,BCNU,and ClS on U87MG cells in vitro.The calculated combination index (Cl) values of NOS-ClS,NOS-TMZ,and NOS-BCNU (20 μmoVL) were 0.45,0.51,and 0.57,respectively,demonstrating synergistic inhibition of the drug combinations.In tumor xenograft models,combined treatment with NOS robustly augmented the anti-cancer actions of TMZ and ClS,and showed no detectable toxicity.The combined treatments significantly enhanced the apoptosis,the activated caspase-3 and PARP levels in U87MG cells in vitro,and reduced Ki67 staining and increased the activated caspase-3 level in the shrinking xenografts in vivo.Conclusion:NOS synergistically potentiated the efficacy of FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs against human glioblastoma cells,thereby allowing them to be used at lower doses and hence minimizing their toxic side effects.

  18. Human serum albumin nanoparticles as an efficient noscapine drug delivery system for potential use in breast cancer: preparation and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebak, Safaa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Kulamarva, Arun; Prakash, Satya

    2010-09-20

    Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles can provide enhanced efficacy for anticancer agents. Noscapine, a widely used cough suppressant for decades has recently been shown to cause significant inhibition and regression of tumor volumes without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. Nanoparticles made of human serum albumin (HSA) represent promising strategy for targeted drug delivery to tumor cells by enhancing the drug's bioavailability and distribution, and reducing the body's response towards drug resistance. In the present study, we report for the first time the incorporation and delivery of noscapine-loaded HSA nanoparticles to tumor cells. The nanoparticles were designed and optimized to achieve a particle size in the range of 150-300 nm with a drug-loading efficiency of 85%-96%. The nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for their anticancer activity and efficacy on breast cancer cells.

  19. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajendra Dongre; Minakshi Thakur; Dinesh Ghugal; Jostna Meshram

    2012-10-01

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine pretreatment alters porosity and specific surface area of chitosan by means of physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of chitosan skeleton, besides imparting anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan, to remove lead (II) by chemical interactions on superfluous active sites as characterized by FTIR, SEM, DTA and elemental analysis. Lead adsorptions were studied in batch mode by varying parameters viz. pH, bromine loading, sorbent dosage, initial lead concentration, contact time and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted to Freundlich isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1.755 g/kg with 85–90% lead removal efficiency. Though cost and applicability of sorbent is unproven, yet contrast to raw chitosan derivatives, activated carbons and some resins, 30% bromine pretreated chitosan endow benign and efficient lead abatement technique.

  20. Fate of higher brominated PBDEs in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-01-15

    Dietary intake studies of lower brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher brominated BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower brominated BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of bromination/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher brominated BDEs.

  1. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  2. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  3. The geochemistry of stable chlorine and bromine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggenkamp, Hans [Onderzock and Beleving, Bussum (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    First book solely dedicated to the geochemistry of chlorine and bromine isotopes. Detailed description of analytical techniques, including their advantages and disadvantages. Indication of research fields where measurement of these isotopes is especially useful. This book provides detailed information on the history, analysis and applications of chlorine and bromine isotope geochemistry. Chlorine and bromine are geochemically unique as they prefer to exist as single charged negative ions. For this reason isotope fractionation reflects mostly processes that are not related to changes in the redox state and this fractionation is generally modest. The book will describe the processes that are most easily detected using these isotopes. Also isotope variations, and processes that cause them, measured in oxidised species such as perchlorates and in organic molecules will be described in this book.

  4. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  5. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  6. An Efficient and Facile Methodology for Bromination of Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleosides with Sodium Monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stromberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and facile strategy has been developed for bromination of nucleosides using sodium monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI. Our methodology demonstrates bromination at the C-5 position of pyrimidine nucleosides and the C-8 position of purine nucleosides. Unprotected and also several protected nucleosides were brominated in moderate to high yields following this procedure.

  7. Sensing and inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne by polymer-bromine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Paola A; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan; Wilusz, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    We report on the performance of brominated poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP-Br), brominated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Br), and brominated poly(allylamine-co-4-aminopyridine) (PAAm-APy-Br) for their ability to decontaminate Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in solution while also allowing for the sensing of the spores. The polymers were brominated by bromine using carbon tetrachloride or potassium tribromide as solvents, with bromine loadings ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 mEq/g of polymer. B. anthracis Sterne spores were exposed to increasing concentrations of brominated polymers for 5 min, while the kinetics of the sporicidal activity was assessed. All brominated polymers demonstrated spore log-kills of 8 within 5 min of exposure at 12 mg/mL aqueous polymer concentration. Sensing of spores was accomplished by measuring the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from the spore using time-resolved fluorescence. Parent, non-brominated polymers did not cause any release of DPA and the spores remained viable. In contrast, spores exposed to the brominated polymers were inactivated and the release of DPA was observed within minutes of exposure. Also, this release of DPA continued for a long time after spore inactivation as in a controlled release process. The DPA release was more pronounced for spores exposed to brominated PVP and brominated PEG-8000 compared to brominated PAAm-APy and brominated PEG-400. Using time-resolved fluorescence, we detected as low as 2500 B. anthracis spores, with PEG-8000 being more sensitive to low spore numbers. Our results suggest that the brominated polymers may be used effectively as decontamination agents against bacterial spores while also providing the sensing capability.

  8. Rational design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of third generation α-noscapine analogues as potent tubulin binding anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Santoshi, Seneha; Lopus, Manu; Joseph, Silja; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol) than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol) and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol). Free energy (ΔG bind ) calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE) empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol). Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol). The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl) noscapine (6f) binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM), which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM) and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM). All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents.

  9. Rational design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of third generation α-noscapine analogues as potent tubulin binding anti-cancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Manchukonda

    Full Text Available Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol. Free energy (ΔG bind calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol. Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol. The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl noscapine (6f binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM, which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM. All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents.

  10. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  11. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  12. Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and dibenzofurans (PBDFs. Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

  13. A Sternheimer-like response property of the bromine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.; Peebles, S. A.; Legon, A. C.

    The generalised polarisability describing the response to an applied field of the electric field gradient at a nucleus in Br2 is calculated ab initio. A value of 110.55 a-10 is found at the self-consistent -field level. This is about half the value derived by modelling the measured nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of theammonia-bromine complex.

  14. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  15. Analogy in CLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Erica

    1999-01-01

    CL A M is a proof planner, developed by the Dream group in Edinburgh,that mainly operates for inductive proofs. This paper addresses the questionhow an analogy model that I developed independently of CL A M can beapplied to CL A M and it presents analogy-driven proof plan construction as acontrol strategy of CL A M . This strategy is realized as a derivational analogythat includes the reformulation of proof plans. The analogical replay checkswhether the reformulated justifications of the sour...

  16. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  17. Analogies of Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, Amund Bauck

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis it will be tested wither analogies and metaphors would make it easier to teach the fundamental subjects of information security and hacking to people with no previous background in computer science and only basic computer skills. This will be done by conducting interview on people with no background in computer science to see what analogies work the best for different topics in information security. From the analogy getting the best response, a small game will be designed with ...

  18. Substrate Directed Regioselective Monobromination of Aralkyl Ketones Using N-Bromosuccinimide Catalysed by Active Aluminium Oxide: α -Bromination versus Ring Bromination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Reddy Bodireddy; Reddy, G Trivikram; Gangi Reddy, N C

    2014-01-01

    Bromination of aralkyl ketones using N-bromosuccinimide in presence of active Al2O3 provided either α -monobrominated products in methanol at reflux or mononuclear brominated products in acetonitrile at reflux temperature with excellent isolated yields depending on the nature of substrate employed. The α -bromination was an exclusive process when aralkyl ketones containing moderate activating/deactivating groups were subjected to bromination under acidic Al2O3 conditions in methanol at reflux while nuclear functionalization was predominant when aralkyl ketones containing high activating groups were utilized for bromination in presence of neutral Al2O3 conditions in acetonitrile at reflux temperature. In addition, easy isolation of products, use of inexpensive catalyst, short reaction time (10-20 min), and safe operational practice are the major benefits in the present protocol.

  19. Bromine and Chlorine in Aerosols and Fly Ash when Co-Firing Solid Recovered Fuel, Spruce Bark and Paper Mill Sludge in a 80MWth BFB Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, P.; Silvennoinen, J.; Yrjas, P.; Frantsi, A.; Hietanen, L.; Hupa, M.; Taipale, R.

    Aerosol and fly ash sampling was carried out at a 80MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler plant co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF), spruce bark and paper mill wastewater sludge in two experimental conditions. The SRF-Bark ratio in the fuel mix was kept constant at 50%-50% on dry mass basis in both experiments but two sludge proportions were used: 15% and 4% on dry mass basis. Aerosol samples were collected from the superheater region of the boiler furnace and fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Na, K, Cl and S were found to be in mainly water soluble compounds in the aerosols sampled by means of a Dekati type Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI). Bromine was found in several weight percentages in aerosols and it was amongst the main elements in some of the samples collected. Bromine is assumed to mainly originate from flame retarded plastics and textiles in the SRF. According to the measurements, the fate of Br seems to be analogous to the other main halogen, Cl, and its conversion from fuel to aerosols was high, indicating a strong tendency to form bromine salts.

  20. Anticancer activity of Noscapine, an opioid alkaloid in combination with Cisplatin in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Mahavir; Patel, Apurva R; Sachdeva, Pratik; Jackson, Tanise; Singh, Mandip

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Noscapine (Nos) and Cisplatin (Cis) combination treatment in vitro in A549 and H460 lung cancer cells, in vivo in murine xenograft model and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The combination index values (< 0.6) suggested synergistic effects of Nos+Cis and resulted in the highest increase in percentage of apoptotic NSCLC cells and increased expression of p53, p21, caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, Bax, and decreased expression of Bcl₂ and surviving proteins compared with treatment with either agent. Nos+Cis treatment reduced tumor volume by 78.1 ± 7.5% compared with 38.2 ± 6.8% by Cis or 35.4 ± 6.9% by Nos alone in murine xenograft lung cancer model. Nos+Cis treatment decreased expression of pAkt, Akt, cyclin D1, survivin, PARP, Bcl₂, and increased expression of p53, p21, Bax, cleaved PARP, caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 8, caspase 8, cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 9 compared to single-agent treated and control groups. Our results suggest that Nos enhanced the anticancer activity of Cis in an additive to synergistic manner by activating multiple signaling pathways including apoptosis. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of Nos and Cis combination in treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Determination of factors controlling the particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine in PEG/PLA nanoparticles using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaby KS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Karim S Shalaby,1 Mahmoud E Soliman,1 Luca Casettari,2 Giulia Bonacucina,3 Marco Cespi,3 Giovanni F Palmieri,3 Omaima A Sammour,1 Abdelhameed A El Shamy1,† 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Urbino, Urbino, Italy; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy †Abdel Hameed El-Shamy passed away on August 25, 2013 Abstract: In this study, di- and triblock copolymers based on polyethylene glycol and polylactide were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Nanoparticles containing noscapine were prepared from these biodegradable and biocompatible copolymers using the nanoprecipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size and drug entrapment efficiency, and their morphology and size were checked by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Artificial neural networks were constructed and tested for their ability to predict particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine within the formed nanoparticles using different factors utilized in the preparation step, namely polymer molecular weight, ratio of polymer to drug, and number of blocks that make up the polymer. Using these networks, it was found that the polymer molecular weight has the greatest effect on particle size. On the other hand, polymer to drug ratio was found to be the most influential factor on drug entrapment efficiency. This study demonstrated the ability of artificial neural networks to predict not only the particle size of the formed nanoparticles but also the drug entrapment efficiency. This may have a great impact on the design of polyethylene glycol and polylactide-based copolymers, and can be used to customize the required target formulations. Keywords: noscapine, polyethylene glycol (PEG

  2. The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Defang; Meng, Xing; Tian, Fubo; Chen, Changbo; Wang, Liancheng; Ma, Yanming; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing; He, Zhi; Zou, Guangtian

    2010-01-13

    The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic bromine under high pressure have been studied by first-principles calculations. We have found the following phase transition sequence with increasing pressure: from body-centered orthorhombic (bco, phase II) to body-centered tetragonal structure (bct, phase III) at 126 GPa, then to face-centered cubic structure (fcc, phase IV) at 157 GPa, which is stable at least up to 300 GPa. The calculated superconducting critical temperature T(c) = 1.46 K at 100 GPa is consistent with the experimental value of 1.5 K. In addition, our results of T(c) decrease with increasing pressure in all the monatomic phases of bromine, similar to monatomic iodine. Further calculations show that the decrease of λ with pressure in phase IV is mainly attributed to the weakening of the 'soft' vibrational mode caused by pressure.

  3. New Methods for Labeling RGD Peptides with Bromine-76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lang, Weihua Li, Hong-Mei Jia, De-Cai Fang, Shushu Zhang, Xilin Sun, Lei Zhu, Ying Ma, Baozhong Shen, Dale O. Kiesewetter, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct bromination of the tyrosine residues of peptides and antibodies with bromine-76, to create probes for PET imaging, has been reported. For peptides that do not contain tyrosine residues, however, a prosthetic group is required to achieve labeling via conjugation to other functional groups such as terminal α-amines or lysine ε-amines. The goal of this study was to develop new strategies for labeling small peptides with Br-76 using either a direct labeling method or a prosthetic group, depending on the available functional group on the peptides. A new labeling agent, N-succinimidyl-3-[76Br]bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoate ([76Br]SBDMB was prepared for cyclic RGD peptide labeling. N-succinimidyl-2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate was also used to pre-attach a 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoyl (DMB moiety to the peptide, which could then be labeled with Br-76. A competitive cell binding assay was performed to determine the binding affinity of the brominated peptides. PET imaging of U87MG human glioblastoma xenografted mice was performed using [76Br]-BrE[c(RGDyK]2 and [76Br]-BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK]2. An ex vivo biodistribution assay was performed to confirm PET quantification. The mechanisms of bromination reaction between DMB-c(RGDyK and the brominating agent CH3COOBr were investigated with the SCRF-B3LYP/6-31G* method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The yield for direct labeling of c(RGDyK and E[c(RGDyK]2 using chloramine-T and peracetic acid at ambient temperature was greater than 50%. The yield for [76Br]SBDMB was over 60% using peracetic acid. The conjugation yields for labeling c(RGDfK and c(RGDyK were over 70% using the prosthetic group at room temperature. Labeling yield for pre-conjugated peptides was over 60%. SDMB conjugation and bromination did not affect the binding affinity of the peptides with integrin receptors. Both [76Br]Br-E[c(RGDyK]2 and [76Br]BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK]2 showed high tumor uptake in U87MG tumor bearing mice. The specificity of the imaging tracers

  4. Challenges in Using Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  5. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  6. Bromination of hydrocarbons with CBr4, initiated by light-emitting diode irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Nishina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The bromination of hydrocarbons with CBr4 as a bromine source, induced by light-emitting diode (LED irradiation, has been developed. Monobromides were synthesized with high efficiency without the need for any additives, catalysts, heating, or inert conditions. Action and absorption spectra suggest that CBr4 absorbs light to give active species for the bromination. The generation of CHBr3 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and GC–MS spectrometry analysis, indicating that the present bromination involves the homolytic cleavage of a C–Br bond in CBr4 followed by radical abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a hydrocarbon.

  7. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  8. Elemental Bromine Production by TiO2 Photocatalysis and/or Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Francesco; Camera Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo

    2016-08-22

    Significant production of elemental bromine (Br2 ) was observed for the first time when treating bromide containing solutions at acidic pH, with TiO2 photocatalyst, ozone, or a combination thereof. Br2 selectivities up to approximately 85 % were obtained and the corresponding bromine mass balance values satisfied. The process is general and may be applied at a laboratory scale for green bromination reactions, or industrially as a cheap, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to the currently applied bromine production methods.

  9. High selectively oxidative bromination of toluene derivatives by the H2O2-HBr system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Ju; Yu Jin Li; Jian Rong Gao; Jian Hong Jia; Liang Han; Wei Jian Sheng; Yi Xia Jia

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen bromide illuminated by a 60 W incandescent light bulb serves as a source of bromine radicals. Various substituted toluenes (NO2,Cl, Br, H, CH3) were high selectively brominated at the benzyl position for monobromination in CH2C12 at ice water with catalyst free. This simple but effective bromination of toluene derivatives with an aqueous H2O2-HBr system is characterized with the use of inexpensive reagents and a lower impact on the environment, which make it a good alternative to the existing bromination methods.

  10. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Tas, E.; M. Peleg; D. U. Pedersen; Matveev, V; A. Pour Biazar; Luria, M.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS) chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the basic chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. Th...

  11. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pour Biazar; Matveev, V; D. U. Pedersen; M. Peleg; Tas, E.; Luria, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS) chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. The simulations showed that the ...

  12. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in bromine by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of  Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy

  13. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  14. Determination of factors controlling the particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine in PEG/PLA nanoparticles using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Karim S; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Casettari, Luca; Bonacucina, Giulia; Cespi, Marco; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Sammour, Omaima A; El Shamy, Abdelhameed A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, di- and triblock copolymers based on polyethylene glycol and polylactide were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Nanoparticles containing noscapine were prepared from these biodegradable and biocompatible copolymers using the nanoprecipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size and drug entrapment efficiency, and their morphology and size were checked by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Artificial neural networks were constructed and tested for their ability to predict particle size and entrapment efficiency of noscapine within the formed nanoparticles using different factors utilized in the preparation step, namely polymer molecular weight, ratio of polymer to drug, and number of blocks that make up the polymer. Using these networks, it was found that the polymer molecular weight has the greatest effect on particle size. On the other hand, polymer to drug ratio was found to be the most influential factor on drug entrapment efficiency. This study demonstrated the ability of artificial neural networks to predict not only the particle size of the formed nanoparticles but also the drug entrapment efficiency. This may have a great impact on the design of polyethylene glycol and polylactide-based copolymers, and can be used to customize the required target formulations.

  15. Human serum albumin nanoparticles as an efficient noscapine drug delivery system for potential use in breast cancer: preparation and in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Sebak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Safaa Sebak, Maryam Mirzaei, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arun Kulamarva, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles can provide enhanced efficacy for ­anticancer agents. Noscapine, a widely used cough suppressant for decades has recently been shown to cause significant inhibition and regression of tumor volumes without any detectable ­toxicity in cells or tissues. Nanoparticles made of human serum albumin (HSA represent ­promising strategy for targeted drug delivery to tumor cells by enhancing the drug’s bioavailability and distribution, and reducing the body’s response towards drug resistance. In the ­present study, we report for the first time the incorporation and delivery of noscapine-loaded HSA nanoparticles to tumor cells. The nanoparticles were designed and optimized to achieve a particle size in the range of 150–300 nm with a drug-loading efficiency of 85%–96%. The nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for their anticancer activity and efficacy on breast cancer cells.Keywords: HSA, encapsulation, microcapsule, nanomedicine, nanotechnology, tumor volumes

  16. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  17. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  18. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  19. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  20. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  1. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  2. Decreased therapeutic effects of noscapine combined with imatinib mesylate on human glioblastoma in vitro and the effect of midkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Esin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM develops resistance to the advances in chemotherapy leading to poor prognosis and life quality. Consequently, new treatment modalities are needed. Our aims were to investigate the effects of combined noscapine (NOS and imatinib mesylate (IM on human GBM in vitro and the role of midkine (MK in this new combination treatment. Methods Monolayer and spheroid cultures of T98G human GBM cell line were used to evaluate the effects of IM (10 μM, Nos (10 μM and their combination on cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, cell cycle, the levels of antiapoptotic MK, MRP-1, p170, PFGFR-α, EGFR, bcl-2 proteins, apoptotic caspase-3 levels, morphology (SEM and ultrastructure (TEM for 72 hrs. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test. Results The combination group induced highest decrease in cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, caspase-3 levels, MRP-1 and PDGFR-α levels. The decrease in p170 levels were lower than IM but higher that NOS. The highest increases were in EGFR, MK, bcl-2 and cAMP levels in the combination group. The G0+G1 cell cycle arrest at the end of 72nd hr was the lowest in the combination group. Apoptotic appearence was observed rarely both in the morphologic and ultrastructural evaluation of the combination group. In addition, autophagic vacuoles which were frequently observed in the IM group were observed rarely. Conclusions The combination of Nos with IM showed antagonist effect in T98G human GBM cells in vitro. This antagonist effect was correlated highly with MK levels. The effects of NOS on MRP-1, MK and receptor tyrosine kinase levels were firstly demonstrated in our report. In addition, we proposed that MK is one of the modulator in the switch of autophagy to cell death or survival/resistance.

  3. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  4. Determination of iodine and bromine in coal and atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Gao, Yunchuan; Wei, Biwen; Wu, Xiaowei

    2010-04-15

    Bromine and iodine in atmospheric particles or coal can cause environmental problems such as destruction of ozone in the atmosphere; therefore, the presence of these compounds has recently received increased attention. Here, a rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of total bromine and iodine using ICP-MS analysis is described. Samples were dissolved in mixtures of 5 mL of HNO(3) and 2 mL of H(2)O(2) in a high pressure microwave digester. The solution was then oxidized by per-sulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)) in addition to a small amount of silver nitrate, after which the total bromine and iodine were measured simultaneously by ICP-MS. The signal memory effects of bromine and iodine during analysis were effectively decreased by washing with a new mixture agent (2% alcohol acidic solution, pH 1-2 adjusted with HCl). The detection limits for bromine and iodine using this method were about 3.2 microg L(-1) and 1.1 microg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, the spike recoveries were between 78.7% and 121% for bromine and iodine analysis, while the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.3% to 9.7%, and from 1.5% to 3.4% for bromine and iodine, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the method described here is suitable for the analysis of micro-amounts of bromine and iodine in atmospheric particles and coal samples.

  5. 40 CFR 721.775 - Brominated aromatic com-pound (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated aromatic com-pound (generic name). 721.775 Section 721.775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.775 Brominated aromatic com-pound (generic name). (a)...

  6. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  7. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smoydzin, L.; Glasow, R

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs), widely known to happen in polar regions, are also likely to occur over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen...

  8. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  9. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements of brominated hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric bromine is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived bromine compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of bromine derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total bromine. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a bromine budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of bromine from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic

  10. 那可丁对宫颈癌HeLa细胞的抑制作用及机制探讨%Inhibitory Effects of Noscapine on Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line HeLa and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文敬; 黄磊; 敖启林; 张庆华; 田训; 方勇; 卢运萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of noscapine on human cervical cancer cell line HeLa and its mechanism. Methods HeLa cells were cultured in vitro and treated with gradient concentrations of noscapine. MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of HeLa cells. Soft-agar colony-forming assay was used to measure tumorforming ability. Flow cytometry(FCM) was used to measure apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of HeLa cells. Western blot was used to detect protein levels of Caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase(PARP). Results MTT assay showed that noscapine decreased the survival rate of HeLa cells in a time and dosedependent manner(P<0. 05). Softagar colonyforming assay displayed that clone number of HeLa cells treated with 10,20.30 or 40 μmol/L noscapine was (19±3) ,(13±2) ,(4±1) and (3±1) respectively, that was (62±8) in group control, which indicated a significantly decreased tumorforming ability of HeLa cells(P<0. 01). FCM analysis revealed that noscapine increased apoptosis rate of HeLa cells in a time and dose-dependent manner(P<0. 05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that noscapine increased protein levels of Caspase-3 (17 kD) and PARP ( 85 kD) in HelLa cells. Noscapine arrested HeLa cells in G2/M phase ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Noscapine significantly inhibits HeLa cells. Noscapine-induced G2/M phase arrest may play an important role in the effects.%目的 探讨那可丁对宫颈癌HeLa细胞株的抑制作用及其机制.方法 体外培养人宫颈癌HeLa细胞株,梯度浓度那可丁干预后,MTT测定细胞存活率,软琼脂克隆形成实验检测细胞成瘤能力,Western blot检测Caspase-3、PARP(多聚ADP-核糖聚合酶)蛋白水平变化,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡率及细胞周期分布.结果 MTT检测发现那可丁显著降低HeLa细胞存活率(P<0.05),该效应具有浓度依赖性和时间依赖性;软琼脂克隆形成实验发现,10、20、30、40 μmol/L那可丁组的细胞克隆计数依次为(19

  11. Effects of bromine on mitosis in root-tips of Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chury, J.; Slouka, V.

    1949-01-01

    The root-tips of Allium cepa, 1.5-2 cm. long, were exposed to pure bromine vapor for five minutes. The root-tips were then washed for ten minutes in water, and kept in fresh-water at a temperature of 20-24/sup 0/C. Squash preparations were made and stained according to the method of Darlington and La Cour. Bromine acting for five minutes on the root-tips of Allium has a specific effect on the cell nucleus in the resting stage. The effects induced are shown thirty-six hours after treatment by spindle abnormalities in metaphase and anaphase, and result in polyploidy in a large number of cells. Bromine produces chromosome and chromatid fragmentation; the latter may be followed by reunion. The effect of the bromine is cumulative and depends on the time which elapses between treatment and fixation. The cytological effects induced by bromine strongly suggest that it is another specific mutafacient chemical.

  12. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  13. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  14. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  15. Impact of reactive bromine chemistry in the troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently several field campaigns and satellite observations have found strong indications for the presence of bromine oxide (BrO in the free troposphere. Using a global atmospheric chemistry transport model we show that BrO mixing ratios of a few tenths to 2 pmol mol-1 lead to a reduction in the zonal mean O3 mixing ratio of up to 18% in widespread areas and regionally up to 40% compared to a model run without bromine chemistry. A lower limit approach for the marine boundary layer, that does not explicitly include the release of halogens from sea salt aerosol, shows that for dimethyl sulfide (DMS the effect is even larger, with up to 60% reduction of its tropospheric column. This is accompanied by dramatic changes in DMS oxidation pathways, reducing its cooling effect on climate. In addition there are changes in the HO2:OH ratio that also affect NOx and PAN. These results imply that potentially significant strong sinks for O3 and DMS have so far been ignored in many studies of the chemistry of the troposphere.

  16. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes.

  17. Analogy, explanation, and proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  18. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  19. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    psychospiritual processes. A more modern example of unclarified analogy is Freud’s (1973; reprinted from 1955) discussion of anal- eroticism , in which...299-304. Freud, S. On transformations of instinct as exemplified in anal eroticism . In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard 37 edition of the complete

  20. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Bromine plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of brominated hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of bromine within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

  1. Conversion of bromine during thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu-qi; Tao, Lin; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2011-02-15

    The conversion of bromine during the thermal decomposition of printed circuit boards (PCBs) was investigated at isothermal temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1100°C by using a quartz tube furnace. The influence of temperature, oxygen concentrations (0%, 10% and 21% in the nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere) and content of steam on conversion of bromine was studied. With the increment of temperature, the conversion from organic bromine in the PCBs to inorganic bromine in the gaseous fraction increased from 69.0% to 96.4%. The bromine was mainly evolved as HBr and Br(2) in oxidizing condition and the Br(2)/HBr mass ratio increased at stronger oxidizing atmosphere. The experimental results also indicated that the existence of steam can reduce the formation of Br(2). Furthermore, co-combustion of PCBs with S and CaO, both as addition agents, was investigated, respectively. In the presence of SO(2), Br(2)/HBr mass ratio obviously decreased. Moreover, the utilization of calcium oxide can efficiently promote the conversion of organic bromine to inorganic bromine. According to the experimental results, incinerating PCBs at high temperature can efficiently destroy the organobrominated compounds that are considered to be possible precursors of polybrominated dibenzeo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), but the Br(2) and HBr in flue gas should be efficiently controlled.

  2. The contribution of anthropogenic bromine emissions to past stratospheric ozone trends: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bromine compounds play an important role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We have calculated the changes in stratospheric ozone in response to changes in the halogen loading over the past decades, using a two-dimensional (latitude/height model constrained by source gas mixing ratios at the surface. Model calculations of the decrease of total column ozone since 1980 agree reasonably well with observed ozone trends, in particular when the contribution from very short-lived bromine compounds is included. Model calculations with bromine source gas mixing ratios fixed at 1959 levels, corresponding approximately to a situation with no anthropogenic bromine emissions, show an ozone column reduction between 1980 and 2005 at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes of only ≈55% compared to a model run including all halogen source gases. In this sense anthropogenic bromine emissions are responsible for ≈45% of the model estimated column ozone loss at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. However, since a large fraction of the bromine induced ozone loss is due to the combined BrO/ClO catalytic cycle, the effect of bromine would have been smaller in the absence of anthropogenic chlorine emissions. The chemical efficiency of bromine relative to chlorine for global total ozone depletion from our model calculations, expressed by the so called α-factor, is 64 on an annual average. This value is much higher than previously published results. Updates in reaction rate constants can explain only part of the differences in α. The inclusion of bromine from very short-lived source gases has only a minor effect on the global mean α-factor.

  3. Brominated lipids identify lipid binding sites on the surface of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Aleksander W; Gardiner, Alastair T; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    This study describes the use of brominated phospholipids to distinguish between lipid and detergent binding sites on the surface of a typical alpha-helical membrane protein. Reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides were cocrystallized with added brominated phospholipids. X-ray structural analysis of these crystals has revealed the presence of two lipid binding sites from the characteristic strong X-ray scattering from the bromine atoms. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach to mapping lipid binding sites at the surface of membrane proteins.

  4. Influence of Main Components in Exhaust Gas on Mercury Adsorption Capacity of Brominated Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hong Con

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brominated activated carbon (AC-Br, which was produced from coconut shell activated carbon (AC and brominated by wet way with elemental bromine, was determined as a material with super high adsorption capacity of mercury vapor. But in real exhaust gases, there are many components such as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, HCl, H2O can influence on adsorption ability of the AC-Br. In this paper, these influences were studied and compared them between initial AC and AC-Br. Each component has different effect on AC and AC-Br and followed by its particular mechanism.

  5. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  6. Selective nitration and bromination of surprisingly ruffled phosphorus corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus complexes of corrole have recently attracted increasing interest since these compounds can be easily prepared in good yields, are stable, and show unusual optical properties. For these reasons, phosphorus corroles represent a class of interesting compounds to be exploited in the field of material science or for biomedical investigations and the definition of synthetic pathways for their functionalization is an important step to optimize their properties for various applications. We report here the reactivity of the phosphorus complex of 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole in the nitration or bromination reaction. Both these attempts were successful, allowing the preparation of substituted phosphorus corroles, which can be used as intermediates of more complex architectures endowed with useful properties. Furthermore, the crystallographic characterization of both complexes shows that they have an unusual ruffled geometry of the corrole core, a conformation that has not been considered possible for such a macrocycle.

  7. Diamagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Kapitán, Josef; Pačes, Ondřej; Bouř, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Raman optical activity of gases provides unique information about their electric and magnetic properties. Magnetic Raman optical activity has recently been observed in a paramagnetic gas (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 11058; Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 11220). In diamagnetic molecules, it has been considered too weak to be measurable. However, in chlorine, bromine and iodine vapors, we could detect a significant signal as well. Zeeman splitting of electronic ground-state energy levels cannot rationalize the observed circular intensity difference (CID) values of about 10(-4). These are explicable by participation of paramagnetic excited electronic states. Then a simple model including one electronic excited state provides reasonable spectral intensities. The results suggest that this kind of scattering by diamagnetic molecules is a general event observable under resonance conditions. The phenomenon sheds new light on the role of excited states in the Raman scattering, and may be used to probe molecular geometry and electronic structure.

  8. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  9. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  10. The third international interlaboratory study on brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Wells, D. [FRS Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) since the early 1970s and have been found in the aquatic environment since the late 1970s. However, as a result of their detection in sperm whales from deeper Atlantic waters and in human milk, many laboratories are now measuring PBDEs in environmental samples. A first international interlaboratory study (ILS) on the analysis of PBDEs, organised by the Bromine Science and Environmental Forum (BSEF), Brussels, Belgium, in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO) was conducted in 1999-2000. The results showed that the 18 participating laboratories produced comparable results for BDE 47 in various matrices but had analytical difficulties for other BDEs, in particular for the BDEs 99 and 209. A second study was organised in 2001-2002 by BSEF, QUASIMEME and RIVO. That study showed improvement in comparability of the participating laboratories for BDE99 and some other BDEs. However, there was no improvement for BDE209. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and the dimethyl derivative of TBBP-A (dimethyl TBBP-A) were included in the second study. However, it appeared that only two or three laboratories were able to analyse these determinands. Others laboratories were still in the development phase with their methods for these BFRs. This third study was organised as a development exercise by QUASIMEME, in collaboration with RIVO between September and December 2003. The BFRs selected were the same as in the second study. Two biota test materials, a harbor sediment, a sewage sludge, and two standard solutions were dispatched to the participants.

  11. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  12. Potent competitive interactions of some brominated flame retardants and related compounds with human transthyretin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, I.A.T.M.; Zanden, van J.J.; Luijks, E.A.C.; Leeuwen-Bol, van I.; Marsh, G.; Jakobsson, E.; Bergman, A.; Brouwer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromophenol (PBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are produced in large quantities for use in electronic equipment, plastics, and building materials. Because these compounds have some structural resemblance to the th

  13. Oxidation of mercury by bromine in the subtropical Pacific free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Stutz, J.; Festa, J.; Spolaor, M.; Tsai, C.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Zhou, X.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F. M.; Campos, T. L.; Apel, E.; Hornbrook, R.; Blake, N. J.; Hall, S.; Tyndall, G. S.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury is a global toxin that can be introduced to ecosystems through atmospheric deposition. Mercury oxidation is thought to occur in the free troposphere by bromine radicals, but direct observational evidence for this process is currently unavailable. During the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks campaign, we measured enhanced oxidized mercury and bromine monoxide in a free tropospheric air mass over Texas. We use trace gas measurements, air mass back trajectories, and a chemical box model to confirm the origin and chemical history of the sampled air mass. We find the presence of elevated oxidized mercury to be consistent with oxidation of elemental mercury by bromine atoms in this subsiding upper tropospheric air mass within the subtropical Pacific High, where dry atmospheric conditions are conducive to oxidized mercury accumulation. Our results support the role of bromine as the dominant oxidant of mercury in the upper troposphere.

  14. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY vitro screening the endocrine disrupting potency brominated flame retardants and their metabolites Timo Hamers Jorke Kamstra Edwin Sonneveld Albertinka Murk Bart Zegers Jan Boon Abraham Brouwer Institute for Environmental Studies IVM Amsterdam BioDetection Sys

  15. A Novel Protocol for the Regioselective Bromination of Primary Alcohols in Unprotected Carbohydrates or Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟华; 张立芬

    2012-01-01

    The regioselective and efficient bromination of primary hydroxyl groups in unprotected carbohydrates or glycosides is successfully achieved by using (chloro-phenylthio-methylene)dimethylammoniumchloride (CPMA) in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) in dry DMF.

  16. Dynamic dielectric properties and the γ transition of bromine doped polyacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on monitoring the γ process (the lowest temperature-relaxation in polyacrylonitrile (PAN by dynamic dielectric spectroscopy, new evidence for the formation of a charge transfer complex between bromine dopants and nitrile groups is presented. The experimental work is carried out on PAN and nitrile polymerized PAN with and without bromine doping and the effects of these factors on the γ process are measured. Nitrile polymerization results in diminishing of the γ process and in a 15% increase in its activation energy, whereas bromine doping produces splitting of the original γ process in PAN – coupled with a significant activation energy increase – and its complete disappearance in nitrile polymerized PAN. Both the splitting of the γ process and the higher activation energy reflect bromine-nitrile adduct formation..

  17. Evaluation of carbon cryogels used as cathodes for non-flowing zinc-bromine storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme-Perrot, David; Walter, Serge; Gabelica, Zelimir [Groupe Securite et Ecologie Chimiques (GSEC), ENSCMu, 3 rue Alfred Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Valange, Sabine [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), ESIP, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2008-01-03

    Monolithic megaloporous carbon cryogels were examined for their potential applications as cathodic electrodes in secondary zinc-bromine cells. This work investigates the possibility of using their particular macroporous texture as microscopic bromine tanks in a zinc/bromine battery. The electrochemical behaviour of a cell based upon such a Br{sub 2} electrode was studied and discussed in terms of energy yields, energy storage capability and cycle life. Good storages (over 20 Wh kg{sup -1}) could be obtained during the first 2 h of cell charging for currents between 10 and 20 mA g{sup -1}. The energy yield remains almost constant during a fairly large number of cycles, basically for weak charges (e.g. 25 C g{sup -1}). Our findings show that the good cyclability of the cathodic electrode is a consequence of the liquid state of the active bromine phase. (author)

  18. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: serge.chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2012-10-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20{alpha}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br{center_dot}, Br{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. Black

  19. TOWARDS A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ANALOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Makoto

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical theory of analogy, which should be a basis in developing analogical reasoning by a computer. The analogy is a partial identity between two sets of facts. In order to compare several analogies, we introduce an ordering of analogies, and we define two types of optimal analogies, maximal analogies and greatest ones. We show a condition under which the greatest analogy exists, and also present a top-down procedure to find the maximal analogies.

  20. Bromine-lithium exchange: An efficient tool in the modular construction of biaryl ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafoux, Laurence; Leroux, Frédéric R; Colobert, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Regioselective bromine-lithium exchange reactions on polybrominated biaryls enable the modular synthesis of various polysubstituted biphenyls such as bis(dialkylphosphino)-, bis(diarylphosphino)- and dialkyl(diaryl)phosphinobiphenyls. All permutations of substituents at the ortho positions of the biphenyls are possible. In a similar manner, one can gain access to monophosphine analogues. So far, such a process, based on the effective discrimination between bromine atoms as a function of their chemical environment, has been observed only sporadically.

  1. Gaia Paradigm: A Biotic Origin Of The Polar Sunrise Arctic Bromine Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Iudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main attention is given to discussion of the natural causes and regularities of the Arctic bromine pollution. We make notice of marine microbial organisms and their metabolism as a prime driving force for the elemental biogeochemical cycles. One of the important conclusions of this study is on similarity between ocean bromine concentrating as by-product of the marine microbial activities and nitrogen fixation by soil bacteria. In both cases, microbial organisms and their food webs maintai...

  2. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V.; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E.; Vakaliuk, Anna V.; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M.; Diyuk, Vitaliy E.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu.; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Mischanchuk, Oleksandr V.; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V.; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g-1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The bromination dramatically reduces the microporosity producing practically non-porous material, while the incorporated into the micropores bromine induces the dielectric and structural impact on surface polarizability and conductivity due to the charging effect. We have found that the elastic optical scattering in proper solid angles in the forward and the backward hemispheres is sensitive to the kind of the bromine bonding, e.g., physical adsorption or chemisorption, and the bromination level, respectively, that can be utilized for the express remote fabrication control of the nanoscale carbons with given interfaces.

  3. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Martin; Franzka, Steffen [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cappuccio, Franco; Peinecke, Volker; Heinzel, Angelika [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik (ZBT), Carl-Benz-Straße 201, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser bromination of carbon/polymer materials is demonstrated. • Using a microfocused laser functionalized domains with diameters of 5 μm and 100 μm and more can be fabricated. • Bromine groups can be transformed in a variety of other chemical functionalities, i.e. amine groups. • Depending on the chemical functionality, the local chemical affinity and wettability is changed. • The routine can be applied to standard bipolar plate materials used for fuel cell applications. - Abstract: A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar{sup +}-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed.

  4. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  5. XPS STUDIES ON SURFACE MODIFIED POLY[1-(TRIMETHYLSILYL)-1-PROPYNE] MEMBRANES Ⅱ SURFACE MODIFICATION BY BROMINE VAPOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guanfan; SUN Xiaoguang; QIU Xuepeng; ZHANG Jinlan; ZHENG Guodong

    1994-01-01

    Surface modification of poly [ 1-(trimethylsilyl )-1-propyne ] ( PTMSP ) membranes by bromine vapor has been studied. It is shown that Br/C atomic ratio at the surfacesincreased with the time of bromination until about 60 min, then it reached a plateau. The results of XPS and IR studies indicated that the addition of bromine to double bonds and the replacement of H on CH3 by bromine had taken place so that a new peak at 286.0 eV (C-Br)in C1sspectra and some new bands, e. g. at 1220 and 580cm-1,in IR spectra were formed. The fact, Po2, permeability of oxygen, decreased and αO2/N2, separation factor of oxygen relative to nitrogen, increased with bromination time, shows that surface modification of PTMSP by bromine may be an efficient approachto prepare PTMSP membranes used for practical gas separations.

  6. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  7. Bromine partitioning between olivine and melt at OIB source conditions: Indication for volatile recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Bastian; Ruzié, Lorraine; Burgess, Ray; Pawley, Alison; Clay, Patricia L.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Halogens play a key role in our understanding of volatile transport processes in the Earth's mantle. Their moderate (fluorine) to highly (iodine) incompatible and volatile behavior implies that their distribution is influenced by partial melting, fractionation and degassing processes as well as fluid mobilities. The heavy halogens, particularly bromine and iodine, are far more depleted in the Earth's mantle than expected from their condensation temperature (Palme and O'Neill 2014), so that their very low abundances in basalts and peridotites (ppb-range) make it analytically challenging to investigate their concentrations in Earth's mantle reservoirs and their behavior during transport processes (Pyle and Mather, 2009). We used a new experimental technique, which combines the irradiation technique (Johnson et al. 2000), laser ablation and conventional mass spectrometry. This enables us to present the first experimentally derived bromine partition coefficient between olivine and melt. Partitioning experiments were performed at 1500° C and 2.3 GPa, a P-T condition that is representative for partial melting processes in the OIB source region (Davis et al. 2011). The bromine partition coefficient between olivine and silicate melt at this condition has been determined to DBrol/melt = 4.37•10-4± 1.96•10-4. Results show that bromine is significantly more incompatible than chlorine (˜1.5 orders of magnitude) and fluorine (˜2 orders of magnitude) due to its larger ionic radius. We have used our bromine partitioning data to estimate minimum bromine abundances in EM1 and EM2 source regions. We used minimum bromine bulk rock concentrations determined in an EM1 (Pitcairn: 1066 ppb) and EM2 (Society: 2063 ppb) basalt (Kendrick et al. 2012), together with an estimated minimum melt fraction of 0.01 in OIB source regions (Dasgupta et al. 2007). The almost perfect bromine incompatibility results in minimum bromine abundances in EM1 and EM2 OIB source regions of 11 ppb and 20

  8. An exemplary case of a bromine explosion event linked to cyclone development in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kaleschke, L.; Strong, K.; Theys, N.; Weber, M.; Zhao, X.; Zien, A.

    2016-02-01

    Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric bromine monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by GOME-2 on board the MetOp-A satellite over Arctic sea ice in polar spring. These plumes are often transported by high-latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. However, only few studies have focused on the role of polar weather systems in the development, duration and transport of tropospheric BrO plumes during bromine explosion events. The latter are caused by an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction associated with tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of bromine from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, a case study investigating a comma-shaped BrO plume which developed over the Beaufort Sea and was observed by GOME-2 for several days is presented. By making combined use of satellite data and numerical models, it is shown that the occurrence of the plume was closely linked to frontal lifting in a polar cyclone and that it most likely resided in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. In contrast to previous case studies, we demonstrate that the dry conveyor belt, a potentially bromine-rich stratospheric air stream which can complicate interpretation of satellite retrieved tropospheric BrO, is spatially separated from the observed BrO plume. It is concluded that weather conditions associated with the polar cyclone favoured the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.

  9. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose-Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  10. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  11. Antimicrobial N-brominated hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-10-28

    Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene beads are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene beads and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene beads from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene beads. A distinct difference in bromine loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents.

  12. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.

  13. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  14. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the basic chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. The simulations showed that the high BrO levels measured frequently at the Dead Sea could only partially be attributed to the highly concentrated Br− present in the Dead Sea water. Furthermore, the RBS activity at the Dead Sea cannot solely be explained by a pure gas phase mechanism. This paper presents a chemical mechanism which can account for the observed chemical activity at the Dead Sea, with the addition of only two heterogeneous processes: the "Bromine Explosion" mechanism and the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2. Ozone frequently dropped below a threshold value of ~1 to 2 ppbv at the Dead Sea evaporation ponds, and in such cases, O3 became a limiting factor for the production of BrOx (BrO+Br. The entrainment of O3 fluxes into the evaporation ponds was found to be essential for the continuation of RBS activity, and to be the main reason for the jagged diurnal pattern of BrO observed in the Dead Sea area, and for the positive correlation observed between BrO and O3 at low O3 concentrations. The present study has shown that the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2 has a great potential to affect the RBS activity in areas influenced by anthropogenic emissions, mainly due to the positive correlation between the rate of this process and the levels of NO2. Further investigation of the influence of the decomposition of BrONO2 may be especially important in understanding the RBS activity at mid-latitudes.

  15. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pour Biazar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. The simulations showed that the high BrO levels measured frequently at the Dead Sea could only partially be attributed to the highly concentrated Br− present in the Dead Sea water. Further, the RBS activity at the Dead Sea cannot solely be explained by a pure gas phase mechanism. This paper presents a chemical mechanism which can account for the observed chemical activity at the Dead Sea, with the addition of only two heterogeneous processes: the "Bromine Explosion" mechanism and the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2. Ozone frequently dropped below a threshold value of ~1 to 2 ppbv at the Dead Sea evaporation ponds, and in such cases, O3 became a limiting factor for the production of BrOx (BrO+Br. The entrainment of O3 fluxes into the evaporation ponds was found to be essential for the continuation of RBS activity, and to be the main reason for the positive correlation observed between BrO and O3 at low O3 concentrations, and for the jagged diurnal pattern of BrO observed in the Dead Sea area. The present study has shown that the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2 has the potential to greatly affect the RBS activity in areas under anthropogenic influence, mainly due to the positive correlation between the rate of this process and the levels of NO2. Further investigation of the influence of the decomposition of BrONO2 may be especially important in understanding the RBS activity at mid-latitudes.

  16. High-pressure behavior of bromine confined in the one-dimensional channels of zeolite AlPO4-5 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaodong; Yao, Zhen; Yao, Mingguang; Lv, Jiayin; Chen, Shuanglong; Li, Quanjun; Lv, Hang; Wang, Tianyi; Lu, Shuangchen; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-09-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the high-pressure behavior of bromine confined in the one-dimensional (1D) nanochannels of zeolite AlPO4-5 (AFI) single crystals. Raman scattering experiments indicate that loading bromine into AFI single crystals can lead to the formation of bromine molecular chains inside the nanochannels of the crystals. High-pressure Raman and X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that high pressure can increase the length of the confined bromine molecular chains and modify the inter- and intramolecular interactions of the molecules. The confined bromine shows a considerably different high-pressure behavior to that of bulk bromine. The pressure-elongated bromine molecular chains can be preserved when the pressure is reduced to ambient pressure. Theoretical simulations explain the experimental results obtained from the Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Furthermore, we find that the intermolecular distance between confined bromine molecules gradually becomes comparable to the intramolecular bond length in bromine molecules upon compression. This may result in the dissociation of the bromine molecules and the formation of 1D bromine atomic chains at pressures above 24 GPa. Our study suggests that the unique nanoconfinement has a considerable effect on the high-pressure behavior of bromine, and the confined bromine species concomitantly enhance the structural stability of the host AFI single crystals.

  17. Brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyls: Photolabile protecting groups with biologically useful cross-sections for two photon photolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Toshiaki; Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Dantzker, Jami L.; Dore, Timothy M.; Bybee, Wendy J.; Callaway, Edward M.; Denk, Winfried; Tsien, Roger Y.

    1999-01-01

    Photochemical release (uncaging) of bioactive messengers with three-dimensional spatial resolution in light-scattering media would be greatly facilitated if the photolysis could be powered by pairs of IR photons rather than the customary single UV photons. The quadratic dependence on light intensity would confine the photolysis to the focus point of the laser, and the longer wavelengths would be much less affected by scattering. However, previous caged messengers have had very small cross sections for two-photon excitation in the IR region. We now show that brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl esters and carbamates efficiently release carboxylates and amines on photolysis, with one- and two-photon cross sections up to one or two orders of magnitude better than previously available. These advantages are demonstrated on neurons in brain slices from rat cortex and hippocampus excited by glutamate uncaged from N-(6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethoxycarbonyl)-l-glutamate (Bhc-glu). Conventional UV photolysis of Bhc-glu requires less than one-fifth the intensities needed by one of the best previous caged glutamates, γ-(α-carboxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate (CNB-glu). Two-photon photolysis with raster-scanned femtosecond IR pulses gives the first three-dimensionally resolved maps of the glutamate sensitivity of neurons in intact slices. Bhc-glu and analogs should allow more efficient and three-dimensionally localized uncaging and photocleavage, not only in cell biology and neurobiology but also in many technological applications. PMID:9990000

  18. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  19. Mathematical problem solving by analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J

    1991-05-01

    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  20. Brominated flame retardants in end-of-life management not problematic regarding formation of brominated dioxins/furans (PBDD/F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drohmann, D. [Great Lakes Chemical, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Tange, L. [Eurobrom B.V., Rijswijk (Netherlands); Rothenbacher, K. [Bromine Science and Environmental Forum, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Bromine is used as the building block for some of the most effective flame retarding agents available to the plastics industry today. They are used to protect against the risk of accidental fires in a wide range of products. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as all flame retardants, act to decrease the risk of fire by increasing the fire resistance of the materials in which they are applied. There is a perception that BFRs affect adversely the end-of-life management of plastics through formation of brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). In fact, there exists a wide range of data and practical experience demonstrating that the end-of-life management of plastics containing BFRs are fully compliant with legislation setting the strictest limit values for PBDD/F and is fully compatible with an integrated waste management concept. Furthermore, all existing EU Risk Assessments on BFRs according to the European Existing Substance Regulations include an assessment of the potential formation of dioxins and furans. All assessments conclude that the risks along the life-cycle of the chemicals for human health and the environment associated with the potential formation of PBDD/F are negligible. Moreover, two recent Swedish studies found, that consumer products with BFRs emit less pollutants than the same products without any FRs. This paper summarises available studies and presents the latest results regarding potential formation of brominated dioxins and furans in end-of-life management of plastics containing brominated flame retardants. Additionally, before BFR products enter the market they are tested for PBDD/F according to the ''German Dioxin Ordinance''. Depending on the substitution pattern the limit values for PBDD/F are set at <1{mu}g/kg (ppb) respectively <5{mu}g/kg (ppb).

  1. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  2. Utilization of oxidation reactions for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril using brominating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Didamony, Akram M.; Erfan, Eman A. H.

    2010-03-01

    Three simple, accurate and sensitive methods (A-C) for the spectrophotometric assay of captopril (CPL) in bulk drug, in dosage forms and in the presence of its oxidative degradates have been described. The methods are based on the bromination of captopril with a solution of excess brominating mixture in hydrochloric acid medium. After bromination, the excess brominating mixture is followed by the estimation of surplus bromine by three different reaction schemes. In the first method (A), the determination of the residual bromine is based on its ability to bleach the indigo carmine dye and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm. Method B, involves treating the unreacted bromine with a measured excess of iron(II) and the remaining iron(II) is complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline and the increase in absorbance is measured at 510 nm. In method (C), the surplus bromine is treated with excess of iron(II) and the resulting iron(III) is complexed with thiocyanate and the absorbance is measured at 478 nm. In all the methods, the amount of bromine reacted corresponds to the drug content. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color are carefully studied and optimized. Beer's law is valid within a concentration range of 0.4-6.0, 0.4-2.8 and 1.2-4.8 μg mL -1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The calculated apparent molar absorptivity was found to be 5.16 × 10 4, 9.95 × 10 4 and 1.74 × 10 5 L mol -1 cm -1, for methods A, B and C, respectively. Sandell's sensitivity, correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits are also reported. No interference was observed from common additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are successfully applied to the determination of CPL in the tablet formulations with mean recoveries of 99.94-100.11% and the results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying Student's t- and F-test.

  3. Terminal elimination half-lives of the brominated flame retardants TBBPA, HBCD, and lower brominated PBDEs in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, H.J.; Schramm, K.W.; Feicht, E.A.; Fried, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Lenoir, D. [GSF-National Research Center, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Neuherberg (Germany); Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M. [Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Schmid, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, EMPA Duebendorf (Switzerland); McDonald, T.A. [Office of Environmental Health Assessment, California EPA, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in electronic equipment, construction materials, and furniture for the purpose of fire prevention. BFRs with the highest production volume are tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs: {alpha}-HBCD + {beta}-HBCD + {gamma}-HBCD), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Several BFRs are highly lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which have been identified in the aquatic and terrestrial environment including wildlife and humans. In exposed organisms including humans toxic effects, bioaccumulation, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics (especially half-life t{sub 1/2}) are important criterions in the hazard assessment. The aim of the present study was to estimate the terminal elimination half-lives (t{sub 1/2H}) of the main BFRs from the whole body (also named body-burden half-life) and/or from the adipose tissue (fat) of adult humans. The t{sub 1/2H} data for the following BFRs were evaluated: TBBPA, HBCD, 2,2',4,4'- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE- 100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6-hexaBDE (BDE-154).

  4. A serial dual-electrode detector based on electrogenerated bromine for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuying; Cao, Shunan; Fung, Ying-Sing

    2014-12-01

    A new serial dual-electrode detector for CE has been designed and fabricated for postcolumn reaction detection based on electrogenerated bromine. A coaxial postcolumn reactor was employed to introduce bromide reagent and facilitate the fabrication of upstream generation electrode by simply sputtering Pt film onto the outer surface of the separation capillary. Bromide introduced could be efficiently converted to bromine at this Pt film electrode and subsequently detected by the downstream Pt microdisk detection electrode. Analytes that react with bromine could be determined by the decrease of bromine reduction current at the downstream electrode resulting from the reaction between analytes and bromine. The effects of serial dual-electrode detector working conditions including electrode potentials, bromide flow rate, and bromide concentration on analytical performance were investigated using glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as test analytes. Under the optimal conditions, detection limits down to 0.16 μM for GSH and 0.14 μM for GSSG (S/N = 3) as well as linear working ranges of two orders of magnitude for GSH and GSSG were achieved. Furthermore, the separation efficiency obtained by our dual-electrode detector design was greatly improved compared with previous reported design. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the GSH and GSSG impurity in commercial GSH supplement.

  5. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 Degree-Sign C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  6. Effect of the Bromine-Based Flame Retardant Plastic Pyrolysis of Hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method is presented to decrease halogen compounds in the product oil from thermolysis of polystyrene and polypropylene mixed plastic spiked with tetrabromobisphenol A. A mixture of hydrotalcite and plastic was pyrolyzed in a glass reactor at 400 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. Bromine compounds in the residual substances were measured. The yield of product oil increased using hydrotalcite as an additive. The bromine compounds that were the major ingredients in the oil after thermolysis at 400 °C from the mixed plastic, which also included toluene, ethyl benzene, styrene, and 1-methylethyl benzene, were 2-bromohexane, 3-bromo-1-propenyl benzene, 4,5-dibromodecane, 1-bromomethylbenzene, 3-bromophenol, and 4-bromo-2,6-dimethylbenzaniline. However, bromine compounds were not detected in the product oil, residue, or gas when hydrotalcite was added. After the thermolysis of the plastic, bromine compounds in the product oil may decrease because bromine was captured by the added hydrotalcite.

  7. GAS SORPTION AND TRANSPORT IN POLY (PHENYLENE OXIDE )(PPO)AND ARYL-BROMINATED PPO MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Lianda; F.R.SHEU, R.T. CHERN; H.B. HOPFENBERG

    1989-01-01

    The apparent solubility (S), concentration- average diffusivity (D), and permeability (P), for CO2,CH4 and N2 through PPO and aryl- brominated PPO at 35 ℃ for pressure ranging from 1 to 26 atm are reported. It is found that P,D, and Sof the membranes to all the three gases vary with the extent of bromination. S increases with the increase of the perecnt of bromine in each case, but D to CO2 increases remarkably only at higher degree of bromination, and therefore, P to CO2 is increased by more than 100% over a wide range of pressure in the case .The solubility data are well described by the dual mode sorption model. It is found that the gas molecules sorbed by the Langmuir mode are relatively more immobilized and the contribution of the nonequilibrium character of the polymer to gas permeation increases obviously for CO2 and is hardly changed for CH4 with increasing bromine content. These observations are interpreted in terms of changes in specific free volume (SFV)and the cohesive energy density (CED) of the polymers.

  8. Characterization of unknown brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zheng, Hongdie; Yang, Min

    2014-03-18

    Brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with natural organic matter in the presence of bromide in raw water, are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. To date, only a few Br-DBPs in drinking water have been identified, while a significant portion of Br-DBPs in drinking water is still unknown. In this study, negative ion electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown Br-DBPs in artificial drinking water. In total, 441 formulas for one-bromine-containing products and 37 formulas for two-bromine-containing products, most of which had not been previously reported, were detected in the chlorinated sample. Most Br-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO composition. In addition, on-resonance collision-induced dissociation (CID) of single ultrahigh resolved bromine containing mass peaks was performed in the ICR cell to isolate single bromine-containing components in a very complex natural organic matter spectrum and provide structure information. Relatively abundant neutral loss of CO2 was observed in MS-MS spectra, indicating that the unknown Br-DBPs are rich in carboxyl groups. The results demonstrate that the ESI FT-ICR MS method could provide valuable molecular composition and structure information on unknown Br-DBPs.

  9. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  10. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  11. Musik som analogi og metafor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser......Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser...

  12. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  13. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  14. Influence of temperature and heating time on bromination of zinc oxide during thermal treatment with tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek-Kudlak, Sylwia; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Our prior research indicates that hydrogen bromide (HBr) evolved during thermal decomposition of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) can be utilized as a reagent for selective bromination and evaporation of zinc oxide. The present work investigated dependency of the bromination reaction on time at selected temperatures using a laboratory-scale furnace. The formed solid, condensed, and gaseous products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, electron probe microanalysis, inductively coupled plasma analysis, ion chromatography, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results indicate that the bromination rate is strongly dependent on heating time. This dependency is a direct consequence of progress in the decomposition of TBBPA, which provides inorganic bromine suitable for the reaction. The bromination rate increases with time until the bromine source is depleted. The process is shorter at higher applied temperatures and appears instantaneous at 310 degrees C and above. However, the maximum bromination yield is independent of the applied conditions and ranges from 64 to 70%. Additionally, the influence of oxidizing conditions on the bromination reaction and the effect of ZnO on decomposition of TBBPA were investigated in this study.

  15. Synthesis of 2-arylbenzimidazoles and 2-arylbenzothiazoles in both room temperature and microwave condition catalyzed by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaveh Khosravi; Samira Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    One-pot condensation of 2-aminothiophenol or 1,2-phenylenediamine with different aldehydes has been catalyzed by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine (HMTA-Bromine) as new,available and effective catalyst.2-Arylbenzo thiazoles and 2-aryl benzimidazoles have been achieved in excellent yield and good purity.

  16. Epithelial transport of noscapine across cell monolayer and influence of absorption enhancers on in vitro permeation and bioavailability: implications for intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Mahavir B; Patel, Apurva R; Patlolla, Ram; Jackson, Tanise; Singh, Mandip

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of Noscapine (Nos) across the Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers and to evaluate the influence of absorption enhancers on in vitro and in vivo absorption of Nos. The bidirectional transport of Nos was studied in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers at pH 5.0-7.8. The effect of 0.5% w/v chitosan (CH) or Captisol (CP) on Nos permeability was investigated at pH 5.0 and 5.8. The effect of 1-5% w/v of CP on oral bioavailability of Nos (150 mg/kg) was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effective permeability coefficients (Peff) of Nos across Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers was found to be in the order of pH 5.0 > 5.8 > 6.8 > 7.8. The efflux ratios of Peff < 2 demonstrated that active efflux does not limit the absorption of Nos. The use of CH or CP have shown significant (***, p < 0.001) enhancement in Peff of Nos across cell monolayer compared with the control group. The CP (1-5% w/v) based Nos formulations resulted in significant (***, p < 0.001) increase in the bioavailability of Nos compared with Nos solution. The use of CP represents viable approach for enhancing the oral bioavailability of Nos and reducing the required dose.

  17. Enhanced anticancer activity of gemcitabine in combination with noscapine via antiangiogenic and apoptotic pathway against non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir B Chougule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Noscapine (Nos and Gemcitabine (Gem combination (NGC against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: Isobolographic method was used to calculate combination index values from cytotoxicity data. In vitro antiangiogenic and apoptotic activity of Nos, Gem and NGC was evaluated. For in vivo studies, female athymic Nu/nu mice were xenografted with H460 tumors and the efficacy of Nos, Gem, or NGC was determined. Protein expressions by immunohistochemical staining were evaluated in harvested tumor tissues. RESULTS: The CI values (<0.59 were suggestive of synergistic behavior between Nos and Gem. NGC treatment showed significantly inhibited tube formation and increased percentage of apoptotic cells. NGC, Gem and Nos treatment reduced tumor volume by 82.9±4.5 percent, 39.4±5.8 percent and 34.2±5.7 percent respectively. Specifically, NGC treatment decreased expression cell survival proteins; VEGF, CD31 staining and microvessel density and enhanced DNA fragmentation and cleaved caspase 3 levels compared to single agent treated and control groups. CONCLUSION: Nos potentiated the anticancer activity of Gem in an additive to synergistic manner against lung cancer via antiangiogenic and apoptotic pathways. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of NGC chemotherapy for treatment of lung cancer.

  18. Nitrated and Brominated Narcotine and its Cleaved Adduct as Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abbasi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcotine is a very antitussive agent and its modification may lead to some more biological activities. In this presented paper, narcotine (1 was first subjected to nitration and bromination to yield nitrated narcotine (2 and brominated narcotine (3. It was further made to react with phenylchloroformate (6 to give a cleaved addition product 4. This adduct 4 was further nitrated and brominated to yield substituted derivatives 5 and 6, respectively. The structure elucidation of the synthesized compounds was processed via IR, EI-MS and 1H-NMR spectra. These were also screened against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme and were found to the moderate inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase except nitrated product, 2, of narcotine (1.

  19. The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2013-02-01

    Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively.

  20. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating bromine compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the bromine containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of noscapine analogues as microtubule-interfering agents%那可丁衍生物合成及其作为微管干扰药物的生物学评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴厚玲; 郑剑斌; 林敏; 郑静; 周福生; 董肖椿; 郭磊; 刘建文; 闻韧

    2012-01-01

    以2-羟基-3-甲氧基苯甲醛为原料,经13步反应合成了26个那可丁衍生物.以HL-60细胞为靶细胞,采用MTT法进行了初步的体外抗肿瘤活性研究.结果表明,大多数化合物对HL-60细胞株显示出较好的抑制活性和对微管聚合的抑制作用.优选出的化合物31对HL-60细胞株以及微管聚合的抑制活性是那可丁的3倍并诱导HL-60细胞在G2/M期累积,这为那可丁及其衍生物的抗肿瘤活性构效关系的研究打下了基础,值得进一步研究.%A series of noscapine analogues have been synthesized via 13-step reaction starting from 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde.Anti-tumor activities of these compounds were evaluated against HL-60 cell lines in vitro by the standard MTT assay.It was found that most of these derivatives showed appreciable inhibitory activity against HL-60 and tubulin polymerization.The results also indicated that the potency of compound 31 is about three times more than that of noscapine against HL-60 cell line and tubulin polymerization.Moreover,it induced a massive accumulation of cells in G2/M phase.These results showed noscapine and its derivatives were worth to be intensivelv studied further.

  2. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  3. Investigation of Mercury Vapor Treatment by Activated Carbon Made from Coconut Shell and Denatured by Elemental Bromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hong Con

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell activated carbon of TraVinhcompany, Vietnam was oxidized by bromine solution at pH 4-6 in normal temperature and pressure. The efficiency of bromine carried on AC surface reached 70.95 to 98.50%. The IR spectrum showed that in surface of the brominated AC appeared C-Br, carbonyl and carboxyl groups. The adsorption capacity of brominated AC reached more than 130 mg/g at 40oC and mercury concentration around 32 mg/m3. The mercury vapor adsorption of the material was almost uninfluenced by experimental temperature. Used brominated AC can be regenerated and recovered mercury metal. The regenerated material has adsorption capacity of 86.92% in comparison with initial material and weight loss was 6.23% at laboratory scale examination.

  4. A Quaternized Polysulfone Membrane for Zinc-Bromine Redox Flow Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqiang Li; Hang Su; Qinggang Qiu; Guang Zhao; Yu Sun; Wenjun Song

    2014-01-01

    A quaternized polysulfone (QNPSU) composite membrane is fabricated for zinc-bromine redox flow battery. The structure of the membrane is examined by FT-IR spectra and SEM. The conductivity of the membrane is tested by electrochemical analyzer. After a zinc-bromine battery with this composite membrane is operated at different voltage while charging and at different current while discharging to examine the performance of the membrane, it is found that the discharge voltage was 0.9672 V and the ...

  5. Distributed Episodic and Analogical Reasoning (DEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ends analysis Carbonell 1983 Modeling of Analogy Making Structure Mapping Theory (SMT) Gentner 1984 Agent based approach to analogy making...Mapping Engine (SME) Forbus 1990 Learning by analogy with larger domains Prodigy/Analogy Veloso and Carbonell 1991 Analogical Retrieval Engine MAC/FAC

  6. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  7. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  8. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  9. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aschmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Very short-lived substances (VSLS still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2. The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly

  10. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aschmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Very short-lived substances (VSLS still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a~three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2. The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a~significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principal, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly

  11. Fate of PBDEs during food processing: Assessment of formation of mixed chlorinated/brominated diphenyl ethers and brominated dioxins/furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of food processing on PBDE levels, in particular influence of heat treatment on degradation of PBDEs, including possible formation of chlorinated diphenyl ethers or brominated dioxins/furans as degradation products. It was shown that PBDEs heated in the presence of chlorine (from either organic or inorganic sources) formed mixed chlorinated/brominated diphenyl ethers. However, no PCDEs were formed in the presence of lipids. Lipid medium increased stability of PBDEs exposed to UV irradiation. Profile of congeners formed in result of the debromination reaction was significantly different than profiles observed by some other authors in aliphatic organic solvents. Grilling processes increased concentrations (calculated on the fresh product basis) of the studied compounds by 4-8/22-34% for electric/coal grill, respectively. Depending on the congener and on the applied heat treatment, PBDE mass in pork meat after grilling dropped by 26-53%. No detectable quantities of either brominated dioxins or furans were formed during thermal processing of food containing typical levels of PBDEs.

  12. Analog CMOS contrastive Hebbian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Card, Howard

    1992-09-01

    CMOS VLSI circuits implementing an analog neural network with on-chip contrastive Hebbian learning and capacitive synaptic weight storage have been designed and fabricated. Weights are refreshed by periodic repetition of the training data. To evaluate circuit performance in a medium-sized system, these circuits were used to build a 132 synapse neural network. An adaptive neural system, such as the one described in this paper, can compensate for imperfections in the components from which it is constructed, and thus it is possible to build this type of system using simple, silicon area-efficient analog circuits. Because these analog VLSI circuits are far more compact than their digital counterparts, analog VLSI neural network implementations are potentially more efficient than digital ones.

  13. Solving a problem by analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  14. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  15. Analog electronic neural network circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.P.; Jackel, L.D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The large interconnectivity and moderate precision required in neural network models present new opportunities for analog computing. This paper discusses analog circuits for a variety of problems such as pattern matching, optimization, and learning. Most of the circuits build so far are relatively small, exploratory designs. The most mature circuits are those for template matching. Chips performing this function are now being applied to pattern recognition problems.

  16. Regioselective chlorination and bromination of unprotected anilines under mild conditions using copper halides in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available By using ionic liquids as solvents, the chlorination or bromination of unprotected anilines at the para-position can be achieved in high yields with copper halides under mild conditions, without the need for potentially hazardous operations such as supplementing oxygen or gaseous HCl.

  17. 二溴海因溴化邻苯二酚%Bromination of Catechol Using Dibromohydantoin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁宁; 鲍猛; 牟宗刚; 王慧; 刘传仁

    2011-01-01

    4, 5 -Dibromocateehol were synthesised by using dibromohydantoin as brominating agent to react with the eatechol, in glacial acetic acid environment, in ice - water bath. The method overcame the shortcomings of the traditional method using liquid bromine as the brominating agent and effectively improved the yield. By studing the molar ratio of brominated agent and raw materials, the reaction time and the reaction temperature, the experiment determined that the optimal molar ratio was 2:1, each appropriate feeding time interval was 20 minutes, and the optimum reaction temperature was -5 -0 ℃.%在冰醋酸环境下,在冰水浴中,用二溴海因作为溴化剂,与邻苯二酚反应合成4,5-二溴邻苯二酚。该方法克服传统方法中用液溴作为溴化剂的缺点并有效地提高了产率。该实验通过对溴化剂与原料的物质的量比、反应时间以及反应温度的研究,确定最佳物质的量比是2:1,每次加料时间间隔为20min为宜、反应最佳温度为-5-O℃。

  18. In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Kester, M.H.A.; Andersson, P.L.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, increasing evidence has become available that some brominated flame retardants (BFRs) may have endocrine disrupting (ED) potencies. The goal of the current study was to perform a systematic in vitro screening of the ED potencies of BFRs (1) to elucidate possible modes of action

  19. Molecular characterization of brominated persistent pollutants using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Skyllberg, Ulf [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeaa (Sweden); Persson, Per [Umeaa University, Department of Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy spectra were collected for three brominated persistent pollutants: 6-bromo-2,4,5-trichlorophenol (BrTriClP), pentabromophenol (PentaBrP) and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). The substances were selected to be symmetrical (BrTriClP and TBBA) or asymmetrical (PentaBrP) with respect to the atomic Br positions and to differ in the number of bromine and other halide atoms, as well as their relative positions. The asymmetrical PentaBrP was modelled with special detail as not all bromine atoms have identical coordination environments. The studied substances displayed unique EXAFS spectra, which could be used to determine the molecular structure in fair detail. We conclude that EXAFS spectroscopy is a suitable technique for molecular characterization of the comparatively complex molecules within the class of compounds of brominated organic persistent pollutants. A detailed understanding of the EXAFS spectra of the pure compounds opens up possibilities to study the interactions with soil and sediment matrices by means of EXAFS spectroscopy. (orig.)

  20. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  1. Deposition history of brominated flame retardant compounds in an ice core from Holtedahlfonna, Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanson, M.H.; Isaksson, E.; Forsström, S.; Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G.; Pohjola, V.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been found in Arctic wildlife, lake sediment, and air. To identify the atmospheric BFR deposition history on Svalbard, Norway, we analyzed 19 BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane

  2. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  3. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-21

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  4. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs.

  5. Performance and Degradation of A Lithium-Bromine Rechargeable Fuel Cell Using Highly Concentrated Catholytes

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries have been considered as ultimate solutions for the power source of long-range electrified transportation, but state-of-the-art prototypes still suffer from short cycle life, low efficiency and poor power output. Here, a lithium-bromine rechargeable fuel cell using highly concentrated bromine catholytes is demonstrated with comparable specific energy, improved power density, and higher efficiency. The cell is similar in structure to a hybrid-electrolyte Li-air battery, where a lithium metal anode in nonaqueous electrolyte is separated from aqueous bromine catholytes by a lithium-ion conducting ceramic plate. The cell with a flat graphite electrode can discharge at a peak power density around 9mW cm-2 and in principle could provide a specific energy of 791.8 Wh kg-1, superior to most existing cathode materials and catholytes. It can also run in regenerative mode to recover the lithium metal anode and free bromine with 80-90% voltage efficiency, without any catalysts. Degradation of the sol...

  6. Using the parallelogram approach to estimate human percutaneous bioavailability for novel & legacy brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    (This is an extended abstract. The following text was taken from the Discussion and Conclusion section.) Humans are frequently exposed to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), especially via dermal contact with contaminated dust. Human and rat skin data were integrated using a pa...

  7. On the bromination of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo-/thermoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzanti, Virginia; Cacciarini, M.; Broman, Søren Lindbæk;

    2012-01-01

    as of the known 7-bromo-DHA. Results: Radical bromination on two different VHFs by using N-bromosuccinimide/benzoyl peroxide and light, followed by a ring-closure reaction generated the corresponding 3-bromo-DHAs, as confirmed in one case by X-ray crystallography. According to a H-1 NMR spectroscopic study...

  8. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478

  9. Exposure assessment of Dutch nursing infants to brominated flame retardants via breast milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Baumann RA; Hoogerbrugge R; Zeilmaker MJ; SIR

    2004-01-01

    As part of a national survey on the occurrence of persistent organic contaminants in breast milk, a group of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs) was measured in breast milk which had been collected in 1998 from Dutch primiparous women on day 6 to 10 after labour. To

  10. Toxicity of brominated flame retardants in fish, with emphasis on endocrine effects and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The abundant use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in modern polymers has over the passed decades resulted in contamination of the environment, and BFRs are increasingly found in fish. Laboratory studies have shown that a number of BFRs and BFR-metabolites can interfere with thyroid and

  11. Brominated Flame Retardants and their metabolites: Novel insights into endocrine disruptive properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Cantón, R.

    2008-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals that are added to materials to inhibit or suppress ignition and are incorporated during the manufacture of e.g. electronic equipment, furniture, construction materials and textiles. BFRs have become an increasingly important group of organohalogen com

  12. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-05

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion.

  13. Thermoelectric properties of bromine filled CoSb3 skutterudite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brenden R.; Crawford, Caitlin M.; McKinney, Robert W.; Parilla, Philip A.; Toberer, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the improved thermoelectric performance of skutterudite compounds has largely been driven by the incorporation of electropositive donors on interstitial sites. These 'rattlers' serve to optimize both electronic and thermal properties by tuning the carrier concentration and scattering phonons. In this work, we show that interstitial bromine can be incorporated into CoSb3 and assess the impact on electronic and thermal transport. In contrast to prior high pressure syntheses with iodine, interstitial bromine incorporation is achieved at ambient pressure. Transport properties are stable up to at least 375 degrees C. Bromine serves as an electronegative acceptor and can induce degenerate (>5 x 1019 cm-3) hole densities. In contrast to other p-type skutterudite compositions, bromine preserves the intrinsically high hole mobility of CoSb3 while significantly reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. The development of a stable p-type dopant for the interstitial filler site enables the development of skutterudites with both donor and acceptor interstitials to maximize phonon scattering while maintaining the high mobility of CoSb3.

  14. The Effects of Bromination Methods on the Microstructure of Brominated Natural Rubbers from Latex%溴化方式对胶乳法溴化天然橡胶结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵法敏; 薛行华; 张子琦; 张利伟; 李光

    2013-01-01

    为改善溴化天然橡胶(BNR)的溶解性能,在胶乳法的基础上改变溴化方式,以常规溴化方式和分步溴化方式分别制备了BNR.通过实验发现,体系溴浓度相同时分步溴化方式的溴含量比常规溴化方式高,而凝胶含量较低,所以分步溴化方式在甲苯中的溶解性能较好.通过傅里叶红外光谱对样品进行表征,并使用核磁共振对其微观结构进行了定性定量分析.红外光谱分析表明,2种溴化方式制备的BNR产物均发生了一定程度的溴加成反应和溴取代反应;核磁共振的分析证实了在体系溴浓度较低的情况下,与胶乳法常规溴化相反,胶乳法分步溴化的溴化过程主要以溴加成反应为主,少量发生溴取代反应.%In order to improve the solubility property of the brominated natural rubbers (BNR)from latex, BNR were prepared by changing the bromination ways from conventional bromination to step bromination. Through the experiment, it was discovered that the bromine content of the latter was higher than the former, but the gel content was less under the same bromine concentration. The latter showed much better solubility in the solvent of toluene. The structure of the procured sample was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the microstructures of brominated nature rubber were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR showed that there were both a degree of brominated addition reaction and brominated substitution reaction in the obtained BNR by two different methods; Contrary to the conventional bromination from latex, the analysis of NMR proved that the bromination process of step bromination from latex was mainly in the form of addition reaction, and only a small amount of the substitution reaction did occur.

  15. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  16. Inhalable nanostructured lipid particles of 9-bromo-noscapine, a tubulin-binding cytotoxic agent: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Kiran; Kaur, Karanvir; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2015-05-01

    9-Bromo-noscapine (9-Br-Nos) alters tubulin polymerization in non-small cell lung cancer cells differently from noscapine. However, clinical applications of 9-Br-Nos are limited owing to poor aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity that eventually lead to suboptimal therapeutic efficacy at the site of action. Hence, 9-Br-Nos loaded nanostructured lipid particles (9-Br-Nos-NLPs) were prepared by nanoemulsion method to reduce the particle size below 100 nm. To impart the inhalable and rapid release (RR) attributes, 9-Br-Nos-NLPs were treated with spray dried lactose and effervescent excipients to generate, 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs. The mean particle and aerodynamic size of 9-Br-Nos-NLPs were measured to be 13.4±3.2 nm and 2.3±1.5 μm, significantly (P<0.05) lower than 19.4±6.1 nm and 3.1±1.8 μm of 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs. In addition, zeta-potential of 9-Br-Nos-NLPs was examined to be -9.54±0.16 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lower than -7.23±0.10 mV of 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs. Hence, both formulations were found to be optimum for pulmonary delivery through inhalation route of administration. Next, 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in A549, lung cancer cells, as compared to 9-Br-Nos-NLPs and 9-Br-Nos suspension. This may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery and internalization character of 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs by energy-dependent endocytosis and passive diffusion mechanism. Pharmacokinetic and distribution analysis demonstrated the superiority of 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs that exhibited ∼1.12 and ∼1.75-folds enhancement in half-life of the drug as compared to 9-Br-Nos-NLPs and 9-Br-Nos powder following inhalation route. Continuation to this, 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs also displayed ∼3.75-fold increment in half-life of the drug in lungs, as compared to 9-Br-Nos suspension following intravenous route of administration. Furthermore, enhanced drug exposure was measured in terms of AUC(last) in lungs following administration of 9-Br-Nos-RR-NLPs, as

  17. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleszek, Sylwia, E-mail: sylwia_oleszek@yahoo.com [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Grabda, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Shibata, Etsuro, E-mail: etsuro@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi, E-mail: ntakashi@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is

  18. Interactions of bromine, chlorine, and iodine photochemistry during ozone depletions in Barrow, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The springtime depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic is known to be caused by active halogen photochemistry resulting from halogen atom precursors emitted from snow, ice, or aerosol surfaces. The role of bromine in driving ozone depletion events (ODEs has been generally accepted, but much less is known about the role of chlorine radicals in ozone depletion chemistry. While the potential impact of iodine in the High Arctic is more uncertain, there have been indications of active iodine chemistry through observed enhancements in filterable iodide, probable detection of tropospheric IO, and recently, detection of atmospheric I2. Despite decades of research, significant uncertainty remains regarding the chemical mechanisms associated with the bromine-catalyzed depletion of ozone, as well as the complex interactions that occur in the polar boundary layer due to halogen chemistry. To investigate this, we developed a zero-dimensional photochemical model, constrained with measurements from the 2009 OASIS field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. We simulated a 7 day period during late March that included a full ozone depletion event lasting 3 days and subsequent ozone recovery to study the interactions of halogen radicals under these different conditions. In addition, the effects of iodine added to our base model were investigated. While bromine atoms were primarily responsible for ODEs, chlorine and iodine were found to enhance the depletion rates and iodine was found to be more efficient per atom at depleting ozone than Br. The interaction between chlorine and bromine is complex, as the presence of chlorine can increase the recycling and production of Br atoms, while also increasing reactive bromine sinks under certain conditions. Chlorine chemistry was also found to have significant impacts on both HO2 and RO2. The results of this work highlight the need for future studies on the production mechanisms of Br2 and Cl2, as well as on the potential

  19. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrian, Alexia, E-mail: alexia.aldrian@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Ledersteger, Alfred, E-mail: a.ledersteger@saubermacher.at [Saubermacher Dienstleistungs AG, Hans-Roth-Straße 1, 8073 Feldkirchen bei Graz (Austria); Pomberger, Roland, E-mail: roland.pomberger@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  20. Determination of iodine and bromine compounds in foodstuffs by CE-inductively coupled plasma MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Huan; Wang, Kai-en; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2007-11-01

    A CE-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (CE-ICP-MS) method for iodine and bromine speciation analysis is described. Samples containing ionic iodine (I(-) and IO(3)(-)) and bromine (Br(-) and BrO(3)(-)) species are subjected to electrophoretic separation before injection into the microconcentric nebulizer (CEI-100). The separation has been achieved in a 50 cm length x 75 microm id fused-silica capillary. The electrophoretic buffer used is 10 mmol/L Tris (pH 8.0), while the applied voltage is set at -8 kV. Detection limits are 1 and 20-50 ng/mL for various I and Br compounds, respectively, based on peak height. The RSD of the peak areas for seven injections of 0.1 microg/mL I(-), IO(3)(-) and 1 microg/mL Br(-), BrO(3)(-) mixture is in the range of 3-5%. This method has been applied to determine various iodine and bromine species in NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves reference material and a salt and seaweed samples obtained locally. A microwave-assisted extraction method is used for the extraction of these compounds. Over 87% of the total iodine and 83% of the total bromine are extracted using a 10% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution in a focused microwave field within a period of 10 min. The spike recoveries are in the range of 94-105% for all the determinations. The major species of iodine and bromine in tomato leaves, salt, and seaweed are Br(-), IO(3)(-), I(-), and Br(-), respectively.

  1. Iodine and bromine speciation in snow and the effect of orographically induced precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential trace element for all mammals and may also influence climate through new aerosol formation. Atmospheric bromine cycling is also important due to its well-known ozone depletion capabilities. Despite precipitation being the ultimate source of iodine in the terrestrial environment, the processes effecting its distribution, speciation and transport are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of orographically induced precipitation on iodine concentrations in snow and also to quantify the inorganic and organic iodine and bromine species. Snow samples were collected over an altitude profile (~840 m from the northern Black Forest and were analysed by ion-chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS for iodine and bromine species and trace metals (ICP-MS. All elements and species concentrations in snow showed significant (r2>0.65 exponential decrease relationships with altitude despite the short (5 km horizontal distance of the transect. In fact, total iodine more than halved (38 to 13 nmol/l over the 840 m height change. The results suggest that orographic lifting and subsequent precipitation has a major influence on iodine concentrations in snow. This orographically induced removal effect may be more important than lateral distance from the ocean in determining iodine concentrations in terrestrial precipitation. The microphysical removal process was common to all elements indicating that the iodine and bromine are internally mixed within the snow crystals. We also show that organically bound iodine is the dominant iodine species in snow (61–75%, followed by iodide. Iodate was only found in two samples despite a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/l. Two unknown but most likely anionic organo-I species were also identified in IC-ICP-MS chromatograms and comprised 2–10% of the total iodine. The majority of the bromine was inorganic bromide with a max. of 32% organo-Br.

  2. The effect of bromination of carbon fibers on the coefficient of thermal expansion of graphite fiber-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Maciag, C.

    1987-01-01

    To examine the effect of bromination of carbon fibers on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon fiber epoxy composites, several pristine and brominated carbon fiber-epoxy composite samples were subjected to thermomechanical analysis. The CTE's of these samples were measured in the uniaxial and transverse directions. The CTE was dominated by the fibers in the uniaxial direction, while it was dominated by the matrix in the transverse directions. Bromination had no effect on the CTE of any of the composites. In addition, the CTE of fiber tow was measured in the absence of a polymer matrix, using an extension probe. The results from this technique were inconclusive.

  3. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  4. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by the Hg + Br model. Model

  5. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  6. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  7. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  8. All-optical analog comparator

    OpenAIRE

    Pu Li; Xiaogang Yi; Xianglian Liu; Dongliang Zhao; Yongpeng Zhao; Yuncai Wang

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical device...

  9. Neonatal exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 reduces long-term potentiation and postsynaptic protein levels in mouse hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Milou M. L.; Ramakers, Geert M. J.; Gardoni, Fabrizio; van Kleef, Regina G. D. M.; Bergman, Ake; Di Luca, Monica; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H. S.; Wijverberg, Henk P. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing environmental levels of brominated flame retardants raise concern about possible adverse effects, particularly through early developmental exposure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to investigate neturodevelopmental mechanisms underlying previously observed behav

  10. Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers exhibit different activities on thyroid hormone receptors depending on their degree of bromination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiao-Min, E-mail: rxm200318@gmail.com; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Gao, Yu, E-mail: francesscototti@gmail.com; Zhang, Bin-Tian, E-mail: nktianster@gmail.com; Wan, Bin, E-mail: binwan@rcees.ac.cn

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) functions in experimental animals, and one of the proposed disruption mechanisms is direct binding of hydroxylated PBDE (OH-PBDE) to TH receptors (TRs). However, previous data on TH receptor binding and TH activity of OH-PBDEs were very limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present paper, we examined the binding potency of ten OH-PBDEs with different degrees of bromination to TR using a fluorescence competitive binding assay. The results showed that the ten OH-PBDEs bound to TR with potency that correlated to their bromination level. We further examined their effect on TR using a coactivator binding assay and GH3 cell proliferation assay. Different TR activities of OH-PBDEs were observed depending on their degree of bromination. Four low-brominated OH-PBDEs (2′-OH-BDE-28, 3′-OH-BDE-28, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47) were found to be TR agonists, which recruited the coactivator peptide and enhanced GH3 cell proliferation. However, three high-brominated OH-PBDEs (3-OH-BDE-100, 3′-OH-BDE-154, 4-OH-BDE-188) were tested to be antagonists. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interactions of OH-PBDEs with TR and identify the structural determinants for TR binding and activity. According to the docking results, low-brominated OH-PBDEs, which are weak binders but TR agonists, bind with TR at the inner side of its binding pocket, whereas high-brominated compounds, which are potent binders but TR antagonists, reside at the outer region. These results indicate that OH-PBDEs have different activities on TR (agonistic or antagonistic), possibly due to their different binding geometries with the receptor. - Highlights: ► Thyroid hormone (TH) activity of OH-PBDEs with different Br number was evaluated. ► Four different experimental approaches were employed to investigate the mechanism. ► Low-brominated OH-PBDEs were agonists, but high-brominated ones were antagonists.

  11. Mathematical Analogy and Metaphorical Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the power of certain literary metaphors? The author argues that the apprehension of good metaphors is importantly similar to the apprehension of fruitful mathematical analogies: both involve a structural realignment of vision. The author then explores consequences of this claim, drawing conceptually significant parallels…

  12. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  13. Schema Training in Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Shani; Mayer, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 93, 97, and 86 college students, respectively, learned how to solve 20 verbal analogy problems and took transfer and memory tests. Results are inconsistent with active responding theory and further indicate that schema induction is maximized when the schemas are made salient and the cognitive system is not overloaded. (SLD)

  14. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  15. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  16. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichard, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidative bromination of o-xylene in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, Ya.A.; Emel' yanova, V.S.; Efremenko, I.G.; Doroshkevich, D.M.; Korolev, A.V.

    1988-07-01

    The kinetics of oxidative bromination of aromatic compounds have been studied in HNO/sub 3/-HBr-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O-O/sub 2/ solution. A kinetic equation which describes the results was derived for P/sub O/sub 2// > 5 /times/ 10/sup 4/ Pa. The equation parameters were determined at a temperature of 323 K. Quantum mechanical CNDO calculations were carried out in order to study the nature of the reactive intermediates involved: NO/sub 2/ NO(OH)/sup +/, N(OH)/sub 2//sup 2 +/, NO(OH)Br, and N(OH)/sub 2/Br/sup +/. A mechanism has been proposed to account for the oxidative bromination of aromatic compounds in HNO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-HBr-O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ solution.

  18. A Quaternized Polysulfone Membrane for Zinc-Bromine Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quaternized polysulfone (QNPSU composite membrane is fabricated for zinc-bromine redox flow battery. The structure of the membrane is examined by FT-IR spectra and SEM. The conductivity of the membrane is tested by electrochemical analyzer. After a zinc-bromine battery with this composite membrane is operated at different voltage while charging and at different current while discharging to examine the performance of the membrane, it is found that the discharge voltage was 0.9672 V and the power density was 6 mW/cm2 at a current of 0.1 A, which indicated that the novel composite membrane is a promising material for the flow battery.

  19. Co-doping of Potassium and Bromine in Carbon Nanotubes: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yong; YAN xiao-Hong; DING Jian-Wen

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the co-doping of potassium and bromine in singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)and doublewalled carbon nanotubes(DWCNTs)based on density functional theory.In the co-doped(6,O)SWCNTs,the 4s electron of potassium is transferred to nanotube and Br,leading to the n-type feature of SWCNTs.When potassium is intercalated into inner tube and bromine is put on outer tube,the positive and negative charges reside on the outer and inner tubes of the(7.0)@(16,0)DWCNT,respectively.It is expected that DWCNTs would be an ideal candidate for p-n junction and diode applications.

  20. Analysis and occurrence of emerging brominated flame retardants in the Llobregat River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paula; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn response to increasing international regulations on brominated flame retardants (BFR) formulations, alternative additive flame retardants for achieving commercial product fire safety standards are being developed and used. Some of these non-BDE (brominated diphenyl ethers) BFRs are pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (hexaBBz), and decabromodiphenylethane (deBDethane). The present study investigated the occurrence of these emerging BFRs, together with 38 BDE congeners (from di- to deca-BDE) in sediments sampled from different points along Llobregat basin (Spain) in three different sampling campaigns between 2005 and 2006. Emerging BFRs were detected in all sediment samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 9.6 ng/g for PBEB, from 0.4 to 2.4 ng/g for hexaBBz and from 4.8 to 23 ng/g for deBDethane. These levels are lower than concentrations obtained for PBDEs (from nd to 82 ng/g).

  1. A review of mathematical modeling of the zinc/bromine flow cell and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. I.; White, R. E.

    1987-11-01

    Mathematical models which have been developed to study various aspects of the zinc/bromine cell and stack of cells are reviewed. Development of these macroscopic models begins with a material balance, a transport equation which includes a migration term for charged species in an electric field, and an electrode kinetic expression. Various types of models are discussed: partial differential equation models that can be used to predict current and potential distributions, an algebraic model that includes shunt currents and associated energy losses and can be used to determine the optimum resistivity of an electrolyte, and ordinary differential equation models that can be used to predict the energy efficiency of the cell as a function of the state of charge. These models have allowed researchers to better understand the physical phenomena occurring within parallel plate electrochemical flow reactors and have been instrumental in the improvement of the zinc/bromine cell design. Suggestions are made for future modeling work.

  2. The effect of representing bromine from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.

  3. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du

    2014-01-01

    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  4. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping

    OpenAIRE

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found incre...

  5. A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G. R.; Butler, M.

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine were compared with chlorine as virucidal agents. Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity. Disinfection by chlorine was impaired by the presence of ammonia, but the other disinfectants retained much of their potency. Disinfection of poliovirus by iodine resulted in structural changes in the virions as seen by electron micrroscopy, but the ...

  6. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1−8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  7. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko, E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Noma, Yukio; Takigami, Hidetaka [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the flame retardants in electronics, curtains, wallpaper and insulator. {yields} Use of alternative brominated and organophosphate flame retardants was suggested. {yields} All the products investigated also contained PBDEs, TBBPA and polybromophenols. {yields} Incorporation of recycled materials containing hazardous substance was suggested. - Abstract: The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  8. Bromine-catalyzed conversion of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates under continuous flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Jennifer A; Wu, Jie; Su, Xiao; Simeon, Fritz; Hatton, T Alan; Jamison, Timothy F

    2013-12-11

    A continuous method for the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide (CO2) is described. The catalysts used are inexpensive and effective in converting the reagents to the products in a residence time (t(R)) of 30 min. The cyclic carbonate products are obtained in good to excellent yield (51-92%). On the basis of a series of kinetics experiments, we propose a reaction mechanism involving epoxide activation by electrophilic bromine and CO2 activation by an amide.

  9. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1–8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  10. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  11. On the age of stratospheric air and inorganic chlorine and bromine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. S.; Schauffler, S. M.; Pollock, W. H.; Solomon, S.; Weaver, A.; Heidt, L. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1996-07-01

    We estimate the average transport time from the tropical tropopause to various regions of the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere (stratospheric age) using simultaneous mixing ratio measurements of CFC-115 and CO2 measured by the Whole Air Sampler (WAS) during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II). Our inferred ages are consistent with those presented in previous studies. We discuss sources of uncertainties that affect age estimates in general, as well as specific uncertainties arising from inferring ages using CO2 and CFC-115 abundances. We infer inorganic chlorine (Cly) and bromine (Bry) at various lower stratospheric locations using the WAS organic chlorine and bromine measurements in combination with modeled tropospheric halocarbon trends and with our estimated ages. Inferred Cly and Bry abundances generally increase with increasing latitude and altitude. For our analyzed locations inside the polar vortex, we estimate a maximum Cly abundance of about 2.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and a maximum Bry abundance of about 13.7 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The locations of these maxima correspond to an average N2O mixing ratio of about 100 ppbv, and to a fractional dissociation of organic chlorine and bromine of 0.85 and 0.90, respectively. Finally, we discuss the expected future limitations of using CFC-115 to estimate stratospheric age due to the production limitations prescribed by the amendments and adjustments to the Montreal Protocol.

  12. Examination of the kinetics of degradation of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil by chlorine and bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tanumihardja, Jessica; Masuyama, Takaaki; Korshin, Gregory

    2015-01-23

    This study examined the degradation of the widely used antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) by chlorine and bromine. 5FU was determined to interact readily with free chlorine and bromine but was stable in the presence of chloramine. The removal of 5FU followed a second-order kinetic pattern. Apparent rates (kapp) of 5FU removal by chlorine and bromine were strongly pH dependent and had maximum 14.8M(-1)s(-1) and 1.9×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)kapp values, respectively at pH 7. Modeling of the dependence of the kapp values vs. pH indicated the presence of a relatively acidic (pK 6.4 vs. 8.5 of 5FU per se) 5FU intermediate generated in the presence of halogen species. Spectrophotometric measurements confirmed the increased acidity of 5FU chlorination products and allowed proposing a degradation pathway of 5FU by chlorine. This pathway suggests that 5FU chlorination proceeds via chlorine incorporation at the 6th carbon in the heterocyclic ring of 5FU.

  13. Effects of Assistant Solvents and Mixing Intensity on the Bromination Process of Butyl Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 邹海魁; 初广文; 向阳; 彭晗; 陈建峰

    2014-01-01

    A slow bromination process of butyl rubber (IIR) suffers from low efficiency and low selectivity (S) of target-product. To obtain suitable approach to intensify the process, effects of assistant solvents and mixing inten-sity on the bromination process were systemically studied in this paper. The reaction process was found constantly accelerated with the increasing dosage and polarity of assistant solvent. Hexane with 30%(by volume) dichloro-methane was found as the suitable solvent component, where the stable conversion of 1,4-isoprene transferring to target product (xA1s) of 80.2%and the corresponding S of 91.2%were obtained in 5 min. The accelerated reaction process was demonstrated being remarkably affected by mixing intensity until the optimal stirring rate of 1100 r·min-1 in a stirred tank reactor. With better mixing condition, a further intensification of the process was achieved in a ro-tating packed bed (RPB) reactor, where xA1s of 82.6% and S of 91.9% were obtained in 2 min. The usage of the suitable solvent component and RPB has potential application in the industrial bromination process intensification.

  14. Computer simulation of the cluster destruction of stratospheric ozone by bromine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.E.Galashev; O.R.Rakhmanova

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of (Br-)i(H2O)50-i,0≤i≤6 clusters with oxygen and ozone molecules is investigated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation.The ozone molecules as well as the bromine ions do not leave the cluster during the calculation of 25 ps.The ability of the cluster containing molecular oxygen to absorb the infrared (IR)radiation is reduced in the frequency range of 0 ≤ ω ≤ 3500 cm-1 when the number of the bromine ions in the cluster grows.The intensity of the Raman spectrum is not changed significantly when the Br-ions are added to the ozonecontaining system.The power of the emitted IR radiation is increased when the number of bromine ions grows in the oxygen-containing system.The data obtained in this study on the IR and the Raman spectra of the water clusters that contain ozone,oxygen,and Br-can be used to develop an investigation of the mechanisms of ozone depletion.

  15. Discrimination of hexabromocyclododecane from new polymeric brominated flame retardant in polystyrene foam by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannerat, Damien; Pupier, Marion; Schweizer, Sébastien; Mitrev, Yavor Nikolaev; Favreau, Philippe; Kohler, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) and major additive to polystyrene foam thermal insulation that has recently been listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. During a 2013/2014 field analytical survey, we measured HBCDD content ranging from 0.2 to 2.4% by weight in 98 polystyrene samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses indicated that expandable (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams significantly differed in the α/γ HBCDD isomer ratio, with a majority of α and γ isomers in XPS and EPS, respectively. Interestingly, this technique indicated that some recent materials did not contain HBCDD, but demonstrated bromine content when analysed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Further investigation by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was able to discriminate between the BFRs present. In addition to confirming the absence or presence of HBCDD in polystyrene samples, high-field NMR spectroscopy provided evidence of the use of brominated butadiene styrene (BBS) as copolymer in the production of polystyrene. Use of this alternative flame retardant is expected to cause fewer health and environmental concerns. Our results highlight a trend towards the use of copolymerized BFRs as an alternative to HBCDD in polystyrene foam boards. In addition to providing a rapid NMR method to identify polymeric BFR, our analytical approach is a simple method to discriminate between flame-retardants in polystyrene foam insulating materials.

  16. Mechanochemical conversion of brominated POPs into useful oxybromides: a greener approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Liu, Han; Zhang, Kunlun; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Brominated organic pollutants are considered of great concern for their adverse effect on human health and the environment, so an increasing number of such compounds are being classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mechanochemical destruction is a promising technology for POPs safe disposal because it can achieve their complete carbonization by solvent-free high energy ball milling at room temperature. However, a large amount of co-milling reagent usually is necessary, so a considerable volume of residue is produced. In the present study a different approach to POPs mechanochemical destruction is proposed. Employing stoichiometric quantities of Bi2O3 or La2O3 as co-milling reagent, brominated POPs are selectively and completely converted into their corresponding oxybromides (i.e. BiOBr and LaOBr), which possess very peculiar properties and can be used for some actual and many more potential applications. In this way, bromine is beneficially reused in the final product, while POPs carbon skeleton is safely destroyed to amorphous carbon. Moreover, mechanochemical destruction is employed in a greener and more sustainable manner.

  17. Determination of bromine in regulated foods with a field-portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David L

    2009-01-01

    A field-portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer, factory-calibrated for soil analysis, was used to measure bromine (Br) mass fractions in reference materials, flour, bakery products, malted barley, selected U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study foods, and other food products. By using a calibration based on instrumental neutron activation analysis results for Br in reference materials, accurate quantitative results, confirmed by z-scores, could be obtained for mass fractions of about 2-55 mg/kg. These results confirmed accuracy of results (with larger uncertainties) obtained by applying a simple correction factor to the analyzer's output value. Results showed that very short analysis times (content at regulatory levels for brominated and enriched brominated flour (24 mg/kg Br) and whole wheat flour and bakery products (36 mg/kg Br). Feasibility for determination of Br in malted barley at the regulatory level (75 mg/kg Br) was demonstrated, but quantitative results at that level could not be assured because no reference material with a suitable mass fraction was available. Br mass fractions for all foods tested were well below regulatory levels.

  18. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Noma, Yukio; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2011-09-15

    The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  19. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2012-06-30

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E&E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90°C, 2h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  20. A satellite based study of tropospheric bromine explosion events and their linkages to polar cyclone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, Anne-Marlene; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Kaleschke, Lars; Strong, Kimberly; Theys, Nicolas; Weber, Mark; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Zien, Achim; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2016-04-01

    Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric bromine monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by the UV-vis satellite instruments GOME-2/MetOp-A and SCIAMACHY/Envisat over Arctic and Antarctic sea ice in polar spring. The plumes are associated with an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction involving tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of bromine from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. This influences atmospheric chemistry as it affects the oxidising capacity of the troposphere through OH production and may also influence the local weather/temperature of the polar atmosphere, as ozone is a major greenhouse gas. Here, we make combined use of satellite retrievals and numerical model simulations to study individual BrO plume cases in the polar atmosphere. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that the plumes are often transported by high latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. Moreover, general characteristics of bromine explosion events linked to transport by polar weather systems, such as frequency, spatial distribution and favourable weather conditions are derived based on a new detection method. Our results show that BrO cyclone transport events are by far more common in the Antarctic than in the Arctic.

  1. Enhanced crystal grain size by bromine doping in electrodeposited Cu{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Kunhee; Kang Feng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Han Xiaofei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Tao Meng, E-mail: meng.tao@asu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Extremely large crystal grains are obtained by bromine doping in electrodeposited Cu{sub 2}O on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate through an acetate bath. The grains are as large as 10,000 {mu}m{sup 2} in area, or {approx} 100 {mu}m in linear dimension, while the film is only 1-5 {mu}m thick. The enhanced grain size is explained by the effect of over-potential for the Cu{sup 2+}/Cu{sup +} redox couple on nucleation density of Cu{sub 2}O on ITO substrate. The over-potential is a function of several deposition conditions including solution pH, deposition potential, deposition temperature, bromine precursor concentration, and copper precursor concentration. In addition, undoped Cu{sub 2}O displays a high resistivity of 100 M{Omega}cm. Bromine doping in Cu{sub 2}O significantly reduces the resistivity to as low as 42 {Omega}cm after vacuum annealing. Br-doped Cu{sub 2}O shows n-type behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely large crystal grains ({approx} 100 {mu}m) achieved in electrodeposited Br-doped Cu{sub 2}O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large grains reduce carrier recombination and carrier scattering at grain boundaries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-type behavior demonstrated in naturally p-type Cu{sub 2}O by Br doping.

  2. MISCIBILITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF THIN FILMS OF BLENDS OF POLYSTYRENE WITH BROMINATED POLYSTYRENES: EFFECTS OF VARYING THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT,BROMINATION DEGREE AND ANNEALING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Song; De-bin Yang; Ling-hao He; Guang-tao Yao

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of incompatible polymer blends can form a variety of structures during preparation and subsequent annealing process. For the polymer blend system consisting of polystyrene and poly(styrene-co-p-bromo-styrene), I.e.,PS/PBrxS, its compatibility could be adjusted by varying the degree of bromination and the molecular weight of both components comprised. In this paper, surface chemical compositions of the cast and the annealing films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement; meanwhile, surface topographical changes are followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, substantial attention was paid to the effect of annealing on the morphologic variations induced by phase separation and/or dewetting of the thin film. Moreover, the influences of the molecular weight, Mw, as well as the brominated degree, x%, on the sample surface are explored systematically, and the corresponding observations are explained in virtue of the Flory-Huggins theory, along with the dewetting of the polymer thin film.

  3. Study Of The Fundamental Physical Principles in Atmospheric Modeling Based On Identification Of Atmosphere - Climate Control Factors: Bromine Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise

    OpenAIRE

    Iudin, M.

    2007-01-01

    We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena of the Arctic bromine explosion and their role in the functioning of the biotic Earth. We rationalize the empirical expression of the bromine influx into atmospheric boundary layer and calculate total amounts of the tropospheric BrO and Bry of the Arctic origin. Based on the quantities and partitioning of the reactive bromine species, we estimate the biogeochemical parametric co...

  4. Noscapine Increases the Sensitivity of Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cell Line SKOV3/DDP to Cisplatin by Regulating Cell Cycle and Activating Apoptotic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Liang, Bingfeng; Yin, Jie; Li, Xiurong; Cheng, Jianxin

    2015-05-01

    Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapy drug against ovarian cancer. However, its strong toxic side effects and the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells seriously influence the effects of chemotherapy and quality of life in patients. Noscapine (Nos), a non-toxic benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from opium, has been recently reported to have anti-cancer activity, but the mechanism of that effect has not been clearly established. In the present study, we investigated cytotoxicity of Nos in combination with cisplatin (DDP) in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3/DDP in vitro and in vivo null mice xenograft model. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis, protein expression of several apoptotic factors was investigated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical method, and their mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. In vitro experiments showed that Nos significantly inhibited proliferation of SKOV3/DDP cells. DDP/Nos-combined treatment notably enhanced DDP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and increased the pro-apoptotic effect of DDP in SKOV3/DDP cells. DDP/Nos administration increased the proportion of G2/M cells, reduced both protein and mRNA expression of anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, surviving and NF-kB, and augmented protein and mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic caspase-3. In vivo experiments revealed that Nos/DDP treatment increased the apoptotic rate of xenograft tumors in null mice. Tumor volume decreased from 1.733 ± 0.155 g in mice treated with DDP alone to 1.191 ± 0.106 g in animals treated with Nos/DDP. These observations suggest that Nos increases the anti-cancer activity of DDP against the drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3/DDP by modulating the cell cycle and activating apoptotic pathways. The study provides a new chemotherapy strategy for the treatment of DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer.

  5. Holism and nonseparability by analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arageorgis, Aristidis

    2013-08-01

    This paper explores the issues of holism and nonseparability in relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) by focusing on an analog of the typical model featuring in many discussions of holism and nonseparability in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is argued that the quantum field theoretic model does exhibit holism in a metaphysical sense and that there are plausible grounds to view QFT holistic in an epistemological sense. However, the complexities arising from the fact that quantum fields have infinite degrees of freedom prohibit the exploitation of the elaborated analogy toward demonstrating that the QFT model exhibits the kind of state nonseparability familiar from ordinary quantum mechanics. Still, it is argued that the QFT model does satisfy a rather weak epistemological criterion for state nonseparability.

  6. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties.

  7. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  8. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  9. Low Power CMOS Analog Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Sachan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Low power low voltage CMOS analog multiplier circuit is proposed. It is based on flipped voltage follower. It consists of four voltage adders and a multiplier core. The circuit is analyzed and designed in 0.18um CMOS process model and simulation results have shown that, under single 0.9V supply voltage, and it consumes only 31.8µW quiescent power and 110MHZ bandwidth.

  10. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  11. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, Veerle [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be; Maervoet, Johan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, Stefan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, Paul [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  12. A global analog of Cheshire charge

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, P

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  13. Investigating visual analogies for visual insight problems

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Sas; Eric Luchian; Linden Ball

    2010-01-01

    Much research has focused on the impact of analogies in insight problem solving, but less work has investigated how the visual analogies for insight are actually constructed. Thus, it appears that in the search for their facilitative impact on the incubation effect, the understanding of what makes good visual analogies has somehow been lost. This paper presents preliminary work of constructing a set of 6 visual analogies and evaluating their impact on solving the visual problem of eight coins...

  14. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  15. Analogical Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.; Siojo, Luis T.

    The mathematical and philosophical origins of "analogy" are described and their influence on the thinking of intelligence theorists is traced. Theories of intelligence and cognition bearing on analogical reasoning are examined, specifically those of Spearman, Thorndike, Guilford and Piaget. The analogy test item is shown to be a paradigm…

  16. Reasoning by Analogy in Constructing Mathematical Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    A powerful way of understanding something new is by analogy with something already known. An analogy is defined as a mapping from one structure, which is already known (the base or source), to another structure that is to be inferred or discovered (the target). The research community has given considerable attention to analogical reasoning in the…

  17. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  18. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  19. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  20. Transfer Between Analogies: How Solving One Analogy Problem Helps to Solve Another

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Mark T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer between analogies; with what people acquire from one analogy problem-solving episode that can be re-applied to a subsequent analogy, problem-solving episode. This issue must be resolved if we are to understand the nature of expertise and the appropriate use of analogy in education. There are two main explanations of what subjects acquire from an analogy problem-solving episode. The schema-induction hypothesis maintains that subjects acquire an abs...

  1. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  2. Tropospheric Bromine Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  3. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000°C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is resistant to HBr and remains unchanged in the residue.

  4. Production of HBR from bromine and steam for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlief, R.E.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Stoy, M.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a renewable energy source based solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy and supplemental electrical power. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT), with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). An overview of the nature and objectives of this program is provided here, and technical progress made during the first (three-month) performance period of the Phase I work effort is reported. The SRT concept entails (1) absorption of concentrated solar radiation by bromine vapor Br{sub 2(g)} in a high-temperature reactor producing Br{sub (g)} atoms, (2) reaction of Br{sub (g)} with water yielding hydrogen bromide (HBr), and (3) electrolysis of stored hydrogen bromide for production of H{sub 2(g)} and recovery of Br{sub 2(I)}. Incorporation of solar radiation in the primary photochemical step (1) reduces by 50 - 70% the electrical power required to split water. The SRT concept is very attractive from an economic viewpoint as well. The reversible fuel cell, employed in the SRT electrolysis concept is capitalized via its use in load leveling by the utility. A 1 kW solar reactor was designed and constructed during the first three-month performance period by SRT personnel at the University of Florida, Gainesville. It was employed in taking survey data of the reaction between bromine and steam at temperatures between 900 and 1300 K. This reaction was run under purely thermal conditions, i.e. in the absence of solar photons. The experimental data are reported and interpreted employing concomitant thermodynamic calculations. The anticipated improvement is discussed briefly as well as the effect of a photochemical boost to the reaction. The amount of this enhancement will be studied in the next three month performance period.

  5. Effect of brominated furanones on the formation of biofilm by Escherichia coli on polyvinyl chloride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianhua, Ye; Yunchao, Huang; Geng, Xu; Youquang, Zhou; Guangqiang, Zhao; Yujie, Lei

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence of brominated furanones on the biofilm (BF) formation by Escherichia coli (E. coli) on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material, and to provide new ways of surface modification of materials to clinically prevent biomaterial centered infection. Three brominated furanones, dissolved in ethanol, furanone-1(3,4-dibromo-5-hydroxyl-furanone), furanone-2(4-bromo-5-(4-methoxypheny)-3-(methylamino)-furanone), and furanone-3(3,4-dibromo-5,5-dimethoxypheny-2(5H)-furanone) with representative chemical structure, were coated on the surfaces of separate PVC materials (1 × 1 cm), respectively. The surface-modified PVC materials were incubated with E. coli and for controls, 75 % ethanol-treated PVC materials were used. This treatment played as control group. The cultivation incubations were for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. The thickness of bacterial BF and bacterial community quantity unit area on the PVC materials was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the surface structure of bacterial BF formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of CLSM indicated the thickness of bacterial BF and bacterial community quantity unit area on PVC materials treated with furanone-3 were significantly lower than that of control at all time points (P 0.05). The results of SEM indicated that after 6 h incubation, the quantity of bacterial attachment to the surface of PVC material treated with furanone-3 was lower than the control group. By 18 h incubation there was completely formed BF structure on the surface of control PVC material. However, there was no significant BF formation on the surface of PVC material treated with furanone-3. The impact of different brominated furanones on SA biofilm formation on the surface of PVC materials are different, furanone-3 can inhibit E. coli biofilm formation on the surface of PVC material.

  6. Ways of reducing the bromine numbers of benzene for nitration with the use of the piperylene additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolyandr, L.Ya.; Litvinenko, A.M.; Mastyukov, V.A.; Potapchenko, A.A.; Savikkova, M.T.; Shoherbakova, T.G.; Shuzhenko, E.A.; Titarenko, V.G.; Tkachenko, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    To study the diminution of the bromine numbers of benzene for nitration, an investigation has been made of the impurities according to the fractions of the tests of benzene production of three coke and chemical works: the works in Makeev-a, ka, Bagleisk and Yenakievo. It has been found that when the piperylene additive is used, the value of the bromine numbers of benzene for nitration is determined, in the main, not by the piperylenes removed during purification. When the intermediate BT fractions are not sufficiently clearly selected, the value of the bromine numbers of benzene is influenced also by the impurities which are concentrated in its terminal fractions. To radically remove piperylenes, it is necessary to improve the contact between the acid and the fraction being purified; this is attained by intensifying mixing and lengthening the purification process.

  7. Package of double helical bromine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhen; Liu, Chun Jian; Lv, Hang; Yang, Xi Bao

    2016-10-01

    The helicity of stable double helical bromine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied through the calculation of systematic interaction energy, using the van der Waals interaction potential. The results presented clear images of stable double helical structures inside SWCNTs. The optimal helical radius and helical angle of chain structure increase and decrease, respectively, with the increase of tube radius. The detailed analysis indicated that some metastable structures in SWCNTs may also co-exist with the optimal structures, but not within the same tubes. In addition, a detailed simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns was performed for the obtained optimal helical structures.

  8. SYNTHESIS AND GREEN BROMINATION OF SOME CHALCONES AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur R. Adokar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones are the versatile molecules having the structural flexibility which permits structural transformations into flavonoids, flavanones, pyrazoles, oxazoles, pyrimidines etc. Changes in their structure have offered the development of new medicinal agents having improved pharmacological potency. Their derivatives have attracts increasing attention due to numerous pharmacological potential. In the present communication we report the synthesis of chalcones from various acetophenone derivatives with different aromatic aldehydes and green chemistry approach to their bromination with the help of Tetrabutylammonium Tribromide (TBATB. All the synthesized chalcone dibromides were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger.

  9. Brominated flame retardants in waste electrical and electronic equipment: substance flows in a recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Huber, Yvonne; Stengele, Markus; Zennegg, Markus

    2005-11-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic additives mainly used in electrical and electronic appliances and in construction materials. The properties of some BFRs are typical for persistent organic pollutants, and certain BFRs, in particular some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), are suspected to cause adverse health effects. Global consumption of the most demanded BFRs, i.e., penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and HBCD, has doubled in the 1990s. Only limited and rather uncertain data are available regarding the occurrence of BFRs in consumer goods and waste fractions as well as regarding emissions during use and disposal. The knowledge of anthropogenic substance flows and stocks is essential for early recognition of environmental impacts and effective chemicals management. In this paper, actual levels of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, TBBPA, and HBCD in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as a major carrier of BFRs are presented. These BFRs have been determined in products of a modern Swiss recycling plant applying gas chromatography/electron capture detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A substance flow analysis (SFA) technique has been used to characterize the flows of target substances in the recycling process from the bulk WEEE input into the output products. Average concentrations in small size WEEE, representing the relevant electric and electronic appliances in WEEE, sampled in 2003 amounted to 34 mg/kg for pentaBDE, 530 mg/kg for octaBDE, 510 mg/kg for decaBDE, 1420 mg/kg for TBBPA (as an additive), 17 mg/kg for HBCD, 5500 mg/kg for bromine, and 1700 mg/kg for antimony. In comparison to data that have been calculated by SFA for Switzerland from literature for the 1990s, these measured concentrations in small size WEEE were 7 times higher for pentaBDE, unexpectedly about 50% lower for decaBDE, and agreed fairly well for TBBPA (as an additive) and

  10. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  11. Antibacterial Activities of a New Brominated Diterpene from Borneon Laurencia spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Ishii, Takahiro; Lee, Tan Kai; Suzuki, Minoru; Zhaoqi, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    In our continuous interest to study the diversity of halogenated metabolites of Malaysian species of the red algal genus Laurencia, we examined the chemical composition of five populations of unrecorded Laurencia sp. A new brominated diterpene, 10-acetoxyangasiol (1), and four other known metabolites, aplysidiol (2), cupalaurenol (3), 1-methyl-2,3,5-tribromoindole (4), and chamigrane epoxide (5), were isolated and identified. Isolated metabolites exhibited potent antibacterial activities against clinical bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae. PMID:20631866

  12. Antibacterial Activities of a New Brominated Diterpene from Borneon Laurencia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In our continuous interest to study the diversity of halogenated metabolites of Malaysian species of the red algal genus Laurencia, we examined the chemical composition of five populations of unrecorded Laurencia sp. A new brominated diterpene, 10-acetoxyangasiol (1, and four other known metabolites, aplysidiol (2, cupalaurenol (3, 1-methyl-2,3,5-tribromoindole (4, and chamigrane epoxide (5, were isolated and identified. Isolated metabolites exhibited potent antibacterial activities against clinical bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae.

  13. Characterization of Some Real Mixed Plastics from WEEE: A Focus on Chlorine and Bromine Determination by Different Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Beccagutti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bromine and chlorine are almost ubiquitous in waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE and the knowledge of their content in the plastic fraction is an essential step for proper end of life management. The aim of this study is to compare the following analytical methods: energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF, ion chromatography (IC, ion-selective electrodes (ISEs, and elemental analysis for the quantitative determination of chlorine and bromine in four real samples taken from different WEEE treatment plants, identifying the best analytical technique for waste management workers. Home-made plastic standard materials with known concentrations of chlorine or bromine have been used for calibration of ED-XRF and to test the techniques before the sample analysis. Results showed that IC and ISEs, based upon dissolution of the products of the sample combustion, have not always achieved a quantitative absorption of the analytes in the basic solutions and that bromine could be underestimated since several oxidation states occur after combustion. Elemental analysis designed for chlorine determination is subjected to strong interference from bromine and required frequent regeneration and recalibration of the measurement cell. The most reliable method seemed to be the non-destructive ED-XRF. Calibration with home-made standards, having a similar plastic matrix of the samples, enabled us to carry out quantitative determinations, which have been revealed to be satisfactorily accurate and precise. In all the analyzed samples a total concentration of chlorine and/or bromine between 0.6 and 4 w/w% was detected, compromising the feasibility of a mechanical recycling and suggesting the exploration of an alternative route for managing these plastic wastes.

  14. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  15. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  16. Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    34010010" �" �" �" �" �" �" �±" N3 N2 N± P1 P2 P3 * Current sources $RR = 1; *Ramp Rate (slope of the...2008/12/12/31e83bac-500f-4182- acca -4d360295fd9c.pdf, Analog Devices, Analog Dialogue 39-06, June 2005. [15] D. A. Johns, K. Martin "Analog Integrated

  17. Electrospun Nafion®/Polyphenylsulfone Composite Membranes for Regenerative Hydrogen Bromine Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative H2/Br2-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br2 in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion® PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU, for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control. After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion® 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H2-Br2 fuel cell power output with a 65 μm thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 μm Nafion® 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H2/Br2-HBr systems.

  18. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  19. Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt, E-mail: jenny.rattfelt@chem.umu.s [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Lundberg, Charlott; Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. - Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

  20. Hair as an indicator of endogenous tissue levels of brominated flame retardants in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Covaci, Adrian; Scheirs, Jan; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2005-08-15

    Few data are available on brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial mammalian wildlife. Moreover, the use of hair in nondestructive monitoring of BFRs in mammals or humans has not been investigated. In the present study, concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated biphenyl 153 (BB 153) were analyzed in tissues of the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to investigate relationships between concentrations of BFRs in hair and internal tissues, BFR tissue distribution (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue), and PBDE congener tissue pattern dissimilarities. Liver concentrations of PBDEs and BB 153 were in the ranges 1-1178 and 0-2.5 ng/g of liver wet weight, respectively. PBDEs were predominant in adipose tissue and liver, while accumulation of BB 153 was tissue independent. The less persistent compound BDE 99 was more dominant in hair than in internal tissues. We observed positive relationships between BFR levels in hair and internal tissues for sum PBDEs and BDE 47 (0.37 terrestrial mammals which can be used in nondestructive monitoring schemes.

  1. Synthesis of α-Bromine- Terminated Polystyrene Macroinitiator and Its Initiation of MMA Polymerization by ATRP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper the synthesis of block copolymers via the transformation from living anionic polymerization (LAP) to atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was described. Α-Bromine-terminated polystyrenes(PStBr) in the LAP step was prepared by using n-BuLi as initiator, tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the activator, α-methylstyrene (α-MeSt) as the capping group and liquid bromine (Br2) as the bromating agent. The effects of reaction conditions such as the amounts of α-MeSt, THF, and Br2 as well as molecular weight of polystyrene on the bromating efficiency (BE) and coupling extent (CE) were examined. The present results show that the yield of PStBr obtained was more than 93.8% and the coupling reaction was substantially absent. PStBr was further used as the macroinitiator in the polymerization of methyl-methacrylate(MMA) in the presence of copper(Ⅰ) halogen and 2,2-bipyridine(bpy) complexes. It was found that the molecular weight of the resulted PSt-b-PMMA increased linearly with the increase of the conversion of MMA and the polydispersity was 1.2-1.6. The structures of PStBr and P(St-b-MMA) were characterized by 1H NMR spectra.

  2. Novel Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Macro-paracetamol via Reaction with Bromine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The reaction between Br2 and paracetamol(p-AAP) leads to the formation of a coloured product, which can be used for spectrophotometric determination of the p-AAP content in its pure form and in different pharmaceutical preparations with p-AAP. The stoichiometric composition of the reaction was found to be n(p-AAP)∶n(bromine)=1∶3. The effects of pH and time on the spectra of p-AAP-bromine redox reaction product were studied. The interference of different additives on the measured spectra of the obtained product was also studied. The results obtained by the present method were compared with those obtained by the standard method. The F- and t- test values were calculated for both of the applied procedures and they met a confidence level of 99%. The proposed procedure actually needs no separation of these drugs from their sources before analysis and was unaffected by interference of other phenolic compounds. The proposed method is simpler and faster than the repoeted ones.

  3. Brominated diphenyl ethers in the sediments, porewater, and biota of the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Klosterhaus, S.; Liebert, D.; Stapleton, H. [Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Levels of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) are rapidly increasing in the environment, and in a short time these chemicals have evolved from 'emerging contaminants' to globally-distributed organic pollutants. Recent research demonstrates BDEs are sufficiently stable to be transported long distances in the environment and to accumulate in higher trophic levels. Photolysis and metabolism appear to be dominant loss processes for the parent compounds, generating a variety of lower brominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated metabolites, and other products. BDEs are hydrophobic, and therefore their transport in aquatic systems is likely controlled by sorption to sediments and perhaps exchange across the air-water interface. To date, few studies have examined the geochemistry of BDEs in natural waters. In this paper, we review our recent measurements of BDEs in the Chesapeake Bay, a shallow, productive estuary in eastern North America. We focus on the distribution of BDE congeners sediment, porewater, and in faunal benthos along a contamination gradient downstream from a wastewater treatment plant and on the spatial distribution of BDEs in bottom-feeding and pelagic fish species.

  4. Dissolution of brominated epoxy resins by dimethyl sulfoxide to separate waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Chen, Yan; Wang, Liangyou; Qian, Guangren; Zhang, Wei Jie; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-03-19

    Improved methods are required for the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this study, WPCBs (1-1.5 cm(2)) were separated into their components using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 60 °C for 45 min and a metallographic microscope was used to verify their delamination. An increased incubation time of 210 min yielded a complete separation of WPCBs into their components, and copper foils and glass fibers were obtained. The separation time decreased with increasing temperature. When the WPCB size was increased to 2-3 cm(2), the temperature required for complete separation increased to 90 °C. When the temperature was increased to 135 °C, liquid photo solder resists could be removed from the copper foil surfaces. The DMSO was regenerated by rotary decompression evaporation, and residues were obtained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to verify that these residues were brominated epoxy resins. From FT-IR analysis after the dissolution of brominated epoxy resins in DMSO it was deduced that hydrogen bonding may play an important role in the dissolution mechanism. This novel technology offers a method for separating valuable materials and preventing environmental pollution from WPCBs.

  5. Natural solar photolysis of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Municipal wastewater has been increasingly used to augment drinking water supplies due to the growing water scarcity. Wastewater-derived disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health of downstream communities during water reuse. The objective of this research was to determine the degradation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) in water by natural sunlight irradiation. Outdoor solar photolysis experiments were performed to investigate photolytic degradation of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by fulvic acid and real water and wastewater samples. The results showed that TOX degradation by sunlight irradiation followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 2.6-10.7 h for different TOX compounds produced by fulvic acid. The TOX degradation rates were generally in the order of TOI > TOBr ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOCl(Cl2). High molecular weight TOX was more susceptible to solar photolysis than corresponding low molecular weight halogenated compounds. The nitrate and sulfite induced indirect TOX photolysis rates were less than 50% of the direct photolysis rates under the conditions of this study. Fulvic acid and turbidity in water reduced TOX photodegradation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the fate of chlorinated, brominated and iodinated DBPs in surface waters.

  6. Nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in English drinking water supply systems: Occurrence, bromine substitution and correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R; Mokhtar Kamal, Nurul Hana; Graham, Nigel; Kanda, Rakesh

    2015-11-15

    Despite the recent focus on nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in drinking water, there is limited occurrence data available for many species. This paper analyses the occurrence of seven haloacetonitriles, three haloacetamides, eight halonitromethanes and cyanogen chloride in 20 English drinking water supply systems. It is the first survey of its type to compare bromine substitution factors (BSFs) between the haloacetamides and haloacetonitriles. Concentrations of the dihalogenated haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides were well correlated. Although median concentrations of these two groups were lower in chloraminated than chlorinated surface waters, median BSFs for both in chloraminated samples were approximately double those in chlorinated samples, which is significant because of the higher reported toxicity of the brominated species. Furthermore, median BSFs were moderately higher for the dihalogenated haloacetamides than for the haloacetonitriles. This indicates that, while the dihalogenated haloacetamides were primarily generated from hydrolysis of the corresponding haloacetonitriles, secondary formation pathways also contributed. Median halonitromethane concentrations were remarkably unchanging for the different types of disinfectants and source waters: 0.1 μg · mgTOC(-1) in all cases. Cyanogen chloride only occurred in a limited number of samples, yet when present its concentrations were higher than the other N-DBPs. Concentrations of cyanogen chloride and the sum of the halonitromethanes were not correlated with any other DBPs.

  7. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  8. Fermilab accelerator control system: Analog monitoring facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1987-10-01

    Thousands of analog signals are monitored in different areas of the Fermilab accelerator complex. For general purposes, analog signals are sent over coaxial or twinaxial cables with varying lengths, collected at fan-in boxes and digitized with 12 bit multiplexed ADCs. For higher resolution requirements, analog signals are digitized at sources and are serially sent to the control system. This paper surveys ADC subsystems that are used with the accelerator control systems and discusses practical problems and solutions, and it describes how analog data are presented on the console system.

  9. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  10. Subacute effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A on hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germer, Silke; Piersma, Aldert H; Ven, Leo T M van der; Kamyschnikow, Andreas; Fery, Yvonne; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Schrenk, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The brominated flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are found in the environment, e.g., in sediments and organisms, in food items, human blood samples and mother's milk. In this study, the effects of both compounds on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) leve

  11. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  12. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in water during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Pedersen, Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water disinfection by-products have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Micronuclei (MN) frequency in lymphocytes is a marker of genomic damage and can predict adult cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated maternal exposure to drinking water brominated trihalomethanes (BTHM) i...

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  14. Suppressing effect of calcium-based waste on control of bromine flux during the pyrolysis of printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Guan; Min, Xu; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    The effect of calcium-based addition on the brominate flux during printed circuit board (PCB) pyrolysis was investigated. It was found that bromine (Br) can be effectively fixed in solid phase during PCB pyrolysis by adding calcium-based waste materials. Phenol and 4-ethylphenol are the major products of pyrolysis. When the two kinds of red mud were used as additive, their content was 85.25 and 84.81%, respectively, which was higher than others. The 2-bromophenol and 2-bromo-4-methyl-benzene are the main Br-containing pyrolysis volatiles. After adding calcium-based additive, these two volatiles were apparently reduced and only small amounts of 2-bromo-4-methyl-benzene were detected in the products, namely 0.71 and 0.86%, respectively for the two kinds of red mud. Hence, no matter from the perspective of product use or simple Br-fixing, the bromine in the three-phase products can be effectively regulated and controlled by adding calcium-based waste residue during PCB pyrolysis. Finally, the Br-fixing mechanism was analysed. As a result, when calcium-based waste materials were added to the PCB pyrolysis it made bromine fix easily in the resident yielding a byproduct that can be further used.

  15. Temporal development of brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Fako peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland (1986-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorkamp, K.; Thomsen, M.; Falk, K.; Leslie, H.A.; Moller, S.; Sorensen, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    A time trend between 1986 and 2003 was found for brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon eggs from South Greenland, with significantly increasing concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209. For BDE-99 and -100, the concentration increased approxim

  16. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  17. The detection of some halogenated phenols and nitrophenols in thin-layer chromatography by means of bromine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, G.; Batelaan, P.H.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the detection of halogeno- and nitro-phenols in sub-microgram quantities. Theses compounds are made visible by exposure of the developed thin layer plates to bromine vapour and subsequent spraying with an aqueous solution of potassium iodide or an ethanolic solution of fluo

  18. Corrosion mechanism of 13Cr stainless steel in completion fluid of high temperature and high concentration bromine salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Lining, E-mail: xulining@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu, Minxu [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Meng, Yao [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Zhu, Jinyang; Zhang, Lei [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of 13Cr steel exposed to bromine salt completion fluid containing high concentration bromine ions was investigated. • There are passive circles around pits on the 13Cr steel surface after 7 d of exposure. • Macroscopic galvanic corrosion formed between the passive halo and the pit. • The mechanism of pitting corrosion on 13Cr stainless steel exposed to heavy bromine brine was established. - Abstract: A series of corrosion tests of 13Cr stainless steel were conducted in a simulated completion fluid environment of high temperature and high concentration bromine salt. Corrosion behavior of specimens and the component of corrosion products were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that 13Cr steel suffers from severe local corrosion and there is always a passive halo around every pit. The formation mechanism of the passive halo is established. OH{sup −} ligand generates and adsorbs in a certain scale because of abundant OH{sup −} on the surface around the pits. Passive film forms around each pit, which leads to the occurrence of passivation in a certain region. Finally, the dissimilarities in properties and morphologies of regions, namely the pit and its corresponding passive halo, can result in different corrosion sensitivities and may promote the formation of macroscopic galvanic pairs.

  19. Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts--Electrophilic aromatic substitution and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Rodriguez, Eva M; Allard, Sebastien; Wellauer, Sven; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-11-15

    Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range of 10(4) to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The highest value was recorded for the reaction between HOBr and the fully deprotonated resorcinol (k = 2.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). The reactivity of phenolic compounds is enhanced by the activating character of the phenolic substituents, e.g. further hydroxyl groups. With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000. Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. The dominant process mainly depends on the relative position of the hydroxyl substituents and the possibility of quinone formation. While phenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and bisphenol A undergo EAS, hydroquinone, catechol, gallic acid and tannic acid, with hydroxyl substituents in ortho or para positions, react with bromine by ET leading to quantitative formation of the corresponding quinones. Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. For the reaction of six NOM extracts with bromine, electrophilic aromatic substitution

  20. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...... the algorithm to students. The analogy suggests a possible extension of the fuzzy membership assignment equation....

  1. PEMETAAN ANALOGI PADA KONSEP ABSTRAK FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoto Suseno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of any where founded majority students have common difficulties in abstract physics concept. The result of observation, lecturers have problem  in teaching implementation of abstract concepts on physics learning. The objective of this research is to find out the ways how to overcome this problem. The research place of  physics education programs and senior high school. The data are colected by quetionere, observation and interview. The lecturer behavior to making out this case is use of analogy to make concrete a abstract concept. This action is true, because the analogies are dynamic tools that facilitate understanding, rather than representations of the correct and static explanations. Using analogies not only promoted profound understanding of abstract concept, but also helped students overcome their misconceptions. However used analogy in teaching not yet planed with seriousness, analogy used spontanously with the result that less optimal. By planing and selecting right analogy, the role of analogy can be achieved the optimal result. Therefore, it is important to maping analogies of abstract consepts on physics learning.

  2. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  3. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  4. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  5. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  6. Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Eldar, Yonina C

    2008-01-01

    A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate which exceeds twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worst-case scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals posses a sparse structure so that a large part of the bandwidth is not exploited. In this paper, we consider a framework for utilizing this sparsity in order to sample such analog signals at a low rate. More specifically, we consider continuous-time signals that lie in a shift-invariant (SI) space generated by m kernels, so that any signal in the space can be expressed as an infinite linear combination of the shifted kernels. If the period of the underlying SI space is equal to T, then such signals can be perfectly reconstructed from samples at a rate of m/T. Here we treat the case in which only k out of the m generators are active, meaning that the signal actually lies in a lower dimensional space spanned by k generators. However,...

  7. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  8. An optical analog signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudzita, K.; Itida, T.; Tanaka, Kh.

    1984-01-11

    An optical laser analog signal transmitter employing an amplitude modulated subcarrier is patented; this transmitter performs stable and high quality transmission of information signals over great distances. A feature of the proposed transmitter is a special transmitter operational mode in which the light emission reflected off the connection point to the fiber optic conduit is sent back to the laser diode in a transient period. As a result, the critical mode of the generated emission is not influenced by the reflected signal. The transmitter consists of a laser diode with biasing near the cutoff point, an amplitude modulator with a subcarrier frequency oscillator, a section of flexible fiber-optic cable of length L, which connects the laser diode to the primary optical fiber conduit, and the connector itself. The subcarrier frequency may vary over wide ranges to establish the necessary correlation between the length of the light conduit section L and the return propagation time of the reflected light signal from the connection point to the laser diode. The difference between the lasing time of the light signal and the return time to the laser diode of the signal reflected off the connector is determined by the relation tau equals 2nL/c - mtauc, where L is the length of the connecting section; n is the refractivity of the optical fiber; c is the velocity of light; tauc is the period of the high frequency subcarrier signal; and m is an integer.

  9. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  10. Assessing the persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of brominated flame retardants: data availability and quality for 36 alternative brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Greta; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are major brominated flame retardants (BFRs) that are now banned or under restrictions in many countries because of their persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity (PBT properties). However, there is a wide range of alternative BFRs, such as decabromodiphenyl ethane and tribromophenol, that are increasingly used as replacements, but which may possess similar hazardous properties. This necessitates hazard and risk assessments of these compounds. For a set of 36 alternative BFRs, we searched 25 databases for chemical property data that are needed as input for a PBT assessment. These properties are degradation half-life, bioconcentration factor (BCF), octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), and toxic effect concentrations in aquatic organisms. For 17 of the 36 substances, no data at all were found for these properties. Too few persistence data were available to even assess the quality of these data in a systematic way. The available data for Kow and toxicity show surprisingly high variability, which makes it difficult to identify the most reliable values. We propose methods for systematic evaluations of PBT-related chemical property data that should be performed before data are included in publicly available databases. Using these methods, we evaluated the data for Kow and toxicity in more detail and identified several inaccurate values. For most of the 36 alternative BFRs, the amount and the quality of the PBT-related property data need to be improved before reliable hazard and risk assessments of these substances can be performed.

  11. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  12. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb discharged 700 kilotons of Br. On average, each of the remaining 21 CAVA eruptions studied have discharged c.100 kilotons of bromine. During the past 200 ka, CAVA volcanoes have emitted a cumulative mass of 3.2 Mt of Br through highly explosive eruptions. There are six periods in the past (c. 2ka, 6ka, 25ka, 40ka, 60ka, 75

  13. Investigating the lifetime of bromine-quenched G.M. Counters with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abilama, Marc [Centronic Ltd., Croydon (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bates, Mike [Centronic Ltd., Croydon (United Kingdom); Lohstroh, Annika [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-21

    The amount of halogen quench gas as a percentage of the total fill gas contained within a gas-filled Geiger–Müller detector is directly linked to its operational characteristics. Preserving this halogen gas will help maintain the operating lifetime of the detectors. Such halogen gases are highly corrosive and the small quantities within a gas-filled detector can deplete rapidly via interactions with surrounding materials. The rate of interactions is thought to be proportional to not only temperature, but also to the current initiated by ionisation events associated with the formation of each signal pulse. As all pulses are of similar magnitudes, GM detector operational lifetimes are quantified in accumulated counts rather than a given operating time. We have studied three different types of corrosion-resistant mechanisms to protect the bromine halogen gas from any interactions with 446 stainless steel detector components of ZP1200 Geiger–Müller tubes at temperatures up to 125 °C. Three types of surface treatments for these detectors used were labelled as “raw” using only an oxygen-plasma-bombardment process, “passivated” using a combination of nitric acid passivation followed by an oxygen plasma-bombardment process, and thirdly plating with a few micron thickness of chromium followed by an oxygen plasma-bombardment process. 32 detector samples were irradiated at room temperature with a Caesium-137 source at dose rates of approximately 1.3 mSv/hr up to 5.7×10{sup 10} accumulated counts; another 32 detector samples were aged to 3.3×10{sup 10} counts at 125 °C. At room temperature, the chromium-plated samples exhibited an initial rise in their starting voltage readings. All other detector performance characteristics, for all detector types, did not change significantly during the ageing process, and the surface morphology of the detector cathodes was unaffected. At 125 °C, the chromium-based plating produced the most stable long-term response. These

  14. Mercury oxidation from bromine chemistry in the free troposphere over the southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated deposition of atmospheric mercury over the Southeastern United States is currently not well understood. Here we measure partial columns and vertical profiles of bromine monoxide (BrO radicals, a key component of mercury oxidation chemistry, to better understand the processes and altitudes at which mercury is being oxidized in the atmosphere. We use the data from a ground-based MAX-DOAS instrument located at a coastal site ~ 1 km from the Gulf of Mexico in Gulf Breeze, FL, where we had previously detected tropospheric BrO (Coburn et al., 2011. Our profile retrieval assimilates information about stratospheric BrO from the WACCM chemical transport model, and uses only measurements at moderately low solar zenith angles (SZA to estimate the BrO slant column density contained in the reference spectrum (SCDRef. The approach has 2.6 degrees of freedom, and avoids spectroscopic complications that arise at high SZA; knowledge about SCDRef helps to maximize sensitivity in the free troposphere (FT. A cloud-free case study day with low aerosol load (9 April 2010 provided optimal conditions for distinguishing marine boundary layer (MBL: 0–1 km and free tropospheric (FT: 1–15 km BrO from the ground. The average daytime tropospheric BrO vertical column density (VCD of ~ 2.3 × 1013 molec cm−2 (SZA 5 molec cm−2 s−1 for bromine, while contributions from ozone (O3 and chlorine (Cl were 0.9 × 105 and 0.2 × 105 molec cm−2 s−1, respectively. The GOM formation rate is sensitive to recently proposed atmospheric scavenging reactions of the HgBr adduct by nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and to a lesser extent also HO2 radicals. Using a 3-D chemical transport model, we find that surface GOM variations are typical also of other days, and are mainly derived from the free troposphere. Bromine chemistry is active in the FT over Gulf Breeze, where it forms water-soluble GOM that is subsequently available for wet scavenging by thunderstorms or transport to

  15. Seasonal variation of bromine monoxide over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Christoph; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Sihler, Holger; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important catalyst in the depletion of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone (O3). In the troposphere, reactive bromine can be released from sea ice, volcanoes, sea-salt aerosol or salt lakes. For all of these natural sources enhanced BrO vertical column densities (VCDs) have been successfully observed from ground using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Until now, satellite observations were only reported for polar regions during springtime and volcanic emissions (mostly for major eruptions). We present the first satellite observations of enhanced monthly mean BrO VCDs over a salt marsh, the Rann of Kutch (India/Pakistan), during 2004-2014 as seen by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Rann of Kutch is a so-called 'seasonal' salt marsh. During India's summer monsoon (June/July - September/October), the flat desert of salty clay and mudflats, which average 15 meters above sea level, fills with standing rain and sea water. With more than 7500 km2 it is the largest salt desert in the world and additionally one of the hottest areas of India with summer temperatures around 50 ° C and winter temperatures decreasing below 0 ° C. Probably due to these rather extreme conditions, the Rann of Kutch has not been yet investigated for atmospheric composition measurements by ground-based instruments. Satellite observations, however, provide the unique possibility to investigate the entire area remotely over a long-time period. The OMI data reveals recurring maximum BrO VCDs during April/May, but no enhanced column densities during the monsoon season while the area is flooded. In the following months the signal only recovers slowly while the salty surface dries up. We discuss the possible effects of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the release of enhanced reactive bromine concentrations. In order to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of the BrO concentration, the OMI results (at a local overflight time

  16. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  17. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS – Part 1: In-snow bromine activation and its impact on ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toyota

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide a theoretical framework towards better understanding of ozone depletion events (ODEs and atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs in the polar boundary layer, we have developed a one-dimensional model that simulates multiphase chemistry and transport of trace constituents from porous snowpack and through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL as a unified system. In this paper, we describe a general configuration of the model and the results of simulations related to reactive bromine release from the snowpack and ODEs during the Arctic spring. The model employs a chemical mechanism adapted from the one previously used for the simulation of multiphase halogen chemistry involving deliquesced sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer. A common set of aqueous-phase reactions describe chemistry both in the liquid-like (or brine layer on the grain surface of the snowpack and in "haze" aerosols mainly composed of sulfate in the atmosphere. The process of highly soluble/reactive trace gases, whether entering the snowpack from the atmosphere or formed via gas-phase chemistry in the snowpack interstitial air (SIA, is simulated by the uptake on brine-covered snow grains and subsequent reactions in the aqueous phase while being traveled vertically within the SIA. A "bromine explosion", by which, in a conventional definition, HOBr formed in the ambient air is deposited and then converted heterogeneously to Br2, is a dominant process of reactive bromine formation in the top 1 mm (or less layer of the snowpack. Deeper in the snowpack, HOBr formed within the SIA leads to an in-snow bromine explosion, but a significant fraction of Br2 is also produced via aqueous radical chemistry in the brine on the surface of the snow grains. These top- and deeper-layer productions of Br2 both contribute to the Br2 release into the atmosphere, but the deeper-layer production is found to be more important for the net outflux of reactive bromine. Although ozone

  18. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS - Part 1: In-snow bromine activation and its impact on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Staebler, R. M.; Dastoor, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    To provide a theoretical framework towards a better understanding of ozone depletion events (ODEs) and atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) in the polar boundary layer, we have developed a one-dimensional model that simulates multiphase chemistry and transport of trace constituents from porous snowpack and through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as a unified system. This paper constitutes Part 1 of the study, describing a general configuration of the model and the results of simulations related to reactive bromine release from the snowpack and ODEs during the Arctic spring. A common set of aqueous-phase reactions describes chemistry both within the liquid-like layer (LLL) on the grain surface of the snowpack and within deliquesced "haze" aerosols mainly composed of sulfate in the atmosphere. Gas-phase reactions are also represented by the same mechanism in the atmosphere and in the snowpack interstitial air (SIA). Consequently, the model attains the capacity of simulating interactions between chemistry and mass transfer that become particularly intricate near the interface between the atmosphere and the snowpack. In the SIA, reactive uptake on LLL-coated snow grains and vertical mass transfer act simultaneously on gaseous HOBr, a fraction of which enters from the atmosphere while another fraction is formed via gas-phase chemistry in the SIA itself. A "bromine explosion", by which HOBr formed in the ambient air is deposited and then converted heterogeneously to Br2, is found to be a dominant process of reactive bromine formation in the top 1 mm layer of the snowpack. Deeper in the snowpack, HOBr formed within the SIA leads to an in-snow bromine explosion, but a significant fraction of Br2 is also produced via aqueous radical chemistry in the LLL on the surface of the snow grains. These top- and deeper-layer productions of Br2 both contribute to the release of Br2 to the atmosphere, but the deeper-layer production is found to be more important for the

  19. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  20. Namibian Analogs To Titan Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Stofan, E.; Farr, T.; Van der Ploeg, P.; Lorenz, R.; Radebaugh, J.

    2009-09-01

    Titan's equatorial dunes, observed in Cassini SAR, have been described as longitudinal, similar to longitudinal dunes in the Namib sand sea in southern Africa. Their "Y” junctions and the way they divert around topography are used as evidence of equatorial wind flow direction. In two instances of such diversion they exhibit overlying or crosshatched patterns in two distinct directions that have been interpreted as a transition to transverse dunes. Here we describe field observations of the Namibian dunes and these comparisons, we present images of the dunes from terrestrial SAR missions, and we discuss implications to both the Titan dunes and the wind regime that created them. Selected portions of the Namibian dunes resemble Titan's dunes in peak-to-peak distance and length. They are morphologically similar to Titan, and specific superficial analogs are common, but they also differ. For example, when Titan dunes encounter topography they either terminate abruptly, "climb” the upslope, or divert around; only the latter behavior is seen in remote sensing images of Namibia. Namib linear dunes do transition to transverse as they divert, but at considerably smaller wavelength, while at Titan the wavelengths are of the same scale. Crosshatching of similar-wavelength dunes does occur in Namibia, but not near obstacles. Many additional aeolian features that are seen at Namibia such as star dunes, serpentine ridges and scours have not been detected on Titan, although they might be below the Cassini SAR's 300-m resolution. These similarities and differences allow us to explore mechanisms of Titan dune formation, in some cases giving us clues as to what larger scale evidence to look for in SAR images. Viewed at similar resolution, they provide interesting comparisons with the Titan dunes, both in likeness and differences. A part of this work was carried out at JPL under contract with NASA.

  1. Responses of marine unicellular algae to brominated organic compounds in six growth media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, G.E.; Yoder, M.J.; McLaughlin, L.L.; Lores, E.M.

    1987-12-01

    Marine unicellular algae, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Chlorella sp. were exposed to the industrial brominated compounds tetrabromobisphenol A, decabromobiphenyloxide (DBBO), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromomethylbenzene (PBMB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and the herbicide bromoxynil (BROM), in six algal growth media. High concentrations of DBBO (1 mg liter-1), PBMB (1 mg liter-1), and PBEB (0.5 mg liter-1) reduced growth by less than 50%. EC50s of the other compounds varied with growth medium, with high EC50/low EC50 ratios between 1.3 and 9.9. Lowest EC50s, 9.3 to 12.0 micrograms liter-1, were obtained with S. costatum and HBCD. It is concluded that responses to toxicants in different media are the results of interactions among algae, growth medium, toxicant, and solvent carrier.

  2. Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part I: Chemical processing in acidic bromine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouttemy, M.; Tran-Van, P. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Gerard, I., E-mail: gerard@chimie.uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Hildebrandt, T.; Causier, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Pelouard, J.L.; Dagher, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Jehl, Z.; Naghavi, N. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Voorwinden, G.; Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Guillemoles, J.F. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Lincot, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2011-08-31

    CIGSe absorber was etched in HBr/Br{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O to prepare defined thicknesses of CIGSe between 2.7 and 0.5 {mu}m. We established a reproducible method of reducing the absorber thickness via chemical etching. We determine the dissolution kinetics rate of CIGSe using trace analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of Ga and Cu. The roughness of the etching surface decreases during the first 500 nm of the etching to a steady state value of the root-mean-square roughness near 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate an etching process occurring with a constant chemical composition of the treated surface acidic bromine solutions provide a controlled chemical thinning process resulting in an almost flat surface and a very low superficial Se{sup 0} enrichment.

  3. Short-lived brominated hydrocarbons – observations in the source regions and the tropical tropopause layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brinckmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted measurements of the five important short-lived organic bromine species in the marine boundary layer (MBL. Measurements were made in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes (Sylt Island, North Sea in June 2009 and in the tropical Western Pacific during the TransBrom ship campaign in October 2009. For the one-week time series on Sylt Island, mean mixing ratios of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl were 2.0, 1.1, 0.2, 0.1 ppt, respectively. We found maxima of 5.8 and 1.6 ppt for the two main components CHBr3 and CH2Br2. Along the cruise track in the Western Pacific (between 41° N and 13° S we measured mean mixing ratios of 0.9, 0.9, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl. Air samples with coastal influence showed considerably higher mixing ratios than the samples with open ocean origin. Correlation analyses of the two data sets yielded strong linear relationships between the mixing ratios of four of the five species (except for CH2BrCl. Using a combined data set from the two campaigns and a comparison with the results from two former studies, rough estimates of the molar emission ratios between the correlated substances were: 9/1/0.35/0.35 for CHBr3/CH2Br2/CHBrCl2/CHBr2Cl. Additional measurements were made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL above Teresina (Brazil, 5° S in June 2008, using balloon-borne cryogenic whole air sampling technique. Near the level of zero clear-sky net radiative heating (LZRH at 14.8 km about 2.25 ppt organic bromine was bound to the five short-lived species, making up 13% of total organic bromine (17.82 ppt. CH2Br2 (1.45 ppt and CHBr3 (0.56 ppt accounted for 90% of the budget of short-lived compounds in that region. Near the

  4. Surface-confined 2D polymerization of a brominated copper-tetraphenylporphyrin on Au(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Smykalla, Lars; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich; Hietschold, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A coupling-limited approach for the Ullmann reaction-like on-surface synthesis of a two-dimensional covalent organic network starting from a halogenated metallo-porphyrin is demonstrated. Copper-octabromo-tetraphenylporphyrin molecules can diffuse and self-assemble when adsorbed on the inert Au(111) surface. Splitting-off of bromine atoms bonded at the macrocyclic core of the porphyrin starts at room temperature after the deposition and is monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for different annealing steps. Direct coupling between the reactive carbon sites of the molecules is, however, hindered by the molecular shape. This leads initially to an ordered non-covalently interconnected supramolecular structure. Further heating to 300{\\deg}C and an additional hydrogen dissociation step is required to link the molecular macrocycles via a phenyl group and form large ordered polymeric networks. This approach leads to a close-packed covalently bonded network of overall good quality. The structures are characte...

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some -hydroxy acids by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimple Garg; Seema Kothari

    2004-11-01

    The oxidation of lactic acid, mandelic acid and ten monosubstituted mandelic acids by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine (HABR) in glacial acetic acid, leads to the formation of the corresponding oxoacid. The reaction is first order with respect to each of the hydroxy acids and HABR. It is proposed that HABR itself is the reactive oxidizing species. The oxidation of -deuteriomandelic acid exhibits the presence of a substantial kinetic isotope effect (/ = 5.91 at 298 K). The rates of oxidation of the substituted mandelic acids show excellent correlation with Brown’s + values. The reaction constants are negative. The oxidation exhibits an extensive cross conjugation between the electron-donating substituent and the reaction centre in the transition state. A mechanism involving transfer of a hydride ion from the acid to the oxidant is postulated.

  6. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Tetragonal ZrO2 Using Dehydroabietyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous nanocrystalline tetragonal zirconias were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method using a novel bioresource-derived quaternary ammonium salt, dehydroabietyltrimethyl ammonium bromine (DTAB, as a templating agent. The templating agent provides a surface area (242.02 m2/g, high pore volume (0.53 cm3/g, and large average pore diameter (7.65 nm, which suggests that DTAB is a good candidate for mesostructure synthesis. The hydrothermal treatments give the materials improved thermal stabilities because of the generation of tetragonal nanocrystallites that are more stable than the bulk amorphous ones in the hydrothermal process. However, because of the absence of stabilizers, the sizes of the crystallites of the as-synthesized sample increase gradually with increasing calcination temperature. As the crystalline size of the sample rises to 25 nm, the nanocrystallites become too large to integrate well together, causing the well-organized mesostructure to collapse.

  7. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  8. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  9. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCR

  10. Meteorological controls on the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide in the lower troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Peterson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple axis differential absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO probed the vertical structure of halogen activation events during March–May 2012 at Barrow, Alaska. An analysis of the BrO averaging kernels and degrees of freedom obtained by optimal-estimation-based inversions from raw MAX-DOAS measurements reveals the information is best represented by reducing the retrieved BrO profile to two quantities, the integrated column from the surface through 200 m (VCD200 m, and the lower tropospheric vertical column density (LT-VCD which represents the integrated column of BrO from the surface through 2 km. The percentage of lower-tropospheric BrO in the lowest 200 m was found to be highly variable ranging from shallow layer events, where BrO is present primarily in the lowest 200 m to distributed column events where BrO is observed at higher altitudes. The highest observed LT-VCD events occurred when BrO was distributed throughout the lower troposphere, rather than concentrated near the surface. Atmospheric stability in the lowest 200 m influenced the percentage of LT-VCD that is in the lowest 200 m, with inverted temperature structures having a first-to-third quartile range (Q1–Q3 of VCD200 m/LT-VCD from 15–39% while near neutral temperature structures had a Q1–Q3 range of 7–13%. Data from this campaign show no clear influence of wind speed on either lower-tropospheric bromine activation (LT-VCD or the vertical distribution of BrO, while examination of seasonal trends and the temperature dependence of the vertical distribution supported the conclusion that the atmospheric stability affects the vertical distribution of BrO.

  11. Scientific Opinion on Emerging and Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on brominated flame retardants (BFRs other than PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDDs, TBBPA and brominated phenols and their derivatives. The BFRs that are the subject of the current opinion, were classified in groups termed ‘emerging’ and ‘novel’ BFRs. Information on 17 emerging and 10 novel BFRs was collected. The information varied widely for these BFRs. There is a lack of experimental data on physico-chemical characteristics, stability/reactivity and current use and production volume of all the emerging and novel BFRs. Due to the very limited information on occurrence, exposure and toxicity, the CONTAM Panel could not perform a risk characterisation for any of the BFRs considered. Instead, an attempt was made to identify those BFRs that could be a potential health concern and should be considered first for future investigations. For this purpose the Panel first evaluated the available experimental data on occurrence in food, behaviour in the environment and toxicity. Secondly, a modelling exercise was performed focussing on the potential of the emerging and novel BFRs for persistence in the environment and for their possible bioaccumulation potential. There is convincing evidence that tris(2,3-dibromopropyl phosphate (TDBPP and dibromoneopentyl glycol (DBNPG are genotoxic and carcinogenic, warranting further surveillance of their occurrence in the environment and in food. Based on the limited experimental data on environmental behaviour, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE and hexabromobenzene (HBB were identified as compounds that could raise a concern for bioaccumulation. For the modelling exercise, the CONTAM Panel selected two environmental characteristics, overall persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, as being most relevant to provide insight into the possibility that emerging or novel BFRs might accumulate in the food chain, and thus might appear in food intended for human

  12. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  13. UTILIZATION OF BROMINATION REACTION FOR THE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY OF DOMPERIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. ZENITA DEVI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of domperidone (DOM in bulk drug and in dosage forms using bromate-bromide mixture as brominating agent in acid medium and three dyes, meta-cresol purple (MCP, amaranth (AMR and erioglaucine (EGC. The methods involve the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to an acidified solution of DOM followed by the determination of the residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either MCP dye and measuring the absorbance at 530 nm (method A or AMR dye and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm (method B or EGC dye and measuring the absorbance at 630 nm (method C. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges, 0.63–10.0, 0.25-4.0 and 0.13-2.0 µg mL-1 for method A, B and C, respectively. The ap¬parent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 3.751x104, 6.604x104 and 1.987x105 L mol-1cm-1 for method A, B and C, respectively, and the corresponding sandell sensitivity values are 0.011, 0.006 and 0.002 μg cm-2. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification are also reported for all the three methods. No interference was observed from common additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. Statistical comparisons of the results with those of the reference method showed excellent agreement, and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by performing recovery tests via standardaddition technique.

  14. Brominated flame retardants in children's toys: concentration, composition, and children's exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Da; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in children's toys purchased from South China. The median BFR concentrations in the hard plastic toys were 53,000, 5540 ng/g, 101.1 ng/g, and 27.9 ng/g, fortotal PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBBs, respectively,which were notably higher than values in other toys. The PBDE concentrations were below the threshold limit (1000 ppm) required bythe European Commission's Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives in all of the toys, except for one hard plastic toy with a total PBDE concentration of 5,344,000 ng/g. The BFR profiles in the toys were consistent with the patterns of their current production and consumption in China, where PBDEs, specifically decaBDE product, were the dominant BFR, followed by the emerging DBDPE. The relatively high concentrations of octa- and nonaBDEs in the foam toys and the results of principal component analysis (PCA) may suggest the decomposition of highly brominated BDEs during the manufacturing processes of the toys. Daily total PBDE exposures associated with toys via inhalation, mouthing, dermal contact, and oral ingestion ranged from 82.6 to 8992 pg/kg bw-day for children of 3 months to 14 years of age. Higher exposures, predominantly contributed through the mouthing pathway, were observed for infants and toddlers than for the other subgroups. In most cases, children's BFR exposure via the toys likely accounts for a small proportion of their daily BFR exposure, and the hazard quotients for noncancer risk evaluation were far below 1. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the concentrations of BFRs in toys, and the potential exposures to children.

  15. A computational model of analogical reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵沁平

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of analogical reasoning is presented, which divides analogical reasoning process into four subprocesses, i.e. reminding, elaboration, matching and transfer. For each subprocess, its role and the principles it follows are given. The model is discussed in detail, including salient feature-based reminding, relevance-directed elaboration, an improved matching model and a transfer model. And the advantages of this model are summarized based on the results of BHARS, which is an analogical reasoning system implemented by this model.

  16. Analogies in science education: contributions and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Duarte

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is a comparison between domains of knowledge that have similarities at the levels of characteristics and relationships. Several authors highlight the importance of this tool in the teaching and learning of difficult scientific concepts. Nevertheless, some problems associated to the use of analogies have been found. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the use of analogies in science education, by means of a review of the state of art regarding this matter. It will take into account its contribution to science education as well as the challenges to further research

  17. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  18. Slow Phospholipid Exchange between a Detergent-Solubilized Membrane Protein and Lipid-Detergent Mixed Micelles Brominated Phospholipids as Tools to Follow Its Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montigny, Cédric; Dieudonné, Thibaud; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Membrane proteins are largely dependent for their function on the phospholipids present in their immediate environment, and when they are solubilized by detergent for further study, residual phospholipids are critical, too. Here, brominated phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which behaves as an ...

  19. Use of analogy in learning scientific concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C M; McDaniel, M A

    1993-07-01

    Four experiments compared learning of scientific concepts as expressed in either traditional literal form or through an analogy. Comprehension of basic-level details and inferential implications was measured through multiple-choice testing. In Experiment 1, literal or analogical renditions were presented in textual form only. In Experiment 2, text was accompanied by a dynamic video. In Experiment 3, the video and text literal rendition was compared with a text-only analogical rendition. In Experiment 4, subjects read only about a familiar domain. Subjects consistently answered basic-level questions most accurately when concepts were expressed literally, but answered inferential questions most accurately when concepts were expressed analogically. Analysis of individual differences (Experiment 2) indicated that this interaction strongly characterized the conceptual learning of science novices. The results are discussed within the framework of schema induction.

  20. Identifying Solar Analogs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andrew; Preston, Heather L.

    2014-06-01

    Since human beings live on a planet orbiting a G2 V star, to us perhaps the most intrinsically interesting category of stars about which planets have been discovered is solar analogs. While Kepler has observed more than 26000 targets which have effective temperatures within 100K of the Sun, many of these are not true solar analogs due to activity, surface gravity, metallicity, or other considerations. Here we combine ground-based measurements of effective temperature and metallicity with data on rotational periods and surface gravities derived from 16 quarters of Kepler observations to produce a near-complete sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field. We then compare the statistical distribution of stellar physical parameters, including activity level, for subsets of solar analogs consisting of KOIs and those with no detected exoplanets. Finally, we produce a list of potential solar twins in the Kepler field.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  2. Synthesis of 1-Bromo-3-methoxy-4-propoxy-5-iodobenzene-A Novel Efficient Process for the Synthesis of Brominated Aromatic Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xin SHI; Hui LIN; Gérard MANDVILLE

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of aromatic carboxylic acid with oxalyl chloride gives rise to the corres- ponding acid chloride which without purification is treated with the sodium salt of mercapto- pyridine oxide in the presence of 2,2-azo-bisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), radical initiator to give a brominated aromatic compound. After etherification and oxidation, 5-iodovaniline was converted to trisubstituted benzene carboxylic acid which give 1-bromo-3-methoxy-4-propoxy-5-iodo- benzene by this new brominating process with a yield of 74 %.

  3. Analogy betwen dislocation creep and relativistic cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Montemayor-Aldrete; J.D. Muñoz-Andrade; Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Varela, A.

    2005-01-01

    A formal, physical analogy between plastic deformation, mainly dislocation creep, and Relativistic Cosmology is presented. The physical analogy between eight expressions for dislocation creep and Relativistic Cosmology have been obtained. By comparing the mathematical expressions and by using a physical analysis, two new equations have been obtained for dislocation creep. Also, four new expressions have been obtained for Relativistic Cosmology. From these four new equations, one may determine...

  4. The analogy between stereo depth and brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, A; Stevens, K A

    1989-01-01

    Apparent depth in stereograms exhibits various simultaneous-contrast and induction effects analogous to those reported in the luminance domain. This behavior suggests that stereo depth, like brightness, is reconstructed, ie recovered from higher-order spatial derivatives or differences of the original signal. The extent to which depth is analogous to brightness is examined. There are similarities in terms of contrast effects but dissimilarities in terms of the lateral inhibition effects traditionally attributed to underlying spatial-differentiation operators.

  5. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao-Te; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P T P; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  6. Protein Structure Prediction with Visuospatial Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jim; Glasgow, Janice; Kuo, Tony

    We show that visuospatial representations and reasoning techniques can be used as a similarity metric for analogical protein structure prediction. Our system retrieves pairs of α-helices based on contact map similarity, then transfers and adapts the structure information to an unknown helix pair, showing that similar protein contact maps predict similar 3D protein structure. The success of this method provides support for the notion that changing representations can enable similarity metrics in analogy.

  7. Analog baseband circuits for sensor systems

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is composed of six publications and an overview of the research topic, which also summarizes the work. The research presented in this thesis focuses on research into analog baseband circuits for sensor systems. The research is divided into three different topics: the integration of analog baseband circuits into a radio receiver for sensor applications; the integration of an ΔΣ modulator A/D converter into a GSM/WCDMA radio receiver for mobile phones, and the integration of algorit...

  8. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  9. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  10. Learning Domain Theories via Analogical Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Shive & Weber 1982). In the linear kinematics section of the textbook used for this study ( Giancoli 1991), there are eight worked out examples...is analogous to the dynamics of linear motion” (p. 197, Giancoli 1991). This is common practice in textbooks, and analogies between domains form the...and Worked Solution All problems and worked solutions used in this work were taken from the same physics textbook ( Giancoli 1991). Problems are

  11. Analogical Learning and Automated Rule Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周哈阳

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments of analogical learning and automated rule construction.The present investigation focuses on knowledge acquisition,learning by analyogy,and knowledge retention.The developed system initially learns from scratch,gradually acquires knowledge from its environment through trial-and-error interaction,incrementally augments its knowledge base,and analogically solves new tasks in a more efficient and direct manner.

  12. Development of analogical problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O

    1984-12-01

    3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.

  13. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  14. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Shanghai: implication for exposure route of higher brominated BDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Guofa; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk has been widely used as a bioindicator to assess the extent of human exposure to PBDEs via various exposure routes. In this study, 48 breast milk samples were collected from primiparous women in Shanghai city, and 14 PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -196, -197, -203, -206, -207, -208, and -209) were quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 8.6 ng/g lipid weight, and ranged from 1.8 to 26.7 ng/g lipid weight. These concentration levels were similar to those reported in Europe and Asia, but one order of magnitude lower than those in North America. The congener profiles in this study exhibited a specific pattern in human milk found worldwide, BDE-153 and BDE-28 accounted for a relatively higher proportion of lower brominated BDEs (from tri- to hepta-BDEs), whereas higher brominated BDEs (from octa- to deca-BDEs) contributed more than 70% of the total PBDEs. The Spearman's correlation coefficient among higher brominated BDEs showed a positive relationship, and concentration levels of higher brominated BDEs were statistically different between office workers and housewives. Due to relatively higher proportion of PBDEs from octa- to deca-BDEs were detected, air inhalation and dust ingestion might be the major exposure routes of higher brominated BDEs. Further research is needed to clarify the major exposure route of higher brominated BDEs to humans.

  15. Chemistry of recoil atoms of bromine-82 in neutron-irradiated crystalline perbromates of the alkali metals and ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V.V.; Isupov, V.K.; Kirin, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    It was established by ion exchange chromatography that the recoil atoms of bromine-82 in perbromates with thermal neutrons are stabilized in the form of five valence forms: BrO/sub 4//sup -/, BrO/sub 3//sup -/, BrO/sub 2//sup -/, BrO/sup -/, Br/sup -/. The retention of bromine-82 of BrO/sub 4//sup -/ is 2.1 +- 0.4 percent for LiBrO/sub 4/, 2.1 +- 0.4 percent for NaBrO/sub 4/, 2.3 +- 0.4 percent for KBrO/sub 4/, 2.6 +- 0.4 percent for RbBrO/sub 4/, 2.2 +- 0.4 percent for CsBrO/sub 4/, and 1.6 +- 0.4 percent for NH/sub 4/BrO/sub 4/.

  16. The mercury species and their association with carbonaceous compositions, bromine and iodine in PM2.5 in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Xiu, Guangli; Feng, Ling; Cheng, Na; Wang, Chenggang

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected in south Shanghai from November 2013 to October 2014. The species of particulate bounded mercury (PBM), including hydrochloric soluble particle-phase mercury (HPM), element soluble particle-phase mercury (EPM) and residual soluble particle-phase mercury (RPM), were determined in PM2.5. The chemical composition of PM2.5 including organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), total bromine and iodine were also analyzed. The results showed that the annual average concentration of PBM was 0.30 ± 0.31 ng m(-3) and 0.34 ± 0.32 ng m(-3) in winter, 0.31 ± 0.19 ng m(-3) in spring, 0.30 ± 0.45 ng m(-3) in fall and 0.28 ± 0.17 ng m(-3) in summer. HPM took the highest fraction 51.2% in PBM, followed by RPM 27.7% and EPM 21.1%. EC positively correlated to particle mercury, especially in winter (r = 0.70), the same for OC in winter (r = 0.72), which indicated that the carbonaceous composition may affect the transformation of Hg in the atmosphere. Mercury species showed different correlations with bromine and iodine in the four seasons. The strongest correlation between bromine, iodine and mercury was found in spring and fall, respectively. Bromine showed the stronger correlation with total mercury and speciated particle mercury than iodine. In addition, the days were classified into haze and non-haze days based on the visibility and relative humidity, while the ratio of HPM in haze days was much higher than that in non-haze days. EC strongly correlated with PBM during haze and non-haze days while OC only positively correlated with PBM in non-haze days, this may indicate that the different carbonaceous part may affect PBM differently.

  17. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960–2100 coupled chemistry–climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic...

  18. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960–2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is ...

  19. Temporal development of brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland (1986-2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Falk, Knud;

    2005-01-01

    A time trend between 1986 and 2003 was found for brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon eggs from South Greenland, with significantly increasing concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209. For BDE-99 and -100, the concentration increased...... with increasing time trends exist for the BDEs 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209, while a decreasing contamination with the BDEs 183, 49, 47, 66 and 153 was indicated in a subset of eggs....

  20. An Empirical Approach to Determining the Boundary Layer Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Abundance from Satellite Total Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Carlson, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer during springtime liberates bromine from sea salt, producing reactive halogen gases (e.g. atomic bromine and bromine monoxide radicals) that then drastically alter atmospheric oxidation pathways. This phenomenon causes ozone depletion events and affects mercury deposition to the snowpack. Satellite remote sensing (e.g. OMI and GOME2 observations) techniques can detect the total column abundance of BrO, which is generally the primary species of the reactive bromine family. However, BrO is also present in the stratosphere, so it is necessary to partition the satellite-observed BrO column abundance into boundary layer and non-boundary layer (primarily stratospheric) partial columns to be able to infer boundary layer abundances and hence chemical affects near the Earth's surface (i.e. ozone and mercury impacts). In this presentation, we describe an empirical method for partitioning the BrO total column and apply it globally during spring 2008. The method indicates that some BrO total column enhancements ("hotspots") are not actually enhancements in the boundary layer BrO abundance but occur aloft. Movies and a statistical analysis of the inferred boundary layer BrO abundance are presented. The method has been tested and performs well at the Barrow field site. However, in areas that lack routine ground truth BrO measurements (e.g. Hudson Bay, Canada), large tropospheric BrO abundances are indicated. It is not clear if these inferred boundary layer BrO events are real or if the simple empirical method described here is failing in those locations. Verification of this method over large spatial regions of the Arctic is needed.

  1. Utilization of a Green Brominating Agent for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five simple, accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A–E have been described for the indirect assay of pipazethate HCl (PZT either in pure form or in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are based on the bromination of pipazethate HCl with a solution of excess bromate-bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium and subsequent estimation of the residual bromine by different reaction schemes. In the first three methods (A–C, the determination of the residual bromine is based on its ability to bleach the color of methyl orange, indigo carmine, or thymol blue dyes and measuring the absorbance at 520, 610, and 550 nm for methods A, B, and C, respectively. Methods D and E involves treating the unreacted bromine with a measured excess of iron(II, and the remaining iron(II is complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline, and the increase in absorbance is measured at 510 nm for method D and the resulting iron(III is complexed with thiocyanate and the absorbance is measured at 480 nm for method E. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color are carefully studied and optimized. Regression analysis of the Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges of 0.5–8.0 μg . The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and quantitation limits were evaluated. The proposed methods have been applied and validated successfully for the analysis of the drug in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulations with mean recoveries of 99.94%–100.15% and relative standard deviation ≤1.53. No interference was observed from a common pharmaceutical adjuvant. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  2. [Formation of disinfection by-products by Microcystis aeruginosa intracellular organic matter: comparison between chlorination and bromination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Guo, Ting-Ting; Liu, Rui-Ping; Jefferson, William; Liu, Hui-Juan; Qu, Jiu-Hui

    2013-11-01

    In order to illustrate the effects of released algal organic matter in cyanobacteria blooms on raw water quality and water treatment process, intracellular organic matter (IOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa, which is the dominant species in cyanobacteria blooms, was chosen as a precursor and characterized. In addition, the transformation of IOM and the formation of disinfection byproducts were evaluated at different pH of 6.5, 7.1 and 8.4 after chlorination or bromination, with subsequent correlation analysis. The results indicated that IOM was primarily composed of macromolecular matter, i. e. , the species with relative molecular weight of > 30 x 10(3), constituting 68.8% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix indicated that IOM was mainly composed of aromatic protein-like matter with an intensity of 92.6 AU x L x mg(-1). After reaction with chlorine or bromine, the intensity of aromatic protein-like peaks decreased sharply by 76.6% - 93.3%, and its reduction correlated well with the formation of trihalomethane (THMs, R2 = 0.81) and haloacetic acid (HAAs, R2 = 0.77). The formation of THMs and HAAs increased with the increase in pH. Compared with chlorine, bromine formed more THMs and HAAs, and tended to form highly halogenated HAAs. However, with increasing pH, the reactivity with IOM between chlorine and bromine was closer, i.e, k(OBr-IOM)/k(OCl-(IOM) < k(HOBr-IOM/k(HOCl-IOM).

  3. Probing the subtropical lowermost stratosphere and the tropical upper troposphere and tropopause layer for inorganic bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Scalone, Lisa; Raecke, Rasmus; Festa, James; Fedele Colosimo, Santo; Cheung, Ross; Tsai, Catalina; Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Taverna, Giorgio S.; Feng, Wuhu; Elkins, James W.; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hintsa, Erik J.; Thornberry, Troy D.; Moore, Free Lee; Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot; Daube, Bruce C.; Pittman, Jasna; Wofsy, Steve; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We report measurements of CH4 (measured in situ by the Harvard University Picarro Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer (HUPCRS) and NOAA Unmanned Aircraft System Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) instruments), O3 (measured in situ by the NOAA dual-beam ultraviolet (UV) photometer), NO2, BrO (remotely detected by spectroscopic UV-visible (UV-vis) limb observations; see the companion paper of Stutz et al., 2016), and of some key brominated source gases in whole-air samples of the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) instrument within the subtropical lowermost stratosphere (LS) and the tropical upper troposphere (UT) and tropopause layer (TTL). The measurements were performed within the framework of the NASA-ATTREX (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment) project from aboard the Global Hawk (GH) during six deployments over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. These measurements are compared with TOMCAT/SLIMCAT (Toulouse Off-line Model of Chemistry And Transport/Single Layer Isentropic Model of Chemistry And Transport) 3-D model simulations, aiming at improvements of our understanding of the bromine budget and photochemistry in the LS, UT, and TTL.Changes in local O3 (and NO2 and BrO) due to transport processes are separated from photochemical processes in intercomparisons of measured and modeled CH4 and O3. After excellent agreement is achieved among measured and simulated CH4 and O3, measured and modeled [NO2] are found to closely agree with ≤ 15 ppt in the TTL (which is the detection limit) and within a typical range of 70 to 170 ppt in the subtropical LS during the daytime. Measured [BrO] ranges between 3 and 9 ppt in the subtropical LS. In the TTL, [BrO] reaches 0.5 ± 0.5 ppt at the bottom (150 hPa/355 K/14 km) and up to about 5 ppt at the top (70 hPa/425 K/18.5 km; see Fueglistaler et al., 2009 for the definition of the TTL used), in overall good agreement with the model simulations. Depending on the

  4. Degradation of Polymeric Brominated Flame Retardants: Development of an Analytical Approach Using PolyFR and UV Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christoph; Dundua, Alexander; Aragon-Gomez, Jackelyn; Nachev, Milen; Stephan, Susanne; Willach, Sarah; Ulbricht, Mathias; Schmitz, Oliver J; Schmidt, Torsten C; Sures, Bernd

    2016-12-06

    Many well-established methods for studying the degradation of brominated flame retardants are not useful when working with polymeric and water insoluble species. An example for this specific class of flame retardants is PolyFR (polymeric flame retardant; CAS No 1195978-93-8), which is used as a substituent for hexabromocyclododecane. Although it has been on the market for two years now, almost no information is available about its long time behavior in the environment. Within this study, we focus on how to determine a possible degradation of both pure PolyFR as well as PolyFR in the final insulation product, expanded polystyrene foam. Therefore, we chose UV radiation followed by analyses of the total bromine content at different time points via ICP-MS and identified possible degradation products such as 2,4,6-tribromophenol through LC-MS. These results were then linked with measurements of the adsorbable organically bound bromine and total organic carbon in order to estimate their concentrations. With respect to the obtained (1)H NMR, GPC, and contact angle results, the possibility for further degradation was discussed, as UV irradiation can influence the decomposition of molecules in combination with other environmental factors like biodegradation.

  5. Bromination of Graphene: A New Route to Making High Performance Transparent Conducting Electrodes with Low Optical Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    The unique optical and electrical properties of graphene have triggered great interest in its application as a transparent conducting electrode material and significant effort has been invested in achieving high conductivity while maintaining transparency. Doping of graphene has been a popular route for reducing its sheet resistance, but this has typically come at a significant cost in optical transmission. We demonstrate doping of few layers graphene with bromine as a means of enhancing the conductivity via intercalation without major optical losses. Our results demonstrate the encapsulation of bromine leads to air-stable transparent conducting electrodes with five-fold improvement of sheet resistance reaching at the cost of only 2-3% loss of optical transmission. The remarkably low tradeoff in optical transparency leads to the highest enhancements in the figure of merit reported thus far for FLG. Furthermore, we tune the workfunction by up to 0.3 eV by tuning the bromine content. These results should help pave the way for further development of graphene as a potential substitute to transparent conducting polymers and metal oxides used in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and beyond.

  6. Brominated flame retardants in the surrounding soil of two manufacturing plants in China: Occurrence, composition profiles and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Huo, Chun-Yan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Surface soil samples were collected surrounding two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) manufacturing plants in China in August 2014 and analyzed for 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 8 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). BDE209 and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the predominant compounds in soil with the median levels of 1600 and 560 ng/g dw, respectively. The PBDEs profiles in soil samples were consistent with that of commercial product (comDecaBDE). The percentage contributions to total PBDEs decreased from higher to lower brominated homologues. Lower concentrations of NBFRs (excluding DBDPE) were detected in soil surrounding the two plants, suggesting they are byproducts or degradation products of the manufacturing activities. The concentrations of most BFRs dropped exponentially within 3-5 km of the manufacturing plants, suggesting recent deposition of these compounds to the soil. Directional distribution indicated that PBDEs and DBDPE concentrations were highest in the north direction of Plants 1. Three-day air parcel forward trajectories confirmed that the air parcel was responsible for the higher concentration of BFRs in the soil of north direction of the plant.

  7. Brominated flame retardants in food and environmental samples from a production area in China: concentrations and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wu, Hui; Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs: decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz), and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (TBX)) in a brominated flame retardant production area (Weifang, Shandong Province, China) was estimated. Thirty food samples, 14 air samples, and 13 indoor dust samples were analyzed. BDE209 and DBDPE were the dominant BFRs in all samples. Higher alternative brominated flame retardant (including DBDPE, HBB, PBEB, PBT, PBBz, and TBX) concentrations were found in vegetables than in fish and meat; thus, plant-original foods might be important alternative BFR sources in the study area. The BDE209 and alternative BFR concentrations in air were 1.5×10(4) to 2.2×10(5) and 620 to 3.6×10(4) pg/m3, respectively. Mean total BFR exposures through the diet, inhalation, and indoor dust ingestion were 570, 3000, and 69 ng/d, respectively (16, 82, and 2% of total intake, respectively). Inhalation was the dominant BFR source except for DBDPE, for which diet dominated. BDE209 contributed 85% of the total BFR intake in the study area.

  8. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  9. Local Structural and Electronic Changes Associated with the Bromination of YBCO: Charge Transfer and Cu-O Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Lamine M.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Croft, M.; Dogan, F.; Woicik, Joseph; Grow, James

    2000-03-01

    In order to understand the role of bromination in the recovery of superconductivity and metallic transport in underdoped YBCO, we have measured the local structural changes in brominated single crystal samples and compared them with normal samples. From the c-axis polarized near edge x-ray absorption measurements, we see, for the first time, direct evidence for the transfer of hole density into the Cu(2)O2 planes in brominated samples. The corresponding XAFS measurements show large changes in the c-axis Cu-O bond distribution. Measurements of the local structure about Ba and Br were also performed. No evidence was found for the incorporation of Br onto the O(4) sites as previously suggested by some authors. We were able to model the coordination of Br and found it to be consistent with BaBr2 as suggested by Fukuda et al. [1] and Potrepka et al. [2]. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Career Grant DMR-9733862. [1] Y. Fukuda et al. Phys. Rev. B 47, 418 (1993). [2] D. M. Potrepka et al., Phys. Rev. B 60, 10489 (1999).

  10. Formation potentials of bromate and brominated disinfection by-products in bromide-containing water by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Wu, Shouke; Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The ozonation involved in drinking water treatment raises issues of water quality security when the raw water contains bromide (Br(-)). Br(-) ions may be converted to bromate (BrO3 (-)) during ozonation and some brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs) in the following chlorination. In this study, the effects of ozone (O3) dosage, contact time, pH, and Br(-) and ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations on the formation of BrO3 (-) and Br-DBPs have been investigated. The results show that decreasing the initial Br(-) concentration is an effective means of controlling the formation of BrO3 (-). When the concentration of Br(-) was lower than 100 μg/L, by keeping the ratio of O3 dosage to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at less than 1, BrO3 (-) production was effectively suppressed. The concentration of BrO3 (-) steadily increased with increasing O3 dosage at high Br(-) concentration (>900 μg/L). Additionally, a longer ozonation time increased the concentrations of BrO3 (-) and total organic bromine (TOBr), while it had less impact on the formation potentials of brominated trihalomethanes (Br-THMFP) and haloacetic acids (Br-HAAFP). Higher pH value and the presence of ammonia may lead to an increase in the formation potential of BrO3 (-) and Br-DBPs.

  11. Theoretical study of the reaction kinetics of atomic bromine with tetrahydropyran

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2015-02-12

    A detailed theoretical analysis of the reaction of atomic bromine with tetrahydropyran (THP, C5H10O) was performed using several ab initio methods and statistical rate theory calculations. Initial geometries of all species involved in the potential energy surface of the title reaction were obtained at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory. These molecular geometries were reoptimized using three different meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) functionals. Single-point energies of the stationary points were obtained by employing the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations (CCSD) and fourth-order Møller-Plesset (MP4 SDQ) levels of theory. The computed CCSD and MP4(SDQ) energies for optimized structures at various DFT functionals were found to be consistent within 2 kJ mol-1. For a more accurate energetic description, single-point calculations at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory were performed for the minimum structures and transition states optimized at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Similar to other ether + Br reactions, it was found that the tetrahydropyran + Br reaction proceeds in an overall endothermic addition-elimination mechanism via a number of intermediates. However, the reactivity of various ethers with atomic bromine was found to vary substantially. In contrast with the 1,4-dioxane + Br reaction, the chair form of the addition complex (c-C5H10O-Br) for THP + Br does not need to undergo ring inversion to form a boat conformer (b-C4H8O2-Br) before the intramolecular H-shift can occur to eventually release HBr. Instead, a direct, yet more favorable route was mapped out on the potential energy surface of the THP + Br reaction. The rate coefficients for all relevant steps involved in the reaction mechanism were computed using the energetics of coupled cluster calculations. On the basis of the results of the CCSD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory, the calculated overall rate coefficients can be expressed as kov.,calc.(T) = 4.60 × 10

  12. Measurement-based modeling of bromine-induced oxidation of mercury above the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, E.; Obrist, D.; Peleg, M.; Matveev, V.; Faïn, X.; Asaf, D.; Luria, M.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) outside the polar regions - driven by high levels of reactive bromine species (RBS) - were observed recently in the warm Dead Sea boundary layer. Efficient oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) under temperate conditions by RBS was unexpected considering that the thermal back dissociation reaction of HgBr, a proposed key mechanism, is more than 2.5 orders of magnitude higher under Dead Sea temperatures compared with polar temperatures. The goal of this study was to improve understanding of RBS-mercury interactions using numerical simulations based on a comprehensive measurement campaign performed at the Dead Sea during summer 2009. Results demonstrate a high efficiency and central role of BrOx (i.e., Br + BrO) for AMDEs at the Dead Sea, with relative contributions for GEM depletion of more than ~90 %. BrO was found to be the dominant oxidant with relative contribution above 80 %. Best agreement between simulations and observations was achieved by applying rate constants for kHg+Br and kHg+BrO of 2.7×10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and 1.5 × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively - indicating that kHg+BrO is higher than most reported values and that BrO is a more efficient oxidant than Br in the ozone-rich atmosphere (i.e., for [BrO]/[Br] >2). This further explains why the efficiency of GEM oxidation by reactive bromine species at the Dead Sea doesn't critically depend on Br and, therefore, is comparable to the efficiency in polar regions even under much higher temperatures. These findings also support the hypothesis identified in a previous study, that Br-induced GEM depletion can be important above oceans in the mid-latitudes and tropics. In the presence of anthropogenic NO2, RBS activity can lead to enhanced NO3 formation, which then causes significant nighttime GEM depletion.

  13. Modelling the impact of chlorine and bromine emissions from large Plinian eruptions on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Hans; Krüger, Kirstin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Large Plinian volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of atmosphere-relevant gases (e.g. S, Cl, Br) and materials into the stratosphere. If the eruption occurs in the tropics, it can have a global impact due to the dispersal through the large scale meridional overturning circulation. Most climate model studies concentrate on the sulfate aerosol effects on climate. In contrast, ozone-depletion initiated by volcanic halogens from tropical eruptions was believed to play an insignificant role for the global atmosphere, based on observations from the recent El Chichon and Pinatubo eruptions. New results regarding the halogen release by Plinian eruptions, as well as recent volcanic plume observations and model simulations facilitate now our investigation into what effect the combined chlorine and bromine emissions from large tropical eruptions have on ozone and the atmosphere in general. A complete halogen data set for the last 200 ka (Kutterolf et al., 2015), derived by the petrological method from paleo-eruptions of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), are used to force simulations with the advanced chemistry climate model WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). The goal is to quantify the impact of volcanic halogens on the preindustrial atmosphere when the background chlorine levels were low compared to the present day with the main focus on stratospheric ozone. We carried out 5 model simulations assuming that 10% of the Cl and Br (9.51e+6 kg Br and 2.93e+9 kg Cl) emitted from the average CAVA eruption is injected into the tropical stratosphere during January. The model response reveals a global impact on the ozone layer affecting via radiation also atmospheric dynamics for more than 5 years. Given the current decline in anthropogenic chlorine, the results will become relevant for future halogen-rich explosive eruptions in the tropics. References: Kutterolf, S., T. Hansteen, A. Freundt, H. Wehrmann, K. Appel, K. Krüger, and W. Pérez (2015), Bromine

  14. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The

  15. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of boundary layer ozone depletion events in the Polar Regions [1] and in the mid-latitudes [2], two areas of very different temperature regimes, begs the question of temperature dependence of reactions responsible for these observations [3]. These ODEs have been attributed to ozone reacting with halides leading to reactive halogens (halogen activation) of which bromide is extensively studied, R1 - R3 [4, 5] (R1 is a multiphase reaction). O3 + Br-→ O2 + OBr- (R1) OBr- + H+ ↔ HOBr (R2) HOBr + H+ + Br-→ Br2 + H2O (R3) Despite extensive studies of ozone-bromide interactions, the temperature dependence of bromine activation is not clear [3]. This limits parameterization of the involved reactions and factors in atmospheric models [3, 6]. Viscosity changes in the matrix (such as organic aerosols) due to temperature have been shown to influence heterogeneous reaction rates and products beyond pure temperature effect [7]. With the application of coated wall flow-tubes, the aim of this study is therefore to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation by ozone interaction while attempting to characterize the contributions of the bulk and surface reactions to observed ozone uptake. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix whose viscosity changes with temperature and humidity. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. Comparison of measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake at different matrix compositions (and viscosities) indicate that bulk reactive uptake dominates, but there are other factors which still need further consideration in the model. References 1. Barrie, L.A., et al., Nature, 1988. 334: p. 138 - 141. 2. Hebestreit, K., et al., Science, 1999. 283: p. 55-57. 3. Simpson, W.R., et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2007. 7: p. 4375 - 4418. 4. Haag, R.W. and J. Hoigné, Environ Sci Technol, 1983. 17: p. 261-267. 5. Oum, K.W., et

  16. Measurement-based modeling of bromine-induced oxidation of mercury above the Dead Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs outside the polar regions – driven by high levels of reactive bromine species (RBS – were observed recently in the warm Dead Sea boundary layer. Efficient oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM under temperate conditions by RBS was unexpected considering that the thermal back dissociation reaction of HgBr, a proposed key mechanism, is more than 2.5 orders of magnitude higher under Dead Sea temperatures compared with polar temperatures. The goal of this study was to improve understanding of RBS-mercury interactions using numerical simulations based on a comprehensive measurement campaign performed at the Dead Sea during summer 2009.

    Results demonstrate a high efficiency and central role of BrOx (i.e., Br + BrO for AMDEs at the Dead Sea, with relative contributions for GEM depletion of more than ~90 %. BrO was found to be the dominant oxidant with relative contribution above 80 %. Best agreement between simulations and observations was achieved by applying rate constants for kHg+Br and kHg+BrO of 2.7×10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and 1.5 × 10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively – indicating that kHg+BrO is higher than most reported values and that BrO is a more efficient oxidant than Br in the ozone-rich atmosphere (i.e., for [BrO]/[Br] >2. This further explains why the efficiency of GEM oxidation by reactive bromine species at the Dead Sea doesn't critically depend on Br and, therefore, is comparable to the efficiency in polar regions even under much higher temperatures. These findings also support the hypothesis identified in a previous study, that Br-induced GEM depletion can be important above oceans in the mid-latitudes and tropics. In the presence of anthropogenic NO2, RBS activity can lead to enhanced NO3

  17. Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic. An overview of spatial and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, C. de [Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Alaee, M.; Muir, D. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which entered into force on May 17, 2004, includes wording that chemicals with the characteristics of POPs are those found in locations ''distant from sources'' and those for which ''monitoring data showing that long-range environmental transport of the chemical may have occurred''. Thus, the Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessment of persistence and bioaccumulation. The Arctic environment is well suited as a region in which to evaluate POPs. Some regions of thee Arctic, particularly the Barents Sea area north of Norway and western Russia are relatively close to source regions of POPs. Cold conditions favor persistence of POPs relative to temperate or tropical environments. The presence of fourth level carnivores (e.g. polar bears and seabirds), and storage of lipid as an energy source, make Arctic food webs vulnerable to bioaccumulative chemicals. Indigenous people in the Arctic utilizing a traditional diet, which is high in nutritionally beneficial fat, results in their elevated exposure to some POPs. The first indication that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were reaching the Arctic was the detection by Jansson et al. of lower molecular weight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Svalbard Brunnichfs guillemots (130 ng/g lipid weight) and ringed seals (40 ng/g lw) collected in 1981. Whitefish collected from Lake Storvindeln in 1986, a pristine mountain lake in the Swedish mountains near Ammarnas, had {sigma}PBDE levels of 26 ng/g lw. Despite these early findings, only recently have the spatial and temporal trends of BFRs been studied in detail in the Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to review the new data on BFRs in the Arctic and assess whether this information supports the view that PBDEs and other BFRs of similar molecular weight are POPs and potential global pollutants. This review is based on a recent assessment of POPs

  18. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  19. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  20. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  1. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  2. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  3. Magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Salabert, D

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest results on the solar-stellar connection by studying 18 solar analogs that we identified among the Kepler seismic sample (Salabert et al., 2016a). We measured their magnetic activity properties using observations collected by the Kepler satellite and the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S) magnetic activity proxies of these seismic solar analogs are compared in relation to solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is actually comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs. Furthermore, we report on the discovery of temporal variability in the acoustic frequencies of the young (1 Gyr-old) solar analog KIC10644253 with a modulation of about 1.5 years, which agrees with the derived photospheric activity (Salabert et al., 2016b). It could actually be the signature of the short-period modulation, or quasi-biennal oscillation, of its magnetic activity as observed in the Sun and the 1-Gyr-old solar analog HD30495. In...

  4. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  5. Synoptic-scale meteorological control on reactive bromine production and ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer: 3-D simulation with the GEM-AQ model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toyota

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of high bromine levels and surface ozone depletion in the springtime Arctic are simulated by an online air-quality model, GEM-AQ, with gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of inorganic bromine species and a simple scheme of air-snowpack chemical interactions implemented for this study. Snowpack on sea ice is assumed to be the only source of bromine to the atmosphere and capable of converting relatively stable bromine species to photolabile Br2 via air-snowpack interactions. A "bromine explosion", by which Br retained in the snowpack is autocatalytically released to the atmosphere as a result of dry deposition of HOBr and BrONO2, is assumed to occur on young, first-year (FY sea ice (or its overlying snowpack, whereas the snowpack on old, multi-year (MY sea ice and over land is assumed only to recycle a part (but up to 100% of bromine reservoirs lost via dry deposition back to Br2. Model runs are performed for April 2001 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 100 km × 100 km in the Arctic. The model simulates temporal variations in surface ozone mixing ratios as observed at stations in the high Arctic and the synoptic-scale evolution of enhanced BrO column amounts ("BrO clouds" as seen from satellite reasonably well. The results strongly suggest: (1 a ubiquitous source of reactive bromine exists on the FY sea ice during the Arctic springtime; and (2 the timing of bromine release to the atmosphere is largely controlled by meteorological forcing on the transport of ozone to the near-surface air. Also, if the surface snowpack supplies most of the reactive bromine in the Arctic boundary layer, it should be capable of releasing reactive bromine at temperatures as high as −10 °C, particularly on the FY sea ice in the central and eastern Arctic Ocean. Dynamically-induced BrO column variability in the lowermost stratosphere appears to interfere with the use of satellite BrO column

  6. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  7. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  8. Value and Limitations of Analogs in Teaching Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.

    Analogical reasoning is frequently used in acquisition of mathematical concepts. Concrete representations used to teach mathematics are essentially analogs of mathematical concepts, and it is argued that analogies enter into mathematical concept acquisition in numerous other ways as well. According to Gentner's theory, analogies entail a…

  9. Analog Forecasting with Dynamics-Adapted Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Analog forecasting is a non-parametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems and kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning. The first improvement is to augment the dimension of the initial data using Takens' delay-coordinate maps to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations. Then, instead of using Euclidean distances between the states, weighted ensembles of analogs are constructed according to similarity kernels in delay-coordinate space, featuring an explicit dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions ...

  10. On Lovelock analogs of the Riemann tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camanho, Xian O. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is possible to define an analog of the Riemann tensor for Nth order Lovelock gravity, its characterizing property being that the trace of its Bianchi derivative yields the corresponding analog of the Einstein tensor. Interestingly there exist two parallel but distinct such analogs and the main purpose of this note is to reconcile both formulations. In addition we will introduce a simple tensor identity and use it to show that any pure Lovelock vacuum in odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions is Lovelock flat, i.e. any vacuum solution of the theory has vanishing Lovelock-Riemann tensor. Further, in the presence of cosmological constant it is the Lovelock-Weyl tensor that vanishes. (orig.)

  11. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known......Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...

  12. Analog Module Placement Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel genetic algorithm for analog module placement based on ageneralization of the two-dimensional bin packing problem. The genetic encoding and operators assure that allproblem constraints are always satisfied. Thus the potential problems of adding penalty terms to the costfunction are eliminated so that the search configuration space is drastically decreased. The dedicated costfunction is based on the special requirements of analog integrated circuits. A fractional factorial experimentwas conducted using an orthogonal array to study the algorithm parameters. A meta GA was applied todetermine the optimal parameter values. The algorithm was tested with several local benchmark circuits. Theexperimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than the simulated annealing approachwith satisfactory results comparable to manual placement. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of thegenetic algorithm in the analog module placement problem. The algorithm has been successfully used in alayout synthesis tool.

  13. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  14. Assessing oestrogenic effects of brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A on MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosh, A; Děd, L; Elzeinová, F; Pěknicová, J

    2011-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the main flame retardant used in printed circuit boards and laminates. The human population is highly exposed to TBBPA as it is used in consumer electronics as well as office and communication equipment. The main use of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is in insulation foam boards, which are widely used in the construction sector. Brominated flame retardants may possess endocrine disrupting activity and thus represent a threat to the environment, including humans and their reproduction. The aim of this work was to evaluate the oestrogenic effects of TBBPA and HBCD in vitro on MCF-7 cells. We used the proliferation test (E-screen assay) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of TFF1 gene expression to analyse oestrogenicity of the studied compounds. RT-qPCR has proved to be a fast and valuable molecular technique in gene expression quantification. HBCD but not TBBPA increased cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells and up-regulated TFF1 gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780 inhibited up-regulation of TFF1 by HBCD. We have shown that HBCD displays oestrogen- like effects on MCF-7 cells. TBBPA, on the other hand, has not shown any oestrogenic effect mediated by the oestrogen receptor α.

  15. Crystal structure of a photobiologically active brominated angular pyranocoumarin: bromo-hydroxy-seselin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bauri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H13BrO3 [systematic name: rac-(9S,10R-9-bromo-10-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-9,10-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-2-one], is a substituted pyranocoumarin, obtained by bromination of seselin [8,8-dimethyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-2-one], which was isolated from the Indian herb Trachyspermum stictocarpum (Aajmod. The pyrano ring has a distorted half-chair conformation and its mean plane is inclined to the coumarin mean plane by 1.6 (2°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(16 ring motif. The dimers stack along the a-axis direction and are linked by offset π–π interactions, forming columns [intercentroid distance = 3.514 (4 Å].

  16. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  17. A study of the presence of brominated flame retardants in Australian fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R.; Burniston, D.; Piro, N.; Stevenson, G.; Yates, A. [Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants, in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) gained prominence in the late nineties when Noren et al. reported an exponential increase in PBDE levels found in Swedish mothers milk over a quarter of a century period with an associated decrease in levels of dioxin-like compounds. PBDEs have since become exceptionally widely studied being detected in most environmental compartments and food as well as human tissues. Only limited information on the distribution if PBDEs is available for the Southern Hemisphere, however, elevated levels of PBDEs in pork fat were detected during the routine screening for organochlorine pesticide residues. More recently an investigation of breast milk for PBDE levels also demonstrated that levels were comparable with those in the Northern Hemisphere. BFRs are not manufactured in Australia but it has been estimated that over 500 tonnes are imported yearly of which 340 tonnes are PBDEs. In addition, the amount of PBDEs that are contained in imported articles used both in domestic and industrial applications is unknown. In this paper, we report levels of PBDEs in a range of different Australian fauna that show that these POPs have indeed become widely distributed both in terms of the types of the fauna but also the levels determined.

  18. Persistent brominated and chlorinated dioxin blood levels in a chemist. 35 years after dioxin exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Ryan, J.J. (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, SUNY Health Science Center-Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1992-07-01

    This is the first report on occupational health hazards to dioxin chemists associated with laboratory exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzodioxin (TBrDD), and further characterizes the human response to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). In this case study the chemist was exposed on two separate occasions. In March 1956, after synthesizing 10 g of TBrDD, the chemist suffered from mild and transient chloracne of the neck and wrists; in September 1956, after synthesizing 16 g of TCDD, he suffered severe chloracne of the entire body, headaches, backache, and leg pain on exertion. His measured 2,3,7,8-TBrDD in 1991 was 625 parts per trillion (ppt) in whole blood lipid, 35 years after initial exposure and 18 ppt TCDD, an elevated level in comparison with the mean 2,3,7,8-TCDD level of 5 ppt in the US population. This is the first reported detection of a brominated dioxin in human tissue. The total halogenated dioxin body burden in September 1956 is estimated to have been between 13,005 ppt and 146,726 ppt. This amount can be considered to be, at least in this person, a strong chloracnegenic dose, and a dose causing human nervous system and muscular or circulatory system responses. This uptake demonstrates an occupational hazard to chemists and chemical workers, and the usefulness of human tissue dioxin measurements to document absorption.

  19. Brominated diphenyl ether levels. A comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Reiner, E.J. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ho, T.; Kleywegt, S. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dove, A.; Marvin, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    PBDEs are persistent in the environment, have low water solubility and are known to have a tendency to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. There are 209 possible PBDE congeners. There has been concern over the bioaccumulation of these compounds since they have been found in mother's milk. Some of the brominated diphenyl ethers are known to metabolize into hydroxylated compounds and these metabolites are known to compete with and reduce thyroxine (T4) from binding to the thyroxine binding protein, transthyretin. This disrupts the thyroid hormone system interaction that has recently been notable amongst women in the form of hypothyroidism that can affect the fetus development in the form of neurodevelopmental deficits. There have been reports of estrogenic activities regarding PBDEs and their hydroxylated counterparts. Information such as this is indicative that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBDEs have a high binding affinity to particulates and accumulate in sediments. Various reports on sediments and sludge type matrices have been reported in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands and Canada. The following paper is a presentation of levels of PBDEs found in Tributary sediments and their comparison of levels to nearby biosolid sampling locations along Lake Ontario.

  20. QSAR classification models for the prediction of endocrine disrupting activity of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-06-15

    The identification of potential endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals is an important task for the scientific community due to their diffusion in the environment; the production and use of such compounds will be strictly regulated through the authorization process of the REACH regulation. To overcome the problem of insufficient experimental data, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is applied to predict the ED activity of new chemicals. In the present study QSAR classification models are developed, according to the OECD principles, to predict the ED potency for a class of emerging ubiquitary pollutants, viz. brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Different endpoints related to ED activity (i.e. aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonism and antagonism, estrogen receptor agonism and antagonism, androgen and progesterone receptor antagonism, T4-TTR competition, E2SULT inhibition) are modeled using the k-NN classification method. The best models are selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. We propose simple QSARs (based on few descriptors) characterized by internal stability, good predictive power and with a verified applicability domain. These models are simple tools that are applicable to screen BFRs in relation to their ED activity, and also to design safer alternatives, in agreement with the requirements of REACH regulation at the authorization step.