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Sample records for bromhexine

  1. Simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in tablets by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P. N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 4 in the ratio 60:20:20 v/v. The column used was SS Wakosil-II C-18 with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 224 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 10-110 µg/ml and 20-140 µg/ml for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recovery was found to be 95-105% for salbutamol sulphate and 96.2-102.1% for bromhexine hydrochloride when determined at five different levels.

  2. Simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl in tablets by first-derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantishaiyakul, V; Poeaknapo, C; Sribun, P; Sirisuppanon, K

    1998-06-01

    A rapid, simple and direct assay procedure based on first-derivative spectrophotometry, using a zero-crossing and peak-to-base measurement at 234 and 324 nm, respectively, has been developed for the specific determination of dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl in tablets. Calibration graphs were linear with the correlation coefficients of 0.9999 for both analytes. The limit of detections were 0.033 and 0.103 microgram ml-1 for dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl, respectively. A HPLC method has been developed as the reference method. The results obtained by the first-derivative spectrophotometry were in good agreement with those found by the HPLC method.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Films of Bromhexine HCl - A Patient Friendly Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pandurang Ayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating orodispersible forms of the mucolytic drug, Bromhexine HCl to enhance convenience and compliance to the elderly and paediatric patients for better therapeutic efficacy. Orodispersible films of Bromhexine HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Formulation studies were carried out using different polymer combinations, the obtained films were evaluated for their appearance, color, elegance, continuity, texture, presence of air bubbles, stickiness to Petri dish, cracks, cuttings, and imperfections. Alginate and HPMC based films recorded the fastest disintegration when used alone and in mixtures with PVP-K25 and maltodextrin. Xanthan gum film had the longest disintegration time. Moreover, adding xanthan gum, Na CMC, and carbopol prolonged the disintegration time of HPMC and alginate films. A good correlation existed between the calculated dissolution rate of each film and its disintegration time. Formulas F1and F7 showed the highest resistance against moisture absorption and recoded tensile strength values of 15.47 and 17.16 kg/mm2, respectively after storage. Films based on HPMC alone or in combination with other polymers exhibited high resistance against moisture absorption except with Na CMC. Alginate and xanthan gum based films had a higher affinity for moisture absorption. The addition of maltodextrin significantly decreased the percentage moisture absorption after storage at 97% relative humidity. This effect was concentration-dependent. Thus disintegration time of film was 25 s, drug content 92.4 % and drug release was 96.3 %. The developed formulation was found to be stable under the conditions tested.

  4. [Experimental studies on the question of an adjuvant function of bromhexine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOtz, V H

    1975-04-01

    On a possible adjuvant function of a bronchosecretolytic preparation commercially available, N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-amine-hydrochloride (bromhexine, Bisolvon-R), sensibilization tests on 30 rabbits were undertaken. 5 animals received Bisolvon and human albumin as antigen, 5 rabbits human albumin only, 5 rabbits Bisolvon and human lymphocytes, 5 rabbits human lymphocytes only, 5 rabbits Bisolvon alone, and 5 received neither Bisolvon nor any antigen. The techniques in these studies, such as two-dimensional double immunodiffusion in agar gel, lymphocytotoxicity test, mixed lymphocyte culture test, electrophoresis on cellulose-acetate foil were used as well as histologic preparations. It could be ascertained that sensitizing with human albumin and simultaneous application of Bisolvon led to a higher concentration of antibodies against albumin than did sensitizing with human albumin alone. Rabbits sensitized with human lymphocytes showed no obvious difference in their antibody rates whether they had received Bisolvon or not. This applied to cell mediated antibodies as well as to the rate of cytotoxic antibodies against human lymphocytes. Among the histologic findings of spleen, bone marrow showed the morphologic equivalences expected from xenosensitization. Comparing the results of sensitized rabbits with and without Bisolvon there were no positive differences as to intensity and/or type of reactivity to be seen. Liver and kidney showed no considerable pathologic phenomena with the exception of some cases with coccidiosis in the bile ductuli. Concerning the bronchial mucosa, in all rabbits treated with Bisolvon an increase of mucine enriched goblet cells as well as a hypergranulation of different epithelial cell types could be observed. Moreover in all animals, including the controls, an intense lymphatic infilitration in the subepithelial and submucous area was identified. The increased antibody concentration in the sera of animals from

  5. [Bromhexine residues in calves, pigs, and in the milk of cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, V D; Kreuzer, H

    1975-04-01

    After several oral applications of N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-aminehydrochloride (bromhexine, Bisolvon-R) to various calves and pigs the residue behaviour was examined. In animals slaughtered immediately after the final application significant amounts of Bisolvon were found. The substance showed a greater affinity to liver and fat tissue whilst, in general, in the muscle tissue, the lungs and kidneys only very small amounts were traceable. In the liver and lungs 3 different metabolites appeared in small quantities. They were partly in conjugated and partly in free form. Within 2 days the amounts greatly decreased and after 7 days at the latest, no residues were traceable; only in the fat of both animal species and in the kidneys of the calves were small quantities of Bisolvon still to be found. Excretion by the milk following oral and parenteral application was also studied. Only traces of Bisolvon were found, which rapidly decreased. Results of the studies show that, neither at a later date of slaughtering nor immediately after the final application, the residues in the animal tissues and in the milk examined present a danger to the health of the human consumer.

  6. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porel, A; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 μl. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R(2) >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup.

  7. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  8. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  9. Curative effect of bromhexine hydrochloride and glucose injection in the treatment of senile chronic bronchitis during the attack stage%盐酸溴己新葡萄糖注射液治疗老年慢性支气管炎发作期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志润

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of bromhexine hydrochloride and glucose injection in the treatment of senile chronic bronchitis during the attack stage.Methods:96 cases of elderly patients with chronic bronchitis during the attack stage were divided into two groups randomly,with 48 cases in each group.The control group was given conventional comprehensive treatment,and the treatment group was given bromhexine hydrochloride and glucose injection treatment based on the control group. The clinical curative effect of the two groups was compared.Results:The total effective rate of the treatment group was 93.7%,and the total effective rate of the control group was 70.83%.The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Bromhexine hydrochloride and glucose injection in the treatment of senile chronic bronchitis during the attack stage had significant clinical curative effect.%目的:观察盐酸溴己新葡萄糖注射液治疗老年慢性支气管炎发作期疗效。方法:收治老年慢性支气管炎发作期患者96例,随机分成两组,每组48例。对照组给予常规综合治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上给予盐酸溴己新葡萄糖注射液治疗,比较两组临床疗效。结果:治疗组总有效率93.7%,对照组总有效率70.83%。治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:盐酸溴己新葡萄糖注射液治疗老年慢性支气管炎发作期临床疗效显著。

  10. Pharmacokinetic interaction between cefaclor and bromhexine in healthy Chinese volunteers%头孢克洛与溴己新在中国健康人体内药动学环节的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚倩; 胡哲益; 黄志壮; 王黎青; 刘文芳; 郭歆; 曹伟; 王霆; 程泽能

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究头孢克洛和溴己新在中国健康成人体内药动学环节的相互作用.方法:采用3×3拉丁方试验设计,12名健康受试者在不同周期内分别多剂量口服头孢克洛片、盐酸溴己新片或头孢克洛片加盐酸溴己新片,周期间洗脱时间(Wash-out)为14 d.血及尿样中头孢克洛浓度采用HPLC-UV法测定,溴己新浓度采用HPLC-MS法测定.结果:将合并给予头孢克洛及溴己新组与单独给予头孢克洛组的主要药动学参数进行比较.头孢克洛的Cmax,AUC0-6(梯形面积)经对数转化后进行方差分析,结果表明二者均无统计学差异,双单侧t检验表明,两参数均落在各自相应的90%可信区间内,合用与单独使用相比,头孢克洛生物等效.tmax经Mann-Whitney检验,结果表明两组间无统计学差异.其他药动学参数(如:Vd/F,t1/2,Clr及MRT等)进行方差分析,结果显示:Vd/F有统计学差异,其他参数无统计学差异.将合并给予头孢克洛和溴己新组与单独给予溴己新组的主要药动学参数进行比较.溴己新的主要药动学参数Cmax,AUC0-24(梯形面积)经对数转化后进行方差分析,结果表明二者无统计学差异,双单侧t检验表明,两参数均落在各自相应的90%可信区间内,合用与单独使用相比,溴己新生物等效.tmax经Mann-Whitney检验,结果表明无统计学差异.其他药动学参数(如:Vd/F,t1/2,Clr及MRT)进行方差分析,参数均无统计学差异.结论:联合服用盐酸溴己新片与头孢克洛,药物的吸收、代谢及排泄不受影响;头孢克洛的表观分布容积高于单用头孢克洛,这可能是两药药效学协同作用的药动学基础.%Objective To determine the pharmacokinetic interaction between cefalor and bromhexine in healthy Chinese volunteers. Methods Twelve subjects received a cefaclor (CEF) treatment, a bromhexine (BHX) treatment, and a co-treatment of CEF and BHX with a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The wash-out time between

  11. Clinical observation of Treating Capillarity Bronchitis with Bromhexine Hydrochloride%盐酸溴己新治疗毛细支气管炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 龚先明; 黄海忠

    2007-01-01

    目的 评价盐酸溴己新静脉给药佐治毛细支气管炎的疗效. 方法 选择毛细支气管炎患者74例,随机分为治疗组36例和对照组38例.对照组常规抗感染、解痉平喘、止咳治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上辅以盐酸溴己新静脉治疗. 结果 治疗组喘憋、气促、肺部体征恢复情况明显优于对照组,总有效率94.4%,明显高于对照组68.4%,而且病程明显缩短(P<0.01). 结论 盐酸溴己新静脉给药佐治毛细支气管炎疗效显著.

  12. HPLC-MS assay for the determination of bromhexine in human plasma and application to bioequivalence studies%HPLC-MS法测定人血浆中溴己新浓度及生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯; 冯芳; 王娅

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立人血浆中溴己新的高效液相色谱-质谱测定方法.研究受试制剂克洛己新片中溴己新在人体内的药代动力学,评价其相对生物利用度和生物等效性.方法:20 名健康男性受试者随机分成2组,采用自身对照交叉给药的方式,分别单剂量口服受试或参比制剂,剂量均为溴己新 16 mg (相当于盐酸溴己新 17.5 mg )/头孢克洛 500 mg ,采用高效液相色谱-质谱法测定血药浓度.结果:志愿者口服受试和参比制剂后,溴己新的药动学参数如下:Cmax分别为(34.30 ± 7.02)ngmL-1和(35.06 ± 8.39)ngmL-1,tmax分别为(1.4 ± 0.6) h 和(1.0 ± 0.5)h,t1/2分别为(5.75 ± 0.82) h和(6.12 ± 0.62)h,CL分别为(123.9 ± 13.3)Lh-1和(129.2 ± 16.4)Lh-1 ,AUC0-24分别为(125.2 ± 16.1)nghmL-1和(119.8 ± 16.1)nghmL-1;溴己新的相对生物利用度为(106.0 ± 15.3)%.结论:试验建立的分析方法准确、灵敏、快速,统计结果表明受试制剂与参比制剂中溴己新生物等效.

  13. Antimicrobial synergy between carprofen and doxycycline against methicill-inresistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Helmfrid, Linn Alexandra; Jana, Bimal

    2016-01-01

    . Seven non-antimicrobial drugs (bromhexine, acepromazine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, carprofen, fluoxetine and ketoconazole) displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 32 and >4096 mg/L, and enhanced antimicrobial activity of one or more antimicrobials. Secondary screening...

  14. Huidreacties toegeschreven aan het gebruik van broomhexine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riemsdijk, M M; van der Klauw, M M; Stricker, B H; Herings, R M

    1994-01-01

    Since 1972, the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs has received 22 reports of skin reactions attributed to use of bromhexine. The reports concerned II men and II women. The ages ranged between 5 months and 88 years. The skin reactions occurred within one to 30 days after

  15. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ МУКОАКТИВНЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ В ПРАКТИКЕ ТЕРАПЕВТА

    OpenAIRE

    МАЛЫХИН Ф.Т.; ВИЗЕЛЬ А.А.; ВИЗЕЛЬ И.Ю.

    2013-01-01

    Russia is among the countries where using of mucolytic drugs in clinical practice is widespread. In chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory syndrome with prolonged cough, pneumonia, tuberculosis and many other pathologies using of expectorants and mucoregulating drugs is common. Among the synthetic mucolytics benzyalamine bromhexine has been introduced for a long time in practice; and then its derivative — ambroxol hydrochloride which has better pharmacoki...

  16. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ МУКОАКТИВНЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ В ПРАКТИКЕ ТЕРАПЕВТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф. Т. Малыхин

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is among the countries where using of mucolytic drugs in clinical practice is widespread. In chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory syndrome with prolonged cough, pneumonia, tuberculosis and many other pathologies using of expectorants and mucoregulating drugs is common. Among the synthetic mucolytics benzyalamine bromhexine has been introduced for a long time in practice; and then its derivative — ambroxol hydrochloride which has better pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Using of ambroxol (Ambrobene in patients with cough, accompanied by difficult expectoration, is useful as it promotes the implementation of the protective cough reflex, providing evacuation of viscous mucus or foreign particles from the respiratory tract.

  17. Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    -, γ- and sulfobutylether (SBE)-β-CD, respectively, was elucidated by means of phase solubility diagrams and calorimetric analysis. The complexes were further characterized by size, and the effect of the CD concentrations used was evaluated in a viability assay. From phase solubility diagrams with α...... in the phase solubility studies explaining the difference in the association constants between the two methods. Due to very low signal to noise ratio, no information was extracted for bromhexine/γ-CD solutions from the ITC measurements. The effect on cellular viability of the CDs ranked β- > α- > SBE-β- > γ...

  18. Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Assay of Etoricoxib (A Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Topalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate, sensitive and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative determination of Etoricoxib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The assay was performed on Hypersil ODS C-18 (250 x 4.6 mm., 5µm particle size column using acetonitrile and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 4.2 (46:54 % v/v as mobile phase with UV detection at 280 nm (flow rate 1.2 ml/min. Bromhexine was used as an internal standard. Quantization was achieved by measurement of the peak area ratio of the drug to the internal standard. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were 0.0704 µg ml-1 and 0.2134 µg ml-1 respectively. Each analysis required no longer than 10 minutes. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range from 0.5-85.0 µg ml-1. The retention times of Etoricoxib and Bromhexine were found to be 3.083 and 7.631 minutes respectively. The proposed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and can be used successfully to analyse marketed formulations.

  19. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  20. 厄多司坦祛痰作用的疗效观察%Expectorant effect of erdosteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the expectorant effect of erdosteine made in China. Methods Seventy-eight patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=40)and control group(n=38).The patients in treatment group were administrated with erdosteine capsules 300 mg orally twice a day, and the patients in control group were administrated with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets 16 mg orally three times a day for 7 days. Results The total effective rates of rates of treatment and control group were 67.5% and 57.9%, and there was no significant difference between two groups (P >0.05). The effective rates of expectorant of treatment and control group were 85.0% and 63.1% respectively, and there was significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). The rates of adverse reaction were 5% and 7.9% respectively,and there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion China made erdosteine capsule is as safe and effective as bromhexine hydrochloride for expectoration.%目的 观察国产厄多司坦祛痰作用的疗效.方法 78例患者随机分为治疗组(n:40)和对照组锄=38),治疗组口服国产厄多司坦胶囊300 mg,一日2次:对照组口服溴已新片16 mg,一日3次.疗程均为7天.结果 治疗组和对照组的临床总有效率分别为67.5%和57.9%,两组对比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);祛痰有效率分别为85.0%和63.1%,两组比较有显著性差异(P0.05).结论 国产厄多司坦胶囊用于祛痰治疗疗效和安全性与溴已新相当.

  1. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  2. Crystallo-co-agglomeration: A novel particle engineering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradkar Anant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA is a novel particle engineering/design technique developed by Kadam et al, to overcome the limitations of spherical crystallization (SC. Basically, it′s single step process used for size enlargement of single, two or more, small dose or large dose drugs, in combination with or without diluent. The process of CCA involves simultaneous crystallization and agglomeration of drug/s with/without excipients/s from good solvent and/or bridging liquid by addition of a non-solvent. Till date CCA has been applied for spherical agglomeration of talc, bromhexine hydrochloride-talc, ibuprofen-talc, ibuprofen-paracetamol, and naproxen-starch. The spherical agglomerates obtained by CCA can be used as intact beads (encapsulated spansules or directly compressible tablet intermediates having satisfactory micromeritic (flowability, mechanical (friability, crushing, compressional (compressibility, compactibility, and drug release properties. Modified drug release from agglomerates and compacts thereof can be achieved using suitable polymer composition in the process design. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCA is a simple and cost effective process, which can be tailor-made for particle design of all majority of drugs and combinations thereof.

  3. Synthesis and Spectra of Functional Unsymmetrial Trimethine Cyanine Dyes%不对称功能性吲哚三甲川菁染料的合成及光谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷迎春; 费学宁; 刘玉茹; 王义启

    2012-01-01

    以苯肼盐酸盐为原料,将其与甲基异丙基酮通过闭环反应,生成2,3,3-三甲基吲哚的衍生物,再经过与溴乙烷、六溴己酸反应成吲哚盐,然后和二甲脒反应得到吲哚乙烯基苯胺,最后合成了两种不同取代基团的水溶性的不对称三甲川吲哚菁染料,并通过核磁、质谱等测试手段对其结构进行表征.研究了该染料的紫外吸收光谱和荧光光谱.%The 2,3,3-trimethyl indole derivatives were synthesized by closed-loop reaction from phenylhydrazine derivatives and methyl isopropyl ketone.Then the 2,3,3-trimethyl indole derivatives were alkylated by ethyl bromide,6-bromhexine acid to afford indole salts,which then were reacted with N,N'-diphenylformamidine to get indole ethylene aniline.At last,the unsymmetrical water soluble cyanine dyes with two different functional groups were synthesized.The structures of the dyes were characterized by 1HNMR,MS.The UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the dyes were also studied.

  4. Analysis of 76 veterinary pharmaceuticals from 13 classes including aminoglycosides in bovine muscle by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Michali, Christina S; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-06-24

    A multiresidue/multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of 76 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals in bovine muscle tissue has been developed and validated according to the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The analytes belong in 13 different classes, including aminoglycoside antibiotics, whose different physicochemical properties (extremely polar character) render their simultaneous determination with other veterinary drugs quite problematic. The method combines a two-step extraction procedure (extraction with acetonitrile followed by an acidic aqueous buffer extraction) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) determination, allowing confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. Further cleanup with solid phase extraction was performed using polymeric SPE cartridges. A thorough ionization study of aminoglycosides was performed in order to increase their sensitivity and significant differences in the abundance of the precursor ions of the analytes were revealed, depending on the composition of the mobile phase tested. Further gradient elution optimization and injection solvent optimization were performed for all target analytes.The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. Recoveries varied from 37.4% (bromhexine) to 106% (kanamycin) in the lowest validation level and 82% of the compounds showed recovery >70%. Detection capability (CCβ) varied from 2.4 (salinomycin) to 1302 (apramycin) μgkg(-1).

  5. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration.

  6. Clinical Study on Hydrochloride Ambroxol Oral Medication Treatment of Bronchitis%盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩哜萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect of hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication treatment of bronchitis is to be investigated. Methods Choose 108 bronchitis patients who are treated in hospital from October 2013 to June 2014 and separate them into control group and study group according to random number table; patients in control group are given bromhexine medication treatment,while patients in study group are given hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication treatment and then compare treatment effects between two groups. Results Treatment effect in study group is much more favorable than that in control group; there is a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication is of efficacy in treatment of bronchitis; such a treatment approach is quite worthwhile to be promoted and applied clinical y.%目的:对盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎的临床效果进行探究。方法选取于2013年10月~2014年6月收治的108例支气管炎患者,采用随机数字表法分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者给予溴己新治疗,观察组患者给予盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗,对两组患者治疗效果进行对比分析。结果观察组的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎效果较为显著,值得在临床实践中推广使用。

  7. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar Manchukonda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and the mucous membranes. Various etiologic factors (e.g., infection, drugs and malignancies have been implicated as causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. However, as many as half of the cases are idiopathic. Bastuji and Roujeau proposed that the denomination of Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be used for a syndrome characterized by mucous membrane erosions and widespread small blisters that arise on erythematous or purpuric maculae that are different from classic targets. In this case report, a 6 year old girl who was administered a cough syrup (containing bromhexine, guaiphenesin, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid dispersible tablet for the treatment of cough developed pruritic skin eruptions all over the body along with painful erosions on the tongue, buccal mucosa, genital and anal mucosa. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome was made. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was identified as the culprit based on the temporal relationship between the drug administration and the appearance of the rashes and based on a number of SJS reports implicating amoxycillin and clavulanic acid having been published before. The cough syrup and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination tablets were immediately stopped. Symptomatic treatment was administered. The child improved and was later discharged. Causality assessment using Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed that amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was a possible cause for the harmful cutaneous adverse reaction with a score of 4. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1140-1144

  8. Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Fahmy, Ossama T; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2010-11-15

    This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and

  9. 小儿咳嗽的中医临床治疗效果观察%Clinical treatment of children with cough in traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the TCM clinical treatment of infantile cough.Methods From March 2014 to Augst 2015 in our hospital for treatment of 84 cases of chronic cough were included in the study, according to the different treatment of the 84 patients were divided into TCM treatment group (n=42) and Western Medicine group (n=42). The Chinese medicine treatment group, using traditional Chinese medicine therapy, drug selection of infantile Feirekechuan oral liquid for the treatment of Western medicine group, with Ambroxol Hydrochloride Oral Solution, Bromhexine Hydrochloride Tablets, Compound Codeine Phosphate Solution, Compound Pholcodine Oral Solution, budesonide, salbutamol sulfate aerosol (Wan Tuolin), Pediatric Paracetamol Atificial Cow-bezoar and Chlorphenamine Maleate Granules. Pediatric Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Drops and other treatment, compared two groups of children with cough, expectoration, changes in breathing.Results TCM treatment group in cough, sputum, wheezing, improve the situation, better than western medicine treatment group, the above data were significant difference (P < 0.05), the difference is statistically significant.Conclusion The author thinks that, for children with cough, symptomatic treatment can obtain ideal curative effect, in this regard, Chinese medicine treatment method is superior to the traditional western medicine therapy and the treatment measures worthy of a wide range of promotion and use in clinical.%目的:研究并分析小儿咳嗽的中医临床治疗方式。方法:将2014年3月~2015年8月在我院接受治疗的84例慢性咳嗽患儿纳入到本研究,按照治疗方式的不同将84例患儿分为中医治疗组(n=42)与西医治疗组(n=42),对于中医治疗组,采用中药疗法,药物选择小儿肺热咳喘口服液,对于西医治疗组,采用盐酸氨溴索口服液、盐酸溴已新片、复方磷酸可待因溶液、复

  10. 沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病的临床疗效%Clinical efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone in treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国锋; 谭亚夏; 秦茵茵

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松吸入剂(舒利迭)对稳定期、重度及重度以上的慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者肺功能的影响和总经济费用的改变.方法 将明确诊断的90例COPD患者随机分为对照组和试验组,对照组给予溴已新(必嗽平)和缓释茶碱片(舒弗美),必嗽平16 mg口服,每日3次,舒弗美0.2g口服,每12小时1次,试验组在对照组治疗基础上给予舒利迭50/500 μg,每次1吸,每12小时1次.观察期为6个月,期间各组均可按需使用短效扩张剂.在疗程前后分别检测肺功能指标和症状评分,并记录两组的总经济费用.结果 与对照组比较,治疗后试验组1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)(1.68±0.28)L vs(1.46±0.16) L( P<0.05)、用力肺活量(FVC)(3.43±0.5) Lvs(3.02±0.4)L(P<0.05)、FEV1/FVC(53.4±9.0 vs 48.9±5.8,P<0.01);症状评分(37.6±0.9)分vs(42.5±0.8)分均有不同程度的改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组的急性加重次数、住院次数及天数、总经济费用明显低于对照组(均P <0.01).结论 舒利迭能够改善稳定期、严重程度为重度及重度以上COPD患者的肺功能,降低总经济费用.%Objective To observe the effects of inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone propionate(seretide) on lung function and economic cost of the patients with stable moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods 90 diagnosed COPD patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Baseline treatments were similar in all patients. In experimental group, twice-daily 50/500 μg dosage form of seretide was additionally given to the patients for six months. In control group,twice daily peroral slow-release theopylline (0. 2 g) and thrice daily peroral bromhexine hydrochloride(16 mg) were additionally given to the patients for six months. Before and after the treatment, lung functions of two groups were examined and economic cost was compared. Results At the end of