WorldWideScience

Sample records for bromhexine

  1. Efficacy of Pilocarpine and Bromhexine in Improving Radiotherapy-induced Xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Xerostomia is one of the most common complications of head and neck radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of pilocarpine and bromhexine in improving radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and its associated symptoms. Materials and methods. In this single-blind, randomized crossover study, pilocarpine and bromhexine tablets were used by twenty-five patients suffered from xerostomia, with a medical history of head and neck radiotherapy. At st...

  2. Development and evaluation of bromhexine hydrochloride floating microparticulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Harikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to prepare floating microsphere of the bromhexine hydrochloride in order to achieve gastro-retention which may result in the improvement of bioavailability and solubility as the bromhexine is soluble up to the pH range of 1-4. The microsphere is prepared by the non-aqueous solvent evaporation method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose in different drug polymer ratios. The in vitro release is studied in the USP dissolution apparatus type I. The percentage yield is more than 60% for the all the batches. The entrapment efficiency increased by increasing the polymer concentration and found to be maximum at 1:4 drug polymer ratios. The drug loading was found to be in the range of the 19.30-33.70%. All the batches show in vitro buoyancy percentage in the range of the 53.3% to 70.13% after 12 h. The in vitro dissolution and permeation studies revealed that the formulations followed zero order release pattern and ′n′ values derived from the PEPPAs equation confirmed that the drug release from the floating system was the non-Fickian transport mechanism. The SEM studies revealed that the drug adsorbed on the surface of the microspheres can able to provide the burst effect in order to provide the immediate therapeutic effect. Therefore, the floating microspheres were able to be buoyant up to 12 h, having excellent flow properties, and met the required drug release kinetics for gastro-retentive systems.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Films of Bromhexine HCl - A Patient Friendly Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pandurang Ayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating orodispersible forms of the mucolytic drug, Bromhexine HCl to enhance convenience and compliance to the elderly and paediatric patients for better therapeutic efficacy. Orodispersible films of Bromhexine HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Formulation studies were carried out using different polymer combinations, the obtained films were evaluated for their appearance, color, elegance, continuity, texture, presence of air bubbles, stickiness to Petri dish, cracks, cuttings, and imperfections. Alginate and HPMC based films recorded the fastest disintegration when used alone and in mixtures with PVP-K25 and maltodextrin. Xanthan gum film had the longest disintegration time. Moreover, adding xanthan gum, Na CMC, and carbopol prolonged the disintegration time of HPMC and alginate films. A good correlation existed between the calculated dissolution rate of each film and its disintegration time. Formulas F1and F7 showed the highest resistance against moisture absorption and recoded tensile strength values of 15.47 and 17.16 kg/mm2, respectively after storage. Films based on HPMC alone or in combination with other polymers exhibited high resistance against moisture absorption except with Na CMC. Alginate and xanthan gum based films had a higher affinity for moisture absorption. The addition of maltodextrin significantly decreased the percentage moisture absorption after storage at 97% relative humidity. This effect was concentration-dependent. Thus disintegration time of film was 25 s, drug content 92.4 % and drug release was 96.3 %. The developed formulation was found to be stable under the conditions tested.

  4. [Bromhexine residues in calves, pigs, and in the milk of cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, V D; Kreuzer, H

    1975-04-01

    After several oral applications of N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-aminehydrochloride (bromhexine, Bisolvon-R) to various calves and pigs the residue behaviour was examined. In animals slaughtered immediately after the final application significant amounts of Bisolvon were found. The substance showed a greater affinity to liver and fat tissue whilst, in general, in the muscle tissue, the lungs and kidneys only very small amounts were traceable. In the liver and lungs 3 different metabolites appeared in small quantities. They were partly in conjugated and partly in free form. Within 2 days the amounts greatly decreased and after 7 days at the latest, no residues were traceable; only in the fat of both animal species and in the kidneys of the calves were small quantities of Bisolvon still to be found. Excretion by the milk following oral and parenteral application was also studied. Only traces of Bisolvon were found, which rapidly decreased. Results of the studies show that, neither at a later date of slaughtering nor immediately after the final application, the residues in the animal tissues and in the milk examined present a danger to the health of the human consumer.

  5. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of terbutaline sulphate, bromhexine hydrochloride and guaifenesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Porel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 ml. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R 2 >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup.

  6. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porel, A; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 μl. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R(2) >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  7. Determination of bromhexine in cough-cold syrups by absorption spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration using partial least-squares and hybrid linear analyses. Application of a novel method of wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    1999-07-12

    The mucolitic bromhexine [N-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-N-methylcyclohexylamine] has been determined in cough suppressant syrups by multivariate spectrophotometric calibration, together with partial least-squares (PLS-1) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Notwithstanding the spectral overlapping between bromhexine and syrup excipients, as well as the intrinsic variability of the latter in unknown samples, the recoveries are excellent. A novel method of wavelength selection was also applied, based on the concept of net analyte signal regression, as adapted to the HLA methodology. This method allows one to improve the performance of both PLS-1 and HLA in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. PMID:18967655

  8. 溴己新治疗慢性支气管炎的疗效评价%Curative effect evaluation of bromhexine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓梓辛; 张美祥; 谭璐; 汪曲; 王树平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect and safety of bromhexine for chronic bronchitis .Methods We retrieve the database inclu‐ding PubMed ,the Cochrane library ,China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) ,Weip Database (VIP) and Wanfang Data . Eight randomized controlled trials (RCT ) comparing bromhexine with ambroxol ,Erchentang ,Kechuanning oral liquid ,S‐carboxy‐methylcysteine and placebo were included in this research .The course of treatment was more than 5 days .The Jadad quality tools was used for the quality evaluation of each study .Results There were 4 RCTs which compared bromhexine with ambroxol ,with significant difference in clinical overall efficacy [RR=0 .83 ,95% CI(0 .76 ,0 .91) ,P<0 .000 1] .The rest groups required descrip‐tive analysis for study quantity .Conclusion Chronic bronchitis can be treated effectively by bromhexine .However ,compared with ambroxol ,the result of quality grade and Meta‐analysis reveals lower curative effect .%目的:评价溴己新治疗慢性支气管炎的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索PubMed、Cochrane library、中国期刊全文数据库(China National Knowledge Internet ,CNKI)、维普数据库(Weip Database ,VIP)和万方数字化期刊全文数据库;纳入随机对照试验(Randomized Controlled Trial ,RCT)8篇,包括溴己新对比氨溴索、二陈汤、咳喘宁口服液、S‐羧甲半胱氨酸和安慰剂组;利用Jadad质量评分工具进行方法质量评价。结果溴己新组对比氨溴索组共4个RC T ,临床总有效率比较:R R=0.83,95% C I (0.76,0.91),P<0.0001,差异有统计学意义。其余组由于文献数量少限制而进行描述性分析。结论溴己新可以有效地治疗慢性支气管炎,但是质量评分以及Meta分析显示其疗效低于氨溴索。

  9. Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    achieved with α- and SBE-β-CD, i.e. when using a 100 mM α- or SBE-β-CD solution, 4 and 5.5 times more bromhexine was solubilized, respectively, compared to pure aqueous solubilization of bromhexine. The apparent association constants determined from the phase solubility studies showed very low values of 34......Bromhexine hydrochloride (bromhexine) is a mucolytic agent with very low aqueous solubility. However, with addition of cyclodextrins (CD) to the formulation, this disadvantage may be limited and therapeutic doses of bromhexine in solution can be achieved. The interaction of bromhexine with α-, β...

  10. Clinical observation of Treating Capillarity Bronchitis with Bromhexine Hydrochloride%盐酸溴己新治疗毛细支气管炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 龚先明; 黄海忠

    2007-01-01

    目的 评价盐酸溴己新静脉给药佐治毛细支气管炎的疗效. 方法 选择毛细支气管炎患者74例,随机分为治疗组36例和对照组38例.对照组常规抗感染、解痉平喘、止咳治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上辅以盐酸溴己新静脉治疗. 结果 治疗组喘憋、气促、肺部体征恢复情况明显优于对照组,总有效率94.4%,明显高于对照组68.4%,而且病程明显缩短(P<0.01). 结论 盐酸溴己新静脉给药佐治毛细支气管炎疗效显著.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Guaifenesin, Bromhexine and Ambroxol in Human Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Pharmacokinetic Studies%LC-MS/MS同时测定愈创甘油醚、溴己新和氨溴索及人体药动学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛庆华; 周臻; 支晓瑾; 马丽丽; 丁存刚

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定人血浆中愈创甘油醚、溴己新和氨溴索浓度的LC-MS/MS方法,并应用于人体药动学研究.方法 以盐酸维拉帕米为内标,血浆样品经液.液提取后经C18柱分离,流动相:甲醇-16 mmol·L醋酸铵缓冲液(50:50,甲酸调pH 3.8),流速0.22mL·min-1.采用SEI源正离子模式,多反应监测(MRM)方式进行定量分析,监测离子分别为199.1→125(愈创甘油醚),374.9→114.1(溴己新)、378.9→264(氨溴索).结果 线性范围分别为愈创甘油醚10.0~5 000 μg·L,溴己新、氨溴索为0.2~100μg·L-1.3种药物的日内、日间精密度小于11%,方法回收率在97%~108%之间.结论 该法灵敏、准确、快速,并成功用于复方制剂的药动学研究.

  12. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ МУКОАКТИВНЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ В ПРАКТИКЕ ТЕРАПЕВТА

    OpenAIRE

    Ф. Т. Малыхин; А. А. Визель; И. Ю. Визель

    2013-01-01

    Russia is among the countries where using of mucolytic drugs in clinical practice is widespread. In chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory syndrome with prolonged cough, pneumonia, tuberculosis and many other pathologies using of expectorants and mucoregulating drugs is common. Among the synthetic mucolytics benzyalamine bromhexine has been introduced for a long time in practice; and then its derivative — ambroxol hydrochloride which has better pharmacoki...

  13. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ МУКОАКТИВНЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ В ПРАКТИКЕ ТЕРАПЕВТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф. Т. Малыхин

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is among the countries where using of mucolytic drugs in clinical practice is widespread. In chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory syndrome with prolonged cough, pneumonia, tuberculosis and many other pathologies using of expectorants and mucoregulating drugs is common. Among the synthetic mucolytics benzyalamine bromhexine has been introduced for a long time in practice; and then its derivative — ambroxol hydrochloride which has better pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Using of ambroxol (Ambrobene in patients with cough, accompanied by difficult expectoration, is useful as it promotes the implementation of the protective cough reflex, providing evacuation of viscous mucus or foreign particles from the respiratory tract.

  14. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  15. Evaluation of antitussive agents in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, L; Vaidya, M; Sakhardande, A; Subburaj, S; Rajagopalan, T G

    1996-01-01

    Methodology to evaluate the efficacy of antitussive drugs rely largely on subjective methods and cough counts. There are few studies in cough due to natural disease especially using objective techniques. This paper presents data from a series of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials in cough due to both chronic bronchopulmonary disease and acute upper respiratory tract infections. In these studies, cough was quantified using a standardized and validated computerized system for the acquisition and multidimensional analysis of the cough sound. Key objective parameters like cough counts, intensity, latency and total effort expended were studied. Guaiphenesin and bromhexine showed significant expectorant effects in patients with productive cough due to chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Differences were observed in speed of action, and objective and subjective measures, that probably indicate differences in drug action. More recently, three studies evaluated the antitussive drug dextromethorphan in non-productive cough due to uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections. Reproducible cough suppressant effects were demonstrated after a single 30 mg dose using objective measures of cough counts, latency and total effort. These results establish the sensitivity and robustness of the cough quantitation methodology in the objective evaluation of cough treatments. PMID:9232667

  16. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  17. Crystallo-co-agglomeration: A novel particle engineering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradkar Anant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA is a novel particle engineering/design technique developed by Kadam et al, to overcome the limitations of spherical crystallization (SC. Basically, it′s single step process used for size enlargement of single, two or more, small dose or large dose drugs, in combination with or without diluent. The process of CCA involves simultaneous crystallization and agglomeration of drug/s with/without excipients/s from good solvent and/or bridging liquid by addition of a non-solvent. Till date CCA has been applied for spherical agglomeration of talc, bromhexine hydrochloride-talc, ibuprofen-talc, ibuprofen-paracetamol, and naproxen-starch. The spherical agglomerates obtained by CCA can be used as intact beads (encapsulated spansules or directly compressible tablet intermediates having satisfactory micromeritic (flowability, mechanical (friability, crushing, compressional (compressibility, compactibility, and drug release properties. Modified drug release from agglomerates and compacts thereof can be achieved using suitable polymer composition in the process design. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCA is a simple and cost effective process, which can be tailor-made for particle design of all majority of drugs and combinations thereof.

  18. [Action mechanisms of cough suppressants and their clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled particles or compacted secretions in the respiratory tract cause irritation of mechanoreceptors, subsequent stimulation of afferent fibers of the vagus nerve, triggering the cough reflex. Distribution of drugs used in the treatment of cough takes into account the pharmacokinetic activity, and this mainly affect on bronchial secretions--drugs that act directly, which destroy disulfide bonds mucous glucoproteins using free sulfhydryl groups and digesting enzymes, extracellular DNA, acting indirectly, that modify the secretion of mucus in the way of other mechanisms, as well as acting on the cough reflex (effects on receptors in the bronchial tree). Mucolytics reduce the viscosity of bronchial secretions by interrupting the sulfide bonds in the mucoprotein chain. Mucokinetic drugs are designed to reduce the adhesion of secretions and facilitate the process of mucociliary clearance by enhancing the potency of cilia. One of the ways of the increasing process is the stimulation of secretion by human neutrophil elastase gene and protein expression regulating this process. The pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs show their high clinical utility and effectiveness in the treatment of respiratory secretions dense clutter. This is possible to reduce the viscosity of mucus by bromhexine. This is obtained by acid depolymerization of the polysaccharide fibers in the bronchial secretions. Synergistic effect with antibiotics of these preparations indicates their permanent place in the treatment of patients with respiratory pathology. PMID:24645580

  19. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration.

  20. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimanian, M; Badalyan, M; Panosyan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-11-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (simple randomisation), pilot (phase III) study of Chisan, (ADAPT-232; a standardised fixed combination of extracts of Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) was carried out on two parallel groups of patients suffering from acute nonspecific pneumonia. Sixty patients (males and females; 18-65 years old) received a standard treatment with cephazoline, bromhexine, and theophylline: in addition, one group of 30 patients was given Chisan mixture, whilst the second group of 30 patients received a placebo, each medication being taken twice daily from the beginning of the study for 10-15 days. The primary outcome measurements were the duration of antibiotic therapy associated with the clinical manifestations of the acute phase of the disease, together with an evaluation of mental performance in a psychometric test and the self-evaluation of quality-of-life (QOL) (WHOQOL-Bref questionnaires) before treatment and on the first and fifth days after clinical convalescence. The mean duration of treatment with antibiotics required to bring about recovery from the acute phase of the disease was 2 days shorter in patients treated with Chisan compared with those in the placebo group. With respect to all QOL domains (physical, psychological, social and ecological), patients in the Chisan group scored higher at the beginning of the rehabilitation period, and significantly higher on the fifth day after clinical convalescence, than patients in the control group. Clearly, adjuvant therapy with ADAPT-232 has a positive effect on the recovery of patients by decreasing the duration of the acute phase of the illness, by increasing mental performance of patients in the rehabilitation period, and by improving their QOL. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present study suggest that Chisan (ADAPT-232) can be recommended in the standard treatment of patients with acute non

  1. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimanian, M; Badalyan, M; Panosyan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-08-01

    The clinical efficacy of KanJang oral solution, a fixed combination of standardised extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Adhatoda vasica and Eleutherococcus senticosus, was compared with the combined extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus alone (Echinacea mixture) in a controlled, double blind, randomized trial, and with Bromhexine (a standard treatment) in a controlled, open, randomized clinical trial on patients with non-complicated acute respiratory tract infections. Many of the parameters evaluated, such as severity of coughing, frequency of coughing, efficacy of mucus discharge in the respiratory tract, nasal congestion and a general feeling of sickness, showed significantly greater improvement in patients treated with KanJang compared with those receiving the standard treatment. However, no significant differences in the improvement of these symptoms (except in a reduced frequency of coughing) were observed between patients treated with the Echinacea mixture and those receiving the standard treatment. The only explanation is that the lack of extract of A. vasica in the Echinacea mixture reduces its efficacy compared with the complete KanJang oral solution even though direct double-blind comparison yielded no significant differences between these two groups of patients. The recovery time of patients being treated with KanJang or Echinacea mixture was 2 days shorter than that of patients receiving the standard treatment. None of the patients completing the study reported adverse reactions to the medication taken. The significance of the results obtained in this study is discussed with respect to the efficacy of KanJang in the treatment of acute respiratory infection and to the concept that multi-drug therapy offers higher efficacy compared with mono-drug treatment of such infections. PMID:16121513

  2. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar Manchukonda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and the mucous membranes. Various etiologic factors (e.g., infection, drugs and malignancies have been implicated as causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. However, as many as half of the cases are idiopathic. Bastuji and Roujeau proposed that the denomination of Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be used for a syndrome characterized by mucous membrane erosions and widespread small blisters that arise on erythematous or purpuric maculae that are different from classic targets. In this case report, a 6 year old girl who was administered a cough syrup (containing bromhexine, guaiphenesin, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid dispersible tablet for the treatment of cough developed pruritic skin eruptions all over the body along with painful erosions on the tongue, buccal mucosa, genital and anal mucosa. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome was made. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was identified as the culprit based on the temporal relationship between the drug administration and the appearance of the rashes and based on a number of SJS reports implicating amoxycillin and clavulanic acid having been published before. The cough syrup and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination tablets were immediately stopped. Symptomatic treatment was administered. The child improved and was later discharged. Causality assessment using Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed that amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was a possible cause for the harmful cutaneous adverse reaction with a score of 4. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1140-1144

  3. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration. PMID:7286849

  4. Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Fahmy, Ossama T; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2010-11-15

    This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and

  5. 小儿咳嗽的中医临床治疗效果观察%Clinical treatment of children with cough in traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the TCM clinical treatment of infantile cough.Methods From March 2014 to Augst 2015 in our hospital for treatment of 84 cases of chronic cough were included in the study, according to the different treatment of the 84 patients were divided into TCM treatment group (n=42) and Western Medicine group (n=42). The Chinese medicine treatment group, using traditional Chinese medicine therapy, drug selection of infantile Feirekechuan oral liquid for the treatment of Western medicine group, with Ambroxol Hydrochloride Oral Solution, Bromhexine Hydrochloride Tablets, Compound Codeine Phosphate Solution, Compound Pholcodine Oral Solution, budesonide, salbutamol sulfate aerosol (Wan Tuolin), Pediatric Paracetamol Atificial Cow-bezoar and Chlorphenamine Maleate Granules. Pediatric Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Drops and other treatment, compared two groups of children with cough, expectoration, changes in breathing.Results TCM treatment group in cough, sputum, wheezing, improve the situation, better than western medicine treatment group, the above data were significant difference (P < 0.05), the difference is statistically significant.Conclusion The author thinks that, for children with cough, symptomatic treatment can obtain ideal curative effect, in this regard, Chinese medicine treatment method is superior to the traditional western medicine therapy and the treatment measures worthy of a wide range of promotion and use in clinical.%目的:研究并分析小儿咳嗽的中医临床治疗方式。方法:将2014年3月~2015年8月在我院接受治疗的84例慢性咳嗽患儿纳入到本研究,按照治疗方式的不同将84例患儿分为中医治疗组(n=42)与西医治疗组(n=42),对于中医治疗组,采用中药疗法,药物选择小儿肺热咳喘口服液,对于西医治疗组,采用盐酸氨溴索口服液、盐酸溴已新片、复方磷酸可待因溶液、复

  6. Analysis of the evidence of efficacy and safety of over-the-counter cough medications registered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the level of evidence regarding the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of over-the-counter (OTC cough medications registered in Brazil. The National Health Surveillance Agency database was used to identify the drugs. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and studies on safety were searched on the Medline baseline, the Cochrane Library and SIETES (System of Essential Information in Therapeutics and Health; database in Spanish. Most drugs (62.5% were sold as a fixed-dose combination of two or more drugs. Randomized clinical trials were found for only three drugs: bromhexine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin. No clinical trials were found for fixed-dose combinations. Systematic reviews on Cochrane did not report any evidence in favor of or against the effectiveness of cough drugs. Efficacy is also unclear, especially regarding fixed-dose combinations. The evidence for the efficacy of OTC cough medications available in Brazil is poor due to the lack of quality studies. Pharmacovigilance of OTC cough medications should be encouraged.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o nível de evidências sobre a eficácia, a efetividade e a segurança dos medicamentos para tosse registrados no Brasil. A base de dados da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária foi empregada para identificar os medicamentos. Os ensaios clínicos, as revisões sistemáticas, as metanálises e os estudos de segurança foram pesquisados no Medline, the Cochrane Library e SIETES (Sistema de Informações Essenciais em Terapêutica e Saúde, base de dados em espanhol. A maioria dos medicamentos (62,5% eram comercializados como associação em dose fixa com dois ou mais fármacos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados foram encontrados apenas para três fármacos: bromexina, dextrometorfano e guaifenesina; para associações a dose fixa não foram encontrados ensaios clínicos. Revisões sistemáticas publicadas pela Cochrane n