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Sample records for bromfenac ophthalmic solution

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1982 Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. The drug...

  3. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution. 524.390b... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390b Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution....

  5. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Palte HD

    2015-01-01

    Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye car...

  6. Update on twice-daily bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate to treat postoperative ocular inflammation following cataract extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ester Carreño1, Alejandro Portero2, David J Galarreta1,3, José M Herreras1,31Ocular Immunology Unit-IOBA (Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología, University of Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid, Spain; 2Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital La Zarzuela, Madrid, Spain; 3Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, SpainAbstract: Ophthalmic bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate is a topically applied selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor. It is similar to amfenac, except for a bromine atom at the C4 of the benzoyl ring position, which markedly affects its in vitro and in vivo potency, extends the duration of anti-inflammatory activity, and enhances its inhibitory effect on COX-2 absorption across the cornea and penetration into ocular tissues. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved bromfenac in 2005 for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and the reduction of ocular pain in patients who have undergone cataract surgery. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and among them bromfenac, could be even more effective than steroids at reestablishing the blood–aqueous barrier, as revealed by flare on slit-lamp examination and as quantitatively measured using ocular fluorophotometry. Similar to other NSAIDs, it has a role in inhibiting intraoperative miosis during cataract surgery. However, bromfenac also seems to be useful in other situations, such as refractive surgery, allergic conjunctivitis (not useful in dry eye, choroidal neovascularization, and even ocular oncology. No reports of systemic toxicity have been published and bromfenac has good topical tolerance with a low incidence of adverse effects.Keywords: bromfenac, ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inflammation, cataract surgery

  7. 76 FR 28045 - Determination That XIBROM (Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution) 0.09% Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ....09% Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug... drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314.162). A person may... time after the drug has been withdrawn from sale, but must be made prior to approving an ANDA...

  8. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  9. Update on twice-daily bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate to treat postoperative ocular inflammation following cataract extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño E; Portero A; Galarreta DJ; Herreras JM

    2012-01-01

    Ester Carreño1, Alejandro Portero2, David J Galarreta1,3, José M Herreras1,31Ocular Immunology Unit-IOBA (Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología), University of Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid, Spain; 2Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital La Zarzuela, Madrid, Spain; 3Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, SpainAbstract: Ophthalmic bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate is a topically applied selective...

  10. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Palacio,1 Lourdes Fernández De Ortega,2 Francisco R Bustos,3 Eduardo Chávez,4 Aldo A Oregon-Miranda,5 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma5 1Anterior Segment Department, Fundación Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Luz, México City, México; 2Anterior Segment Department, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en México, Hospital Dr Luis Sánchez Bulnes, México; 3Anterior Segment Department, Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4Anterior Segment Department, Instituto de Oftalmología, Fundación de Asistencia Privada Conde de Valenciana, IAP, México; 5Clinical Research Department, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Zapopan, Jalisco, México Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME after phacoemulsification.Material and methods: A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69 or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70. Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain.Results: The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 µm; P=0.958 and in nepafenac group (250.8±34

  11. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of ... in the clear front part of the eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin ...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the ophthalmic preparation contains 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate...

  13. Diclofenac Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaren® Eye Drops ... Diclofenac ophthalmic solution is used to treat eye pain, redness, and swelling in patients who are recovering from cataract surgery (procedure to treat clouding of the lens in the eye). Diclofenac ...

  14. Application of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% for the treatment of eyebrow hypotrichosis: series of ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J

    2014-06-15

    In December 2008, bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the United States for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. Since then, there have been several reports in the literature on the off-label use of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% for the treatment of thinning in other hair bearing areas, such as in the eyebrows and in the scalp. Herein, a prospective pilot study is presented in which bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% is evaluated for helping to re-grow hair in the eyebrow region of ten female patients.

  15. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yoshikawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Keiji Yoshikawa1, Hiroshi Yamada21Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 2Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles.Methods: Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time.Results: With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 ± 0.5 seconds to 4.6 ± 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P < 0.0001. When using the bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa, the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R2 = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R2 = 0.563.Conclusions: Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.Keywords: dispensing time, model eye dropper bottle, model ophthalmic solution, nozzle internal space volume, nozzle inner aperture diameter

  16. Review of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacterial eye infections

    OpenAIRE

    Darlene Miller

    2008-01-01

    Darlene MillerAbrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Miller School of Medicine-University of Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox®) is the ocular formulation/adaptation of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone which terminates bacterial growth by binding to DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV, essential bacterial enzymes involved ...

  17. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shizuka Koh Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT”, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. Keywords: diquafosol, dry eye, mucin secretion, fluid secretion, ocular surface, vision

  18. Bromfenac sodium, acetaminophen/oxycodone, ibuprofen, and placebo for relief of postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G H; Van Wagoner, J D; Brown, J; Cooper, S A

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this double-masked, parallel-group, multicenter, inpatient study was to compare bromfenac with an acetaminophen/oxycodone combination and ibuprofen in patients who had pain due to abdominal gynecologic surgery. In the 8-hour, single-dose phase, 238 patients received single oral doses of bromfenac (50 or 100 mg), acetaminophen 650 mg/oxycodone 10 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, or placebo. In the multiple-dose phase, 204 patients received bromfenac, acetaminophen/oxycodone, or ibuprofen for up to 5 days. In the single-dose phase, both bromfenac doses produced peak analgesic responses equivalent to acetaminophen/oxycodone, but the responses to bromfenac were longer lasting. Bromfenac produced significantly better overall (8-hour) analgesic summed scores than acetaminophen/oxycodone. Ibuprofen was less efficacious than the other analgesics. The remedication rate was lower in both bromfenac groups than in the other treatment groups. The acetaminophen/oxycodone group reported more somnolence and vomiting. Single doses of bromfenac provided analgesia at least equivalent to that of the acetaminophen/oxycodone combination, with a longer duration of action. Both doses of bromfenac and acetaminophen/oxycodone were superior to ibuprofen in this study. PMID:9220215

  19. Effects of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Qi-hua; CHENG Neng-neng; WU Wei; CHU Ren-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs.Methods Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures.Results Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31±1.47) D and (-2.25±0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63±0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89±0.42) D and (-0.70±0.41) D (F=9.56, P<0.05). The significant reduction in myopia in 2% and 4% pirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009±0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006±0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs [(0.057±0.056) mm, (0.064±0.053) mm and (0.033±0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine.Conclusion Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  20. Review of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacterial eye infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Miller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Darlene MillerAbrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Miller School of Medicine-University of Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox® is the ocular formulation/adaptation of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone which terminates bacterial growth by binding to DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II and topoisomerase IV, essential bacterial enzymes involved in the replication, translation, repair and recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid. Affinity for both enzymes improves potency and reduces the probability of selecting resistant bacterial subpopulations. Vigamox is a bactericidal, concentration dependent, anti-infective. It is preservative free, and well tolerated with minimal ocular side effects. It provides increased penetration into ocular tissues and fluids with improved activity against Streptococci and Staphylococci species and moderate to excellent activity against clinically relevant, gram- negative ocular pathogens.Keywords: moxifloxacin, vigamox, pharmacodynamic indices, minimal inhibitory concentrations

  1. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1....

  2. Prolonged increase in tear meniscus height by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahara Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagahara,1 Shizuka Koh,1 Kohji Nishida,1 Hitoshi Watanabe1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the increase in tear meniscus height (TMH induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lens (CL.Methods: Ten healthy subjects wearing high-water-content CLs received topical instillation of two ophthalmic solutions – 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. Lower TMH was measured at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after instillation by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.Results: TMH increased significantly (P<0.001 at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after instillation of saline compared with the baseline values. After instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, TMH significantly increased (P<0.05 at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with the baseline values. Increases in TMH after diquafosol instillation were significantly greater (P<0.05 at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes than increases in TMH after saline instillation.Conclusion: Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases TMH for up to 60 minutes in eyes with high-water-content CLs. Keywords: diquafosol ophthalmic solution, tear meniscus height, dry eye, contact lenses, tear film

  3. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  4. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and improving the wettability and stability of the tear film, which resulted in the promotion of healing of the corneal epithelial defect in a short time period. PMID:27257394

  5. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and

  6. Gentamicin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamycin® Ophthalmic ... Ophthalmic gentamicin is used to treat certain eye infections. Gentamicin is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection.

  7. Erythromycin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romycin® Ophthalmic ... Ophthalmic erythromycin is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye. This medication is also used to prevent bacterial infections of the eye in newborn babies. Erythromycin is in a class ...

  8. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Y; Toshida H; Matsuzaki Y; Matsui A; Ohta T

    2016-01-01

    Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case ...

  9. Comparative efifcacy of marineStreptomyces formulation versus ciprolfoxacin ophthalmic solution for treatingStaphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Femina Wahaab; Kalidass Subramaniam; Morris Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controllingStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results:Among the four best isolates, theRAM25C4isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8°C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°°C and 30°°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions:This is the first time to report thatStreptomyces bacillaris strainRAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogenS. aureus underin vitro condition and thein vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

  10. 75 FR 54492 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...) for gentamicin sulfate and betamethasone acetate ophthalmic solution. This action is being taken...

  11. 76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... postoperative inflammation and reduction of ocular pain in patients who have undergone cataract extraction... Ophthalmic Solutions Used in an Extended Care Facility,'' British Journal of Ophthalmology, 91:1308-1310, 2007. The clinical studies conducted by ISTA supporting approval of Bromday and Xibrom...

  12. Determination of antazoline and tetrahydrozoline in ophthalmic solutions by capillary electrophoresis and stability-indicating HPLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Alshana, Usama; Ertas, Nusret; Goger, Nilgun Gunden; Ozkan, Sibel A; Uslu, Bengi

    2016-05-30

    Capillary electrophoretic (CE) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed and optimized for the determination of antazoline (ANT) and tetrahydrozoline (TET) in ophthalmic formulations. Optimum electrophoretic conditions were achieved using a background electrolyte of 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, a capillary temperature of 25°C, a separation voltage of 22kV and a pressure injection of the sample at 50mbar for 17s. HPLC analysis was performed with Kinetex (150×4.6mm ID×5μm) (Phenomenex, USA) analytical column with 1mLmin(-1) flow rate of mobile phase which consisted of 0.05% TFA in bidistilled water (pH adjusted to 3.0 with 5M NaOH) and acetonitrile/buffer in the ratio of 63:37 (v/v) at room temperature. Injection volume of the samples was 10μL and the wavelength of the detector was set at 215nm for monitoring both analytes. Calibration graphs showed a good linearity with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of at least 0.998 for both methods. Intraday and interday precision (expressed as RSD%) were lower than 2.8% for CE and 0.92% for HPLC. The developed methods were demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of ANT and TET in ophthalmic solutions providing recoveries in the range between 97.9 and 102.70% for CE and HPLC. PMID:26952922

  13. Bimatoprost Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimatoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can ... condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Bimatoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin ...

  14. Cyclosporine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmic cyclosporine is used to increase tear production in people with dry eye disease. Cyclosporine is in a class of medications ... immunomodulators. It works by decreasing swelling in the eye to allow for tear production.

  15. Brinzolamide Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmic Brinzolamide is used to treat glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure in the eye and leads to vision loss. Brinzolamide is in ... anhydrase inhibitors. It decreases the pressure in the eye.

  16. Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Flurbiprofen and Chloramphenicol in Ophthalmic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakwala, Vaishnavi M; Chauhan, Renu S; Shah, Shailesh A; Shah, Dinesh R

    2016-01-01

    A specific, accurate and reproducible stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the estimation of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in the presence of their degradation products. Degradation studies of both the drugs were carried out in acidic, alkaline, neutral, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. Separation was performed on thin layer chromatography plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using ethyl acetate : n-hexane : methanol : tri-ethyl amine (5 : 4 : 2 : 0.5, v/v/v/v). Spots at retention factor 0.29 and 0.62 were recognized as flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol, respectively, and were quantified through densitometric measurements at wavelength 267 nm. Method was found to be linear over the concentration range 12-60 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 for flurbiprofen and 200-1,000 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.9977 for chloramphenicol. The proposed method was applied to the estimation of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in commercial ophthalmic formulation. The developed HPTLC method can be applied for routine analysis of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in the presence of their degradation products in their individual as well as combined pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Ophthalmic Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Bhootra, Ajay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    This book is uniquely meant for the ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians to help the world see better by excellent vision through the services of technicians and clinical principle based ophthalmology so that the management of ocular problems can be done for a better vision . Informs that a wide range of material and design of ophthalmic lenses with innovative developments is available. This book presents comprehensively rich information about the ophthalmic lenses and their dispensing tips . It will be highly useful mainly for the students of optometry and opticians, ophthalmologists,

  18. Ophthalmic ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, diagnostic ultrasound is an important and indispensable part of modern ophthalmology. These proceedings present an up-to-date platform of SIDUO research, and bring to light many interesting and useful contributions to ophthalmic ultrasound, both in the fields of educational work and of new scientific results and technical developments. This volume covers topics such as intraocular tumours, vitreo-retinal pathology, other types of intraocular pathology, biometry for lens implantation, clinical biometry, orbital tumours, plus the optic nerve and muscles, among other subjects. There is also an important section on the physics and techniques of ophthalmic ultrasonography. (orig.)

  19. Travoprost Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ... a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Travoprost is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Tafluprost Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafluprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ... a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Tafluprost is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Latanoprost Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latanoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ... a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Latanoprost is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Unoprostone Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoprostone ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ... a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). It is in a class of medications called ...

  3. ANALYSIS OF BETAMETHASONE DISODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION AND OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY HPLC, KINETIC INTERPRETATION AND DETERMINATION OF SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbarpour

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in therapeutics in different formulations. Betamethasone disodium phosphate is one of the most soluble of the adrenocorticosteroidal agents. It is therefore very suitable for intravenous use and particularly for ophthalmic formulations."nAcceleration method is used to determine expiration date of aqueous formulations manufactured in Iran.

  4. Studies on Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution%贝美前列素滴眼液的抑菌效力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾珉; 扈春萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of benzalkonium chlorideand explore the appropriate dosage of it in Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution.Methods:According to the guidance for antibacterial effectiveness test stated in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (the 2nd volume of 2010 edition), investigated the antimicrobial effect of samples with different dosage of benzalkonium chloride in the prescription and selected the appropriate dosage of antibacterial agent added.Results:The antimicrobial effects to all 5 challenge standard bacterial strains met the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia when the concentration of benzalkonium chloride in Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solutions reached 0.006%.Conclusion:Recommended concentration of benzalkonium chloride in Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution is 0.006%.%目的:测定贝美前列素滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的抑菌效力,探索贝美前列素滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的合理添加剂量。方法:参照《中国药典》2010年版二部附录抑菌剂效力检查法指导原则的方法,对不同配比浓度苯扎氯铵的抑菌效果进行考察,筛选出适宜的抑菌剂加入量。结果:贝美前列素滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的处方量为0.006%时,对5种挑战微生物的抑菌效力均符合药典规定。结论:贝美前列素滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的处方量建议为0.006%。

  5. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Hirotaka Suzumura,3 Tairo Kimura,4 Satoshi Sasaki,5 Itaru Kimura,6 Ryuji Takeda71Department of Ophthalmology, Fussa Hospital, Fussa, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Machida, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nakano General Hospital, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan; 4Ueno Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 5Sasaki Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; 7Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 mmHg or less.Methods: Bimatoprost was instilled into the unilateral conjunctival sac of Japanese NTG patients with a baseline IOP of 18 mmHg or less. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post bimatoprost instillation.Results: Thirty-two of the 38 enrolled NTG patients (mean age, 64.1 ± 12.6 years; 19 males and 19 females completed the study, with six patients unable to complete the study (two patients discontinued because of side effects and four patients withdrew. The levels of IOP in the treated eyes were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 from the baseline IOP levels. No significant change in IOP was observed in the fellow eyes. There were significant increases in conjunctival hyperemia. No significant superficial punctate keratitis scores were noted between the baseline and each point examined. Eyelash disorder, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus were observed in 28, six, and three eyes, respectively.Conclusion: Bimatoprost effectively lowered the IOP. It was well tolerated in Japanese NTG patients, with few patients having to discontinue

  6. Drug: D03163 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C11 Bromfenac D03163 Bromfenac sodium hydrate (JAN); Bromfenac sodium (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Ophthalmic... Agents Ophthalmic Anti-inflammatories Bromfenac D03163 Bromfenac...thalmic agents 1319 Others D03163 Bromfenac sodium hydrate (JAN); Bromfenac sodium ...tegory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 13 Agents affecting sensory organs 131 Oph

  7. Ophthalmic halo reduced lenses design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Ofer; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    The halo effect is a very problematic visual artifact occurring in extended depth of focus or multi-focal ophthalmic lenses such as e.g. intra-ocular (after cataract surgery) or contact lenses when used in dark illumination conditions. This artifact is generated due to surface structures added on top of those lenses in order to increase their depth of focus or to realize multiple focal lengths. In this paper we present novel solution that can resolve this major problem of ophthalmic lenses. The proposed solution involves modification to the surface structure that realizes the extended depth of focus. Our solution is fabricated and numerically and experimentally validated also in preliminary in-vivo trials.

  8. Effectiveness of ophthalmic solution preservatives: a comparison of latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and travoprost with the sofZia preservative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovelace Cherie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BAK in topical ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BAK. Despite the conflicting evidence, BAK is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the antimicrobial performance of two commonly used topical ocular hypotensive agents that employ different preservative systems: latanoprost 0.005% with 0.02% BAK and travoprost 0.004% with sofZia, a proprietary ionic buffer system. Methods Each product was tested for antimicrobial effectiveness by European Pharmacopoeia A (EP-A standards, the most stringent standards of the three major compendia, which specify two early sampling time points (6 and 24 hours not required by the United States Pharmacopeia or Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Aliquots were inoculated with between 105 and 106 colony-forming units of the test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Sampling and enumeration were conducted at protocol-defined time points through 28 days. Results BAK-containing latanoprost met EP-A criteria by immediately reducing all bacterial challenge organisms to the test sensitivity and fungal challenges within the first six hours while the preservative activity of travoprost with sofZia did not. Complete bacterial reduction by travoprost with sofZia was not shown until seven days into the test, and fungal reduction never exceeded the requisite 2 logs during the 28-day test. Travoprost with sofZia also did not meet EP-B criteria due to its limited effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus. Both products satisfied United States and Japanese pharmacopoeial criteria. Conclusions Latanoprost with 0

  9. Update and critical appraisal of the use of topical azithromycin ophthalmic 1% (AzaSite® solution in the treatment of ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utine CA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Canan Asli UtineYeditepe University, Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey and Ocular Surface Disease and Dry Eye Clinic, Cornea and External Disease Service, The Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Azithromycin is an azalide that acts by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of susceptible microorganisms and interfering with microbial protein synthesis. Azithromycin is also noted by anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. AzaSite® (Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Durham, NC is azithromycin ophthalmic solution, 1% formulated in polycarbophil (the aqueous mucoadhesive polymer contained in DuraSite® that delivers high and prolonged azithromycin concentrations in a variety of ocular tissues, including the conjunctiva, cornea and particularly the eyelid. AzaSite was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA in the US in 2007, for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible isolates. This article aims to evaluate the peer-reviewed published scientific literature and to define well-established uses of AzaSite eye drops in the field of ocular infections.Keywords: azithromycin, AzaSite, DuraSite

  10. Topical ophthalmic NSAIDs: a discussion with focus on nepafenac ophthalmic suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce I Gaynes; Anne Onyekwuluje

    2008-01-01

    Bruce I Gaynes1,2, Anne Onyekwuluje11Departments of Ophthalmology and 2Pharmacology, Rush College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The removal of diclofenac sodium ophthalmic solution as a viable pharmaceutical entity in September 1999 from the US market spurred considerable interest in the general safety and effectiveness of topical ophthalmic NSAIDs for treatment of anterior segment inflammation. In late 1999 the use of topical ocular NSAIDs declined in the US as a result of inc...

  11. Ocular pharmacokinetics of bimatoprost formulated in DuraSite compared to bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution in pigmented rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiee A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Shafiee,1 Lyle M Bowman,2 Eddie Hou,2 Kamran Hosseini1,3 1Preclinical, 2Development, 3Clinical, InSite Vision, Alameda, CA, USA Purpose: To compare the aqueous humor (AH and iris-ciliary body (ICB concentration of bimatoprost in rabbit eyes treated with ISV-215 (0.03% bimatoprost formulated in DuraSite with the marketed product bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution. Methods: The left eye of rabbits received a single topical instillation of either ISV-215 (n = 32 eyes or bimatoprost 0.03% (n = 32 eyes. At predetermined time points, levels of bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid in the AH and the ICB were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. Results: Both bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid were detected in the AH and the ICB within 15 minutes of dosing. Bimatoprost acid concentrations in both compartments were markedly higher than bimatoprost. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase in the concentration of the prodrug in the AH and its acid form in the ICB in animals treated with ISV-215 compared to bimatoprost 0.03%. In the ISV-215-treated rabbit eyes, the highest concentrations of bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid were in the ICB and AH, respectively, while in the bimatoprost 0.03%-treated eyes, no differences in the drug content of the selected ocular tissues were observed. Conclusions: Bimatoprost 0.03% formulated in DuraSite has superior ocular distribution and area under the curve compared to bimatoprost 0.03% in rabbit eyes. This improvement in the pharmacokinetic parameters of ISV-215 may provide us with a better platform to optimize a bimatoprost formulation that offers the same degree of efficacy in lowering intraocular pressure and improved therapeutic index in glaucomatous patients by lessening the ocular side effects associated with long-term use of topical prostaglandin F2α analogs. Keywords: drug delivery, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, aqueous humor, prostaglandin (PGF2α analogs

  12. In vivo comparative study of ocular vasodilation, a relative indicator of hyperemia, in guinea pigs following treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01% and 0.03%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi B Ogundele

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abayomi B Ogundele, David Earnest, Marsha A McLaughlinAlcon Research, Limited, Fort Worth, TX, USAObjective: The objective of this in vivo study was to compare the incidence of vasodilation in guinea pigs following topical administration of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01% and 0.03%.Methods: The study comprised 20 guinea pigs assigned to 2 treatment groups (10 per treatment group to receive either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03%. Animals were hand-held under 2.75 × magnification to score ocular vasodilation (a measure of hyperemia, using a scoring system developed at Alcon Research, Ltd. Following baseline ocular scoring, each animal received a 30 μL dose to the left eye of either bimatoprost 0.01% (3 μg or bimatoprost 0.03% (9 μg. Vasodilation was again scored at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after dosing. Incidence of vasodilation was calculated as the percent of total eyes in each 2-hour time interval with scores ≥2.Results: The incidence of vasodilation was higher in the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group (range, 45.0% to 60.0% than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group (range, 30.0% to 52.2% at all post-dosing time points.Conclusion: The 2 bimatoprost formulations elicited ocular vasodilation of long duration (>6 hours in the guinea pig model, with the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group showing a higher incidence of ocular vasodilation than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group. Further clinical studies would be needed to determine whether the higher incidence of vasodilation may also be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.Keywords: bitamoprost, ocular vasodilation, hyperemia

  13. Long-term safety evaluation of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%: a pooled analysis of six double-masked, randomized, active-controlled clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirta D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available David Wirta1, Amanda M VanDenburgh2, Emily Weng3, Scott M Whitcup4, Sef Kurstjens5, Frederick C Beddingfield III4,61Private Practice, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2Clinical Development, 3Biostatistics, 4Research and Development, 5Global Drug Development, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the US for reducing intraoccular pressure (IOP based on two double-masked, active-controlled clinical trials. Four additional long-term studies (≥ 12months were conducted; however, the aggregate safety profile of the six studies has not been reported.Methods: Adverse events (AEs were pooled from six double-masked, active-controlled, long-term clinical trials in which subjects received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily (QD or twice daily (BID as an eyedrop. AE terms were converted to MedDRA (V.11.0 Preferred Terms and analyzed.Results: In total, 1409 patients received more than one dose of bimatoprost 0.03% QD or BID. Most AEs were mild in severity and reported by 86.7% (QD and 94.8% (BID of subjects (≤ 12 months of treatment. AEs reported through month 12 (aggregate incidence of ≥ 5% were conjunctival hyperemia, increased eyelash growth, eye pruritus, periocular skin hyperpigmentation, eye irritation, dry eye, and hypertrichosis. AE onset was generally reported within four months of treatment. The cumulative incidence of common AEs in the QD treatment group at 24–48 months was similar to that measured at 12 months of treatment.Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.03% has a favorable safety and tolerability profile as characterized by six long-term studies. Common AEs were due to the known pharmacological activity of bimatoprost and reversible with treatment cessation.Keywords: intraocular pressure, eyelids, pharmacology, clinical trial, medical treatment

  14. Computation of Dioptric and Magnification Matrices in Ophthalmic Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, S.

    2014-06-01

    The diopter power and magnification matrices characterize the first-order properties of ophthalmic lenses for different gaze directions. Therefore an efficient method to compute them is highly valuable in ophthalmic lens design and optical performance simulations. I present a novel method to numerically compute these matrices in ophthalmic lenses comprising any set of arbitrary surfaces. The method is based on computing one base ray, along the gaze direction, and two rays close to it. These two rays are obtained varying a small parameter that indicates their separation from the base ray. The method was validated comparing the results with a single refractive surface where exact solutions are directly obtained.

  15. Radiosterilized tetracycline ophthalmic ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likelihood of FDA approval for a radiosterilized ophthalmic ointment has been resolved. This paper reviews the events that led to Lederle's NDA submission in 1973. The cost savings feature of 60Co γ ray sterilization in the final package makes it an attractive alternate to conventional aseptic manufacturing and packaging. (U.S.)

  16. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  17. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  18. Metabolic Acidosis with Ophthalmic Dorzolamide in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capino, Amanda C; Dannaway, Douglas C; Miller, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a common cause of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; however, development is less commonly associated with ophthalmic administration of these agents. We report a case of a premature neonate who was being treated at our institution with betaxolol, dorzolamide, and latanoprost ophthalmic products for suspected bilateral congenital glaucoma. In addition, the patient was also receiving caffeine, ursodiol, and acidified liquid human milk fortifier. The patient developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, and both dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the acidified human milk fortifier were considered potential causes. Upon discontinuation of the dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the switching of liquid human milk fortifiers, the normal anion gap metabolic acidosis gradually resolved. As a result of the pH and acidity, the acidified liquid human milk fortifier is thought to be associated with an anion gap acidosis; therefore, dorzolamide is suspected to be the primary cause of a normal gap acidosis. This case demonstrates that systemic effects can occur with ophthalmic administration of dorzolamide in a premature neonate. Ophthalmic agents should not be overlooked as a potential cause of systemic toxicity. PMID:27453705

  19. Safety and efficacy of MIM D3 ophthalmic solutions in a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerovitch K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Meerovitch,1 Gail Torkildsen,2 John Lonsdale,3 Heidi Goldfarb,4 Teresa Lama,1 Garth Cumberlidge,1 George W Ousler III5 1Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 3Central Maine Eye Care, Lewiston, ME, USA; 4SDC, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic MIM-D3, a tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor agonist, in patients with dry eye. Design: A prospective, two-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study. Methods: A total of 150 dry eye patients were randomized 1:1:1 to study medication (1% MIM-D3, 5% MIM-D3, or placebo and dosed twice daily (BID for 28 days. Key eligibility criteria included exacerbation in corneal staining and ocular discomfort in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM on two visits, separated by 1 week of BID dosing with artificial tears. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at baseline, throughout treatment, and for 2 weeks post-treatment. The pre-specified primary outcome measures were fluorescein corneal staining post-CAE at day 28 and diary worst symptom scores over 28 days. Secondary outcomes included the pre-, post-, and the change from pre- to post-CAE fluorescein and lissamine green staining in both corneal and conjunctival regions, as well as individual diary symptoms. Results: The prespecified primary endpoints were not met. Compared with placebo, fluorescein corneal staining at day 28 was significantly improved (P < 0.05 in the 1% MIM-D3 group for the assessment of change from pre-CAE to post-CAE. In addition, following CAE exposure, patients in the 1% MIM-D3 group showed significant improvements versus placebo (P < 0.05 in inferior fluorescein and lissamine green staining after 14 and 28 days. Compared with placebo, patients in the 5% MIM-D3 group reported significantly lower daily diary scores for ocular dryness (P < 0.05. In a subgroup defined by higher symptom scores during

  20. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic conformer is a device usually made of molded plastic intended to be...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1640 - Ophthalmic preamplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic preamplifier. 886.1640 Section 886.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1640 Ophthalmic preamplifier. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic preamplifier is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4690 - Ophthalmic photocoagulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic photocoagulator. 886.4690 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4690 Ophthalmic photocoagulator. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic photocoagulator is an AC-powered device intended to use the energy from an...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1760 - Ophthalmic refractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic refractometer. 886.1760 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1760 Ophthalmic refractometer. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic refractometer is an automatic AC-powered device that consists of a fixation...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1140 - Ophthalmic chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic chair. 886.1140 Section 886.1140 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1140 Ophthalmic chair. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic chair is an AC-powered or manual device with adjustable positioning in which a patient is to...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1680 - Ophthalmic projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic projector. 886.1680 Section 886.1680...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1680 Ophthalmic projector. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic projector is an AC-powered device intended to project an image on a screen for...

  8. Patent perspectives for corticosteroids based ophthalmic therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Preeti K; Sah, Abhishek K

    2014-01-01

    Eye inflammation, if untreated at right time poses the risk of vision loss. Several categories of drugs are available in the global market, but corticosteroids are still used for the treatment of ocular inflammation including anterior/ posterior uveitis, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and post cataract surgery inflammation. Although corticosteroids have well-documented side effects as compared to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but they are still regarded as better anti-inflammatory agents for treating ocular inflammations. The prime concern with conventional formulations such as (ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, ointments) is low drug bioavailability due to precorneal barrier of the eye, tear turnover and rapid drainage of drug via nasolacrimal drainage and drug induced systemic toxicity. To overcome these limitations, various novel formulations of corticosteroids have been explored. These include nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanomicelles, in-situ gels, iontophoresis, liposomes, nanoemulsions, microemulsions and ocular implants for the effective ophthalmic delivery of the corticosteroids. Topical nanocarriers have also been demonstrated to be promising vectors with potential application in the ophthalmic therapeutics. This review summarizes the clinical findings and patents on various corticosteroids as ocular pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25020063

  9. Assessment of the tolerability profile of an ophthalmic solution of 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer PEG/PPG on healthy volunteers and evaluation of its efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mencucci R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rita Mencucci, Eleonora Favuzza, Ugo MenchiniDepartment of Surgery and Translational Medicine – Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the tolerability on healthy volunteers and the efficacy on subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis of a 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer poly(ethylene glycol/poly(propylene glycol(PEG/PPG ophthalmic solution.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, open label, intra-patient monocentric study. It consisted of two different phases, the assessment of tolerability phase on 20 healthy volunteers, and the evaluation of the efficacy on 21 subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis; the treatment period was 2 weeks, followed by 1-week of follow-up. In the efficacy phase, in both eyes, eyelid hygiene was also performed. At day 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 a complete ophthalmological examination was performed. In the tolerability phase, signs of clinical toxicity were recorded and subject-reported symptoms were collected using a questionnaire. In the efficacy phase, global signs and symptoms of blepharitis scores were collected using standardized photographic scales and questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: No ocular signs of drug toxicity were reported. During the treatment period for tolerability phase, there were statistically significant higher scores of tearing and ocular discomfort in the tolerability study group versus the tolerability control group. In the efficacy phase, differences between global scores of the two groups were statistically significant at day 0 (score of the efficacy study group was higher than the efficacy control group; P = 0.005 and at day 21 (score of the efficacy study group was lower than the efficacy control group (P ≤ 0.001.The difference of global scores at day 3, 7, 14, and 21 versus day 0 was statistically significant in both groups. No serious adverse events

  10. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S;

    2015-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  11. Polymyxin B and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trimethoprim ophthalmic combination is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection ... follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. While tilting your head back, pull ...

  12. 21 CFR 349.18 - Ophthalmic vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic vasoconstrictors. 349.18 Section 349.18... FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.18 Ophthalmic vasoconstrictors. The active ingredient of the product consists of one of the following,...

  13. Patient adherence and persistence with topical ocular hypotensive therapy in real-world practice: a comparison of bimatoprost 0.01% and travoprost Z 0.004% ophthalmic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joanna H; Schwartz, Gail F; LaBounty, Britni; Kowalski, Jonathan W; Patel, Vaishali D

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective control of intraocular pressure is predicated upon patient compliance with pharmacotherapy. We compared patient adherence and persistence with two new ocular hypotensive formulations, using real-world utilization data. Methods This observational cohort study employed pharmacy claims data from the Source® Lx (Wolters Kluwer Pharma Solutions) database. Patients with an initial (index) prescription for topical bimatoprost 0.01% or travoprost Z (April to June 2011) and no claim for ophthalmic prostaglandin or prostamide analogs within the previous 18 months were identified. Treatment adherence was expressed as proportion of days covered with study medication during the first 365 days after the index prescription. Treatment persistence with study medication was assessed over the first 12 months using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses, allowing a maximum 30-day gap for prescription refill. Treatment status was determined monthly over this period. Results A total of 12,985 patients were assessed for treatment adherence, and 10,470 for treatment persistence. Adherence was better with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (mean proportion of days covered 0.540 versus [vs] 0.486, P0.80) with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (29.1% vs 22.3%, P<0.001). Continuous 12-month persistence was higher with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (29.5% vs 24.2%, P<0.001). At month 12, more patients were on treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (48.8% vs 45.7%, P<0.01). Similar findings were demonstrated in cohorts of ocular hypotensive treatment-naïve patients, branded latanoprost switchers, and older patients (age ≥65 years), and after inclusion of patient characteristics as covariates. Conclusion For patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, bimatoprost 0.01% offers compliance advantages over travoprost Z. PMID:24868144

  14. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.

  15. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument table. 886.4855 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4855 Ophthalmic instrument table. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  17. Patient adherence and persistence with topical ocular hypotensive therapy in real-world practice: a comparison of bimatoprost 0.01% and travoprost Z 0.004% ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell JH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joanna H Campbell,1 Gail F Schwartz,2 Britni LaBounty,3 Jonathan W Kowalski,1 Vaishali D Patel1 1Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center and Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Principled Strategies, Inc., Encinitas, CA, USA Background: Effective control of intraocular pressure is predicated upon patient compliance with pharmacotherapy. We compared patient adherence and persistence with two new ocular hypotensive formulations, using real-world utilization data. Methods: This observational cohort study employed pharmacy claims data from the Source® Lx (Wolters Kluwer Pharma Solutions database. Patients with an initial (index prescription for topical bimatoprost 0.01% or travoprost Z (April to June 2011 and no claim for ophthalmic prostaglandin or prostamide analogs within the previous 18 months were identified. Treatment adherence was expressed as proportion of days covered with study medication during the first 365 days after the index prescription. Treatment persistence with study medication was assessed over the first 12 months using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses, allowing a maximum 30-day gap for prescription refill. Treatment status was determined monthly over this period. Results: A total of 12,985 patients were assessed for treatment adherence, and 10,470 for treatment persistence. Adherence was better with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (mean proportion of days covered 0.540 versus [vs] 0.486, P<0.001, and more patients showed high adherence (proportion of days covered >0.80 with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (29.1% vs 22.3%, P<0.001. Continuous 12-month persistence was higher with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (29.5% vs 24.2%, P<0.001. At month 12, more patients were on treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (48.8% vs 45.7%, P<0.01. Similar findings were demonstrated in cohorts of ocular hypotensive treatment-naïve patients, branded

  18. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  19. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J.; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases.

  20. Potential bias in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Varner

    2008-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing Veterans’ Administration Medical Center, Poplar Bluff, Missouri, USAAbstract: To make clinicians aware of potential sources of error in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials that can lead to erroneous interpretation of results, a critical review of the study design of various pharmaceutical ophthalmic clinical trials was completed. Discrepancies as a result of study shortcomings may explain observed differences between reported ophthalmic trial data an...

  1. Current uses of ophthalmic lasers.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, D; GREGSON, R; McHugh, D

    1992-01-01

    Current laser treatments are quick, relatively painless, and well tolerated. Some ophthalmic techniques can be performed only by laser while others have a lower morbidity than alternative treatments. Peripheral retinal photocoagulation and focal photocoagulation now offer greatly improved visual prognosis for diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular disease. Selected cases of macular degeneration may be treated by focal laser photocoagulation. The role of ...

  2. Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Lene Dissing

    2009-02-01

    With a lifetime risk of 1% and 700 new cases per year, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the seventh most frequent type of cancer in Denmark. The incidence of NHL has increased considerably in Western countries over the last decades; consequently, NHL is an increasing clinical problem. Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%-10% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is, however, the most common orbital malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980-2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma. Furthermore, an extended analysis of the most frequent subtype, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma), was done to analyse clinical factors and cytogenetic changes with influence on prognosis. A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified. We found that more than 50% of orbital- and ocular adnexal lymphomas were of the MALT lymphoma subtype, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) predominated intraocularly (Sjo et al. 2008a). Furthermore, lymphoma arising in the lacrimal sac was surprisingly predominantly DLBCL (Sjo et al. 2006). Incidence rates were highly dependent on patient age. There was an increase in incidence rates for the whole population from 1980 to 2005, corresponding to an annual average increase of 3.4% (Sjo et al. 2008a). MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region was found in 116 patients (Sjo et al. 2008b). One third of patients had a relapse or progression of disease after initial therapy and relapses were frequently found at extra-ocular sites. Overall survival, however, was not significantly poorer for patients

  3. 21 CFR 349.10 - Ophthalmic astringent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic astringent. 349.10 Section 349.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.10...

  4. 21 CFR 349.12 - Ophthalmic demulcents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic demulcents. 349.12 Section 349.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.12...

  5. Wettability measurement of materials for ophthalmic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wettability properties of materials for ophthalmic applications have been investigated through the contact angle technique. Measurements have been carried out on ophthalmic lenses with differing optical power but coated with the same multilayer or with differing multilayer treatments but equal optical power, under different cleaning conditions. Contact lenses of differing materials, both gaspermeable and soft, were also tested in vitro.

  6. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification. Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes) are devices that consist of...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument stand. 886.1860 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument stand is an AC-powered or nonpowered device intended to store...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4570 - Ophthalmic surgical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic surgical marker. 886.4570 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4570 Ophthalmic surgical marker. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic surgical marker is a device intended to mark by use of ink, dye, or indentation...

  2. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... expression. Basal-type oncocytic cells reacted with antibodies against CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 8, CK 13, CK 14, CK 17, CK 18 and CK 19, and suprabasal cells with CK 4, CK 7, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19. Antibodies against CK 1+10 and CK 20 showed no reaction. Conclusions: Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region most...

  3. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research. PMID:26844660

  4. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  5. Determination of drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan; WANG Ning-li; WANG Yan-ling; MA Chen; MA Li; GAO Li-xin; HUANG Ying-xiang; XIONG Shi-hong; WANG Kang

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophthalmic gel has been developed to increase the drug concentration in aqueous humor and to retard the loss of drug from the conjunctival sac.The research was to compare the drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel with that in patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.Methods Ninety-six patients with cataract (96 eyes) were randomly assigned to 8 groups.The patients in groups 1-4received topical gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic gel and those in groups 5-8 received gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution.The dose regimen was 1 drop, 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days prior to cataract surgery.On the day of surgery, 1drop was applied at 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes before commencement of cataract surgery in groups 1 and 5, groups 2 and 6, goups 3 and 7, and groups 4 and 8, respectively.Aqueous humor was extracted during the cataract surgery for the analysis of gatifloxacin concentration..Results The concentrations of gatifloxacin in aqueous humor were (0.24±0.25) μg/ml, (1.11±0.74) μg/ml, (2.32±2.01)μg/ml and (1.85±1.14) μg/ml in groups 1 to 4, and (0.16±0.25) μg/ml, (0.31±0.24) μg/ml, (0.75±0.28) μg/ml and (0.33±0.22) μg/ml in groups 5 to 8, respectively.Patients receiving gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel showed greater mean values of gatifloxacin concentration in aqueous humor than those receiving gatifloxacin solution, and such differences were significant with P <0.05 for all comparisons except that between groups 1 and 5.Conclusion Topical gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel can attain significantly greater drug concentrations in human aqueous humor than gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.

  6. COLLOIDON BABY WITH OPHTHALMIC INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare, genetic heterogeneous skin disorder. It refers to a clinicentity used for newborns who are encased by a translucent, tight and parchment paper like skin sheets so called collodion membrane, on the entire body surface. 1 Collodion baby is a phenotype which broadly describes the above condition which includes a number of phenotypes. The two most common phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous congenital erythroderma which account for 75% of cases and others like Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Netherton syndrome, Gaucher disease etc account for 15% of the cases. 2 Lamellar ichthyosis which is more common, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene, defect on chromosome 14q11.Lid ectropion and ocular complications like exposure keratitis are seen commonly in colloidon babies. 3 15 day old male baby, first issue of a second degree consanguineously married couple, born at a gestation age of 36 weeks (normal vaginal delivery was referred to ophthalmic institute for management of ectropion. Child was diagnosed to have lamellar ichthyosis at the paediatric referral institute. At birth baby weighed 2500 grams, length 48 cm, head circumference of 34 cm.

  7. 21 CFR 524.390a - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390a... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390a Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10...

  8. 21 CFR 349.50 - Labeling of ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ophthalmic drug products. 349.50... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.50 Labeling of ophthalmic drug products. (a) The word “physician” may be substituted for the word “doctor”...

  9. 21 CFR 524.575 - Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. 524.575 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.575 Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200a Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in a suitable...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment...

  12. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.16 Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The active ingredient and its concentration in the product is as...

  13. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL GENERAL Requirements for Specific Classes of Drugs § 200.50 Ophthalmic... intended for ophthalmic use, including preparations for cleansing the eyes, should be sterile. It...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886.1415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame....

  15. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  16. Calibration of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to alert users of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators about potential large errors in calibration of these devices. A discrepancy of more than 50% in calibration of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators between the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and one foreign manufacturer (the world's only remaining supplier) has been reported. A single-plane Sr-90 ophthalmic applicator was calibrated by the manufacturer, by NIST, and by the University of Wisconsin. The manufacturer's close rate calibration is confined to a 3-mm-diameter active area, while NIST measures all beta radiation emitted into a 2-PI solid angle. The discrepancy was verified by means of a technique based on that of NIST. Reports of calibrations at NIST of applicators made by several American manufacturers (no longer available) indicate that large discrepancies exist for other manufacturers as well

  17. Naturally occurring radioactivity in ophthalmic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of ophthalmic glass frequently utilizes mixtures of rare earths and zirconium oxides, which contain low levels of alpha-emitting decay products of natural thorium and uranium. Because of a concern about the possible effects of alpha irradiation of the cornea of the eye, the US Atomic Energy Commission in 1974 conducted a survey to determine the nature and quantity of radioactivity that might be present in ophthalmic glass in the United states and reviewed the pertinent dosimetry and radiobiologic significance related to the use of such glass. This report summarizes the salient features of the dosimetry used, briefly discusses the pertinent radiobiology, presents the results of analyses of 441 glass samples, and describes the industry ophthalmic glass radiological standard, issued voluntarily by the industry on November 1, 1975

  18. Polymer Micelles Laden Hydrogel Contact Lenses for Ophthalmic Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Tan, Huaping; Chen, Pin; Wang, Xin; Pang, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogel contact lens is an attractive drug carrier for the delivery of ophthalmic drugs. But limited drug loading capacity and burst release restricted its application in this field. Polymer micelle laden hydrogel contact lenses were designed for ophthalmic drug delivery in the work. β-CD/PAA/PEG ternary system was chosen to form polymer micelle. The micelle size could be adjusted by β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. The zeta potential of micelle was irrelevant to β-CD content, but influenced by PAA/PEG concentration. The absorbed drug concentration in micelle solution depended on both β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. Polymer micelle laden hydrogels were obtained by radical polymerization in situ. The transparency of polymer micelle laden hydrogel declined with PAA/PEG concentration increasing. The equilibrium water content and water loss showed that polymer micelle laden hydrogel with higher PAA/PEG concentration was in a higher swollen state. The dynamic viscoelastic properties howed that all polymer micelle laden hydrogels had some characteristics of crosslinked elastomers. The surface structure of freeze dried composite hydrogels was different from freeze dried pure hydrogel. The drug loading and releasing behaviors were detected to evaluate the drug loading and releasing capacity of hydrogels using orfloxacin and puerarin as model drugs. The results indicated the polymer micelle in hydrogel could hold or help to hold some ophthalmic drugs, and slow down orfloxacin release speed or keep puerarin stably stay for a time in hydrogels. In the end, it was found that the transparency of composite hydrogel became better after the hydrogel had been immersed in PBS for several weeks.

  19. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CYCLODEXTRINS AND OPHTHALMIC DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the possible applications of cyclodextrins in ophthalmic preparations are reviewed. First, an overview is given of the benefical effects of cyclodextrins, including an increase in solubility, increase in stability, and avoidance of incompatibilities. Then the interaction of cyclodextri

  20. Dural AVM supplied by the ophthalmic artery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    Dural arteriovenous malformations in the anterior cranial fossa are rare and are especially prone to haemorrhage. These lesions are usually treated by surgical excision. We report the embolization of an anterior cranial fossa DAVM using an endovascular approach via the ophthalmic artery.

  1. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  2. AN OPHTHALMIC HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Moradpour

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  3. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  4. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  5. Are we pharmacovigilant enough in ophthalmic practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No drug is absolutely safe. Pharmacovigilance is the science related to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems. The ocular medications and devices can cause localized and systemic adverse effects. Not all adverse effects are known when a drug or device is launched in market because of limitations of clinical trials. Many adverse effects are recognized due to the spontaneous reporting of the vigilant doctors who observe and report such events encountered in their practice. Despite a large ophthalmic patient population base, India does not have robust adverse drug reaction (ADR database because of lack of reporting culture. Government of India recently launched the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to monitor ADRs and create awareness among the healthcare professionals about the importance of ADRs. Suspecting and reporting a possible drug reaction is very important in developing a safe and rational ophthalmic practice.

  6. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation

  7. Medical physics aspects of ophthalmic brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraocular melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye. Radiation therapy using ophthalmic plaque has proved successful in the management of various ocular lesions. Although a few centres were using 90Sr/90Y plaques for shallow turtlours some years ago, eye plaque therapy was not a common practice in India. A revived interest in the use of eye plaque therapy and very high cost of imported sources has led to the development and production of 125I seed sources by the Radiopharmaceuticals Division, BARC. This report presents a brief description on the clinical, dosimetry and radiation safety aspects of 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray and 125I gamma ray eye plaque applicators. This report has been divided in five Sections. Section I presents general introduction of ophthalmic brachytherapy including the structure of a human eye, types of ophthalmic plaques and characteristics of radioisotopes commonly used in such applications. A brief review of sources, applicators and dosimetry of 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta and 125I gamma ophthalmic plaques are given in Section II and Section III, respectively. Section IV contains the single seed dosimetry data of BARC OcuProsta 125I seed as well as dosimetry data of typical eye plaques loaded with BARC OcuProsta 125I seed. Quality assurance and radiation safety aspects of these eye applicators are described in Section V. A proforma of the application required to be filled in by the user institution for obtaining regulatory consent to start eye plaque therapy has also been appended to this report. (author)

  8. Laser technologies in ophthalmic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atezhev, V. V.; Barchunov, B. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.; Zav’yalov, A. S.; Lapshin, K. E.; Movshev, V. G.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Excimer and femtosecond lasers are widely used in ophthalmology to correct refraction. Laser systems for vision correction are based on versatile technical solutions and include multiple hard- and software components. Laser characteristics, properties of laser beam delivery system, algorithms for cornea treatment, and methods of pre-surgical diagnostics determine the surgical outcome. Here we describe the scientific and technological basis for laser systems for refractive surgery developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484a... § 524.1484a Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent in activity to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base....

  10. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350 Section 886.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... instrument. (a) Identification. A manual ophthalmic surgical instrument is a nonpowered, handheld...

  11. Ex vivo corneal epithelial wound healing following exposure to ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keping Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Keping Xu1, Mark McDermott1, Linda Villanueva2, Rhett M Schiffman2, David A Hollander21The Kresge Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USAPurpose: Ketorolac 0.45% is a new formulation of topical ketorolac in which preservative (benzalkonium chloride, BAK was removed and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was added to improve tolerability and reduce dosing frequency. This study compared the effects of ketorolac 0.45% on corneal wound healing to prior ketorolac formulations (0.4% and 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%.Methods: Two parallel-group comparisons were performed in series. A 5-mm central epithelial wound was made in fresh porcine corneas. After 24 hours in minimum essential medium (MEM, corneas were incubated for 10 minutes with study drugs, Triton X-100 1% (positive control, or MEM (negative control, followed by 24 hours in MEM. The remaining wound area was stained, photographed, and quantified (pixels. Study 1 compared ketorolac 0.45% to ketorolac 0.4% and ketorolac 0.5%. Study 2 compared ketorolac 0.45% to bromfenac 0.09% and nepafenac 0.1%.Results: The mean (±SD original wound area was 200,506 ± 4,363 pixels, which was reduced to 59,509 ± 4850 at 48 hours after exposure to Triton X-100 1%. In study 1, the mean remaining wound areas at 48 hours in pixels were 2969 ± 1633 with MEM, 586 ± 299 with ketorolac 0.45% (significantly reduced, P < 0.05 vs all other treatments, 10,228 ± 7541 with ketorolac 0.4%, and 50,674 ± 33,409 with ketorolac 0.5% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.05 vs MEM. In study 2, the mean remaining wound areas at 48 hours were 565 ± 1263 with MEM, 322 ± 229 with ketorolac 0.45% (significantly reduced, P < 0.01 vs bromfenac 0.09% and nepafenac 0.1%, 29,093 ± 14,295 with bromfenac 0.09% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.01 vs MEM and 47,322 ± 13,736 with nepafenac 0.1% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.01 vs MEM and vs

  12. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical-ophthalmic ointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ophthalmic suspension whose active compounds are antibiotic and corticosteroids, was submitted, in the final package, to radiation in a Cobalt-60 source and their stability to gamma radiation has been investigated. This procedure aims to substitute the conventional aseptic method of manufacturing and packaging for radiation sterilization. Microbiological studies have been carried out to determine the minimum absorbed dose achieving the required Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10-6. The microbiological and product stability data obtained till the present time, support the use of radiation sterilization. (author)

  13. A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator has been manufactured to treat intraocular tumours. It is made up of a stainless steel cap which houses a perspex insert; the perspex insert is used to contain four I-125 seeds. This applicator will treat a tumour with a surface diameter of 10mm and when loaded with four seeds each of activity 150MBq a dose of 60Gy may be delivered to a depth of 5mm in the eye in 5 to 6 days. The resultant dose to the sclera is of the order of 220Gy

  14. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1430 Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device...

  15. Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creavin, Alexandra L; Brown, Ray D

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed to determine the common ophthalmic disorders in children aged 0 to 16 years with Down syndrome. The UK National Library for Health interface was used to search seven electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE. Terms related to Down syndrome, ophthalmology, and pediatrics were combined in the search strategy, which yielded 230 articles. Application of exclusion criteria left 23 articles to include in the review. Literature synthesis demonstrated that children with Down syndrome are at risk for several ocular disorders. Refractive error was a common finding, particularly hyperopia. Strabismus was also reported regularly, particularly esodeviation. Other frequent findings included poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and blepharitis, whereas cataract and glaucoma were less common but had potentially serious implications for future vision. Only one study compared routine pediatric examination to that of a pediatric ophthalmologist. The findings of this review confirm the need for an ophthalmic screening program for children with Down syndrome. Additional work should investigate how such a program could be best implemented and ascertain how to involve different professionals in such a service.

  16. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Einollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study.Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives.Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability.

  17. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  18. Shortcomings of the industrial quality assurance of 106Ru ophthalmic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Beta emitting 106Ru applicators manufactured by Bebig GmbH (Berlin, Germany) are widely used to treat intraocular tumors. The applicators are fixed to the bulbus and removed after several days. The following therapy relevant defects have been detected by an internal clinical acceptance test: risk of leakage and inconsistent dose-rate specifications by the manufacturer. In the meantime, components of the internal clinical acceptance test have been adopted successfully by the manufacturer of the 106Ru ophthalmic plaques. Material and Method: 106Ru ophthalmic plaques were tested with the following internal clinical acceptance tests: visual inspection, surface contamination, leakage, and dose-rate verification. The surface contamination test consists of a wet wipe test at moderate pressure. For the leakage test of the 106Ru ophthalmic plaques a clinically relevant scenario was developed in which the contact of the applicator with human tissue is simulated. In the course of it the applicator is inserted into Ringer's solution for several days. The certified energy dose-rate statements of the manufacturer are examined with a 1 mm3 plastic scintillator for consistency. (orig.)

  19. Neuro-Ophthalmic Syndromes and Processing Speed in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvana L; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Almeida, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The impact of prior neuro-ophthalmic syndromes on the performance on vision-based neuropsychological tasks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Two groups of MS participants, one with (Msos+) and the other without (Msos-), a history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes, underwent neuropsychological assessment and were compared with healthy age- and education-matched controls (HC). Participants with Msos+ performed significantly worse on the symbol digit modalities test than the Msos- (P < 0.03) and the HC groups (P < 0.01) and coding (P < 0.01). A clinical history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes is associated with reduced performance on visual processing speed tasks. PMID:26132964

  20. Ocular and systemic adverse effects of ophthalmic and non ophthalmic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Conde, C; Zamora-de la Cruz, D; Tenorio-Guajardo, G

    2011-01-01

    Information related to adverse drug effects caused by ocular medications and ocular adverse effects of systemically administered drugs has increased over the last several decades. Here we review the medical literature over the last four decades to both quantitatively and qualitatively determine the adverse effects of ocular drugs and ocular toxicity of non-ocular drugs. A systematic bibliographic review of the literature was performed with the following terms: "drug treatment", "drug therapy", "ocular adverse effects", "ocular side effects", "ocular toxicity", "systemic side effects", "systemic adverse effects", "systemic toxicity", "ocular drug" and "ophthalmic drug" using the Boolean operators or, and, not. Searches focused on: (1) Ocular side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs; (2) Ocular side/adverse effects of systemic drugs; (3) Systemic side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs. PubMed was used to perform searches. Limits included: species, human and field tag, abstract/title, dates from 01/01/1971 to 31/12/2010. A sub-selection of references was made by discarding articles that were irrelevant for the topics listed above. Adverse effects of alpha2-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, quinine derivatives and antituberculosis agents appear in the literature throughout the period of the review. Adverse effects of newer drugs such as amiodarone, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, antiepileptics, tamoxifen, and its interactions have been published principally in the last two decades. It is imperative for patient safety that knowledge of the adverse effects of drugs on the eye whether topically or systemically administered, and the possible systemic effects of drugs given as ophthalmic medications be emphasized to clinicians. PMID:22423585

  1. A polycarbonate ophthalmic-prescription lens series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J K

    1978-08-01

    Improvements in polycarbonate material, production techniques, and scratch-resistant coatings, combined with a process-oriented design, have resulted in a precision lens series. Surface quality is comparable to that of untreated glass ophthalmic lenses. The repeatability of the process results in closely controlled axial power and off-axis performance. For most lens prescriptions, the ANSI Z80.1 optical-center specifications for prescription accuracy are maintained through a total field of view of 40 deg for an 8-mm range of center-of-rotation distances. Off-axis astigmatism is controlled for near-point seeing. The lenses are both lighter and thinner than those of crown glass. A scratch-resistant coating reduces the reflections normally associated with high-index (1.586) materials. Impact resistance exceeds that required by ANSI Z80.7 and is many times that required by ANSI Z80.1.

  2. An historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graham A

    2012-11-01

    Today, no other classic novelist has the popularity or power of Jane Austen, and in 2013 the world will celebrate 200 years of her comic masterpiece Pride and Prejudice. Her millions of fans have an abiding fascination with all aspects of her life, including her health and the cause of her death. This historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen, based on very incomplete medical bibliographic data, finds that she had a mild ocular surface disorder from age 23. This disorder did not significantly impact on her visual performance for writing. There are many references to eyes in her novels, but Jane's eyes and those of her characters cannot contribute further to the debate around the cause of her death at age 41.

  3. M-sequences in ophthalmic electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp L; Meigen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to use the multimedia aspects of a purely digital online publication to explain and illustrate the highly capable technique of m-sequences in multifocal ophthalmic electrophysiology. M-sequences have been successfully applied in clinical routines during the past 20 years. However, the underlying mathematical rationale is often daunting. These mathematical properties of m-sequences allow one not only to separate the responses from different fields but also to analyze adaptational effects and impacts of former events. By explaining the history, the formation, and the different aspects of application, a better comprehension of the technique is intended. With this review we aim to clarify the opportunities of m-sequences in order to motivate scientists to use m-sequences in their future research. PMID:26818968

  4. Flow analysis of the ophthalmic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kuniaki; Hashimoto, Masato; Bandoh, Michio; Odawara, Yoshihiro; Kamagata, Masaki; Shirase, Ryuji [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hemodynamics of ophthalmic artery flow using phase contrast MR angiography (PC-MRA). A total of 14 eyes from 10 normal volunteers and a patient with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were analyzed. The optimal conditions were time repetition (TR)/echo time (TE)/flip angle (FA)/nex=40 ms/minimum/90 deg/2, field of view (FOV)=6 cm, matrix size=256 x 256. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatillity index (PI) values were significantly raised in the patient with NTG when compared to the control group. We therefore believe that PC-MRA may be a useful clinical tool for the assessment of the mechanism of NTG. (author)

  5. Dosimetry of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators are commonly used for the treatment of superficial eye disorders. Although a variety of dosimetric devices such as film, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), ion chambers, and radiochromic foils have been used to measure the peak dose at the applicator surface, there is no internationally agreed upon calibration procedure. Recently, large discrepancies among calibrations of the same applicator at three institutions have been reported. Here we describe a technique to obtain the peak dose rate at the applicator surface using LiF TLD's. The technique can be used for the calibration of flat as well as curved surface applicators. Results for two flat and three concave applicators are presented. Our measurement of the surface dose rate for one of the flat applicators is compared with those obtained by four other institutions, each using different dosimetric devices

  6. Flow analysis of the ophthalmic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hemodynamics of ophthalmic artery flow using phase contrast MR angiography (PC-MRA). A total of 14 eyes from 10 normal volunteers and a patient with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were analyzed. The optimal conditions were time repetition (TR)/echo time (TE)/flip angle (FA)/nex=40 ms/minimum/90 deg/2, field of view (FOV)=6 cm, matrix size=256 x 256. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatillity index (PI) values were significantly raised in the patient with NTG when compared to the control group. We therefore believe that PC-MRA may be a useful clinical tool for the assessment of the mechanism of NTG. (author)

  7. Seed-less iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of preparation a seed-less active insert of iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator is described. Internal electrolysis was applied for fixing iodine-125 on the concave surface of the silver shell which is afterwards hermetically sealed inside a spherically shaped acrylic insert. The current-voltage characteristics of the galvanic cell used for deposition of silver iodide were determined. The results of the measurements of the energy spectra of the radiation emitted by a seed-less and seed-containing applicator are presented. The iodine-125 surface distribution uniformity on a silver shell was measured. The depth dose rate measurements indicate that the total activity incorporated in a seed-less applicator can be lower than that in seed-containing, while simultaneously assuring the desired dose rate

  8. Verification of ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophthalmic brachytherapy dose calculations were performed as an independent verification of commercial dosimetry software (BEBIG Plaque Simulator). Excel spreadsheets were constructed to follow the formalism of the AAPM Task Group No. 43. As a software commissioning tool, TG43 seed-based coordinates were reformatted to be compatible with plaque-based BEBIG dose tables for centrally positioned seeds. Plaque central axis doses were also calculated for rings of seeds. Close agreement with BEBIG doses was obtained in both cases. Tailored spreadsheet versions were subsequently created to verify patient treatment plans. Treatment time and dose to a specified central-axis point are calculated for ROPES plaques fully loaded with I-125 model 6702 seeds. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  9. Ophthalmic Injuries in Orbito-Zygomatic Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the frequency and severity of ophthalmic injuries in patients with orbito-zygomatic fractures. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Oral and Maxillofacial Department, KEMU/Mayo Hospital Lahore, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients with orbito-zygomatic fractures were divided into three groups. Group-1 patients had fracture of floor/medial wall of the orbit (orbital-blow out fracture). Group-2 had comminuted orbito-zygomatic fractures. Group-3 had simple zygomatic bone fractures. Frequency and types of ocular injuries were determined on each group. Results: There were 296 (260 male, 36 female) patients with mean age of 31.7 years. Group-1 (n = 20) had 28 ocular findings in 12 (60%) patients including diplopia (n = 10, 36%), enophthalmos (n = 6, 14%), and hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, choroidal rupture, traumatic mydriasis, and commotio retinae in 2 cases, 7% each. In Group-2 (n = 106), 44 ocular findings were identified in 30 (28%) patients including diplopia (n = 10, 23%), enophthalmos (n = 4, 9%), commotio retinae (n = 10, 23%), reduced visual acuity (n = 6, 14%), retinal hemorrhage (n = 4, 9%) and corneal laceration, corneal abrasion, retinal detachment, traumatic mydriasis, and canthal laceration in 2 cases, 4.5%. In Group-3 (n = 170), 22 ocular findings were seen in 16 (9%) patients included diplopia (n = 10, 45%), enophthalmos (n = 4, 18%), and retinal tear, hyphema, angle recession, and traumatic mydriasis in 2 cases, (9%) each. Conclusion: Ophthalmic injuries are a common complication of orbitozygomatic fractures occurring in about 20% of patients in this study, most frequent in the orbital blow fractures subgroup. Ophthalmology consultation is recommended for patients presenting with midface fractures. (author)

  10. Latest technological developments in ophthalmic OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments of ultrabroad bandwidth light sources and detection technology have enabled significant improvement of ophthalmic axial OCT imaging resolution, demonstrating the potential of ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR OCT) to perform three-dimensional non-invasive optical biopsy, i. e. the in vivo visualization of microstructural morphology in situ, which had previously only been possible with histopathology. Therefore UHR OCT allows detection of intraretinal changes that can be used for diagnosis of retinal disease in its early stages, when treatment is most effective and irreversible damage can be prevented or delayed. Furthermore it may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several macular pathologies as well as the development of new therapy approaches. Other recent developments of ophthalmic OCT include nearly cellular level resolution, depth resolved functional imaging of the living human retina as well as OCT imaging with enhanced penetration into the choroid by employing novel wavelength regions. Using adaptive optics to correct higher order aberrations of the human eye in combination with high speed, three-dimensional UHR OCT enables unprecedented in vivo volumetric visualization of intraretinal morphology. Preliminary results demonstrate visualization of retinal features that might correspond to the terminal bars of photoreceptors at the external limiting membrane. In addition, extensions of UHR OCT are developed that should provide non-invasive depth resolved functional imaging of the retina, including spectroscopic, blood flow or physiologic tissue information. These extensions of OCT should not only improve image contrast, but should also enable the differentiation of retinal pathologies via localized spectroscopic properties or functional state. (author)

  11. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  12. Ophthalmic Diseases in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorin, Leonid; Knutson, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 2% of women and 4% of men, but the prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is significantly higher. Several ophthalmic conditions are associated with OSA, including floppy eyelid syndrome, glaucoma, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, keratoconus, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The purpose of this review is to provide primary care physicians with a general knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and management of the ophthalmic diseases associated with OSA. PMID:27455101

  13. Palladium-103 versus iodine-125 for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetry study compared the use of I-125 vs. Pd-103 radioactive seeds for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. Pd-103 seeds in ophthalmic plaques were used to treat 15 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma. Computer-aided simulations were performed to evaluate the intraocular dose distribution of I-125 versus Pd-103 ophthalmic plaques (delivering equivalent apex doses). Seven target points were selected. Starting at the outer scleral surface, four were located along the central axis of the plaque: the 1 mm point (the inner sclera), the 6 mm point, the tumors apex, and the opposite eye wall. They also evaluated the fovea, optic nerve, and the lens because they were considered to be critical structures. These studies demonstrated that the lower energy photons generated by Pd-103 seeds (average 21 KeV) in ophthalmic plaques were more rapidly absorbed in tissue than photons generated by I-125 (average 28 KeV). Therefore, during ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy, Pd-103 photons were found to be more rapidly absorbed within the tumor and less likely to reach most normal ocular structures. On average, the use of Pd-103 decreased the dose to the fovea by 5.7%, to the optic nerve by 8.4%, to the lens by 26%, and to the opposite eye wall by 38.4%. Pd-103 ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy resulted in slightly more irradiation of the tumor and less radiation to most normal ocular structures. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    OpenAIRE

    Marlowe ZT; Davio SR

    2013-01-01

    Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of L...

  15. Safety comparison of additives in antiglaucoma prostaglandin (PG analog ophthalmic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Fukuda, Shinsuke Shibata, Naoko Shibata, Kenta Hagihara, Hiromoto Yaguchi, Hiromi Osada, Nobuo Takahashi, Eri Kubo, Hiroshi SasakiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, JapanPurpose: To investigate the safety of five types of antiglaucoma prostaglandin analog ophthalmic formulations, and to clarify their differences in accordance with contained additives (preservatives and surface-active agents.Methods: The following five types of ophthalmic solutions and three types of additives were investigated: latanoprost (Xalatan®; latanoprost, tafluprost (Tapros®; tafluprost, bimatoprost (Lumigan®; bimatoprost, travoprost (Travatan®; travoprost, travoprost (Travatan Z®; travoprost-Z, benzalkonium chloride (BAK, polyoxyethylene hardening castor oil 40 (HCO-40, and polysorbate 80 (P-80. These experimental solutions were exposed to the cultured cells of a rabbit-derived corneal cell line for a certain time, and the exposure time causing 50% cell damage (CD50, indicated by the ratio of viable cells to total cells was calculated (in vitro. In addition, corneal resistance (CR was measured and CR ratio (post-treatment CR/pretreatment CR × 100 was calculated (in vivo.Results: CD50 of each ophthalmic solution was the longest with tafluprost, followed by travoprost-Z, bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost. CD50 of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 14.5 minutes, 8.1 minutes, and 4.0 minutes, respectively. The number of viable cells decreased to 60%, 8 minutes after exposure with HCO-40, and 30 minutes after being exposed to P-80. The CR ratio was 81.0% with travoprost and 82.0% with latanoprost, indicating a significant posttreatment reduction of CR (P < 0.05. The CR ratio did not decrease after treatment with tafluprost, travoprost-Z, or bimatoprost. The CR ratio of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 105.0%, 90.5%, and 68.7%, respectively, and that of HCO-40 and P-80 was 108.7% and 114.2%, respectively.Conclusion: BAK

  16. 顶空气相色谱法测定溴芬酸钠中有机溶剂残留量%Determination of Residual Organic Solvents in Bromfenac Sodium by Headspace Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海霞; 王长斌; 邢玉仁

    2015-01-01

    目的::建立顶空毛细管气相色谱法测定溴芬酸钠中有机溶剂残留量。方法:采用顶空气相色谱法,色谱柱为HP-5毛细管柱,载气为氮气,流速为0.8 ml·min-1。 FID检测器,检测器温度为250℃;进样口温度为200℃;柱温采取程序升温,初始温度40℃,维持10 min,以30℃·min-1升温至150℃,维持5 min。顶空进样,顶空瓶平衡温度为100℃,平衡时间为20 min。以二甲亚砜为溶剂,外标法测定溴芬酸钠中甲苯、异丙醇、二氯甲烷、甲醇及异丙醚的残留量。结果:各组分完全分离,线性关系良好,5种溶剂的平均回收率分别为98.9%( RSD =2.01%)、99.2%( RSD =1.95%)、99.6%( RSD =1.65%)、100.5%( RSD =1.38%)、100.8%(RSD=1.36%)(n=9)。结论:该法简便、准确,可用于溴芬酸钠中5种有机溶剂残留量的测定。%Objective:To establish a headspace capillary GC method for the determination of residual solvents in bromfenac sodi-um. Methods:A headspace GC was used to separate the residual solvents on an HP-5 capillary column with an FID detector. The car-rier gas was nitrogen at the flow rate of 0. 8 ml·min-1 . The temperature of the injector was 200 ℃ and that of the FID was 250 ℃. The programmed column temperature was set as follows:maintained at 40℃ for 10 min, and then raised to 150℃ at the rate of 30℃·min-1 and maintained for 5 min. The containers of headspace injector were in equilibrium at 100 ℃ for 20 min. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as the solvent. The amount of the residual solvents, such as methylbenzene, isopropanol, dichloromethane, methanol and iso-propyl ether was calculated by an external standard method. Results:All the solvents could be completely separated with good linear relationship. The average recovery of the five solvents was 98. 9%( RSD =2. 01%),99. 2% ( RSD =1. 95%),99. 6% ( RSD =1. 65%),100. 5%(RSD=1. 38%)and 100. 8%(RSD=1. 36%)(n=9),respectively. Conclusion:The method is simple and accu-rate in the

  17. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5% compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe ZT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax® is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte® and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators.Methods: Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity.Results: Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD] percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92% over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively, with mean concentrations for both falling significantly

  18. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  19. Optimization of 125I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Episcleral plaques containing 125I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged

  20. Clinical quality assurance for 106Ru ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Episcleral brachytherapy using 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators is a proven method of therapy of uveal melanomas sparing the globe and in many cases sparing the vision. In the year 2001, an internal clinical quality assurance procedure revealed that part of the ophthalmic applicators leaked and that the calibration was erroneous. Consequently, the producer modernized its production procedures and, in May 2002, introduced a dose rate calibration that is traceable to the NIST standard. This NIST calibration confirmed that the previous calibration had been incorrect. In order to study the effects of the producer's new internal quality assurance procedures on the ophthalmic applicators, applicators of this new generation were submitted to a newly improved internal clinical acceptance test. Patients and methods: The internal clinical acceptance test consists of a leakage test and a dosimetric test of the ophthalmic applicators. The leakage test simulates contact of the ophthalmic applicators with chloride containing body fluid. The dosimetric tests measure depth dose curves and dose rate with a plastic scintillator dosimetric system and compare them with the indications in the producer's certificate. Furthermore, the depth dose profile of the most frequently used applicator (type CCB) was compared with published data. Results: The internal clinical leakage test showed that all of the tested ophthalmic applicators belonging to the new generation (n=17) were tight and not contaminated. The dosimetric acceptance tests applied to seven different types of applicators revealed that the relative depth dose profiles in the therapeutically relevant range (up to a depth of ≤7 mm) deviate from the producer's indications only by -2.7 to +3.2%. The acceptance test of the dose rate values of the ophthalmic applicators at a distance of 2 mm from the surface of the applicators resulted in a coefficient of variation of 1.7% (n=17). In the evaluation of the

  1. OPHTHALMIC DISORDERS AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolase C O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of ophthalmic disorders among students of School for the Deaf, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in October, 2011 as part of activities marking the Annual Physicians’ week of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA,Ondo State. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the School Authority was also obtained before the commencement of this study. The respondents were selected by simple random sampling technique. All enrolled participants were interviewed with the aid of the study instrument (questionnaire by the authors and interpreters (school teachers.Results: The respondents comprised of 91(56.9% Males and 69 Females (43.1%. Nearly all the respondents;158(98.8% were deaf and dumb. Most respondents; 116(72.5% had ocular examination in the past. Few respondents; 118(73.75% had ophthalmic disorder. The commonest ophthalmic disorder was refractive error which was found in 16 respondents (38.1%. Myopia was diagnosed in 9 respondents.CONCLUSION: Most of the respondents were deaf and dumb. Few respondents had ophthalmic disorder. The commonest ophthalmic disorder was refractive error. Myopia was the most predominant refractive error. There is need for periodic ocular screening and treatment atthe School for the Deaf.

  2. Increasing incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark from 1980 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Lene D; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner; Prause, Jan U;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate patient characteristics and incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark during the period 1980 to 2005. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980 to 2005 were retrieved from three different population-based registries......: In the Danish population ophthalmic lymphoma consists primarily of orbital MALT lymphoma. Although it is a rare disease in mostly elderly patients, the incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma is increasing at a rapid pace....

  3. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Methods Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Results Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed

  4. 21 CFR 524.1880 - Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1880 Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains 2 milligrams prednisolone and 5 milligrams...

  5. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390d Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each...

  6. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical... times for ophthalmic treatments. The decay must be based on the activity determined under § 35.432....

  7. Smart ophthalmics: the future in tele-ophthalmology has arrived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A.; Garcia, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Smart Ophthalmics© extends ophthalmic healthcare to people who operate/live in austere environments (e.g., military, third world, natural disaster), or are geographically dispersed (e.g., rural populations), where time, cost, and the possibility of travel/transportation make access to even adequate medical care difficult, if at all possible. Operators attach optical devices that act as ophthalmic examination extensions to smartphones and run custom apps to perform examinations of specific areas of the eye. The smartphone apps submit over wireless networks the collected examination data to a smart remote expert system, which provides in-depth medical analyses that are sent back in near real-time to the operators for subsequent triage.

  8. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome Due to Intranasal Usage of Ophthalmic Dexamethasone: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Sarah; Censani, Marisa

    2016-05-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (ICS) is caused by exogenous corticosteroid administration with suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It has been commonly described with oral and topical steroid use, but scarce reports have documented intranasal steroid usage as the etiology in infancy. In this article, we describe a case of a 4-month-old infant who developed ICS after 6 weeks of intranasal dexamethasone ophthalmic solution administration for nasal obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with ICS due to intranasal use of a prescribed dose of an ophthalmic steroid. His hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovered fully 4.5 months after steroid discontinuation. Because of the small body surface area and supine position during administration, infants are particularly susceptible to ICS. Given that intranasal steroids are commonly prescribed to infants and children for a variety of diagnoses, this case highlights the risks inherent in the use of intranasal steroid drops, particularly in young infants, for both adrenal suppression and linear growth deceleration, even with short-term use. Close monitoring of these patients' height and weight should occur while on steroid treatment, with every effort made to decrease or discontinue steroid use when possible. PMID:27244810

  9. Intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm associated with basilar tip saccular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, A.R.; Tribolet, N. de [Department of Neurosurgery, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Safran, A.B. [Department of Ophthalmology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Martin, J.B.; Ruefenacht, D.A. [Division of Neuroradiology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    We present a rare case of intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm found incidentally, together with a ruptured aneurysm of the tip of the basilar artery. The intraorbital aneurysm was asymptomatic, and no treatment was offered. Angiographic control was recommended to detect any progression. Treatment may be indicated for documented enlargement or significant mass effect of the aneurysm. (orig.)

  10. Intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm associated with basilar tip saccular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rare case of intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm found incidentally, together with a ruptured aneurysm of the tip of the basilar artery. The intraorbital aneurysm was asymptomatic, and no treatment was offered. Angiographic control was recommended to detect any progression. Treatment may be indicated for documented enlargement or significant mass effect of the aneurysm. (orig.)

  11. Numerical implementation of generalized Coddington equations for ophthalmic lens design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, P.; Royo, S.; Ramírez, J.; Madariaga, I.

    2014-02-01

    A method for general implementation in any software platform of the generalized Coddington equations is presented, developed, and validated within a Matlab environment. The ophthalmic lens design strategy is presented thoroughly, and the basic concepts of generalized ray tracing are introduced. The methodology for ray tracing is shown to include two inter-related processes. Firstly, finite ray tracing is used to provide the main direction of propagation of the considered ray at the incidence point of interest. Afterwards, generalized ray tracing provides the principal curvatures of the local wavefront at that point, and its orientation after being refracted by the lens. The curvature values of the local wavefront are interpreted as the sagital and tangential powers of the lens at the point of interest. The proposed approach is validated using a double-check of the calculated lens performance in the spherical lens case: while finite ray tracing is validated using a commercial ray tracing software, generalized ray tracing is validated using a software application for ophthalmic lens design based on the classical version of Coddington equations. Equations of the complete tracing process are developed in detail for the case of generic astigmatic ophthalmic lenses as an example. Three-dimensional representation of the sagital and tangential powers of the ophthalmic lens at all directions of gaze then becomes possible, and results are presented for lenses with different geometries.

  12. Exposure Limits in Ophthalmic Imaging with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the exposure to laser radiation resulting from the use of scanning laser ophthalmoscopes in ophthalmic imaging of the ocular fundus. Exposures limits are determined, based on the IEC/EN 60825-1 standard. These limits are applied on the safety analysis of a commercial scanning laser ophthalmoscope. (author)

  13. CALCULATION AND RESEARCH OF CONTACT OPHTHALMIC DUAL APPLICATION LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Cherkasova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Algorithm for calculation of contact ophthalmic lenses for dual application has been suggested based on unified approach for their calculation. The algorithm has been tested on the composition of Goldmann ophthalmic lenses and Panfundoscope lens optical systems. Method. The condition of mutual unambiguous orientation of patient’s eye and instruments is performed at the initial calculation step by face mounting and movement of coordinate table with optical head. Then such type of patient's eye optical system model is selected that the lens would be combined with the front surface of eye cornea optical system. Pupil of patient eye is under anesthesia. At the final calculation step we determine the functions of optical lens image quality and their values based on medical and technical requirements for the components of the complex system. Main results. The algorithm for ophthalmic lenses calculation has been suggested and its correctness has been proved practically on the example of two basic models in the group of such type lenses being applied in practice as a part of complex system with ophthalmic laser coagulators. Optical calculation of Goldmann ophthalmic contact lenses and Panfundoscope is presented. The method of neutralization is optimal for Goldmann lenses. The first component in Panfundoscope operates the position of object planes whereas the second component operates the position of complex system with ophthalmocoagulator's pupils. Computer modeling of complex system "Computer model of eye-ophthalmic lens" in ZEMAX confirmed the correctness of calculation algorithm in which the criteria of diffraction image quality has been used. Application possibility of simplified computer eye model called "Reduced eye" by Verbitskiy has been demonstrated. Practical relevance. The general scientific approach to the problem of synthesis, calculation and research of complex system with contact ophthalmic lenses for diagnostics

  14. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  15. Triple A syndrome with ophthalmic manifestations in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kalpana; Murthy, Krishna R; Babu, Narendra; Ramesh, S

    2007-01-01

    Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, achalasia of the esophageal cardia, progressive neurological degeneration and occasionally autonomic instability. We report the ophthalmic manifestations in 2 siblings from a consanguineous family with this syndrome. A routine ophthalmic examination showed absence of palpebral portion of lacrimal gland, dry eyes and sluggish pupillary reflexes in both eyes of these patients. Both of these patients had achalasia cardia while the boy additionally had increased serum cortisol levels. Topical ocular lubricants were prescribed for both of them and Heller's cardiomyotomy with fundus plication was done for achalasia. These cases would create an awareness of this rare condition in ophthalmology in addition to suggesting its management. PMID:17595484

  16. Hydrogel Contact Lens for Extended Delivery of Ophthalmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft contact lenses can improve the bioavailability and prolong the residence time of drugs and, therefore, are ideal drug carriers for ophthalmic drug delivery. Hydrogels are the leading materials of soft contact lenses because of their biocompatibility and transparent characteristic. In order to increase the amount of load drug and to control their release at the expected intervals, many strategies are developed to modify the conventional contact lens as well as the novel hydrogel contact lenses that include (i polymeric hydrogels with controlled hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymer ratio; (ii hydrogels for inclusion of drugs in a colloidal structure dispersed in the contact lenses; (iii ligand-containing hydrogels; (iv molecularly imprinted polymeric hydrogels; (v hydrogel with the surface containing multilayer structure for drugs loading and releasing. The advantages and disadvantages of these strategies in modifying or designing hydrogel contact lenses for extended ophthalmic drug delivery are analyzed in this paper.

  17. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infection in the elderly may have a severe course due to the progressive weakening of the immune system related to the age. Moreover, skin lesions around the eye socket require special care in prevention of bacterial superinfections due to the extremely high risk of life-threatening complications or disability. Neuralgia resistant to pharmacological treatment present in the course of ophthalmic zoster and difficulty in caring about skin lesions predispose to the occurrence of complications. PMID:26759550

  18. Superselective ophthalmic intraarterial thrombolysis for central retinal artery thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery thrombolysis for treatment of central retinal artery (CRAT). Methods: 250000-500000 u urokinase was directly perfused via ophthalmic artery (OA) through the retained superselective catheter after angiography into 8 eyes of 8 patients with CRAT. Results: The visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved in 4 eyes. the VA of 3 eyes reached 0.1-0.3 after 6 months follow-up. the other 3 eyes achieved no significant improvement of VA. The VA of 1 eye decreased from finger count (FC) to light perception (LP). Conclusions: Early diagnosis and early superselective trans-micro catheter thrombolysis would be more effective than traditional treatment. (authors)

  19. A new human eye model for ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work proposes a new mathematical eye model for ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry. This new model includes detailed description of internal structures that were not treated in previous works, allowing dose determination in different regions of the eye for a more adequate clinical analysis. Dose calculations were determined with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo particle transport code running n parallel environment using PVM. The Amersham CKA4 ophthalmic applicator has been chosen and the depth dose distribution has been determined and compared to those provide by the manufacturer. The results have shown excellent agreement. Besides, absorbed dose values due to both 125I seeds and 60Co plaques were obtained for each one of the different structures which compose the eye model and can give relevant information in eventual clinical analyses. (authors)

  20. Dosimetry of ophthalmic applications using 125I seed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraocular melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye and radiation therapy using ophthalmic plaque has proved successful for its management. The dose prescription point recommended for 125I eye plaque therapy is usually 5 mm from tumour base centre for tumours with 5 mm or less height and tumour apex, otherwise. A computational programme was written to generate data for the dosimetry of eye plaque therapy using 125I seeds. Variation of central axis depth dose and isodose distributions at reference depth have been studied for different diameter plaques. The reference dose rate chosen for a clinical application, based on treatment planning software, was compared with that derived from the data generated in the present study. The dosimetry data generated and presented in this paper will help pre-planning of ophthalmic applications, using 125I seeds. (author)

  1. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Anna; Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infection in the elderly may have a severe course due to the progressive weakening of the immune system related to the age. Moreover, skin lesions around the eye socket require special care in prevention of bacterial superinfections due to the extremely high risk of life-threatening complications or disability. Neuralgia resistant to pharmacological treatment present in the course of ophthalmic zoster and difficulty in caring about skin lesions predispose to the occurrence of complications. PMID:26759550

  2. OPHTHALMIC DISORDERS AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF

    OpenAIRE

    Omolase C O; Komolafe O O; Adeniji A O

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of ophthalmic disorders among students of School for the Deaf, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in October, 2011 as part of activities marking the Annual Physicians’ week of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA),Ondo State. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo prior to commencement of this study. The permission...

  3. Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Emily S. Nelson; Lealem Mulugeta; Myers, Jerry G

    2014-01-01

    Although changes to visual acuity in spaceflight have been observed in some astronauts since the early days of the space program, the impact to the crew was considered minor. Since that time, missions to the International Space Station have extended the typical duration of time spent in microgravity from a few days or weeks to many months. This has been accompanied by the emergence of a variety of ophthalmic pathologies in a significant proportion of long-duration crewmembers, including globe...

  4. IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL AUDIT IN A COMMUNITY OPHTHALMIC OUTREACH PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhangi Prashant; Sharmil

    2014-01-01

    Outreach delivery of health care is an important part of Community ophthalmology, especially for Cataract patients. Quality assurance in such programmes, which guarantees every patient of best possible outcomes and fewest possible complications in such programmes of key importance. OBJECTIVES: To study the importance of medical audit in assessing & assuring the quality of surgical services provided to the patients in community ophthalmic outreach programmes. STUDY DESIGN: ...

  5. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, Anna; Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infect...

  6. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  7. Studies on characteristics of dosimetry for 125I ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isodose curves for 125I ophthalmic application in different geometry and activity can be obtained using the empirical formula based on suitable geometric model. The results of surface dose rate determined with lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD's) chips in water-organic glass phantom and air had no obvious difference and the surface dose rate and its uniformity, (3.46 +- 0.011) and (0.178 +- 0.15) nGy/h·107Bq were obtained. Count measurements and dose determinations for the front and back etc. of the ophthalmic applicator with BaF2 scintillation detector and LiF TLD's had revealed the space distribution of dose for 125I ophthalmic applicator in which dose on the back was less than 0.1% of that on the front. The distribution of the absorbed dose rate along the eye axis had been measured using LiF TLD's in water-organic glass phantom. The measured and calculated dose data indicated that when measuring distances were larger than about 5 mm the experimental results agreed with those from calculation within the range of error, otherwise the measured values were lower, still it could be explained by experimental conditions

  8. 78 FR 77688 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations...

  9. 78 FR 13350 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations...

  10. 75 FR 35495 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  12. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484 - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1484 Section 524.1484 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484 Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  14. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. 35.2433 Section 35.2433 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee...

  15. Observation on 108 Normal Ophthalmic Arteries in 80 Patients by Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    By digital subtraction angiography(DSA), the authors made observations on 108 normal ophthalmic arteries in 80 patients with regard to the origins, courses, branching, morphology and anastomoses of the vessels. The merits and demerits of DSA in observing the ophthalmic artery were discussed. Eye Science 1994; 10: 157- 162.

  16. 78 FR 46977 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the...

  17. Design and evaluation of a brinzolamide drug-resin in situ thermosensitive gelling system for sustained ophthalmic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Hua; Liu, Li-li; Cai, Chao-nan; Xin, Hong-xia; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study a brinzolamide drug-resin ophthalmic thermosensitive in situ gelling system was developed and evaluated. Brinzolamide was combined with ion exchange resins to prolong the retention time of drugs in the eye and to reduce ocular and systemic side effects. Poloxamer F127 was used as gelling vehicle in combination with carbopol 934P, which acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. They were prepared using the cold method. The optimized formulation exhibited a sol-gel transition at 33.2±1.1°C with pseudoplastic flow behavior. This formulation was stable and nonirritant to rabbit eyes. In vitro release studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled release of brinzolamide from the combined solutions over a period of 8 h. In vivo evaluation (the elimination of brinzolamide through tears and absorption of brinzolamide in aqueous humor) indicated that the solution combination was better able to retain the drug than commercial preparations. Thus this formulation is safe for ophthalmic use and significantly increases brinzolamide bioavailability in aqueous humor. PMID:25099146

  18. A Study To Evaluate Skills Of Ophthalmic Assistants For Assessment Of Cup Disc Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Whether paramedical ophthalmic assistants can be trained to examine vertical cup disc ratio? 2. Can the PMO As detect abnormal cup disc ratio after training? Objectives: 1. T o train ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination 2. To evaluate skills of trained ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination Study design: Cross sectional Setting: OPD of Ophthalmology department, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak Participants: Five paramedical ophthalmic assistants, one ophthalmologist and 322 patients above 40 years of age. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, Kappa values. Results: Data analysis of 322 cases was found by PMO As and ophthalmologist revealed sensitivity between 50-65% and specificity between 84.5-92.62%. A good agreement was found among all the examiners on computation of Kappa Values. It was concluded that ophthalmic assistants can examine vertical cup disc ratio after five days training.

  19. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  20. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  1. IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL AUDIT IN A COMMUNITY OPHTHALMIC OUTREACH PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Prashant

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outreach delivery of health care is an important part of Community ophthalmology, especially for Cataract patients. Quality assurance in such programmes, which guarantees every patient of best possible outcomes and fewest possible complications in such programmes of key importance. OBJECTIVES: To study the importance of medical audit in assessing & assuring the quality of surgical services provided to the patients in community ophthalmic outreach programmes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross Sectional Study. SETTING: Tertiary Level Eye Hospital and Locations of Outreach Camps. DURATION OF STUDY: 1 year, April 2010 to March 2011. METHODS & MATERIAL: Patients who had no ocular problems other than cataract & had undergone Cataract surgery as part of Outreach programmes, in 2 months – 1 year postoperative period, were selected at random. Interviewed & examined with Snellen's chart, Hand held Slit Lamp & Direct Ophthalmoscope to assess results of cataract surgery including complications. The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed for assessing the quality & effectiveness of community ophthalmic outreach programmes. RESULTS: Of the 1014 patients surveyed 59% were females. 31.5 % Patients got both eyes operated. Thus total 1334 eyes surveyed. 88% of surgeries in the given year have resulted in Good Vision as per WHO Standards. 11% & 2% surgeries resulted in intermediate and poor vision respectively. Only 2% of patients had to be brought to the hospital for further management. Most commonly encountered undesired effect was watering, noted in 2.7% patients followed by itching, redness, mostly in the early postoperative period. Most patients were satisfied about the services they obtained. CONCLUSION: Medical Audit is the mainstay in assessing & assuring the quality of community ophthalmic outreach programmes, which in turn maintain a public trust in the programme. It also helps in building a long term patient contact & finding out areas and groups where

  2. Ophthalmic disorders in adult lymphoma patients in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoti Afekhide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are rare events. Most reports of ocular involvement in lymphoma are case reports or reports of a few patients. Aims: To determine the ophthalmic disorders in adult, African, lymphoma patients. Settings and Design: A prospective study of ocular disorders in adult patients with lymphoma was conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between July 2004 and June 2007. Materials and Methods: The patients were interviewed and examined by the authors and the ocular findings recorded. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed on computer with the aid of the Instat GraghPad™ v2.05a statistical package software. The mean, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U-statistic and P value were calculated. Results: A total of 111 patients with hematological malignancies were seen over a period of three years of which 62 (55.85% had lymphomas. Of these, 51(82.3% were non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and 11(17.7% were Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Ocular disorders occurred in 16 patients (31.4% with non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and none of the patients with Hodgkin′s lymphoma (Mann-Whitney U-statistic is equal to 7.500, U′ is equal to161.50, P , 0.0001. The ocular disorders due to non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma were seen as - proptosis in six patients (11.8%, retinopathies in three (5.9%, conjunctival infiltration in three (5.9%, optic atrophy in two (3.9%, keratoconjunctivitis in one (two per cent, desquamating nodular lid lesions in one (two per cent, papilloedema in one (two per cent, and upper lid mass in one (two per cent. Four patients (6.5% had monocular blindness. Conclusions: Ophthalmic disorders are relatively common in non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Ophthalmic evaluation is needed in these patients for early identification and treatment of potentially blinding conditions.

  3. Supercritical solvent impregnation of ophthalmic drugs on chitosan derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Mara E. M.; Pato, Maria T. Vaz; Silva, Hélio S. R. Costa; Ferreira, Elisabeth I.; Gil, Maria H.; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Sousa, Hermínio C. de

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three chitosan derivatives (N-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), N-carboxybutyl chitosan (CBC) and N-succinyl chitosan (SCC)) were impregnated with flurbiprofen (an anti-inflammatory drug) and timolol maleate (an anti-glaucoma drug), using a supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI) technique (and employing high pressure CO2 and CO2 + EtOH mixtures) in order to develop hydrogel-type ophthalmic drug delivery applications. Impregnation experiments were carried out from 9.0 up to 14.0 MP...

  4. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Linear Nevus Sebaceous/Organoid Nevus Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear Nevus Sebaceous Syndrome (LNSS) is a rare sporadic oculoneurocutaneous disorder, also classified as Organoid Nevus Syndrome. It consists of a triad of midline facial linear nevus sebaceous, central nervous system and ocular abnormalities. To the best of authors' knowledge ophthalmic features of LNSS have never been reported in Pakistani population. We report two cases of LNSS, associated with multiple cutaneous nevus sebaceous lesions, complex ocular choristomas and rare bilateral presentation in one patient. Ocular choristomas included limbal dermoids, dermolipomas at superior fornices and chroidal choristoma. Ocular surface was successfully reconstructed by excision of limbal dermoids, partial keratectomy and amniotic membrane transp. (author)

  5. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  6. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  7. Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although changes to visual acuity in spaceflight have been observed in some astronauts since the early days of the space program, the impact to the crew was considered minor. Since that time, missions to the International Space Station have extended the typical duration of time spent in microgravity from a few days or weeks to many months. This has been accompanied by the emergence of a variety of ophthalmic pathologies in a significant proportion of long-duration crewmembers, including globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking, among others. The clinical findings of affected astronauts are reminiscent of terrestrial pathologies such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension that are characterized by high intracranial pressure. As a result, NASA has placed an emphasis on determining the relevant factors and their interactions that are responsible for detrimental ophthalmic response to space. This article will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, link it to key factors in physiological adaptation to the microgravity environment, particularly a cephalad shifting of bodily fluids, and discuss the implications for ocular biomechanics and physiological function in long-duration spaceflight.

  8. Association between Ophthalmic Timolol and Hospitalisation for Bradycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Pratt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ophthalmic timolol, a topical nonselective beta-blocker, has the potential to be absorbed systemically which may cause adverse cardiovascular effects. This study was conducted to determine whether initiation of ophthalmic timolol was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for bradycardia. Materials and Methods. A self-controlled case-series study was undertaken in patients who were hospitalised for bradycardia and were exposed to timolol. Person-time after timolol initiation was partitioned into risk periods: 1–30 days, 31–180 days, and >180 days. A 30-day risk period prior to initiating timolol was also included. All remaining time was considered unexposed. Results. There were 6,373 patients with at least one hospitalisation for bradycardia during the study period; 267 were exposed to timolol. Risk of bradycardia was significantly increased in the 31–180 days after timolol initiation (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–1.87. No increased risk was observed in the first 30 days or beyond 180 days of continuous exposure (IRR = 1.40; 95% CI 0.87–2.26 and IRR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.64–2.31, resp.. Conclusion. Bradycardia is a potential adverse event following timolol initiation. Practitioners should consider patient history before choosing a glaucoma regime and closely monitor patients after treatment initiation with topical nonselective beta-blocker eye drops.

  9. IN SITU GELS- A NEW TRENDS IN OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanjit Saini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavor facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The conventional ocular drug delivery systems like solutions, suspensions, and ointments show drawbacks such as increased precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision respectively so there was a need for developing advanced drug delivery system. In situ forming polymeric formulations were developed to overcome the conventional drug therapy drawbacks these systems are in solution form before administering in the body, but once administered these systems undergo gelation. The formation of gels depends on factors like change in a specific physico-chemical parameter (pH, temperature, ion-sensitive by which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. These systems were evaluated for drug content, clarity, pH, gelling capacity, viscosity, in vitro drug release studies, texture analysis, sterility testing , isotonicity evaluation, accelerated studies and irritancy test. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to know drug and polymer incompatibilities.

  10. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  11. Abnormal origin of the ophthalmic artery from the anterior cerebral artery: Neuroradiological and intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year old male child with an abnormal ophthalmic artery arising from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery is described. The patient suffered growth inhibition which was thought to be caused by a craniobasal cystic lesion affecting the hypothalamus. Preoperative angiograms revealed no vascular abnormalities. The right ophthalmic artery, however, could not be identified. During resection of a large arachnoid cyst the ophthalmic artery was found to arise from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. To the best of our knowledge, this exact anomaly has not previously been reported. The clinical, neuroradiological and intraoperative findings are presented. (orig.)

  12. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jun ZHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs include classic neuromyelitis optica (NMO, opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS, limited form of NMO and isolated optic neuritis or myelitis accompanied by either systemic autoimmune diseases or typical MRI findings of NMO. The common neuro-ophthalmic features of NMOSDs include simultaneous or consecutive bilateral optic neuritis, more commonly seen optic disk edema and surrounding exudate, poor visual recovery, steroid responsiveness and dependency. Combined with serum aquaporin 4 (AQP4 antibody and brain MRI examination, these clinical features can be helpful to the early differential diagnosis between NMOSDs and MS. Some types of eye movement abnormalities have been reported in patients with NMOSDs, but further investigation needs to be done before the specificity of these features are confirmed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.003

  13. A NOVEL OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: IN-SITU GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Patil*, A.A. Tagalpallewar, G.M. Rasve, A.V. Bendre, P.G. Khapekar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophthalmic in-situ gels now days proved an palpable sustained drug delivery in various eye diseases. The formulation of in-situ gels for eye which carries the advantages like easy for administration, reduces frequency of dose and improves patient compliance. The formation of in-situ gels depends on phase transition system or sol-gel transition system. The formulation approaches like temperature intonation, pH change and presence of ions from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner are utilised for in-situ gels. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in-situ gels include chitosan, Pluronic F-127, poly-caprolactone, gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin etc.

  14. Surface dose rate calibration of Sr-90 plane ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration of an imported strontium-90 ophthalmic applicator at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) has disclose a significant discrepancy in dose rate calibration (32%-35%) with that quoted by the manufacturer. The University of Wisconsin has investigated this discrepancy and found that both laboratories use similar techniques and a version of the Bragg-Gray equation to yield dose rate estimates. Experimental results indicate a strong relationship between the size of the collecting electrode used in the extrapolation chamber and the resulting estimate of absorbed dose rate. Calibration of these applicators is reviewed and suggestions for improvement and further research are proposed

  15. Irradiation of choroidal melanoma with iodine 125 ophthalmic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine 125 is a low-energy γ isotope with physical characteristics suitable for irradiation of intraocular tumors. Metal ophthalmic applicators have been designed to shield vital ocular structures while allowing irradiation of the tumor. We compared the radiation effects of iodine 125 and cobalt 60. The Greene melanoma was transplanted into the suprachoroidal space of rabbits. The tumor then grew as an intraocular mass, was irradiated, and was followed up for two months before enucleation. Histopathologic examiation defined the extent of the radiation damage to the tumor and other ocular structures from the iodine 125 and from the cobalt 60. The eye irradiated with iodine 125 suffered minimal radiation damage, whereas the tumor was sterilized. The eye irradiated with cobalt 60 showed substantial radiation damage, and the melanoma was incompletely treated. Our results support the use of iodine 125 in treating intraocular tumors. More research is needed as to optimum total dose and dose rate

  16. Monte Carlo dosimetry of I-125 ophthalmic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-125 seeds, mounted on the surface of gold-alloy plaques (1.0 to 2.0 cm in diameter), are used to treat intraocular malignancies. Currently available dose-computation algorithms ignore the perturbing influence of the plaque, assuming the seeds to be immersed in an infinite, homogeneous medium. The authors used a theoretical but physically and geometrically realistic approach, the Monte Carlo method, to calculate the absorbed dose in water arising from I-125 seeds backed by ophthalmic plaques. Preliminary results indicate that the plaque enhances dose by 2% very close to the seed and reduces dose by 4% to 7% at distances beyond 1 cm. Results are presented for various plaque dimensions, alloy compositions, and I-125 seed types in current clinical use

  17. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Eda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT, on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion: Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient’s retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  18. Interferon related ophthalmic complications in patients of hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of ophthalmic complications of interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin combination therapy in patients of chronic hepatitis C. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of the Study: Eye and Medical Department of Military Hospital Rawalpindi and Combined Military Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 93 diagnosed and consenting cases of hepatitis C were recruited who were eligible for interferon therapy. They were administered 3 million units (mu) interferon (INF)-alpha 2b, subcutaneously thrice a week along with 800 mg of ribavirin orally daily for 6 months. Ocular examination of all the patients was performed before starting interferon and then monthly afterwards till the completion of interferon therapy. Their ocular complications were observed and recorded. Results: The study included 54 (58%) males and 39 (42%) females. Mean age of the patients was 40.59 +- 8.68 years. Ocular complications developed in 24 (25.8%) out of 93 patients. Retinal icroaneurysms were present in 5 (5.4%), cotton wool spots in 10 (10.8%), retinal hemorrhages in 8 (8.6%) and optic disc hyperaemia in 1 (1.1%) patient. These complications developed within 8-12 weeks after start of INF therapy. Conclusion: Interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin combination therapy is characterized by its ophthalmic complications which are usually benign and self limiting. In our study, ocular complications which include retinal microaneurysms, cotton wool spots, retinal haemorrhages and optic disc hyperaemia developed in 25.8% of patients. In two third of these cases, these complications resolved before completion of INF therapy. (author)

  19. Clinical, Pharmacokinetic, and In Vitro Studies to Support Bioequivalence of Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie H; Lionberger, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    For ophthalmic drug products, the determination of bioequivalence can be challenging, as drug concentrations at the site of action cannot always be measured. The FDA has recommended a variety of studies that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence for different ophthalmic drug products. Product-specific bioequivalence recommendations for 28 ophthalmic products have been posted on FDA's website as of May 2016, outlining the specific tests which should be performed to demonstrate bioequivalence. The type of study that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence depends on the drug product's active pharmaceutical ingredient(s), dosage form, indication, site of action, mechanism of action, and scientific understanding of drug release/drug availability and drug product characteristics. This article outlines the FDA's current guidance on studies to demonstrate bioequivalence through clinical endpoint studies, pharmacokinetic studies, and in vitro studies for generic ophthalmic drug products. PMID:27184578

  20. Ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography in mild-to-moderate preeclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayaz, Tunahan; Akansel, Gur. E-mail: gakansel@superonline.com; Hayirlioglu, Alper; Arslan, Arzu; Suer, Necdet; Kuru, Ihsan

    2003-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in mild-moderate preeclampsia using ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography technique. Methods: Ophthalmic artery pulsatility and resistivity indices were calculated in 30 mild-moderate preeclamptic women and 30 normotensive gravid women of matched gestational age. Student's t-test was performed to test the significance of difference. Results: Both indices of peripheral resistance were found to be significantly lower in the ophthalmic arteries of mild-moderately preeclamptic women than those measured in normotensive gravid women at similar stage of pregnancy. In a small number patients whose disease progressed to severe preeclampsia, both indices increased. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate preeclampsia, ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography detects hemodynamic changes that are not present in normotensive gravid women. Reversal of Doppler patterns in a small number of patients with progressive disease supports the hypotheses suggesting the presence of early vasodilation and late vasospasm in the etiology of preeclampsia.

  1. Internal Clinical Acceptance Test of the Dose Rate of 106Ru/106Rh Ophthalmic Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Episcleral brachytherapy using 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators is a proven method of therapy for uveal melanomas, sparing the globe and in many cases, conserving vision. In its certificates, Bebig, the manufacturer of the product, indicates a dose rate for the 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators which ensures traceability to the NIST standard (12/2001). Since the introduction of the NIST calibration, the quality of the calibration provided by Bebig to the clinical user has been examined for 45 ophthalmic applicators with a plastic scintillator measurement system. Of these, 20 ophthalmic applicators had a dose rate at the dose specification reference point that exceeded the dose rate stated in the manufacturer's certificate by up to 23%. (author)

  2. Ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography in mild-to-moderate preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in mild-moderate preeclampsia using ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography technique. Methods: Ophthalmic artery pulsatility and resistivity indices were calculated in 30 mild-moderate preeclamptic women and 30 normotensive gravid women of matched gestational age. Student's t-test was performed to test the significance of difference. Results: Both indices of peripheral resistance were found to be significantly lower in the ophthalmic arteries of mild-moderately preeclamptic women than those measured in normotensive gravid women at similar stage of pregnancy. In a small number patients whose disease progressed to severe preeclampsia, both indices increased. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate preeclampsia, ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography detects hemodynamic changes that are not present in normotensive gravid women. Reversal of Doppler patterns in a small number of patients with progressive disease supports the hypotheses suggesting the presence of early vasodilation and late vasospasm in the etiology of preeclampsia

  3. Aneurysm and infundibular dilatation at an unusual origin of the ophthalmic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Kyung Mi; Choi, Woo Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The ophthalmic artery usually arises from the anteromedial or superomedial aspect of the internal carotid artery. Rarely does it arise from the medial or posteromedial aspect of the internal carotid artery. In this paper, the authors report two cases of aneurysm and infundibular dilatation found at unusual sites of origin in the ophthalmic artery and review the literature about possible etiologies contributing to the anatomic variations.

  4. Aneurysm and infundibular dilatation at an unusual origin of the ophthalmic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ophthalmic artery usually arises from the anteromedial or superomedial aspect of the internal carotid artery. Rarely does it arise from the medial or posteromedial aspect of the internal carotid artery. In this paper, the authors report two cases of aneurysm and infundibular dilatation found at unusual sites of origin in the ophthalmic artery and review the literature about possible etiologies contributing to the anatomic variations.

  5. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Razumovsky; O. E. Kolyuka; A. M. Razumovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy) as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency) and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing u...

  6. A new method for characterizing beta-ray ophthalmic applicator sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described which enables one to obtain detailed dose characteristics of 90Sr beta-ray ophthalmic applicators. A radiochromic radiation detector which is a solid-state solution of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide in a nylon polymer (i.e., thin foil), has been used to determine the surface dose rate and dose distribution of these sources. The detectors are rugged, easily handled, have an equivalent response (optical density per unit absorbed dose) to photons and electrons, and produce high-resolution images. They have been found useful for this application due to the high surface dose rates [0.10-1.0 Gy (H2O)/s] and their low sensitivity (approximately 10(4) Gy for an optical density of 1.0). The foils have been evaluated on a He-Ne scanning laser densitometer with a resolution of 0.3 mum. Comparison with NIST (formerly NBS) extrapolation ionization chamber measurements indicates surface dose-rate agreement within 6%. Spectral dosimetric characteristics are presented and discussed

  7. Transvenous Coil Embolization for Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas of the Ophthalmic Sheath: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juyoung; Jo, Kyung-Il; Yeon, Je Young; Hong, Seung-Chyul

    2016-01-01

    We present two patients with a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) of the ophthalmic sheath who developed progressive exophthalmos, conjunctival chemosis, and visual loss. These symptoms mimic those of cavernous sinus dAVFs. Dural AVFs of the ophthalmic sheath are extremely rare and their clinical management is controversial. We successfully treated these two patients by transvenous coil embolization. Transvenous embolization appears to be a safe and effective method to treat dAVFs of the ophthalmic sheath.

  8. Color Doppler imaging of the ophthalmic artery in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Almeida-Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ophthalmic artery hemodynamics in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Doppler parameters of ophthalmic artery of 18 patients with chronic heart failure in different stages of the disease were compared with 21 healthy volunteers (control group. These parameters were also correlated with echocardiographic assessments and clinical cardiologic status. Results: Mean diastolic velocity was 5.14 ± 2.4 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 7.44 ± 3.5 cm/s in the control group (p=0.007. Mean resistance index of the ophthalmic artery was 0.76 ± 0.08 in the chronic heart failure group and 0.70 ± 0.08 in the control group (p=0.04. Mean systolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery was 22.03 ± 7.7 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 25.32 ± 9.2 cm/s in the control group (p=0.24. There was a negative correlation between the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and systemic blood pressure of patients with chronic heart failure (r= -0.47, p=0.007. Diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery correlated positively with systemic blood pressure (r=0.44, p=0.02. Conclusion: Lower diastolic velocity and higher resistance index were observed in the ophthalmic artery of chronic heart failure patients when compared to the control group, which probably reflects the presence of orbital vasoconstriction in response to low cardiac output. Therefore, the influence of these findings on the structure and function of the optic nerve head deserves investigation.

  9. Optimization of sup 125 I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Episcleral plaques containing {sup 125}I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged.

  10. Design and construction of ophthalmic simulators for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a calculational methodology for dose determination in human eye structures, such as: sclera, choroid, retina, lens, vitreous body, optic nerve and disc, and cornea, as well as tumor due to treatment to the eye plaques. A human eye model was constructed taking into consideration its main structural and dimension characteristics. Beyond that a mathematical model for the Co-60 and 1-125 plaques with all geometric details were built employing the MCNP-4C code. This model is able to calculate the axial and radial doses in any point of the eye and for each of its structures. An acrylic eye simulator was also built with the aim to obtain experimental results for the both model validations. This simulator is made of an acrylic sphere split into foils of 1 mm thickness which allow the introduction of a radiographic film to measure the axial and radial doses. The experimental data were used to validate the MCNP-4C results. The data from the mathematical model will serve as the basis to build a data bank for all the eye structures allowing different position and sizes of tumor as well as the replacement of all ophthalmic plaques used in the treatment. This data bank will be the principal part for the construction of a national software for the dose calculation and can be of great help for a reliable treatment system planning in radiotherapy/brachytherapy. (author)

  11. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  12. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  13. Calibration of ophthalmic applicators at NIST: A revised approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised approach to the problem of measuring a surface-absorbed dose from beta-particle-emitting ophthalmic applicators is presented. The technique chosen employs an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 4-mm-diam collecting electrode to make current measurements at air gaps from 0.08 to 0.20 mm at 0.02-mm intervals. These data yield a linear relationship between current and air gap, the slope of which is used to determine average surface-absorbed-dose rate over the central area of the source. For additional information about the distribution of the activity over the source surface, autoradiographs using calibrated radiochromic dye films are analyzed to map the dose-rate profile across the surface of the applicator. Experiments varying several parameters of the extrapolation chamber measurement, including collecting electrode area, voltage gradient, range of air gaps used, and entrance foil material, are described. Also treated are calibrations of, and a description of the use of, radiochromic dye films for source profiling. Experiments for determining correction factors for the extrapolation chamber measurements are described, and an assessment of the uncertainties associated with these measurements is given

  14. Internal clinical acceptance test of the dose rate of 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the last forty years or so, episcleral brachytherapy using 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators has been a proven method of therapy for uveal melanomas, sparing the globe and in many cases conserving the vision. In episcleral brachytherapy, a radioactive 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicator (BEBIG Co., Berlin, Germany) is temporarily fixed on the surface of the bulbus oculi, whereby the intraocular tumour gets irradiated protractedly through the sclera. 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators are primarily beta sources, i.e. they generate a local dose escalation both in the vessels supplying the tumour and in the tumour itself, while simultaneously sparing the risk structures. In its certificates, BEBIG, the manufacturer of the product, indicates a dose rate for the 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators at a dose specification reference point which ensures traceability to the NIST standard (12/2001). The dose specification reference point is situated at a distance of 2 mm from the middle of the inner (concave) surface of the applicators, and the dose rate was measured with a scintillation detector (diameter 1 mm, height 0.5 mm). The manufacturer indicates for this dose rate at the dose specification reference point a relative measurement uncertainty of ±20% within the 95% confidence interval. Since the introduction of the NIST calibration, the quality of the calibration passed on by BEBIG to the user has been examined for n=45 ophthalmic applicators

  15. Use of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (PC-MRA) to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery. PC-MRA was performed in 16 volunteers with no ophthalmic abnormalities and measurement of blood flow based on the results was attempted. It was possible to measure blood flow in the ophthalmic artery using PC-MRA in all 16 volunteers. The mean (±1 standard deviation) velocity was 9.17±2.28 cm/second, peak systolic velocity was 16.69±3.33 cm/second, and end diastolic velocity was 3.69±2.44 cm/second. The resistivity index was 0.79±0.12, the pulsatility index was 1.49±0.41, and flow was 6.25±2.33 ml/minute. It was possible to identify the ophthalmic artery and a portion of the artery in which blood flow could be measured using MR imaging, a preliminary step to blood flow measurement using MR angiography. In addition to the velocity of blood flow in the ophthalmic artery, measurement of the amount of flow was possible with PC-MRA, which is one advantage of this method. (author)

  16. Re-evaluation of Magnetic Resonance and Computerised Tomographic Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmic Patients in an Academic Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekoek, Clarence G. J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Pott, Jan Willem R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to report the frequency of missed diagnoses on magnetic resonance and computerised tomographic imaging in neuro-ophthalmic patients who were referred to an academic ophthalmology department, with apparent normal imaging. The authors included all neuro-ophthalmic patients, ref

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of contemporary ophthalmic lenses against β radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study intended to identify the lens material and type that provides maximum eye protection against beta radiation, the effectiveness of contemporary ophthalmic lenses has been evaluated. From the calculations and measurements presented it is evident that safety glasses with crown glass ophthalmic lenses afford the eye the greatest protection against beta radiation, whereas street glasses with plastic ophthalmic lenses afford the eye very little protection. It is to be noted that glass street lenses (approximately 2.2 mm thick) provide greater protection than plastic safety lenses (approximately 3.5 mm thick). A warning is given against the use of safety lenses containing a large percentage of thorium. (U.K.)

  18. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  19. Dose distribution determination of ruthenium-106 ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dose distributions of COB and CCA type ruthenium-106 ophthalmic applicators (15 and 20 mm diameter) were investigated using small thin CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters with dimensions of approximately 2 x 3 x 0.05 mm3. TLD characteristics, namely linearity, reproducibility and sensitivity were studied. Measured sensitivities (variations in response to a nominal dose due to differences in size, homogeneity, etc) of individual TLD discs ranged from approximately -20% to +17%. TLDs were then placed at different positions in a water equivalent eye phantom. Dose points in planes at 1 to 10 mm depths from the plaque active surface were measured. Hot spots and cold spots (up to 50% difference from the dose on the central axis) were found in various positions throughout the plaques. The depth dose values provided by the manufacturer agreed well with the measured ones, but the standard errors for TLD measurements were considerably less than that of manufacturer. The percentage uncertainty obtained with proposed method was on average better than 5% compared to 30% indicated by manufacturer. MOSFET semiconductor detector was also employed in determination of Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) of the plaques. This was found to be a very feasible dosimetry method providing fast readout and high sensitivity to low radiation doses. The measurements agreed within a few percent with TLD results and manufacturer provided data. Determination of dose distributions of ruthenium-106 applicators using small CaSO4:Dy TLDs proved to be a useful technique for estimation of 2D dose distributions resulting from plaque treatments. On the other hand, fast measurement of PDD using MOSFET detector can be used for regular quality assurance and acceptance testing of the plaques

  20. An interactive treatment planning system for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy using removable episcleral plaques containing sealed radioisotope sources is being studied as an alternative to enucleation in the treatment of choroidal melanoma and other tumors of the eye. Encouraging early results have been reported, but late complications which lead to loss of vision continue to be a problem. A randomized national study, the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is currently in progress to evaluate the procedure. The COMS specified isotope is 125I. Precise dosimetric calculations near the plaque may correlate strongly with complications and could also be used to optimize isotope loading patterns in the plaques. A microcomputer based treatment planning system has been developed for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. The program incorporates an interactive, 3-dimensional, solid-surface, color-graphic interface. The program currently supports 125I and 192Ir seeds which are treated as anisotropic line sources. Collimation effects related to plaque structure are accounted for, permitting detailed study of shielding effectiveness near the lip of a plaque. A dose distribution matrix may be calculated in any subregion of a transverse, sagittal, or coronal planar cross section of the eye, in any plane transecting the plaque and crossing the eye diametrically, or on a spherical surface within or surrounding the eye. Spherical surfaces may be displayed as 3-dimensional perspective projections or as funduscopic diagrams. Isodose contours are interpolated from the dose matrix. A pointer is also available to explicitly calculate and display dose at any location on the dosimetry surface. An interactive editing capability allows new plaque designs to be rapidly added to the system

  1. Investigation of the imaging diagnosis on the ophthalmic orbital diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonographic examination, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on orbital diseases. Ultrasonographic examination was a simple, rapid and harmless noninvasive precedure as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of soft tissues. Echography was not more precise than X-ray CT and MRI scan in orbital diagnosis of the localization, size and well-defined outline of the lesion, relating to the peri- and retroorbital organs, however, was useful for screening study of an orbital lesion. B-mode of orbital tumors was effective for the ultrasonic diagnosis and classification according to four types; solid, cystic, angiomatous and infiltrative patterns. B-scan study of intraorbital inflammatory pseudo tumor could provide a differential diagnosis between inflammatory edema and an inflammatory mass lesion. Echographic pictures of dural arterio-venous fistula disclosed the vascular dilatation of superior ophthalmic vein and those of Basedow's disease with thickening of extraocular muscles. X-ray CT revealed intraorbital and intraocular disease, the globes and its immediate surrounding tissue (optic nerve, extraocular muscle, etc.) and bony orbital walls as the same slice of film. X-ray CT pictures of a coronal section, the contrast enhancement, calcification and destruction of the bone were helpful for diagnosis. However, the displays of disorders near the bone were ill-defined because of an artifact induced by high X-ray absorptive power of the bone. MRI was an equipment for superior contrast resolution, with provided a tomography of any section, without artifacts of the bone, and was the superior technique for displaying a vascular lesion. MRI of orbital disease was effective for reconstructing the spatial correlations between the lesion and its surounding tissues. MRI, however, provided no information of the skeleton, being not available for subjects with a magnetic substance. (author)

  2. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.8 to −1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, −20.16 to −15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  3. Reduction in drop size of ophthalmic topical drop preparations and the impact of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we devised a method to create smaller eye drops of the glaucoma medication timolol maleate by altering the dropper tip design and changing the physical properties of the formulation. Most ocular diseases are treated with topical application of eye drops. After instillation of an eye drop, typically, less than 5% of the applied drug penetrates the cornea and reaches the intraocular tissues; the major fraction of the instilled drug is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. Ophthalmic solutions are available in multidose or single-dose glass/plastic dropper bottles that deliver drops with a volume that ranges from 25 μL to 70 μL (average 40 μL. Because of the low capacity of the precorneal area, the optimal drop volume is about 20 μL; with larger volumes there is the risk of adverse systemic effects due to absorption of the drug via the nasal mucosa. Thus, both from the biopharmaceutical and economic point of view, drops of only 5-15 mL volume should be instilled into the eye. In this present work we devised a method to reduce the size of the drop by inserting a glass capillary tube into the dropper tip and by changing the physical properties of the formulation (by altering the concentration of Tween 80™, i.e., 0.05% and 0.1% of Tween 80™. We measured the drop sizes of the different timolol eye drop formulations available in the market and estimated the yearly cost of the medications. Our timolol maleate formulation with 0.1% concentration of Tween 80™ delivered through the dropper tip with the inserted glass capillary was shown to be better than the other formulations available in the market in terms of ability to deliver smaller drops, meaning that each bottle would last longer and that the yearly cost of treatment would be lower.

  4. The Use of Ophthalmic Ultrasonography to Identify Retinal Injuries Associated With Abusive Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Becky J; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Spaeder, Michael C; Miller, Marijean M; Dean, Nathan P; Cohen, Joanna S

    2016-05-01

    Abusive head trauma includes any nonaccidental injury inflicted to a child's head and body. It is often characterized by, but not limited to, the repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces with or without blunt head impact. It has a mortality rate of 30%, and 80% of survivors experience permanent neurologic damage. In this case series, we hypothesize that bedside ultrasonography can be useful in the identification of retinal injuries that are consistent with abusive head trauma. Ocular manifestations of abusive head trauma are identified by dilated ophthalmic examination showing retinal hemorrhages that are too numerous to count, multilayered, and extending to the periphery. Traumatic retinoschisis, splitting of the retinal layers with or without blood accumulating in the intervening space, is exclusive for abusive head trauma in infants without a history of significant cerebral crush injury. Direct visualization of intraocular structures is difficult when the eyelids are swollen shut or when dilatation must be delayed. We present a series of 11 patients with brain injuries who underwent ophthalmic point-of-care ultrasonography that revealed traumatic retinoschisis on average 60 hours earlier than direct ophthalmic visualization. Dilated ophthalmic examinations and autopsy reports confirmed retinoschisis and other forms of retinal hemorrhages that were too numerous to count, multilayered, and extending to the periphery in all 11 patients. One patient did not have a dilated ophthalmic examination; however, traumatic retinoschisis and retinal hemorrhages were confirmed on autopsy. Ocular point-of-care ultrasonography is a promising tool to investigate abusive head trauma through the identification of traumatic retinoschisis and retinal hemorrhages when pupillary dilatation and direct ophthalmic examination is delayed.

  5. Comparative studies of various hyaluronic acids produced by microbial fermentation for potential topical ophthalmic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Furrer, Pascal; Felt-Baeyens, Olivia;

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of various hyaluronic acids (HA) produced by fermentation of either Bacillus subtilis or Streptococcus towards the selection of an optimal molecular weight (MW) HA for the preparation of topical ophthalmic formulations. The influence of HA MW on water binding...... ophthalmoscopy (CLSO) conclusively showed the excellent tolerance of both Bacillus-derived HA and Streptococcus-derived HA after topical instillation onto the corneal surface. Overall, this comprehensive work highlights the superiority of medium MW hyaluronic acid for topical ophthalmic formulations based...

  6. Endovascular treatment of large and giant ophthalmic aneurysms with preservation of parent artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the endovascular embolization treatment of large and giant ophthalmic aneurysms. Methods: Three aneurysms were embolized with coils only and 5 aneurysms were treated with stent placement together with subsequent coiling. Results: In the 3 aneurysms treated only with GDC, total embolization was achieved in 1 and partial embolization in 2. In the stent placement and coiling case, 4 aneurysms were densely packed and another one was partially packed. Conclusions: Combined stenting and coiling is effective and safe for the treatment of large and giant ophthalmic artery aneurysm with the preservation of parent artery

  7. Ophthalmic applicators: An overview of calibrations following the change to SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the NIST dose to water standard for 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicators was introduced, numerous sources have undergone calibration either at NIST or at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UWADCL). From 1997 to 2008, 222 of these beta-emitting sources were calibrated at the UWADCL, and prior reference source strength values were available for 149 of these sources. A survey of UWADCL ophthalmic applicator calibrations is presented here, demonstrating an average discrepancy of -19% with a standard deviation of ±16% between prior reference values and the NIST-traceable UWADCL absorbed dose to water calibrations. Values ranged from -49% to +42%.

  8. Dosimetry of a New P-32 Ophthalmic Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Ye, Sung-Joon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Korea 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyon Soo; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Ul Jae, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.k [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon Korea 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator has been used as a {beta}-source for postoperative irradiation after pterygium excision. As an alternative to {sup 90}Sr/Y irradiation, we proposed treatments with {sup 32}P. This study aims to provide the dosimetry for this new applicator. Method and Materials: A {sup 32}P ophthalmic applicator, of which the design and materials were optimally designed by Monte Carlo simulations, was fabricated by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The absorbed dose at the front surface of the cylindrical {sup 32}P applicator was measured by using an extrapolation ionization chamber. Radiochromic film (RCF) was used to measure depth dose distributions and dose profiles at various depths. A micro-MOSFET detector was used for depth dose measurements. Results: The absorbed dose rates to the reference point (i.e., at the centre on the front surface of {sup 32}P applicator) were 0.238 {+-} 0.012 cGy/s for an extrapolation ionization chamber, 0.280 {+-} 0.001 cGy/s for RCF, and 0.257 {+-} 0.020 cGy/s for MOSFET. The axial depth dose rate was reduced into approximately 1/10 as {sup 32}P betas penetrate every 2 mm depth. Measured data in depths of 1 mm to 3.5 mm agreed with Monte Carlo data. Due to non-uniform absorption of {sup 32}P into an absorbent disk, the dose at the centre of trans-axial plane was 2%-4% less than the peak dose around the periphery. We confirmed no leakage of {sup 32}P activities and negligible exposure rate around the hand grip of the applicator. Conclusions: The {sup 32}P applicator can deliver uniform therapeutic doses to the surface of the conjunctiva, while sparing the lens better than {sup 90}Sr/Y applicators. The doses at any points from the {sup 32}P applicator can be calculated by using these measured data sets. The safety of {sup 32}P applicator was confirmed. However, prior to the clinical application of every new applicator, safety, dose uniformity, and absorbed dose rate at the reference point should be

  9. Dosimetry of a New P-32 Ophthalmic Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A 90Sr/Y applicator has been used as a β-source for postoperative irradiation after pterygium excision. As an alternative to 90Sr/Y irradiation, we proposed treatments with 32P. This study aims to provide the dosimetry for this new applicator. Method and Materials: A 32P ophthalmic applicator, of which the design and materials were optimally designed by Monte Carlo simulations, was fabricated by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The absorbed dose at the front surface of the cylindrical 32P applicator was measured by using an extrapolation ionization chamber. Radiochromic film (RCF) was used to measure depth dose distributions and dose profiles at various depths. A micro-MOSFET detector was used for depth dose measurements. Results: The absorbed dose rates to the reference point (i.e., at the centre on the front surface of 32P applicator) were 0.238 ± 0.012 cGy/s for an extrapolation ionization chamber, 0.280 ± 0.001 cGy/s for RCF, and 0.257 ± 0.020 cGy/s for MOSFET. The axial depth dose rate was reduced into approximately 1/10 as 32P betas penetrate every 2 mm depth. Measured data in depths of 1 mm to 3.5 mm agreed with Monte Carlo data. Due to non-uniform absorption of 32P into an absorbent disk, the dose at the centre of trans-axial plane was 2%-4% less than the peak dose around the periphery. We confirmed no leakage of 32P activities and negligible exposure rate around the hand grip of the applicator. Conclusions: The 32P applicator can deliver uniform therapeutic doses to the surface of the conjunctiva, while sparing the lens better than 90Sr/Y applicators. The doses at any points from the 32P applicator can be calculated by using these measured data sets. The safety of 32P applicator was confirmed. However, prior to the clinical application of every new applicator, safety, dose uniformity, and absorbed dose rate at the reference point should be carefully evaluated by the method developed in this study.

  10. A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2011-03-15

    Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG.

  11. 76 FR 51876 - Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Eyelid Thermal Pulsation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ..., 1976 (the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976), generally referred to as... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 886 Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices... system into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1600b - Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and triamcinolone acetonide ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1600b Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and...,000 units of nystatin, neomycin sulfate equivalent to 2.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 2,500 units...

  14. Staff dose of hospitalization in the treatment of patients in ophthalmic brachytherapy with 125 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work, therefore, has been the evaluation of the dose levels which nursing staff can receive in care for ophthalmic brachytherapy patients treated with 125 I from measurements made on the same, evaluating, in an experimental way, job security following the PR rules laid down for these treatments. (Author)

  15. In vitro and in vivo consideration of novel environmentally responsive ophthalmic drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Prashant K; Gattani, Surendra G

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, novel environmentally responsive ophthalmic drug delivery system composed of two gelling polymers with different phase transition mechanisms was developed in order to obtain sustained drug release in ocular cavity. Combination of polyacrylic acid (carbopol 934P) and xanthan gum was investigated as ophthalmic vehicle and assessed for its in vitro and in vivo performance. Different ratios of these polymers were used to prepare environmentally responsive ophthalmic drug delivery system by simple mixing procedure. Developed formulation was assessed for physical tests such as appearance/clarity, pH, gelation; and performance characteristics such as drug content, rheological measurement, in vitro release, antimicrobial efficiency, in vivo studies for eye irritation, residence time estimation. Prepared formulation showed agreeable appearance/clarity, acceptable pH and good gelation property. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated adequate drug content, desired rheological behavior and reasonable in vitro and in vivo drug release property. In conclusion, the optimum concentration of polymers results in increased residence time and sustained drug release. On the basis of these findings, environmentally responsive system based on combination of carbopol and xanthan gum may be considered as a promising tool for ophthalmic delivery. PMID:22200332

  16. Can ophthalmic drops cause central nervous system depression and cardiogenic shock in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryazov, Kiril; Stefova, Mariyka; Iotova, Violeta

    2013-11-01

    Topical ocular medications have been widely prescribed and successfully used in children for the management of different ophthalmic disorders. We present 2 infants admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit who developed altered state of consciousness, hypotonia, hypothermia, bradycardia, and apnea after instillation of ophthalmic drops. The second infant also had hypotension and broncho-obstruction. Few days before admission, both infants were diagnosed with congenital glaucoma, and topical antiglaucoma treatment was initiated. Ophthalmic drops with brimonidine and brinzolamide were prescribed to both patients, whereas the second infant also received topical timolol. After elimination of other possible causes, the diagnosis of intoxication with topical antiglaucoma medications was established. After discontinuation of eye drops and vigorous symptomatic treatment, both infants recovered without sequels. Topically applied ophthalmic drops may cause life-threatening systemic adverse effects in infants, such as central nervous system depression and cardiogenic shock. Moreover, these 2 patients illustrate the importance of careful evaluation of all topical medications and their consideration as possible causes of the derangements in critically ill infants. PMID:24196091

  17. Doses of radiation in the environment of patients undergoing treatment of ophthalmic brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results for measures of dose made to different patient undergoing treatment with ophthalmic brachytherapy. The aim of these measures has been, on the one hand, verify assessments relating to radiation protection in the memory of the installation and, on the other hand, experimental measures that can serve to reduce the perception of the radiological risk professionals have. (Author)

  18. Surface dose rate measurement of 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicator: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removable ophthalmic plaques are used in treatment of malignant melanoma of the uvea, post-operative irradiation in treatment of pterygium and other superficial lesions. 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicator uses 90Y(T1/2 64 hours) present in secular equilibrium with its parent 90Sr(T1/2 = 28 years). Filters (AI, Stainless Steel) in the front surface flatten the energy spectrum, absorb most of the low energy beta particles from 90Sr (0.54 MeV) and also permits the high-energy beta from 90Y (2.27 MeV) to enter the eye. Different methods have been used to quantify surface dose rate of ophthalmic applicators. Surface dose rate representing the applicator characteristic allows a convenient way for evaluation and correlation of results using different procedures. Experiments were performed to measure the surface dose rate of 90Sr/90Y planar ophthalmic applicator (Tracerlab, U.S.A.) by the reference method using extrapolation chamber and the GAFChromic MD-55 films

  19. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... external and internal parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501, January 6, 2004). The supplemental ANADA is approved as of September 21, 2011, and 21... meet the definition of ``rule'' in 5 U.S.C. 804(3)(A) because it is a rule of...

  20. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the treatment of open angle glaucoma or raised intraocular pressure: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Russo, Ivano Riva, Teodoro Pizzolante, Federico Noto, Luciano QuarantaCattedra di Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Università degli studi di Brescia, USVD “Centro per lo studio del Glaucoma” Spedali Civili di BresciaAbstract: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha isopropyl ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active latanoprost acid. When latanoprost is topically administered into the eye, the cornea seems to act like as a slow-release depot to the anterior segment. One hour after administration maximum concentration is found in the iris, followed by the anterior chamber and the ciliary body. Despite extensive research, controversy remains about the real mechanism of action of this drug. Immunohistochemical data have shown that the intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with topical prostaglandin F2-alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway. Evidence from several experimental and clinical studies suggests that latanoprost is a valuable addition first-line treatment alternatives for glaucoma, ocular hypertension and even angle-closure glaucoma. Strong points are its efficacy, which is demonstrated to be higher than that of brimonidine, dorzolamide and timolol with fewer systemic adverse effects; a convenient administration schedule; and the IOP-controlling pattern, which is relatively flat compared with timolol and dorzolamide, and enables better control in glaucoma progression, since large fluctuations may be associated with the risk of developing glaucoma in untreated ocular hypertensive subjects.Keywords: latanoprost, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  1. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.960 Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate... flumethasone, 5.0 milligrams neomycin sulfate (3.5 milligrams neomycin base), and 10,000 units of polymyxin...

  2. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  3. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  4. A pilot study for development of a novel tool for clinical decision making to identify fallers among ophthalmic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo, P; Orrico, A; Attanasio, M.; Rossi, S.; Pecchia, L; Chirico, F.; F. Testa; Simonelli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls in the elderly is a major problem. Although falls have a multifactorial etiology, a commonly cited cause of falls in older people is poor vision. This study proposes a method to discriminate fallers and non-fallers among ophthalmic patients, based on data-mining algorithms applied to health and socio-demographic information. Methods A group of 150 subjects aged 55 years and older, recruited at the Eye Clinic of the Second University of Naples, underwent a baseline ophthalmic ...

  5. Accessibility of ophthalmic healthcare for residents of an offshore island—an example of integrated delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Ju; Chang, Yun-Jau; Shieh, Chun-Fu; Yu, Jy-Haw; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the utilization of and satisfaction with ophthalmic healthcare provided by integrated delivery system (IDS) since 2000 and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) for residents of an offshore island of Taiwan. Methods Facilitators interviewed residents (age ≥ 50 years) with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) for VRQoL and a questionnaire on clinical information, ophthalmic care utilization and satisfaction. Results A total of 841 ...

  6. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requir- ing the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Mashige; K. S. Naidoo

    2009-01-01

    In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as goniosco-py that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy) requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-N...

  7. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO4:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO4:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO4:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO4:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  8. Pulse-to-pulse interaction analysis and parameter optimization for future-generation ophthalmic laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinne, N.; Kaune, B.; Bleeker, S.; Lubatschowski, H.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.

    2014-02-01

    The immediate pulse-to-pulse interaction becomes more and more important for future-generation high-repetition rate ophthalmic laser systems. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of two laser pulses with different spatial and temporal separation by time-resolved photography. There are various different characteristic interaction mechanisms which are divided into 11 interaction scenarios. Furthermore, the parameter range has been constricted regarding the medical application; here, the efficiency was optimized to a maximum jet velocity along the scanning axis with minimum applied pulse energy as well as unwanted side effects at the same time. In conclusion, these results are of great interest for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with future-generation fs-lasers.

  9. Ultraviolet light absorption of an ophthalmic formulation with Aloe extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yimei; Jia, Jicheng

    2009-09-01

    Aloin and polysaccharide present in extracts of Aloe arborescens Miller were formulated into a binary solution to protect eyes from bacterial infection and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The UVR absorption spectrum was recorded from 190 to 440 nm using a UV spectrometer. The physical properties of the product were examined in terms of its appearance, odor, pH, viscosity, density, refractive index, and stability. The binary solution exhibited three absorption peaks in the UVA, B and C regions, respectively. Such UV absorption capability was attributed to the phenolic chromophores pertaining to aloin. The present study suggested that the formulated binary solution has potential application as an UV absorption agent with built-in antimicrobial activity. PMID:19831035

  10. Surface tension examination of various liquid oral, nasal, and ophthalmic dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kimberly; Woghiren, Osakpolor E.; Priefer, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Surface tension at the surface-to-air interface is a physico-chemical property of liquid pharmaceutical formulations that are often overlooked. To determine if a trend between surface tension and route of administration exists, a suite of oral, nasal, and ophthalmic drug formulations were analyzed. The surface tension at the surface-to-air interface of the oral formulations studied were in or above the range of the surface tension of gastric, duodenum, and jejunum fluids. The range of surface...

  11. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases. PMID:25451691

  12. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-link...

  13. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza F. Díaz; Kendra García; Rosa I. Meneau; Yaíma Sánchez; Gastón García

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE...

  14. 4D microscope-integrated OCT improves accuracy of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic surgeons manipulate micron-scale tissues using stereopsis through an operating microscope and instrument shadowing for depth perception. While ophthalmic microsurgery has benefitted from rapid advances in instrumentation and techniques, the basic principles of the stereo operating microscope have not changed since the 1930's. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic imaging and is now the gold standard for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of most retinal and many corneal procedures. We and others have developed initial microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) systems for concurrent OCT and operating microscope imaging, but these are limited to 2D real-time imaging and require offline post-processing for 3D rendering and visualization. Our previously presented 4D MIOCT system can record and display the 3D surgical field stereoscopically through the microscope oculars using a dual-channel heads-up display (HUD) at up to 10 micron-scale volumes per second. In this work, we show that 4D MIOCT guidance improves the accuracy of depth-based microsurgical maneuvers (with statistical significance) in mock surgery trials in a wet lab environment. Additionally, 4D MIOCT was successfully performed in 38/45 (84%) posterior and 14/14 (100%) anterior eye human surgeries, and revealed previously unrecognized lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope. These lesions, such as residual and potentially damaging retinal deformation during pathologic membrane peeling, were visualized in real-time by the surgeon. Our integrated system provides an enhanced 4D surgical visualization platform that can improve current ophthalmic surgical practice and may help develop and refine future microsurgical techniques.

  15. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, John D.; Timothy L Comstock; Cavet, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a...

  16. Brachytherapy of ocular melanoma : physical and dosimetric aspects of 125I ophthalmic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-axis absorbed dose distribution of ophthalmic plaques is a useful parameter for the explanation of some observed biological effects. From a specific dosimetric software, developed in our brachytherapy department, and from our measurements around 125I eye plaque, we studied the dose distribution effects on the spread of activities inside the plaques. After analysis of experimental data, we observed also that the dose distribution in the penumbra area may be described easily with decrement lines. (author). 17 refs., 9 figs

  17. The Effect of Live Classical Piano Music on the Vital Signs of Patients Undergoing Ophthalmic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Jorge G.; Ruszkowski, Joseph M.; Worak, Sandra R.

    2008-01-01

    Context Music and surgery. Objective To determine the effect of live classical piano music on vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Design Retrospective case series. Setting and Patients 203 patients who underwent various ophthalmologic procedures in a period during which a piano was present in the operating room of St. Francis Medical Center. [Note: St. Francis Medical Center has recently been renamed Hawaii Medical Center East.] Intervention Demographic data, surgical procedures, and the vital signs of 203 patients who underwent ophthalmic procedures were obtained from patient records. Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured in the preoperative holding area were compared with the same parameters taken in the operating room, with and without exposure to live piano music. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Main outcome measure Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Results 115 patients who were exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in the operating room compared with their vital signs measured in the preoperative holding area (P < .0001). The control group of 88 patients not exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (P < .0002) and heart rate and respiratory rate (P < .0001). Conclusion Live classical piano music lowered the blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. PMID:18679538

  18. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  19. Interferometric And Microscopic Measurements Of Surface Finish Appearance Evaluations Of Ophthalmic Lens Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, M.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.; Divo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Surface appearance and product material integrity are important features that will affect product functionality, reliability and customer confidence. Yet despite this, and perhaps surprisingly, lens surface inspection is still undertaken visually with undefined criteria, varying levels of quality expertise, and differing moods of inspectors. In this paper, an objective quality inspection method for the polished edge of ophthalmic lenses is developed. Four defect categorizes have been indentified on the machined edge of non-acceptable lenses: chatter marks, linear, creep and cracks. Chatter matters have an irregular surface with waviness. The linear defect has a linear defect along the lens' edge surface. Creep has deformation of the surface due to the material removal process. Cracks have cracks along the surface of the lens. The developed technique was applied to several ophthalmic lens materials (Polycarbonate, CR39, high index materials) that contain defects of diverse shapes and sizes in different locations. Results show the effectiveness of the developed inspection technique for ophthalmic lens quality assurance and defect identification. It was also found that there is a correlation between the scale-sensitive fractal dimension parameter and surface finish appearance.

  20. Color Doppler Imaging of Ophthalmic Arteries : Age Related Changes in the Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color Doppler imaging (CDI) with Doppler spectral analysis was done to evaluate the age related changes of the ophthalmic arteries in 60 normotensive subjects (Age : 19∼64y, mean =38.3y, M : F = 1 : 1). A 7 MHz linear transducer for small parts (Acuson L7384) was used. The ophthalmic artery about 1∼1.5 cm behind the optic nerve head was depicted by the CDI. The maximum peak velocity (S1), the second peak velocity (S2), the maximum peak diastolic velocity (D1) and the end diastolic velocity (D*2) were recorded. Additionally, the piteously index(PI), the resistive index (RI), the ratio of S1 to S2 (S1 / S2) and the ratio of S1 to D1 (S1 / D1) were calculated. Correlation between the age and the above indices (ratio) was estimated. PI, RI, S1 / S2 and S1 / D1 declined progressively as a function of advancing age. The S1 / S2 showed the strongest inverse correlation with age (r = -0.667). The meaning of the S2's in old age is not clear. It could be related to the decreased compliance of the aged ophthalmic arteries

  1. Doppler sonographic evaluation of ophthalmic arterial flow pattern in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the Doppler velocity waveform pattern of ophthalmic artery of hypertensive patients with that of normotensive subjects. Doppler velocity waveform was obtained from ophthalmic artery in 45 hypertensive patients and 60 normotensive subjects. Both hypertensives and normotensive subjects were classified according to age into those younger than and those older than 45 years. Doppler indices(pulsatility index(PI), resistance index(RI), the first systolic peak/the second systolic peak(S1/S2), the first systolic peak/diastolic peak(S1/D)) measured in hypertensive patients were compared with normotensive subjects. Among the various doppler indices, only S1/S2 showed significant difference(P < 0.05) between the hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects younger than 45 years. Doppler velocity waveform of hypertensive patients older than 45 years showed no significant difference from that of normotensive subjects with corresponding age. Doppler velocity waveform of ophthalmic artery in hypertensive patients younger than 45 years shows pattern with S2 higher than that of normotensive subjects. High S2 component(reflective-wave) may represent increased vascular impedance due to vasococonstriction of retinal arterioles in hypertensive patients

  2. Superior ophthalmic vein approach for endovascular treatment of dural cavernous sinus fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the method for surgical exposure the superior ophthalmic vein with embolization of the cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods: Surgical exposure of the superior ophthalmic vein was performed by eyelid incision and followed by catheterization and embolization with micro-coils for 16 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas. Results: Clinical cure was achieved in all patients and complete angiographic obliteration of fistula was documented in 15 patients (94%). Residual fistula was left in 1 patients with compact occlusion via pterygoid drainage but disappeared one month later by manual compression of the carotid artery. Headache and vomiting were the most common symptoms after the embolization, other 2 patients had mild diplopia and relieved within two months. No permanent procedure-related morbidity and recurrence occurred during clinical follow up for 5 months to 6 years. Conclusion: Surgical exposure of the superior ophthalmic vein for embolization of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula is a safe and efficient method. (authors)

  3. Diode-light transillumination for ophthalmic plaque localization around juxtapapillary choroidal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An evaluation of plaque-mounted diode-light transillumination (DLT) for localization of episcleral plaques beneath juxtapapillary tumors. Methods and materials: Two patients scheduled for radiotherapy for juxtapapillary melanomas were offered DLT as an additional method of ophthalmic plaque localization. Plaques were constructed by affixing 4 non-heat producing, light-emitting diodes with their apertures flush with the episcleral outer surface of the plaque's rim. Bio-implantable epoxy was used to encapsulate the electronic components. Then the plaques were loaded with 103Pd seeds. After the eye-plaques were sewn to the episclera covering the base of the intraocular tumors, the diode-lights were illuminated, viewed and recorded. Photodocumentation of the relative position of the 4 lights around tumor's base was obtained in both cases. Results: Digital images of plaque-mounted diode retro-transillumination were obtained. No evidence of diode-light toxicity was noted. Both tumors were found to be covered by the ophthalmic plaques. Conclusion: Juxtapapillary tumors are often difficult or impossible to visualize with standard transillumination techniques and have been associated with poor local control rates. We have developed plaque-mounted DLT in an effort to improve ophthalmic plaque localization. Retrobulbar transillumination was viewed by indirect ophthalmoscopy and recorded with video-imaging. This technique provides unique photographic documentation of episcleral plaque localization beneath juxtapapillary tumors

  4. Maternal ophthalmic artery Doppler velocimetry in pre-eclampsia in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji RB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Richard Busayo Olatunji,1 Ademola Joseph Adekanmi,1 Millicent Olubunmi Obajimi,1 Olumuyiwa Adebola Roberts,2 Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo3 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, 3Department of Community Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE poses a serious challenge to maternal and fetal health in Africa. It is associated with hemodynamic changes that may affect the internal carotid/ophthalmic artery circulation with consequent neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Ophthalmic artery Doppler (OAD ultrasound is an important tool that can be used to detect hemodynamic changes in PE and monitor its severity. In this study, we evaluated hemodynamic changes on OAD ultrasound in the ophthalmic arteries of pre-eclamptic women and compared these with values in healthy pregnant women. Methods: OAD parameters, such as, peak systolic velocity, peak diastolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, pulsatility index, and peak ratio, were measured on transorbital triplex ultrasound scan with a 7–10 MHz multifrequency linear transducer in 42 consenting pre-eclamptic patients and 41 pregnant controls matched for maternal age, gestational age, and parity at the Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Univariate, bivariate, and receiver operating characteristic curve data analyses were performed. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean resistivity index, pulsatility index, and peak systolic velocity were significantly lower in pre-eclamptic patients than in the controls. Mean peak diastolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and peak ratio were significantly higher in the pre-eclamptic group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the resistivity index (sensitivity 75%, specificity 77.8% could distinguish mild from severe PE while the peak ratio

  5. Limitations when use chloramphenicol-bcyclodextrins complexes in ophtalmic solutions buffered with boric acid/borax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todoran Nicoleta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol eye drops are commonly prescribed in concentrations of 0.5-1% in the treatment of infectious conjunctivitis. In terms of ophthalmic solution preparation, the major disadvantage of chloramphenicol consists in its low solubility in water. The solubility is increased by substances that form chloramphenicol-complexes, for example: boric acid/borax or cyclodextrins. Objective: Experimental studies aimed to evaluate the potential advantages of enhancing the solubility and stability of chloramphenicol (API by molecular encapsulation in b-cyclodextrin (CD, in formulation of ophthalmic solutions buffered with boric acid/borax system. Methods and Results: We prepared four APIb- CD complexes, using two methods (kneading and co-precipitation and two molar ratio of API/b-cyclodextrin (1:1 and 1:2. The formation of complexes was proved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and the in vitro dissolution tests. Using these compounds, we prepared eight ophthalmic solutions, formulated in two variants of chloramphenicol concentrations (0.4% and 0.5%. Each solution was analyzed, by the official methods, at preparation and periodically during three months of storing in different temperature conditions (4°C, 20°C and 30°C. Conclusions: Inclusion of chloramphenicol in b-cyclodextrin only partially solves the difficulties due to the low solubility of chloramphenicol. The protection of chloramphenicol molecules is not completely ensured when the ophthalmic solutions are buffered with the boric acid/borax system.

  6. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  7. Investigation of shrinkage and cracking of ophthalmic lens coating by a cycle test of UV radiation and high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadokoro, N., E-mail: nobuyuki.tadokoro@hoyavc.com [Technical Research and Development Institute, VC company, HOYA Corporation, 37 Satukigaoka, Minakuchi-cho, Kouka-shi, Shiga 528-0062 (Japan); Jaisupap, K.; Sukbumperng, A.; Pannakarn, S.; Khraikratoke, S.; Jamnongpian, P.; Iwata, N. [PL Technical Department, HOYA Lens Thailand, 202 Moo1, Banwah (Hi-Tech) Industrial Estate (Epz), Banlane, Bang Pa-in, Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand)

    2012-04-02

    This paper presents some ophthalmic lens coating failures such as shrinkage, cracking, and cracking with delamination caused by UV radiation, elevated temperature, and moisture. These phenomena are caused by: 1) interactions at the interface between the plastic substrate and the hard coating (HC), and 2) plastic deformation with stress and relaxation of the HC/substrate interface. This phenomenon leads to an understanding of the mechanical properties of ophthalmic lenses through a QUV test which is found to be a useful method in developing better ophthalmic lens systems. The coating failures were investigated by means of different analysis techniques including optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, thermo mechanical analysis, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  8. Investigation of shrinkage and cracking of ophthalmic lens coating by a cycle test of UV radiation and high humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some ophthalmic lens coating failures such as shrinkage, cracking, and cracking with delamination caused by UV radiation, elevated temperature, and moisture. These phenomena are caused by: 1) interactions at the interface between the plastic substrate and the hard coating (HC), and 2) plastic deformation with stress and relaxation of the HC/substrate interface. This phenomenon leads to an understanding of the mechanical properties of ophthalmic lenses through a QUV test which is found to be a useful method in developing better ophthalmic lens systems. The coating failures were investigated by means of different analysis techniques including optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, thermo mechanical analysis, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  9. Characterization of Co-60 sources to the treatment of the ophthalmic tumors using the MCNP-4C code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophthalmic sources used in the treatment of ophthalmic tumors needed to be periodically controlled in order to have assurance of the administrated dose in the treatment. For this purpose, an human eye was simulated with all structures and composition was simulated by MCNP-4C with an ophthalmic source of Co-60 (model CKA-4 of Amersham). With this simulator, it was possible to determine the dose in the center-eye dephness and also the doses in the structures as retina, coroide, lenses, etc. To check the doses from MCNP-4C, it was realized measurements with radiological films type X-OMAT V of Kodak, with a Co-60 CKA-4 source and an acrylic simulator. The measurement allow the construction of the optical density versus the source distance. This curve will serve as a test data for the calculated dose values of MCNP-4C. (author)

  10. Antiviral activity of salivary microRNAs for ophthalmic herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmak M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ophthalmic herpes zoster is a common ocular infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Viral mRNA transcripts play a major role in the replicative cycle of the virus and current antiviral agents have little effect in preventing and treating the complications. Therapeutic use of saliva for certain painful ocular diseases such as ophthalmic herpes zoster is a well-known public practice in our region. We thought that antiviral activity of saliva may stem from salivary microvesicles and we aimed to look for molecules with antiviral activity in these vesicles. As a possible candidate for antiviral activity, salivary microvesicles contain at least 20 microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs, which suppress the translation of target mRNAs. miRNAs not only participate in maintenance of normal cell functions, but are also involved in host–virus interactions and limit the replication of certain virus types. Thus, miRNA gene therapy by targeting mRNAs required for VZV survival may find a niche in the treatment of ophthalmic herpes zoster. But, how could salivary microvesicles reach into the corneal cells to demonstrate their antiviral activity. We suggest that human salivary microvesicles can be effective carriers of miRNA for corneal cells, because they contain a molecular machinery for vesicle trafficking and fusion allowing them to be endocytosed by target cells. After binding to the plasma membrane, microvesicles seem to enter into the corneal cells through the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the cytosol, human salivary miRNAs base-pair with specific viral mRNAs and inhibit their translation, thus limiting the replication of the virus.

  11. A pilot study into the prevalence of ophthalmic disease in the Indian population of Southall.

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, A.; Ong, P.S.; Pearson, R V; Wormald, R P

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ophthalmic disease in the Indian community of Southall and to ascertain the best methods applicable for a larger formal study. Three sites were chosen for the study, a Sikh gurdwara, a mosque and a Hindu temple. The subjects were volunteers aged 30 years and over who had visited the appropriate place of worship at least twice in the previous month. A total of 184 subjects were examined. The prevalence of blindness was 2.7% by the Wo...

  12. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a tertiary hospital in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. The study design involved a prospective case series involving 36 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with brain tumour from November 2010 to October 2011, at the Ophthalmology, Neurosurgery and Endocrine units of KBTH, Ghana. All patients had clinical diagnosis of brain tumour with confirmation by computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen patients had histological confirmation of diagnosis. The outcome measures of the study include presenting visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields and cranial nerve deficits. Data of 36 patients were analysed. The results of the study showed that ages ranged from 3 to 69 years, mean (SD) 42.56(±16.6 years). Twenty-six (72%) were females. Tumours included pituitary adenoma (20, 55.5%), meningioma (10, 27.8%), choroid plexus tumour (1, 2.8%), medulloblastom (1, 2.8%), craniopharyngioma (1, 2.8%), haemangioblastoma (1, 2.8%), thalamic tumour (1, 2.8%) and haemangioma (1, 2.8%). Histologically confirmed tumours included pituitary adenoma (9, 69.2%), meningioma (3, 23.1%), craniopharyngioma (1, 7.7%). One patient had both a pituitary adenoma and meningioma. Blurred vision (30, 83.3%), headache (28, 77.8%) and photophobia (13, 36.1%) were predominant symptoms. Commonest neuro-ophthalmic signs were impaired colour vision (62 eyes, 88.6%), optic atrophy (26, 74.3%), unilateral or bitemporal hemianopia (15, 41.5%) and relative afferent pupillary defect (12, 34.3%). Seven (19.4%) patients were visually impaired and nine (25%) blind. Thirty-three of 72(45.8%) eyes had monocular blindness. Common neuro-ophthalmic characteristics were blurred vision

  13. Herpes simplex virus ophthalmic disease induced using two different methods of mice inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves Pereira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Two different procedures for inoculation of HSV on corneas of BALB/c mice were evaluated. The first was by the use of HSV suspensions directly on the corneas and the other was after corneal scarification. Animals by this later method presented greater morbidity and mortality than those of first group, suggesting that inoculation of HSV without scarification of the cornea should be the method of choice for the study of HSV ophthalmic infection. This model showed also be an efficient experimental system to testing antiviral drugs.

  14. Ruthenium-106 ophthalmic applicators for radiation therapy of malignant choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations performed at the Radioisotope Centre POLATOM were aimed at manufacturing ophthalmic applicators for irradiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Electrochemical plating technique was applied both for ruthenium-106 deposition on the concave surface of the applicators and also for the primary sealing of the sources. The method and results of the dose rate measurements are discussed. Surface dose rate distribution and dose rate as a function of the distance from the centre of the applicator are presented. Tests for tightness and mechanical resistance have been performed. The design and advantages of applicators thus prepared in comparison with actually imported by others manufacturers are described. (author)

  15. Numerical calculation of relative dose rates from spherical 106Ru beta sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Eduardo

    Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.

  16. Ophthalmic evaluation of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations to detect retinopathy or other ocular sequelae. Sixteen of the 34 patients received whole brain radiation (greater than or equal to 2400 rad). All 18 patients in the non-radiated group had normal eye examinations, while 4 of 16 in the radiated group had ocular abnormalities. None of the ocular abnormalities could be definitely attributed to radiation and all patients had normal visual acuity. No radiation retinopathy was found in either group

  17. Calibration of beta-particle ophthalmic applicators at the National Bureau of Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used at the National Bureau of Standards for the calibration of strontium-90 + yttrium-90 beta-particle ophthalmic applicators in terms of absorbed dose to water, is described. The method involves measurement of ionization density at the applicator surface with an extrapolation chamber, correction for the difference in backscatter between the collection electrode and water, and application of the Bragg-Gray equation. The calibration obtained is an average over the active surface of the applicator. The overall uncertainty of the surface calibration is about + or - 15 percent

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Hakan, E-mail: hakanselcuk73@yahoo.com; Soylu, Nur; Albayram, Sait; Selcuk, Dogan; Ozer, Harun; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology (Turkey)

    2005-04-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection.

  19. Treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by deep orbital puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient with progressive ophthalmological problems, including uncontrolled intraocular pressure related to a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula, urgent intervention may be necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. We report a case in which inadequate transarterial embolisation and lack of access for transvenous catheterisation, including a direct approach through the superior ophthalmic vein, preceded percutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein deep within the orbit, permitting venous occlusion without complications. This case demonstrates that deep orbital puncture of the vein is feasible for occlusion of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection

  1. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre

  2. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  3. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the pre-and intra ocular tissues, have been attempted to increase the bioavailability and the duration of therapeutic action of ocular drug. Certain new approaches to increase the ocular bioavailability, duration of the drug action and to reduce the undesirable side effects are by using drug carriers that regulate pre-corneal drug loss and improve the corneal contact time. Many of these systems prolong ocular bioavailability but do not control drug penetration through the cornea. Consequently, the drug concentration at the site of action might remain inadequate. Therefore, it is necessary to develop safer, efficacious and more acceptable ocular therapeutic system. The ocular bioavailability of the drugs can be improved by prolonging their residence time in the cul-de-sac and by increasing their corneal permeability. There are various new dosage forms like in-situ gel, collagen shield, etc.

  4. Human eye analytical and mesh-geometry models for ophthalmic dosimetry using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelocci, Lucas V.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eye tumors can be treated with brachytherapy using Co-60 plaques, I-125 seeds, among others materials. The human eye has regions particularly vulnerable to ionizing radiation (e.g. crystalline) and dosimetry for this region must be taken carefully. A mathematical model was proposed in the past [1] for the eye anatomy to be used in Monte Carlo simulations to account for dose distribution in ophthalmic brachytherapy. The model includes the description for internal structures of the eye that were not treated in previous works. The aim of this present work was to develop a new eye model based on the Mesh geometries of the MCNP6 code. The methodology utilized the ABAQUS/CAE (Simulia 3DS) software to build the Mesh geometry. For this work, an ophthalmic applicator containing up to 24 model Amersham 6711 I-125 seeds (Oncoseed) was used, positioned in contact with a generic tumor defined analytically inside the eye. The absorbed dose in eye structures like cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, vitreous body, lens, optical nerve and optical nerve wall were calculated using both models: analytical and MESH. (author)

  5. Effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow velocity and resistance in the ophthalmic artery of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Turner Giannico

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of clinically healthy rabbits. Methods: Fifty-five clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups, and the left eyes were treated for four weeks with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK only or a topical formulation of different prostaglandin analogs (bimatoprost BAK, tafluprost BAK-free, travoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK. Color Doppler imaging was performed before and after the treatments. The mean values of the peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity and the resistive index (RI were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences pre- and post-treatment for each drug and post-treatment among the drugs. Results: The prostaglandin analogs did not affect PSV. Bimatoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK did not change RI. Tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK therapy resulted in similar reductions in RI. No significant differences pre- and post-treatment were found when BAK was administered alone. Conclusion: The prostaglandin analogs tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK improved blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in healthy New Zealand white rabbits, which suggests that these drugs enhance the prevention of the progression the progression of glaucoma.

  6. [Case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Masanori; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2009-04-01

    A rare case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve was reported. A 52-year-old man presented with a sudden severe headache and bilateral visual deterioration. His right visual acuity was hand motion and the left was 2.0. His left visual field revealed a partial defect of the temporal visual field. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed an ophthalmic aneurysm of 9 mm projecting superior-medially, The operation was performed to preserve the visual function as much as possible. The C2 portion aneurysm splitting the right optic nerve was visible. Before aneurysm clipping, the right anterior clinoid process and optic canal were drilled out to reduce the tension of the optic nerve. Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potential (VEP) under propofol anesthesia was performed to prevent further visual disturbance. Electroretinogram (ERG) was introduced to ascertain the arrival of the light stimulus at the retina even when the VEP could not be recorded. The right ERG was recorded, but the right VEP was flat. Both ERG and VEP were reproducible on the left side. Six months after the operation, the right visual acuity had improved to 0.08 and the visual field revealed nasal hemianopsia. The left visual acuity was unchanged while the visual field had improved to upper temporal quadrant hemianopsia. Various attempts to preserve the visual function were discussed.

  7. [Case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Masanori; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2009-04-01

    A rare case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve was reported. A 52-year-old man presented with a sudden severe headache and bilateral visual deterioration. His right visual acuity was hand motion and the left was 2.0. His left visual field revealed a partial defect of the temporal visual field. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed an ophthalmic aneurysm of 9 mm projecting superior-medially, The operation was performed to preserve the visual function as much as possible. The C2 portion aneurysm splitting the right optic nerve was visible. Before aneurysm clipping, the right anterior clinoid process and optic canal were drilled out to reduce the tension of the optic nerve. Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potential (VEP) under propofol anesthesia was performed to prevent further visual disturbance. Electroretinogram (ERG) was introduced to ascertain the arrival of the light stimulus at the retina even when the VEP could not be recorded. The right ERG was recorded, but the right VEP was flat. Both ERG and VEP were reproducible on the left side. Six months after the operation, the right visual acuity had improved to 0.08 and the visual field revealed nasal hemianopsia. The left visual acuity was unchanged while the visual field had improved to upper temporal quadrant hemianopsia. Various attempts to preserve the visual function were discussed. PMID:19364029

  8. Ophthalmic manifestations of HIV in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, L

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related eye disease can be classified as retinal HIV microangiopathy, opportunistic infections, neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and unusual malignancies. There is a 52-100% lifetime accumulative risk of HIV patients developing eye problems. Seventy-seven per cent of patients with ocular manifestations of HIV had CD4 counts 100 cells/μL for a minimum of three months. Despite HAART, patients with a CD4 count PORN), less commonly toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis and cryptococcus. Malignancies associated with HIV include Kaposi's sarcoma and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Cranial nerve palsies, optic disc swelling and atrophy are characteristic neuro-ophthalmic features. They usually occur secondary to meningitis/encephalitis (from cryptococcus and tuberculosis). With the advent of HAART, new complications have developed in CMV retinitis: immune recovery uveitis (IRU) and cystoid macula oedema (CMO). Immune recovery uveitis occurs in 71% of patients if HAART is started before the induction of the anti-CMV treatment. However, this is reduced to 31% if HAART is started after the induction treatment. Molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi's sarcoma can spontaneously resolve on HAART. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has reduced the frequencies of opportunistic infections and improved the remission duration in HIV patients. PMID:24756590

  9. Backscatter measurements from a single seed of 125I for ophthalmic plaque dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the dosimetric effect of a gold plaque applicator used in 125I ophthalmic irradiation, relative dose rates at points 2--18 mm transverse to the axis of a single seed of 125I were measured in an acrylic phantom under three different measurement conditions. The detectors were 1-mm diameter x 3-mm length LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). Conditions corresponded to the following: (i) full scatter, (ii) the presence of an ophthalmic gold plaque, and (iii) no scatter material on the side of the seed opposite to the TLD's. The dose rate with the gold plaque is less than that with full scatter phantom. There is no significant decrease in dose rate at 2.2 mm from the seed. Dose rate is significantly reduced at greater distances. The does rate decrease ranges from 4% at 5 mm to 10% at 18 mm. The 125I seed in the gold plaque gives 3%--5% higher dose rate than in the absence of backscatter material

  10. On the actual state of industrial quality assurance procedures with regard to 106Ru ophthalmic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 2002, Bebig updated, among other things, the ASMW (GDR) calibration of the dose rate of the 106Ru ophthalmic plaques from the years 1987-1989 by a calibration of the NIST (USA). The current NIST calibration, together with the new equipment for the measurement of the depth dose curves, led to the consequence that the new NIST 2001 dose rate values show, in the mean, a deviation of 0.75 times (plaque type CCC) up to 2.06 times (plaque types CCX, CCY, and CCZ) compared to the dose rate values that had been indicated so far in Bebig's certificate, based on the ASMW 1987 calibration. For the 95% confidence interval, Bebig estimated the measurement uncertainty to be ± 25%. If one takes into consideration the minimal and maximal values in such 95% confidence intervals, it follows that the new NIST 2001 dose rate values deviate between 0.56 times (plaque type CCC) and 2.58 times (plaque types CCX, CCY, and CCZ) from the Bebig certificate (ASMW calibration 1987). As regards leakage, no objections arose in the case of the 106Ru ophthalmic plaques produced according to the new quality standards. (orig.)

  11. The measure for problematic case with middle meningeal artery origin ophthalmic artery in front-temporal craniotomy and a part of DSA. Preservation of visual function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the recent development of high-performance 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and the consideration of the risk of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), DSA is not always necessary in performing surgery for cerebral aneurysms. However, DSA was necessary in patients in whom the ophthalmic artery from the internal carotid artery (IC) was not visualized on 3D-CTA or MRA, in order to predict the risk of blindness after front-temporal craniotomy. In this study, we investigated the preoperative evaluation and the surgical procedure for 330 cases of front-temporal craniotomy for surgery of aneurysm over the past 4.5 years. There were 5 cases without ophthalmic artery from IC in DSA or 3D-CTA, 4 cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from the middle meningeal artery and 1 case with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from unknown origin. Microsurgical procedure is needed to preserve the middle meningeal artery in front-temporal craniotomy in these cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from the middle meningeal artery, because this anomaly places the ophthalmic artery at risk during procedures in which the dura is elevated from the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid or when the sphenoid ridge is removed in front-temporal craniotomy. Front-temporal craniotomy is difficult in cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from an unknown origin. (author)

  12. Cook detachable coil embolization of a symptomatic, isolated orbital arteriovenous fistula via a superior ophthalmic vein approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated arteriovenous fistulas of the posterior orbit occur with exceptional rarity, and their evaluation and management are not well characterized. We describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a spontaneous arteriovenous fistula of the right posterior orbit via a superior ophthalmic vein approach for embolization using platinum detachable coils. (orig.)

  13. 78 FR 68854 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 57397), FDA announced that it would hold a public hearing on December 4, 2013, to obtain... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency...

  14. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Ophthalmic Technology (Program CIP: 51.1801--Opticianry/Dispensing Optician). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the ophthalmic technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and section II…

  15. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  16. Five-year mortality rate in an ophthalmic ward in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamidzai Madzima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward at the Sekuru KaguviHospital Eye Unit (SKHEU, Zimbabwe, from January 2009 to December 2013 and to identify the causes of death.Design: A hospital-based clinical audit.Methods: Data from completed hospital death notification forms and medical records of patients who had died in the ward during the review period were collected that included age, gender, diagnoses, date of admission, date of death and cause of death. The data were analysed using Epi Info7 software.Setting: The audit was conducted at SKHEU, the largest tertiary eye unit in Zimbabwe. It comprises an ophthalmic ward with 30 beds and caters for about 900 patients per year. Patients are admitted via the Out-patients Department where about 30 000 patients are seen yearly. SKHEU is part of the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, which is one of the four major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe.Results: Of the 4722 ophthalmic admissions at SKHEU during the 5-year study period, therewere 15 (0.3% deaths, with a male:female ratio of 3:2 giving a mortality rate of 0.3% and an average of 3 deaths per year. The highest number of deaths was in 2009 when 7 deaths occurred, whilst the lowest number was 1 death in 2010 and 1 in 2013. Of the 15 deaths,4 (26.7% were children < 12 years old and 11 (73.3% were adults; of whom 12 (80% patients had orbital malignancies, 2 (13.3% had orbital cellulitis and 1 (6.7% had ocular trauma. Theorbital malignancies included ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN, retinoblastomaand non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL. The most common probable cause of death was OSSN which accounted for 9 (60% of the deaths.Conclusion: The mortality rate at SKHEU was 0.3%, with approximately 3 deaths occurring per year. The most common attributable cause of death was OSSN.

  17. Sulfacetamide Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discolored eye drops (yellowish brown to deep reddish brown).Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose ...

  18. Ophthalmic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Stevens

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  19. Levobunolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Levobunolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... pharmacist if you are allergic to levobunolol, other beta blockers, sulfites, or any other drugs.tell your doctor ...

  20. Metipranolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metipranolol is in a class of medications called beta-blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to metipranolol, beta blockers, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ...

  1. Timolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Timolol is in a class of medications called beta-blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to timolol, beta blockers, or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ...

  2. Moxifloxacin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sore throat, fever, chills and other signs of infection ear pain or fullness rash hives itching difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs Moxifloxacin eye drops may cause other side ...

  3. Betaxolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or push the bottom of the bottle to dispense one drop of medication into the pocket made by the lower eyelid. ... This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  4. Idoxuridine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. ...

  5. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  6. Tetrahydrozoline Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drops and call your doctor immediately: headache sweating fast or irregular heartbeat nervousness If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  7. Dipivefrin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fast or irregular heartbeat chest pain wheezing difficulty breathing If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  8. Ophthalmic practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sue Stevens

    2005-01-01

    Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  9. Apraclonidine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apraclonidine 0.5% eye drops are used for the short-term treatment of glaucoma (a condition that can cause damage to the optic ... loss, usually due to increased pressure in the eye) in people who are taking other medications for ...

  10. Poly(acrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles designed for ophthalmic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasi, Ana-Maria; Popa, Marcel Ionel; Tanase, Edi Constantin; Butnaru, Maria; Verestiuc, Liliana

    2014-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), four-arm, amine-terminated particles with nanometer size and spherical shape were obtained by the polymers cross-linking, via activation with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, in a w/o emulsion. The morphology and surface charge of the final particles are strongly dependent on the molar ratio of PAA-PEG and the PAA concentration. The physicochemical characteristics correlated with the drug-loading capacity, in vitro and ex vivo release kinetics of pilocarpine hydrochloride and biocompatibility results indicate that these nanoparticles exhibit the prerequisite behavior for use as carriers of ophthalmic drugs. PMID:24357331

  11. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Somayeh [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoudi, Seyed Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, Majid [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  12. A gauge for measuring the dose rate and activity of ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gauge is developed for determining the dose rate distribution and surface activity of ophthalmic brachytherapy applicators, particularly 106Ru applicators. A plastic Φ2x2 mm scintillator is used as the radiation detector, featuring a high pulse count rate, which results in a law 0.5% random error, due to good counting statistics. Automatic gain control of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) is achieved using a LED as the reference light source. The PMT operates in pulse mode. Long term gain variation due to fatigue of the PMT or ambient temperature variation is thus compensated for. The count rate error due to inaccurate setting of the high voltage supply of the PMT is 0.4%, and the instability error over 7 hours of continuous operation does not exceed 102%, peak-to-peak. (author)

  13. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  14. Determination of surface dose rate from a 90Sr ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface dose rates from two 90Sr ophthalmic applicators were measured using thin thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips. The TLD's were calibrated against the 90Sr source itself. The calibration technique is described. The results were compared to those obtained by three other techniques. The calibration in terms of roentgen equivalent betas per second provided by the manufacturer was found to be ∼30% lower when compared to our measured dose rates. The surface dose rates obtained with the TLD's calibrated against 6-MV x rays were 18% higher. One of the two sources was sent to both the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Amersham International for calibration. NIST and Amersham use extrapolation chambers as a Bragg--Gray cavity to determine the surface dose rate. NIST results gave values higher than ours by ∼5%. The Amersham results were ∼35% lower than ours

  15. Possible assessment of irritability of ophthalmic preparation using dye and radiotracer in laboratory rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods were tested of assessing eye irritation due to drugs. Drugs were applied in a single dose or in repeated applications in the rat conjunctiva, this under normal conditions or during anesthesia. The damage to the eye-lid was evaluated. The methods use the principle of assessing the penetration of Evans blue or the 113In radioisotope in the irritated conjuctiva while the degree of irritation is expressed numerically on the basis of the measured amount of the blue or of the radioisotope activity. The dye or the radioisotope was injected in the rat caudal vein following the last application of the material under study. Both methods studied were found to be insufficiently sensitive for objective differentiation between slightly irritating and non-irritating ophthalmic preparations. (M.D.). 1 tab., 21 refs

  16. Development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S., E-mail: frmattos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in partnership with the School or Medicine (UNIFESP), created a project that aims to develop and implement an ophthalmic therapeutic treatment for cancer with Iridium-192 seeds. The School of Medicine treats many cancer cases in the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System), and brachytherapy group of IPEN has extensive experience in prototype sources. The seed to be manufactured will perform as follows: a core of Iridium-192 is packaged inside small cylindrical seeds consist of a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm outer diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4 5 mm in length. The core is an alloy of platinum-iridium (20/80) of 3.0 mm in length and 0.3 mm in diameter. Material analysis, neutron activation and activity measurements were carried out. (author)

  17. A method for the calibration of concave 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Amersham Laboratory (Amersham, UK) absorbed-dose rate in tissue at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 from curved ophthalmic applicators is measured with calibrated scintillator probes (Amersham International 1979, Sinclair and Trott 1956). The probes are approximately 3 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm thick and are covered with 7 mg cm-2 of aluminium. They are calibrated using standard sources whose dose rate has been determined using an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 3 mm diameter collecting electrode. Crucial to this technique is the availability of well calibrated sources of nearly the same geometry and dose rate as the source to be calibrated. A technique is presented here which yields accurate measurement of the surface absorbed-dose rate in a very simple and straightforward fashion. (author)

  18. Dosimetric calculations and measurements of gold plaque ophthalmic irradiators using iridium-192 and iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of ophthalmic plaques designed to hold iridium-192 or iodine-125 seeds is investigated experimentally and by means of a computer model. A phantom for thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) which permits measurements to within 2 mm of the plaque surface is described. TLD data are compared with model calculations that take into account the active length of the seeds, anisotropy of dose distribution from single seeds, and scatter within the phantom. An isotropic point source calculational model is accurate for clinical calculations, particularly at depths greater than 5 mm. Relative central axis dose measurements for 125I in a gold plaque are also in agreement with the model. Comparisons of 192Ir, 125I and 60Co plaques are presented. The relative advantages of using these isotopes in eye plaques are discussed

  19. Transorbital superior ophthalmic vein sacrifice to preserve vision in ocular hypertension from aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Davis, Brandon J; He, Lucy; Mawn, Louise A; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is rare and may clinically masquerade as a carotid cavernous fistula. Conventional management includes oral anticoagulation, but cases of ocular hypertension affecting vision may require more aggressive intervention. We report a case of a woman with spontaneous bilaterally occluded cavernous sinuses with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which resolved immediately following unilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) sacrifice. She was subsequently placed on oral anticoagulants. By 4 months postoperatively her IOP was normalized and her vision had improved. Repeat angiography demonstrated stable venous filling, with some mild improvement of flow through the cavernous sinus. Coil-mediated sacrifice of the SOV might be an effective means to relieve ocular hypertension and preserve vision in the setting of aseptic CST.

  20. Ophthalmic drug discovery: novel targets and mechanisms for retinal diseases and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang; Weinreb, Robert N

    2012-07-01

    Blindness affects 60 million people worldwide. The leading causes of irreversible blindness include age-related macular degeneration, retinal vascular diseases and glaucoma. The unique features of the eye provide both benefits and challenges for drug discovery and delivery. During the past decade, the landscape for ocular drug therapy has substantially changed and our knowledge of the pathogenesis of ophthalmic diseases has grown considerably. Anti-angiogenic drugs have emerged as the most effective form of therapy for age-related macular degeneration and retinal vascular diseases. Lowering intraocular pressure is still the mainstay for glaucoma treatment but neuroprotective drugs represent a promising next-generation therapy. This Review discusses the current state of ocular drug therapy and highlights future therapeutic opportunities. PMID:22699774

  1. A Comparative Investigation of Prescriptive Ophthalmic Lens Parameters with Iranian National Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghassemi Broumand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Wearing spectacles is the most common procedure for correction of refractive error and because of its close relationship with eye; the standards of frame & lens of glasses play a very important role in preventing vision problems. The purpose of this study was to compare spherical & cylindrical power and prismatic effect of plastic ophthalmic lenses with Iranian national standards.Material & Method: In this Cross sectional-Comparative study 48 plastic ophthalmic single vision lenses were inspected & compared with relative national standards i.e.: ISIRI 8715-1:1385.Results: The spherical power factor with instruments set as step 0.01, all the cases(-1.00,-3.00,-6.00 were in tolerance with limits of the standards (±0.12 D .The instrument was set for 0.01 step for cylindrical power, at -6.00 D 100% of lenses had no cylindrical power. At -3.00 & -1.00 D about 99% were in tolerance with the standards (±0.09 D.The effect of horizontal & vertical prism, at the power of -6.00 all lenses show prismatic effect but 99% were in tolerance with the standards (±0.85D. At the power of -3.00 & -1.00 D, prismatic effect of lenses were in tolerance with relative standards (±0.55, ±0.35, respectively. Conclusion: All single vision were collected from famous companies showed the quality of passing all factors of tests & gained Iranian national standards i.e.: ISIRI 8715-1:1385.

  2. Evaluation of dacryocystorhinostomy using optical coherence tomography and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Fujimoto,1 Ken Ogino,1 Chika Miyazaki,1,2 Miou Hirose,1,3 Hiroko Matsuyama,1,4 Takeshi Moritera,1,5 Nagahisa Yoshimura1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Tsukaguchi Hospital, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Hyogo, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Himeji Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan; 5Moritera Eye Clinic, Shiga, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR by measuring the tear meniscus, using optical coherence tomography and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Methods: Patients with nasolacrimal obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis who were scheduled for an endonasal DCR underwent tear meniscus examinations before and 2 months after surgery. Vertical scans of the inferior menisci were performed before and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes after the instillation of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. The tear menisci areas were measured with imaging software. Ten young adults without epiphora formed the control group.Results: Anatomical success was achieved on 22 sides of 21 patients. The patients’ postoperative tear menisci were significantly smaller than the preoperative menisci at all points during the test, and the response to volume loading in the postoperative patients was corrected to nearly that of the young, healthy adults. Nevertheless, the postoperative meniscus area tended to be larger than that of the young adults at all points.Conclusion: The reduced tear meniscus area after DCR reflected the success of the surgical procedure. However, incomplete recovery of the meniscus after the test might suggest a residual disorder of the lacrimal drainage system after DCR. Keywords: dacryocystorhinostomy, tear meniscus, rebamipide, optical coherence tomography

  3. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D; Comstock, Timothy L; Cavet, Megan E

    2016-04-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a ketone at the C-20 position, minimizing the potential for side effects, including IOP elevation. In early pivotal clinical trials of LE ophthalmic suspension for conjunctivitis (allergic, giant papillary), anterior uveitis, and post-operative inflammation, LE had minimal impact on IOP over short-term (gel, an ointment, and a suspension of LE in combination with tobramycin-have become commercially available. Multiple studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of LE for inflammatory conditions have been reported, including those requiring longer-term treatment such as photorefractive keratectomy, corneal transplantation, and dry eye disease. We review the available published data on the effect of LE on IOP and report on the cumulative incidence of clinically significant IOP elevations (≥10 mm Hg from baseline) with short-term and long-term LE use. In all studies, LE consistently demonstrated a low propensity to elevate IOP, regardless of formulation, dosage regimen, or treatment duration, including in known steroid responders. The cumulative proportion of patients exhibiting clinically significant IOP increases was 0.8% (14/1725 subjects) in studies evaluating short-term LE treatment and 1.5% (21/1386 subjects) in long-term studies. Furthermore, use of LE was associated with significantly lower rates of IOP elevation ≥10 mm Hg as compared to prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone (when used in combination with tobramycin). The cumulative data to date substantiates a

  4. Structural characteristics of oil-poor dilutable fish oil omega-3 microemulsions for ophthalmic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidich, Nina; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and relief of dry eye symptoms. However, topical ophthalmic application of DHA is difficult because of its lipophilic property. Therefore, it is important to develop aqueous-based formulation with enhanced capabilities. Novel, unique water-dilutable microemulsions (MEs) were constructed to allow loading of naturally occurring rigid long-chain triglyceride of DHA (TG-DHA). The TG-DHA serves as solubilizate and as the oil phase, therefore preparation is poor in oil. The structural transformations of MEs upon water dilution were studied by SAXS, viscosity, electrical conductivity, self-diffusion NMR, DSC, cryo-TEM, and DLS techniques. At low water content a new type of water-in-oil (W/O) structure is formed. The glycerol/water phase hydrates the headgroups of surfactants, and the oil solvates their tails, forming "ill-defined bicontinuous domains". Upon further water dilution more structured bicontinuous domains of high viscosity are formed. After additional dilution, the mesophases invert to oil-in-water (O/W) droplets of ∼8nm. In the structures composed of up to 25wt% water, the TG-DHA spaces and de-entangles the surfactant tails. Once the bicontinuous structures are formed, the surfactants and TG-DHA content decrease and their interfacial layer shrinks, leading to entanglement and buildup of viscous non-Newtonian mesophase. Above 70wt% water TG-DHA is embedded in the core of the O/W droplets, and its effect on the droplets' structure is minimal. This new dilutable ill-defined microemulsion can be a potential delivery vehicle for ophthalmic TG-DHA transport. PMID:26520814

  5. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK+/-) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 370C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author)

  6. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  7. Development and validation of Ultra violet spectrophotometric and Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography techniques for simultaneous estimation of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic suspension formulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekar Manoharan; Mohammed Al Bratty

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and fast UV spectrophotometric technique and feasible reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic formulation has been developed.Linearity ranges for both methods were 5 - 25 μg/ml and 1-5 μg/ml for brinzolamide and brimonidine tartrate respectively.The absorption maxima were observed at 232 and 257 nm for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine. The UV, ophthalmic formulation assay shows percentage purity ranging from 9...

  8. Loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel 0.5%: a review of its use in post-operative inflammation and pain following ocular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2013-06-01

    Loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax(®)) is approved in the USA for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain in patients who have undergone ocular surgery. The new gel formulation of loteprednol etabonate offers some potential advantages over the previously available ophthalmic suspension and ointment formulations of the drug. Because the gel is non-settling, a uniform dose of loteprednol etabonate is delivered without the need to vigorously shake the product. The pH of the gel formulation is close to that of physiological tears and the concentration of preservative is low. In clinical trials, loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel 0.5% for 14 days was effective, very well tolerated and safe when used for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain following cataract surgery. Relative to vehicle, loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel 0.5% effectively reduced postoperative ocular inflammation and ocular pain and had a similar overall tolerability, comfort and safety profile. It is associated with a low risk of inducing clinically significant increases in intraocular pressure. In conclusion, loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel 0.5% is an additional formulation option for the short-term treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain in patients who have undergone ocular surgery. It provides uniform dosing of a topical ophthalmic corticosteroid that has been demonstrated to be effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:23740411

  9. A European perspective on costs and cost effectiveness of ophthalmic combinations in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Thygesen, J.; Ferreras, A.;

    2008-01-01

    combinations with timolol as well as in adjunctive therapy to timolol were equally effective and safe. Furthermore, in the European countries studied, the fixed combination of brimonidine/timolol represented a less costly option when compared to the fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol evaluated over both......PURPOSE: Efficacy, safety, and cost implications are important considerations when choosing an ophthalmic treatment. Fixed-combination glaucoma medications containing brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5%, or dorzolamide 2% and timolol 0.5%, were compared with brimonidine 0.2% and dorzolamide 2...... therapy. Modelled cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness analyses were performed to investigate the economic consequences of ophthalmic therapy with brimonidine, dorzolamide, and timolol from a societal perspective. RESULTS: The literature review found that brimonidine and dorzolamide used as fixed...

  10. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the am...

  11. Safety, efficacy, and intraoperative characteristics of DisCoVisc and Healon ophthalmic viscosurgical devices for cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Modi SS; Davison JA; Walters T

    2011-01-01

    Satish S Modi1, James A Davison2, Tom Walters3 1Seeta Eye Centers, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA; 2Wolfe Clinic, Marshalltown, IA, USA; 3Texas Eye Care, Austin, TX, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of DisCoVisc ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD, Alcon Laboratories, Inc) with respect to a comparator, Healon OVD (Advanced Medical Optics, Inc). Patients and methods: In this prospective study, patients with cataracts were randomized to an OVD, and then received phacoemulsification and...

  12. Brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension: a review of its pharmacology and use in the treatment of open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Iester

    2008-01-01

    Michele IesterClinica Oculistica, University of Genoa, ItalyAbstract: Brinzolamide is a white powder commercially formulated as a 1% ophthalmic suspension to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Pharmacologically, brinzolamide is a highly specific, non-competitive, reversible, and effective inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), able to suppress formation of aqueous humor in the eye and thus to decrease IOP. Several clinical trials have evaluated its safety and the most commonly ocular adv...

  13. 76 FR 71044 - Determination That TRAVATAN (Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution), 0.004%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...), 0.004%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug... drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314.162). A person may... time after the drug has been withdrawn from sale, but must be made prior to approving an ANDA...

  14. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314.162). A person may... time after the drug has been withdrawn from sale, but must be made prior to approving an ANDA that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole...

  15. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigbu DI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DeGaulle I Chigbu, Alissa M Coyne Pennsylvania College of Optometry Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA Abstract: Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Keywords: alcaftadine, allergic conjunctivitis, histamine, immunopathological mechanisms, ocular allergies

  16. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocularpressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Suzumura H, Kimura T, Sasaki S, Kimura I, Takeda R. Clinical Opthalmology. 2012;6:1547–1552. On page 1549 the significant difference in MD values was stated as in Table 1: −5.22 ± 4.07 It should have been: −5.47 ± 4.78Read the original article

  17. Efficacy, safety, and improved tolerability of travoprost BAK-free ophthalmic solution compared with prior prostaglandin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Charles Henry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available J Charles Henry1, James H Peace2, Jeanette A Stewart3,4, William C Stewart3,41Little Rock Eye Clinic, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Diabetic Eye Medical Clinic, Inglewood, CA, USA; 3PRN Pharmaceutical Research Network, LLC, Dallas,TX, USA; 4Carolina Eye Institute, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of changing to travoprost BAK-free from prior prostaglandin therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Design: Prospective, multi-center, historical control study.Methods: Patients treated with latanoprost or bimatoprost who needed alternative therapy due to tolerability issues were enrolled. Patients were surveyed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI to evaluate OSD symptoms prior to changing to travoprost BAK-free dosed once every evening. Patients were re-evaluated 3 months later.Results: In 691 patients, travoprost BAK-free demonstrated improved mean OSDI scores compared to either latanoprost or bimatoprost (p < 0.0001. Patients having any baseline OSD symptoms (n = 235 demonstrated significant improvement after switching to travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001. In 70.2% of these patients, symptoms were reduced in severity by at least 1 level. After changing medications to travoprost BAK-free, mean intraocular pressure (IOP was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001. Overall, 72.4% preferred travoprost BAK-free (p < 0.0001, travoprost BAK-free vs prior therapy. Travoprost BAK-free demonstrated less conjunctival hyperemia than either prior therapy (p < 0.0001.Conclusions: Patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog who are changed to travoprost BAK-free have clinically and statistically significant improvement in their OSD symptoms, decreased hyperemia, and equal or better IOP control.Keywords: glaucoma, prostaglandin analog, travoprost, latanoprost, bimatoprost, preservative, benzalkonium chloride, ocular surface disease

  18. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events. [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Suzumura H, Kimura T, Sasaki S, Kimura I, Takeda R. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2012;6:1547–1552.On page 1549 the significant difference in MD values was stated as:(−5.22 ± 4.07 dB and −2.72 ± 4.06 dB, P = 0.0385It should have been:(−5.47± 4.78 dB and −5.26 ± 5.22 dB, P = 0.6757Figure 2 legend was missing the words:Left axis relates to the bars and right axis relates to the line chart.Read the original article

  19. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumura T; Yoshikawa K; Suzumura H; Kimura T; Sasaki S; Kimura I; Takeda R

    2012-01-01

    Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Hirotaka Suzumura,3 Tairo Kimura,4 Satoshi Sasaki,5 Itaru Kimura,6 Ryuji Takeda71Department of Ophthalmology, Fussa Hospital, Fussa, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Machida, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nakano General Hospital, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan; 4Ueno Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 5Sasaki Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; 7Department of Biologi...

  20. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  1. Influence of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Xu, Xiaoming; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Yang, Yang; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-30

    The availability of in vitro performance tests such as in vitro drug release testing (IVRT) and in vitro permeation testing (IVPT) are critical to comprehensively assure consistent delivery of the active component(s) from semisolid ophthalmic drug products. The objective was to study the impact of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance (IVRT and IVPT) of ophthalmic ointments using acyclovir as a model drug candidate. The in vitro drug release for the ointments was evaluated using a modified USP apparatus 2 with Enhancer cells. The transcorneal permeation was carried out using rabbit cornea on modified vertical Franz cells. The drug retention in cornea (DRC) was also determined at the end of transcorneal drug permeation study. The in vitro drug release, transcorneal drug permeation as well as DRC exhibited a proportional increase with increasing drug loading in the ointment. On comparing the in vitro drug release profile with transcorneal permeation profile, it appears that drug release from the ointment is controlling acyclovir transport through the cornea. Furthermore, enhanced in vitro transcorneal permeation relative to the in vitro drug release underscores the importance of the interplay between the physiology of the ocular tissue and ointment formulation. The results indicated that IVRT and IVPT could be used to discriminate the impact of changes in drug load and formulation composition of ophthalmic ointments.

  2. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device backflow into cartridge during intraocular lens insertion using injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Matsuura,1 Yoshitsugu Inoue2 1Nojima Hospital, 2Tottori University, Kurayoshi City, Tottori, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of intraocular contamination caused by intraocular lens (IOL insertion with injectors by observing the dynamics of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Methods: Each type of injector was equipped with a colored OVD and IOL, and a 2 mm length from the tip of the cartridge was replaced with a colored OVD. The various combinations of IOLs and injectors used were: a three-piece shaped IOL, VA60BBR + TypeE1 (HOYA incision size 2.5 mm; group A, n=5; a single-piece IOL, 251+ iSert micro, preloaded (HOYA, incision size 2.2 mm; group G, n=5; and a single-piece IOL, SN6CWS preloaded (Alcon, incision size 2.7 mm; group C, n=5. Results: In group A, the intraocular OVD instantly flowed backward into the injector, whereas the colored OVD was pushed backward deep inside the cartridge without flowing into the eye. In group B, the backflow of the intraocular OVD into the injector was limited, resulting in the influx of a large amount of the colored OVD into the eye along with the IOL. In group C, as in group A, a large amount of the intraocular OVD flowed backward into the injector. Consequently, a small amount of the colored OVD flowed into the eye. Conclusion: The tip of the injector and OVD could be contaminated because the surgical field cannot be completely sterile, even after preoperative disinfection. Our experiments revealed that OVD backflow into the injector cavity occurs during IOL insertion, and this phenomenon may have minimized intraocular contamination. However, small-diameter cartridges along with plate-type haptics allow insufficient OVD backflow, resulting in intraocular influx of the contaminated OVD. Surgeons have to be notified that intraoperative bacterial contamination can occur even after IOL insertion using injectors. Keywords: intraocular lens insertion

  3. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashima T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Kashima,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Hideo Akiyama,1 Shoji Kishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, JapanAbstract: Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan.Keywords: quinolinone derivative, tear deficiency, ocular surface disorder, mucin secretion, Mucosta

  4. Attention attraction in an ophthalmic diagnostic device using sound-modulated fixation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Rangarajan, Shreya; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L

    2016-08-01

    This study relates to eye fixation systems with combined optical and audio systems. Many devices for eye diagnostics and some devices for eye therapeutics require the patient to fixate on a small target for a certain period of time, during which the eyes do not move and data from substructures of one or both eyes are acquired and analyzed. With young pediatric patients, a monotonously blinking target is not sufficient to retain attention steadily. We developed a method for modulating the intensity of a point fixation target using sounds appropriate to the child's age and preference. The method was realized as a subsystem of a Pediatric Vision Screener which employs retinal birefringence scanning for detection of central fixation. Twenty-one children, age 2-18, were studied. Modulation of the fixation target using sounds ensured the eye fixated on the target, and with appropriate choice of sounds, performed significantly better than a monotonously blinking target accompanied by a plain beep. The method was particularly effective with children of ages up to 10, after which its benefit disappeared. Typical applications of target modulation would be as supplemental subsystems in pediatric ophthalmic diagnostic devices, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes, optical coherence tomography units, retinal birefringence scanners, fundus cameras, and perimeters. PMID:27245750

  5. Ophthalmic Evaluation of Children from the Tibet Plateau with Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiqin Wang; Qian Shi; Lin Sun; Jing Wang; Lei Li; Tianchang Li; Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To perform ophthalmic examinations to evaluate the ocular characteristics of children living in the Tibet plateau and diagnosed with congenital heart disease.Methods:.Children with congenital heart disease underwent a conventional ocular examination including distant acuity test, slit-lamp examination,.fundus examination,.non-contact in-traocular pressure measurement,.measurement of corneal thickness, and fundus photography.Results: Forty-two Tibetan children, aged between 4 and 18 years and diagnosed with congenital heart disease,.were en-rolled in this study..The percentage of low visual acuity was 4.76%, mean intraocular pressure was (13.67±2.15) mmHg, average corneal thickness was (492.55±33.79) μm,.96.43%had an anterior chamber depth of 1 / 2 corneal thickness (CT), and 35.7% had an obvious fundus vascular tortuosity.Conclusion:.This study adds to the understanding of the ocu-lar status of the population living in the Tibet plateau, thereby offering clinical evidence for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases in this area. (Eye Science 2014; 29:134-137)

  6. Development and characterisation of thermo reversible mucoadhesive moxifloxacin hydrochloride in situ ophthalmic gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dholakia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustain release thermo reversible in situ gel of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride using mucoadhesive polymer was prepared. Mucoadhesive polymer was used to obtain an ophthalmic delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that will provide prolong retention time for treatment of ocular diseases. Developed formulations were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility study, pH, Clarity, Gelation temperature study, Mucoadhesion properties and in-vitro release studies. Drug-excipient compatibility study was performed by FTIR technique.The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and polymers as well as the combination spectra of the drug and polymer were taken, which indicate no interaction between Moxifloxacin and polymers when compared with infrared spectrum of pure drug as all functional group frequencies were present. The values of other parameters obtained were in acceptable range. In vitro release tests revealed that 98% drug was released from the in situ gel containing 0.5% and 1.00% HPMC in 12 hr. provides prolonged release.

  7. Evaluation of tropicamide-loaded tamarind seed xyloglucan nanoaggregates for ophthalmic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Harmanmeet; Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Sandeep

    2013-04-15

    The present study was aimed to prepare tamarind seed nanoaggregates and its evaluation for ophthalmic delivery. The preparation of tropicamide-loaded tamarind seed xyloglucan nanoaggregates was optimized using face centred central composite experimental design, employing the concentrations of tamarind seed xyloglucan and Poloxamer-407, as independent variables. The results revealed that concentration of TSX has a significant antagonistic effect on particle size, while poloxamer displayed a significant synergistic effect on encapsulation efficiency. The optimal concentrations of TSX and poloxamer were found to be 0.45% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) respectively. The optimized formulation of tropicamide-loaded TSX nanoaggregates showed a significantly higher corneal permeation of tropicamide across the isolated goat cornea compared to commercial conventional aqueous formulation. The results revealed excellent mucoadhesive properties of TSX nanoaggregates. Further, the tropicamide-loaded TSX nanoaggregates formulation showed excellent ocular tolerance and biocompatibility as determined by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane and resazurin assay on Vero cell lines.

  8. Refresher training and continuing education for para-medical ophthalmic assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanna B

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a refresher training and continuing education programme in clinical and community ophthalmology for para-medical ophthalmic assistants (PMOAs conducted by the Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology. The course participants included 60 PMOAs working either in district hospitals, primary health centres or mobile units from the districts in Maharashtra. Each training programme was spread over 43 hours in 4 days and included lectures, practical demonstrations, and hands-on training in the outpatient, inpatient, and operation theatre of the training institution. Participants were given exposure to outreach activities in an eye camp and a satellite eye centre resembling a district hospital. The PMOAs found the training to be useful and it was seen that areas like patient counselling, instrument and equipment maintenance, and assistance in the operation theatre for newer surgical procedures which were lacking in the basic training were fulfilled in this training programme. Regional Institutes of Ophthalmology, upgraded medical colleges, and other eye-care institutions which have facilities and manpower could organise similar refresher and continuing education programmes for PMOAs so that they could be utilised more efficiently in the blindness-control activities in the country.

  9. Use of an Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device for Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Okinami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporary tamponade effects of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD for experimental retinal tears, we performed vitrectomy in four rabbit eyes and created a posterior vitreous detachment and artificial retinal tear to produce retinal detachment. The retina was flattened with liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC, the area peripheral to the tear was photocoagulated, an OVD was applied to the retinal tear surface below the PFC and the PFC was removed by aspiration. In the control group, PFC was removed without application of OVD. At one, three and seven days postoperatively, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed to examine the sealing process of the retinal tear. In OVD-treated eyes, the OVD remained on the retinal surface, and the retinal tear was patched for ≥ 3 days postoperatively. By seven days postoperatively, the OVD on the retinal surface had disappeared, and the retina was reattached. In control eyes, the edge of the retinal tear was rolled, and retinal detachment persisted. In OVD-treated eyes, the border of the retinal tear was indistinct, and the defect area was significantly decreased. These results show that application of an OVD effectively seals retinal tears and eliminates retinal detachments.

  10. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  12. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Jasmine H., E-mail: francij1@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Brodie, Scott E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  13. Analgesics in ophthalmic practice: a review of the oral non-narcotic agent tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynes, B I; Barkin, R L

    1999-07-01

    This report reviews the causes of ocular pain and discusses the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of tramadol, a novel non-narcotic oral analgesic. Tramadol is a synthetic analog of codeine with a dual mechanism of action that involves agonist activity at the mu opioid receptor, as well as inhibition of monoaminergic (norepinephrine and serotonin) re-uptake. Unlike opiate analgesics, tramadol has very low propensity toward physical dependence. Common dose-related adverse effects of tramadol include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and/or drowsiness. Clinically, tramadol has been shown to be equivalent to acetaminophen (325 mg)-codeine (30 mg) combinations for the treatment of moderate or severe nonocular pain. Tramadol appears to be an effective analgesic agent for pain control due to postoperative surgical trauma, as well as in various chronic malignant and nonmalignant disease states. Tramadol has shown variable effectiveness in the control of pain related to dental procedures. The usefulness of tramadol in pain states from ophthalmic origin has yet to be clinically established. PMID:10445636

  14. Managing quality of teaching and learning in the ophthalmic nursing course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M L

    2000-02-01

    With auditing of teaching and learning in earnest by the Quality Assurance Agency for the Higher Education Funding Council, the nature of quality in education is top on the agenda for educational stakeholders. However, the nature of quality is difficult to define and measure. This is because quality is essentially a subjective perception and can mean different things to different individuals. Therefore, attempt to quantify and measure quality is difficult and problematic but is necessary for personal, professional, bureaucratic, political and stakeholder demands for accountability, and demonstration of efficiency, effectiveness and value for money. Using a total quality management framework, the internal controls of quality in the ophthalmic nursing course and at the faculty level are considered. The wider contexts of quality control from the institutional, political and at the customer's levels are explored. This paper concludes that the various methods used to control and measure quality may provide useful information for service clarity and a basis for service development. However, such information needs to be treated with caution and interpreted in the context and environment in which this information is generated. Ultimately, the issues of quality in teaching and learning may be addressed by the teacher's commitment to be developed as a reflective practitioner. PMID:11148836

  15. Ophthalmic delivery of brinzolamide by liquid crystalline nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weijun; Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xu, Qunwei; Xin, Hongliang

    2013-09-01

    Brinzolamide (BLZ) is a drug used to treat glaucoma; however, its use is restricted due to some unwanted adverse events. The goal of this study was to develop BLZ-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (BLZ LCNPs) and to figure out the possibility of LCNPs as a new therapeutic system for glaucoma. BLZ LCNPs were produced by a modified emulsification method and their physicochemical aspects were estimated. In vitro release study revealed BLZ LCNPs displayed to some extent prolonged drug release behavior in contrast to that of BLZ commercial product (Azopt®). The ex vivo apparent permeability coefficient of BLZ LCNP systems demonstrated a 3.47-fold increase compared with that of Azopt®. The pharmacodynamics was checked over by calculating the percentage fall in intraocular pressure and the pharmacodynamic test showed that BLZ LCNPs had better therapeutic potential than Azopt®. Furthermore, the in vivo ophthalmic irritation was evaluated by Draize test. In conclusion, BLZ LCNPs would be a promising delivery system used for the treatment of glaucoma, with advantages such as lower doses but maintaining the effectiveness, better ocular bioavailability, and patient compliance compared with Azopt®. PMID:23813437

  16. The design and the dosimetry of bi-nuclide radioactive ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel type of applicator for the treatment of intra-ocular tumors has been developed, based on the two radionuclides 106Ru/106Rh and 125I. The dose distribution of this ophthalmic plaque combines advantageous features of both radionuclides and can be optimally adapted to a tumor thickness in the range 6.5-9 mm, a size which is beyond the dosimetric limitations of the 106Ru/106Rh plaque therapy. Compared with 125I plaques a bi-nuclide plaque allows to maintain the tumor dosage while the dose in the irradiated volume outside of the target volume is significantly reduced. Consequently, radiosensitive structures within the eye can be spared more effectively. Dedicated methods have been developed for the dosimetry of this plaque. These methods are based on our own extensive dosimetric investigations with plastic scintillators. The precondition was the availability, developed in recent years, of a more accurate determination of the absolute dose rate to water of beta- and low energy emitters

  17. Helical CT finding of carotid-cavernous fistula: a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), as seen on helical CT images in patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). This study involved 16 patients with CCF and 28 control patients. Axial CT images with scanning delays of 30 seconds following bolus injection of contrast material (90 mL, 3 mL/sec) were obtained, and this procedure was followed by coronal CT imaging. To determine the presence or absence of early enhancement or, dilatation of the SOV, bulging of the cavernous sinus, and enlargement of extraocular muscle, CT images were analysed by three observers in a blinded, random manner. Early enhancement of SOV was determined to be present where enhancement of the SOV was similar to or stronger than that of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery. A sign of early enhancing SOV was seen in 14 of the 16 patients with CCF but in no control patients (88% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The respective sensitivity and specificity of other CT features were 71% and 100% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on axial images), 60% and 83% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on coronal images), 71% and 89% (dilatation of the cavernous sinus), and 65% and 98% (enlargement of extraocular muscle). A sign of early enhancing SOV is a characteristic and specific CT finding of CCF, and is useful for the diagnosis of CCF. (author)

  18. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG

  19. The non-specificity of the superior ophthalmic vein on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) on computed tomography has been considered by several authors to be a pathognomonic sign of a carotid cavernous sinus fistula (CCF). However, according to some other investigators, SOV has been observed in various orbital and cavernous sinus diseases, and even in normal persons. We reviewed the ordinal axial head and orbital CT results (third generation) of 1293 patients with miscellaneous neurologic diseases in an attempt to ascertain the diagnostic significance of SOV. SOV was observed in 88 patients, unilaterally in 29 and bilaterally in 59. SOV was detected in 65 patients by means of 5-mm-thick slice scanning and in 23, by 10-mm. SOV was observed in 76 cases on plain CT and in 12 on enhanced. The maximal diameter of SOV was 3.3 mm of more in all patients except one with orbital or cavernous sinus desease (a skullbase tumor extending into the cavernous sinus, a case of orbital cellulitis, and a case with CCF) in the present study. On the other hand, the maximal diameter of SOV with diseases other than orbital of cavernous sinus pathology was less than 3.0 mm. In conclusion, a SOV is not pathognomonic on CCF and is observed under various conditions. However, when the diameter of the SOV is 3.3 mm or more one should consider the possibility of orbital or cavernous sinue disease. (author)

  20. Risk Factors for Cataract After Palladium-103 Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine how tumor characteristics and dose affect cataract development after plaque radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and eighty-four patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma and treated with palladium-103 (103Pd) plaque radiation therapy. Of these, 282 (74%) inclusion met exclusion criteria for follow-up time, tumor location, and phakic status. Then patient-, ophthalmic-, and radiation-specific factors (patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tumor location, tumor dimensions, and lens dose) were examined (by a Cox proportional regression model) as predictors for the development of radiation-related cataract. Results: Radiation cataract developed in 76 (24%) of patients at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range, 1-192). Patients with anteriorly located tumors were noted to have a higher incidence of cataract at 43.0% (43 of 100 patients) vs. 18.1% (33 cataracts per 182 patients) for posteriorly located tumors (p <0.0001). However, multivariate Cox proportional modeling showed that increasing patient age at time of treatment (p for trend = 0.0003) and higher lens dose (p for trend = 0.001) were the best predictors (biomarkers) for radiation cataract. Conclusions: Although anterior tumor location, greater tumor height, and increased patient age (at treatment) were associated with significantly greater risk for radiation cataract, dose to lens was the most significant factor.

  1. Dosimetry of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators: Comparison of different measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international intercomparison of the dosimetry of three beta particle emitting ophthalmic applicators was performed, which involved measurements with radiochromic film, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), alanine pellets, plastic scintillators, extrapolation ionization chambers, a small fixed-volume ionization chambers, a diode detector and a diamond detector. The sources studied were planar applicators of 90Sr-90Y and 106Ru-106Rh, and a concave applicator of 106Ru-106Rh. Comparisons were made of absolute dosimetry determined at 1 mm from the source surface in water or water-equivalent plastic, and relative dosimetry along and perpendicular to the source axes. The results of the intercomparison indicate that the various methods yield consistent absolute dosimetry results at the level of 10%-14% (one standard deviation) depending on the source. For relative dosimetry along the source axis at depths of 5 mm or less, the agreement was 3%-9% (one standard deviation) depending on the source and the depth. Crucial to the proper interpretation of the measurement results is an accurate knowledge of the detector geometry, i.e., sensitive volume and amount of insensitive covering material. From the results of these measurements, functions which describe the relative dose rate along and perpendicular to the source axes are suggested

  2. Ophthalmic manifestations of 107 cases with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to present various ophthalmologic disorders in a clinical series of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome cases. This is a prospective clinical study performed between 2002 and 2005. One hundred seven HELLP attended in either Departments of Ophthalmology or Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey were evaluated. Mean age was 25.5 (22-36 years). Mean levels were 2.5 gravidity, 1.3 parity, 55,200/mm3 platelet counts, 308.7 U/I aspartate transaminase, 255.4 U/I alanine transminase and 1711.6U/I lactate dehydrogenase. Four patients died (3.7%) despite the proper treatments. Cortical blindness was observed in 3 cases (2.7%), serous retinal detachments in 4 (3.7%) and mild hypertension changes in 18 (16%). Ophthalmic complications are possible during and after this syndrome. Almost all ophthalmologic changes recover after delivery by cesarean section, nevertheless, it is essential that ophthalmologists should be aware of retinal disorders when this fatal complication of pregnancy is encountered. (author)

  3. Development of a New Valid, Reliable, and Internationally Applicable Assessment Tool of Residents’ Competence in Ophthalmic Surgery (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, C.; Beaver, Hilary; Gauba, Vinod; Lee, Andrew G.; Mayorga, Eduardo; Palis, Gabriela; Saleh, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the validity and reliability of a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery. Changing paradigms of ophthalmic education in the United States have influenced worldwide ophthalmic education and necessitated new methods of assessing resident competence. Accordingly, a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery (phacoemulsification) that could be applicable internationally was developed. We hypothesize that this instrument is valid and reliable. Methods: A panel of six international content experts adapted a previously published tool for assessing phacoemulsification. The tool (called the International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric, or ICO-OSCAR:phaco) was reviewed by 12 international content experts for their constructive comments, which were incorporated to ensure content validity. Ten expert cataract surgery teachers then graded six recorded phacoemulsification surgeries with the ICO-OSCAR:phaco to investigate inter-rater reliability. Results: The coefficient alpha statistic (a measure of reliability/internal consistency) for the ICO-OSCAR:phaco as a whole was 0.92, and 17 of its 20 dimensions had alpha coefficients greater than 0.70. Conclusions: The ICO-OSCAR:phaco is a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be applied internationally to satisfy the global need of new instruments to comply with emerging trends in ophthalmic education. A toolbox of similar surgical competency assessment tools is being developed. PMID:24072944

  4. Vision screening in children with developmental delay can be improved: analysis of a screening programme outside the ophthalmic clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Sandfeld; Skov, Liselotte; Jensen, Hanne

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new vision-screening programme in detecting ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay (DD; IQIQ. A group of 467 children with an IQIQ>80 (85 males, 38 females; age range 3-16y; mean age 10y 5mo [SD 3y 2mo]) had an examination that included new vision-screening items: distance and near visual acuity and stereopsis for near objects (Lang stereo test II). A full ophthalmological examination was also conducted to determine the effectiveness of the new screening items. The previous screening programme consisted of only monocular visual acuity at distance. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the tests were calculated with regard to the following ophthalmic disorders: hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anistometropia, amblyopia, low vision, and strabismus. Overall, the prevalence of ophthalmic disorders was 33.4% in children with DD and 11.4% in typically developing children. With the use of the new programme, the effectiveness of vision screening in both groups of children was improved. In children with DD, sensitivity increased from 49.4 to 80.1%, specificity decreased from 98.1 to 83.3%, PPV decreased from 92.8 to 70.6%, and NPV increased from 79.4 to 89.3%. In typically developing children, sensitivity improved from 50.0 to 85.7%, specificity declined from 98.2 to 87.2%, PPV decreased from 77.8 to 46.2%, and NPV increased from 93.9 to 97.9%. We conclude that the currently used vision-screening programme can be significantly improved. The speed and simplicity of the proposed screening programme makes it suitable for use by school nurses. The improvements were most prominent in children with DD. PMID:17593122

  5. Risk of Hemorrhage during Needle-Based Ophthalmic Regional Anesthesia in Patients Taking Antithrombotics: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Takaschima

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery are usually elderly and, due to systemic disease, may be on long-term therapy, such as antithrombotic agents. Rates of hemorrhagic complications associated with invasive procedures may be increased by the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.To compare the incidence of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia between patients on antithrombotic therapy and those not on such therapy.A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers based on searches of Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the "gray" literature (Google Scholar. The end search date was May 8, 2015, across all databases.Five studies met the eligibility criteria. In three studies, individual risk of bias was low, and in two of them, moderate. In all studies, no differences regarding mild to moderate incidence of hemorrhagic complications were found between patients using antithrombotics (aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin and those not using them. Rates of severe hemorrhagic complication were very low (0.04% in both groups, supporting the safety of needle blocks, even in patients using antithrombotics. High heterogeneity across studies prevented meta-analysis. Limitations to these results include low statistical power in three experimental studies and a large 95% confidence interval in the two retrospective cohorts.In this review, none of the selected studies showed significant bleeding related to needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia in association with the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, or vitamin K inhibitors. Since the available data is not powerful enough to provide a reliable evaluation of the true effect of antithrombotics in this setting, new studies to address these limitations are necessary.

  6. Prevalence of HIV-associated ophthalmic disease among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Clare

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ocular manifestations of HIV may lead to visual impairment or blindness. In India, patients typically initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART with low CD4 cell counts when the risk of ocular complications may be high. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of HIV-associated ocular conditions in patients referred for ART in India. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken at a large public sector ART centre in Mumbai, India. Data collection including a standardised symptom screen, and an ophthalmic examination were performed on all consecutive patients satisfying the criteria for enrolment into the ART clinic irrespective of the presence or absence of ophthalmic/visual symptoms. Results Enrolled patients (n = 149 had a median CD4 cell count of 180 cell/μL (inter-quartile range [IQR], 106-253 cells/μL. The prevalence of HIV-associated ocular disease was 17.5% (95% CI, 11.2-23.6% in all participants and 23.8% (95% CI: 14.5-33.1 in those with CD4 cell counts Conclusion Over a fifth of unselected patients who are eligible for ART in this setting have HIV-related ocular disease of which CMVR is the most common form. Such patients may be at risk of developing ocular immune reconstitution phenomena during ART. Screening for ocular symptoms is not a reliable method to identify those with ocular morbidity and this highlights the need for routine ophthalmic screening prior to commencement of ART.

  7. Influence of GlideScope assisted endotracheal intubation on intraocular pressure in ophthalmic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Macintoch laryngoscopy is known to cause a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are not desirable in patients with glaucoma and open globe injury. GlideScope is a video laryngoscope that functions independent of the line of sight, reduces upward lifting forces for glottic exposure and requires less cervical neck movement for intubation, making it less stimulating than Macintosh laryngoscopy. Aim: The aim was to assess the variations in IOP and hemodynamic changes after GlideScope assisted intubation. Materials and Methods: After approval of the local Institutional Research and Ethical Board and informed patient consent, 50 adult American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients with normal IOP were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study for ophthalmic surgery requiring tracheal intubation. In all patients, trachea was intubated using either GlideScope or Macintoch laryngoscope. IOP of nonoperated eye, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as baseline, 1 min after induction, 1 min and 5 min after tracheal intubation. Results: IOP was not significantly different between groups before and after anesthetic induction and 5 min after tracheal intubation (P = 0.217, 0.726, and 0.110 respectively. The only significant difference in IOP was at 1 min after intubation (P = 0.041. No significant difference noted between groups in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.899, 0.62, 0.47, 0.82 respectively and heart rate (P = 0.21, 0.72, 0.07, 0.29, respectively at all measurements. Conclusion: GlideScope assisted tracheal intubation shown lesser rise in IOP at 1 min after intubation in comparison to Macintoch laryngoscope, suggesting that GlideScope may be preferable to Macintosh laryngoscope.

  8. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-linked HA in relation to material processing conditions by varying the acetone/water volume ratio (from 70:30 to 95:5 at a constant 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC concentration of 100 mM. Our results indicated that after the EDC treatment in the presence of an acetone/water mixture (85:15, v/v, the HA hydrogel membranes have the lowest equilibrium water content, the highest stress at break and the greatest resistance to hyaluronidase digestion. Live/Dead assays and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression analyses showed that the cross-linked HA hydrogel membranes, irrespective of the solvent composition, are compatible with human RPE cell lines without causing toxicity and inflammation. However, it should be noted that the test samples prepared by the cross-linking in the presence of acetone/water mixtures containing 70, 75, and 95 vol % of acetone slightly inhibit the metabolic activity of viable ARPE-19 cultures, probably due to the alteration in the ionic interaction between the medium nutrients and polysaccharide biomaterials. In summary, the water content, mechanical strength and RPE cell proliferative capacity strongly depends on the solvent composition for carbodiimide cross-linking of HA materials.

  9. Novel vehicle based on cubosomes for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen with low irritancy and high bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun; Shen, Jin-qiu; Gan, Yong; Geng, Hai-ming; Zhang, Xin-xin; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Li

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel vehicle based on cubosomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system for flurbiprofen (FB) to reduce ocular irritancy and improve bioavailability. Methods: FB-loaded cubosomes were prepared using hot and high-pressure homogenization. Cubosomes were then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, particle morphology, inner cubic structure and in vitro release. Corneal permeation was evaluated using modified Franz-type cells. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using both the Draize method and histological examination. The ocular pharmacokinetics of FB was determined using microdialysis. Results: The particle size of each cubosome formulation was about 150 nm. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. In vitro corneal permeation study revealed that FB formulated in cubosomes exhibited 2.5-fold (F1) and 2.0-fold (F2) increase in Papp compared with FB PBS. In the ocular irritation test, irritation scores for each group were less than 2, indicating that all formulations exhibited excellent ocular tolerance. Histological examination revealed that neither the structure nor the integrity of the cornea was visibly affected after incubation with FB cubosomes. The AUC of FB administered as FB cubosome F2 was 486.36±38.93 ng·mL−1·min·μg−1, which was significantly higher than that of FB Na eye drops (P<0.01). Compared with FB Na eye drops, the Tmax of FB cubosome F2 was about 1.6-fold higher and the MRT was also significantly longer (P<0.001). Conclusion: This novel low-irritant vehicle based on cubosomes might be a promising system for effective ocular drug delivery. PMID:20686524

  10. Selective ophthalmic arterial injection therapy for advanced retinoblastoma: initial experience in 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of transcatheter selective ophthalmic arterial injection (SOAI) for the treatment of advanced refractory retinoblastoma. Methods: During the period from January 2009 to April 2011, 30 consecutive cases of retinoblastoma patients (17 males and 13 females with an average age of 17 months) who failed to respond to systemic chemotherapy were admitted to authors' hospital. The 30 patients had 39 diseased eyes. A total of 82 times of SOAI (injection of 5 mg melphalan and 20 mg carboplatin) were carried out with a mean of 2.1 times for each diseased eye. The patients were followed up for 2-28 months with a mean of 13.6 months. The clinical results were evaluated. Results: SOAI was successfully accomplished in 82 procedures of 84 trials, with a technical success rate of 97.6%. After the treatment different degrees of decrease in eyeball size was observed in all the diseased eyes. The effective rate was 76.9%, including D grade (n=17, 85.0%) and E grade (n=13, 68.4%) according to the international intraocular retinoblastoma classification. The eye preservation rate was 85.0% in group D and 68.4% in group E. Enucleation of eyeball had to be performed for the remaining 9 eyes (23.1%). Ocular adverse events included bulbar conjunctiva congestion (n=10, 25.6%), eyelid oedema (n=7, 17.9%) and delacrimation (n=3, 7.7%). No severe complications such as septemia occurred. Conclusion: SOAI is an effective and safe treatment for advanced refractory retinoblastoma. (authors)

  11. Brinzolamide nanocrystal formulations for ophthalmic delivery: reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Annika; Liu, Peng; Puranen, Jooseppi; Rönkkö, Seppo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kalesnykas, Giedrius; Oksala, Olli; Ilkka, Jukka; Laru, Johanna; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystal-based drug delivery systems provide important tools for ocular formulation development, especially when considering poorly soluble drugs. The objective of the study was to formulate ophthalmic, intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing, nanocrystal suspensions from a poorly soluble drug, brinzolamide (BRA), using a rapid wet milling technique, and to investigate their IOP reducing effect in vivo. Different stabilizers for the nanocrystals were screened (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poloxamer F127 and F68, polysorbate 80) and HPMC was found to be the only successful stabilizer. In order to investigate both the effect of an added absorption enhancer (polysorbate 80) and the impact of the free drug in the nanocrystal suspension, formulations in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and pH 4.5 were prepared. Particle size, polydispersity (PI), solid state (DSC), morphology (SEM) as well as dissolution behavior and the uniformity of the formulations were characterized. There was rapid dissolution of BRA (in PBS pH 7.4) from all the nanocrystal formulations; after 1 min 100% of the drug was fully dissolved. The effect was significantly pronounced at pH 4.5, where the dissolved fraction of drug was the highest. The cytotoxicity of nanocrystal formulations to human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-T) viability was tested. The effects of the nanocrystal formulations and the commercial product on the cell viability were comparable. The intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect was investigated in vivo using a modern rat ocular hypertensive model and elevated IOP reduction was seen in vivo with all the formulations. Notably, the reduction achieved in experimentally elevated IOP was comparable to that obtained with a marketed product. In conclusion, various BRA nanocrystal formulations, which all showed advantageous dissolution and absorption behavior, were successfully formulated. PMID:24680962

  12. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Joseph D.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Tye, Logan A.; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M.; Boudoux, Caroline; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) benefit clinical diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology by enabling in vivo noninvasive en face and volumetric visualization of retinal structures, respectively. Spectrally encoding methods enable confocal imaging through fiber optics and reduces system complexity. Previous applications in ophthalmic imaging include spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SECSLO) and a combined SECSLO-OCT system for image guidance, tracking, and registration. However, spectrally encoded imaging suffers from speckle noise because each spectrally encoded channel is effectively monochromatic. Here, we demonstrate in vivo human retinal imaging using a swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscope and OCT (SSSESLO- OCT) at 1060 nm. SS-SESLO-OCT uses a shared 100 kHz Axsun swept source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and are detected simultaneously on a shared, dual channel high-speed digitizer. SESLO illumination and detection was performed using the single mode core and multimode inner cladding of a double clad fiber coupler, respectively, to preserve lateral resolution while improving collection efficiency and reducing speckle contrast at the expense of confocality. Concurrent en face SESLO and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired with 1376 x 500 pixels at 200 frames-per-second. Our system design is compact and uses a shared light source, imaging optics, and digitizer, which reduces overall system complexity and ensures inherent co-registration between SESLO and OCT FOVs. En face SESLO images acquired concurrent with OCT cross-sections enables lateral motion tracking and three-dimensional volume registration with broad applications in multivolume OCT averaging, image mosaicking, and intraoperative instrument tracking.

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of dose to water of a 106Ru COB-type ophthalmic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concave eye applicators with 106Ru/106Rh or 90Sr/90Y beta-ray sources are worldwide used in brachytherapy for treating intraocular tumors. It raises the need to know the exact dose delivered by beta radiation to tumors but measurement of the dose to water (or tissue) is very difficult due to short range of electrons. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been used to calculate dose distributions from a COB-type 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicator manufactured by Eckert and Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. This type of a concave eye applicator has a cut-out whose purpose is to protect the eye nerve which makes the dose distribution more complicated. Several calculations have been performed including depth dose along the applicator central axis and various dose distributions. The depth dose along the applicator central axis and the dose distribution on a spherical surface 1 mm above the plaque inner surface have been compared with measurement data provided by the manufacturer. For distances from 0.5 to 4 mm above the surface, the agreement was within 2.5% and from 5 mm the difference increased from 6% up to 25% at 10 mm whereas the uncertainty on manufacturer data is 20% (2s). It is assumed that the difference is caused by nonuniformly distributed radioactivity over the applicator radioactive layer

  14. Ophthalmic experience over 10 years in an observational nationwide Danish cohort of Fabry patients with access to enzyme replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C.; Sandfeld, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    of retinal vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Thirteen of 32 patients on ERT showed a reduction of corneal deposits over the study period. Abnormal ocular vessel morphology was a frequent finding. In contrast to the function loss related to systemic ischaemic lesions, we found no indication of impairment of visual......PURPOSE: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was offered from year 2001 to patients with Fabry disease. The ophthalmic experience was analysed, as part of a general 10-year status. METHODS: A retrospective observational series comprising 39 patients (25 females, 14 males) closely followed...

  15. Efficacy of Brinzolamide Ophthalmic Suspension 1% for Treatment of a Vitelliform Macular Lesion in a Patient with Desferrioxamine Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Genead, Mohamed A.; Fishman, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    A 46-year-old Caucasian woman with a vitelliform macular lesion secondary to desferrioxamine (DFO) retinal toxicity in the right eye was treated with brinzolamide 1% ophthalmic drops three times a day. A spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) unit was used to monitor any changes in the macular lesion. After 2 months of starting the eye drops, the SD-OCT showed a notable improvement in the vitelliform macular lesion’s thickness. Six months later, the patient showed a further improvement in her macular l...

  16. NBS (National Bureau of Standards) measurement services: calibration of beta-particle-emitting ophthalmic applicators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The service provides calibrations for (90)Sr + (90)Y beta-particle ophthalmic applicators. The calibration determines the average surface absorbed-dose rate to water over the active area of the applicator. The technique used is to measure current per unit mass of air at the active surface with an extrapolation ionization chamber, and to convert this into absorbed-dose rate with Bragg-Gray cavity ionization theory. The extrapolation chamber measurements are made in three parts. Data-book measurements and a calibration report are given for one particular applicator

  17. Precision large field scanning system for high numerical aperture lenses and application to femtosecond micromachining of ophthalmic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. R.; Brown, N. S.; Savage, D. E.; Wang, C.; Knox, W. H.; Ellis, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    A precision, large stroke (nearly 1 cm) scanning system was designed, built, and calibrated for micromachining of ophthalmic materials including hydrogels and cornea (excised and in vivo). This system comprises a flexure stage with an attached objective on stacked vertical and horizontal translation stages. This paper outlines the design process leading to our most current version including the specifications that were used in the design and the drawbacks of other methods that were previously used. Initial measurements of the current version are also given. The current flexure was measured to have a 27 Hz natural frequency with no load.

  18. Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in refractive surgery: a retrospective chart review of post-LASIK patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumNielsen SA, McDonald MB, Majmudar PA. Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in refractive surgery: a retrospective chart review of post-LASIK patients. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2013;7:149–156. The paper titled "Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in refractive surgery: a retrospective chart review of post-LASIK patients," contains an inaccurate description of the intraoperative use of medications.In the Results section it is reported that 31.8% (170/534 of besifloxacin cases and 97.0% (259/267 of moxifloxacin cases had drops applied directly to the flap interface. We have determined that ambiguity in the design of the electronic case report form resulted in all day-of-surgery drops provided to patients in the LASER suite being reported in the flap interface field. The authors have since clarified with each surgeon who reported intraoperative drug use that the drops were delivered either prior to the flap creation, or following replacement of the flap.The sentence at the top of page 152 stating: "Of note, 31.8% (170/534 of besifloxacin cases and 97.0% (259/267 of moxifloxacin cases had drops applied directly to the flap interface" should say: "Of note, 31.8% (170/534 of besifloxacin cases and 97.0% (259/267 of moxifloxacin cases had intraoperative drops applied."Read the original article

  19. Formulation and comparative evaluation of HPMC and water soluble chitosan-based sparfloxacin nanosuspension for ophthalmic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambhore, Nitin Prabhakar; Dandagi, Panchaxari Mallapa; Gadad, Anand Panchakshari

    2016-02-01

    Ophthalmic nanosuspensions (ONS) have shown a potential for ophthalmic delivery over the conventional ocular formulations. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of surfactants and polymers on particle size and drug release. Sparfloxacin ONS were prepared by optimizing the concentration of HPMC E5 and water soluble chitosan by using solvent diffusion method followed by probe sonication. The Poloxamer 407 and Kolliphor P188 were used as a surfactant. The produced nanosuspensions were characterized for particle size, shape, zeta potential and drug release. The average particle size of the nanosuspension was 300 to 500 nm. The in vitro drug release study showed that the optimized nanosuspension of water soluble chitosan sustained drug release up to 9 h compared to 6 h for the hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) nanosuspension. Further, the sparfloxacin ONS formulation showed excellent ocular tolerance and biocompatibility as determined by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET CAM) and resazurin assay on Vero cell lines. Moreover, optimized formulation was found to be stable, isotonic, non-toxic with higher in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial potential. PMID:26545605

  20. A novel smartphone ophthalmic imaging adapter: User feasibility studies in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie A Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To evaluate the ability of ancillary health staff to use a novel smartphone imaging adapter system (EyeGo, now known as Paxos Scope to capture images of sufficient quality to exclude emergent eye findings. Secondary aims were to assess user and patient experiences during image acquisition, interuser reproducibility, and subjective image quality. Materials and Methods: The system captures images using a macro lens and an indirect ophthalmoscopy lens coupled with an iPhone 5S. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 229 consecutive patients presenting to L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Primary outcome measure was mean photographic quality (FOTO-ED study 1–5 scale, 5 best. 210 patients and eight users completed surveys assessing comfort and ease of use. For 46 patients, two users imaged the same patient's eyes sequentially. For 182 patients, photos taken with the EyeGo system were compared to images taken by existing clinic cameras: a BX 900 slit-lamp with a Canon EOS 40D Digital Camera and an FF 450 plus Fundus Camera with VISUPAC™ Digital Imaging System. Images were graded post hoc by a reviewer blinded to diagnosis. Results: Nine users acquired 719 useable images and 253 videos of 229 patients. Mean image quality was ≥ 4.0/5.0 (able to exclude subtle findings for all users. 8/8 users and 189/210 patients surveyed were comfortable with the EyeGo device on a 5-point Likert scale. For 21 patients imaged with the anterior adapter by two users, a weighted κ of 0.597 (95% confidence interval: 0.389–0.806 indicated moderate reproducibility. High level of agreement between EyeGo and existing clinic cameras (92.6% anterior, 84.4% posterior was found. Conclusion: The novel, ophthalmic imaging system is easily learned by ancillary eye care providers, well tolerated by patients, and captures high-quality images of eye findings.

  1. A patch source model for treatment planning of ruthenium ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-ray emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 ophthalmic applicators have been used for close to 4 decades in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. The form factor of these applicators is a spherically concave silver bowl with an inner radius of curvature between 12 and 14 mm, and a total shell thickness of 1 mm. The radioactive nuclide is deposited in a layer 0.1 mm below the concave surface of the applicator. Calculation of dose distributions for clinical treatment planning purposes is complicated by the concave nature of the distributed source, the asymmetric shape of the active region of some applicators, imperfections in the manufacturing process which can result in an inhomogeneous distribution of activity across the active surface, and absorption and scatter in the 0.1 mm layer of silver which seals and protects the radioactive layer. A semi-empirical method of calculating dose distributions for these applicators is described which is fundamentally compatible with treatment planning systems that use the AAPM TG43 brachytherapy formalism. Dose to water is estimated by summing a 'patch source' dose function over a discrete number of overlapping patches uniformly distributed over the active surface of the applicator. The patch source dose function differs conceptually from a point source dose function in that it is intended to represent the macroscopic behavior of a small, disk-like region of the applicator. The patch source dose function includes an anisotropy term to account for angular variation in absorption and scatter as particles traverse the 0.1 mm silver window. It geometrically models the nearfield of a patch with properties akin to both a small disk and infinite plane, and models the farfield as if the patch were a point. This allows a manageable number of discrete patches (300 to 1000) to provide accuracy appropriate for clinical treatment planning. This approach has the advantages of using familiar concepts and data structures, it is computationally quick, and it

  2. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Hi; Park, Young Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na(+) concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K(+) and Cl(-) concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution.

  3. Doses of radiation in the environment of patients undergoing treatment of ophthalmic brachytherapy; Dosis de radiaciones en el entorno de pacientes sometidos a tratamientos de braquiterapia oftalmica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron Leon, J. A.; Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Perales Molina, A.; Miras, H.; Ortiz, M.; Macias, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results for measures of dose made to different patient undergoing treatment with ophthalmic brachytherapy. The aim of these measures has been, on the one hand, verify assessments relating to radiation protection in the memory of the installation and, on the other hand, experimental measures that can serve to reduce the perception of the radiological risk professionals have. (Author)

  4. Brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology, mammographic radiology and ophthalmic applicators. An assessment of current and future needs in the UK and the role of NPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several UK hospitals were visited by NPL staff to discuss the current practises and future developments in brachytherapy, diagnostic and mammographic radiology and ophthalmic applicators. The results of the discussions are presented here, including NPL's role in each of these areas is discussed. (author)

  5. Transvenous embolization of indirect carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic/facial vein - Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect carotid-cavernous fistula or dural arterio-venous fistula of cavernous sinus is relatively rare pathologic finding. Different classifications of carotid-cavernous fistulae are proposed. Now days more and more they are treated by endovascular approach. A case of authors' practice of transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic vein in 52 year old female is presented with review of the literature. A week later ocular symptoms of the patient regressed. Control angiography at the third month follow up does not visualize fistula. The transvenous approach in management of carotid cavernous fistulae is safe and effective in cases direct arterial approach is absent or technically impossible. Key words: Indirect Carotid-Cavernous Fistula. Embolization. Transvenous Approach

  6. Ophthalmic manifestations of vitamin A and D deficiency in two autistic teenagers: case reports and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  7. The north Jutland county diabetic retinopathy study (NCDRS) 2. Non-ophthalmic parameters and clinically significant macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Loumann; Lervang, Hans-Henrik; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    subjects undergoing retinopathy screening in the county of North Jutland. The association between the presence of clinically significant macular oedema and blood-pressure, HbA1c, BMI, age, onset of diabetes, duration of diabetes, blood pressure reducing medication, lipid lowering medication, neuropathy......Background: The influence of non-ophthalmic parameters on the prevalence of clinically significant macular oedema has not been unambiguously established. The present study was initiated with the aim of clarification. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 656 type 1 and 328 type 2 diabetic......, and urinary albumin excretion was explored using multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings: We found no significant association between the presence of clinically significant macular oedema and any of the examined parameters in type 1 diabetic subjects. In type 2 diabetic subjects the duration...

  8. Little known ophthalmic interests of Emil von Behring, the first Nobel Prize Laureate in Medicine or Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wilhelm, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    Although the work for which Emil von Behring (1854-1917) was awarded the first Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine or Physiology in 1901 was on serum therapy, not only was he trained and worked as an ophthalmologist but he also wrote his doctoral dissertation on a practical ophthalmological topic whilst in Berlin under Carl Schweigger (1830-1905). He later worked for 3 years as an assistant and co-worker with the famous Polish ophthalmologist Boleslaw Wicherkiewicz (1847-1915), in Poznan where he described an interesting ophthalmic case in a scientific journal. His life and work in other fields have been well studied, but his interests and relationship to ophthalmology that played an important role in, at least part of, Behring's life have never previously been analysed thoroughly.

  9. Enhanced Endothelin-1 Mediated Vasoconstriction of the Ophthalmic Artery May Exacerbate Retinal Damage after Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Frank W; Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Johnson, Leif;

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculature is often the target of stroke studies. However, the vasculature supplying the eye might also be affected by ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) enhances vascular effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5...... of ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction at 48 hours post ischemia. The retina did not exhibit any morphological changes throughout the study. However, we found an increase of GFAP and vimentin expression at 72 hours and 7 days after ischemia, indicating Müller cell mediated gliosis. ERG revealed significantly...... damage after ischemia as illustrated by the decreased retinal function and Müller cell activation. The ophthalmic artery and ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction may be a valid and novel therapeutic target after longer periods of ischemic insults....

  10. Compatibility testing and rheological characterization in development of novel in situ guar gum-based ophthalmic dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Nanjundaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum is derived from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Guar has certain drawbacks such as uncontrolled rate of hydration, fall in viscosity on storage, susceptibility to microbial degradation, and turbidity in aqueous dispersion. Many of these drawbacks can be overcome by using guar derivatives. Guar derivatives upon contact with water hydrate to form hydrogels for controlled-release mechanism and show stimuli-responsive changes in their structural network, and hence, the drug release. The present investigation aims at screening guar derivative (hydroxyl propyl guar during preformulation stage by spectral (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, isothermal (HPLC technique, and rheological characterization for the development of stable in situ ophthalmic dosage using linezolid as the model drug.

  11. Measurement of dose rate from 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators by means of alanine-polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophthalmic applicators are used in radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant choroidal melanomas. The applicators are positioned on the eye at the base of the tumor for a period of a few days up to 2 weeks. They are commercially available in the form of caps of a spherical radius of 12 or 13 mm. Two or three fixing lugs are used for suturing the applicator to the eye. The applicators are made of silver. The active layer is covered with 0.1 mm silver in the concave direction, and 0.9 mm silver in the convex direction. The β-radiation emitted from the concave side may be used for treatment, to a depth up to 5 mm. Measurements of dose rate by means of ESR/alanine dosimetry and TLD are described. It is concluded that ESR/dosimetry and TLD are well suited for this application. (author)

  12. Prevalence and profile of ophthalmic disorders in oculocutaneous albinism: a field report from South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, N N; Eze, B I; Onwubiko, S N; Arinze, O C; Onwasigwe, E N; Umeh, R E

    2014-12-01

    To assess the burden and spectrum of refractive and non-refractive ophthalmic disorders in south-eastern Nigerians with oculocutaneous albinism. In a population-based survey in Enugu state, between August, 2011 and January, 2012, albinos were identified using the database of the Enugu state's Albino Foundation, and mass media-based mobilisation. The participants were enrolled at the Eye Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital using a defined protocol. Relevant socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained from each participant. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Statistical significance was indicated by p < 0.05. The participants (n = 153; males, 70) were aged 23.5 + 10.4 SD years (range 6-60 years). Both refractive and non-refractive disorders were present in all participants. Non-refractive disorders comprised nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmented fundi and prominent choroidal vessels in 100.0% participants; and strabismus in 16.3% participants. Refractive disorders comprised astigmatism -73.2% eyes, myopia -23.9% and hypermetropia 2.9%. Spherical refractive errors ranged from -14.00 DS to +8.00 DS while astigmatic errors ranged from -6.00 DC to +6 DC. Mixed refractive and non-refractive disorder i.e. presenting visual impairment was present in 100.0% participants. Overall, refractive error was associated with non-possession of tertiary education (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.96; p = 0.0374). There is high prevalence of refractive, non-refractive and mixed ophthalmic disorders among albinos in south-eastern Nigeria. This underscores the need for tailored provision of resources to address their eye care needs, and creation of needs awareness amongst them.

  13. Ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for ophthalmic diseases related to neovascularisation: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab is believed to be as effective and safe as ranibizumab for ophthalmic diseases; however, its magnitude of effectiveness and safety profile remain controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis and systematic review appears necessary.PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched with no restrictions. All relevant citations comparing ranibizumab and bevacizumab were considered for inclusion. Pooled effect estimates were obtained using a fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis.Nine independent randomised-controlled clinical trials (RCTs involving 2,289 participants were identified. Compared with bevacizumab, the overall combined weighted mean difference (WMD of the mean change in visual acuity for ranibizumab was 0.52 letters (95% CI -0.11-1.14. The odds ratios (ORs of gaining ≥15, gaining 5-14, losing 5-14 and losing ≤15 letters were 1.10 (95% CI 0.90-1.33, 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.11, 0.89 (95% CI 0.65-1.22 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.73-1.25, respectively. The risk of serious systemic events increased by 17% (95% CI 6%-27%, p = 0.0042 for bevacizumab treatment in comparison with ranibizumab. No statistically significant differences between the two treatments were found for the nonfatal arterial thrombotic events, ocular serious adverse, death from vascular and all causes events.Bevacizumab is not inferior to ranibizumab as a treatment for achieving visual acuity. The use of bevacizumab was associated with an increased risk of developing serious systemic events. Weighing the costs and health outcomes is necessary when selecting between bevacizumab and ranibizumab for ophthalmic diseases. Due to the limitations of the available data, further research is needed.

  14. 择期眼科手术围术期抗栓管理%Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapies in patients with elective ophthalmic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 秦明照; 周丹

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients presenting for ophthalmic surgery are often having systemic diseases and using multiple drugs, particularly antithrombotic drugs.Different antithrombotic drugs has different perioperative bleeding risks in a variety of ophthalmic surgeries, thus it is necessary to adjust antithrombotic strategies, manage antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants drugs to balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis.%眼科手术中的老年患者常合并全身性疾病,需应用多种药物,特别是抗栓药物.不同类型的眼科手术围术期应用抗栓药物的出血风险不同,因此需要调整抗栓策略,对抗血小板药物及抗凝药物进行管理,以平衡术中及术后出血及血栓的风险.

  15. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  16. Potential advantages of a novel chitosan-N-acetylcysteine surface modified nanostructured lipid carrier on the performance of ophthalmic delivery of curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Liu; Jinyu Li; Hao Pan; Fengwei He; Zhidong Liu; Qingyin Wu; Chunping Bai; Shihui Yu; Xinggang Yang

    2016-01-01

    The transient precorneal retention time and low penetration capacity into intraocular tissues are the key obstacles that hinder the ophthalmic drug delivery of many therapeutic compounds, especially for drugs with poor solubility and permeability. To break the stalemate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine functionalized chitosan copolymer (CS-NAC), which exhibit marked bioadhesion and permeation enhancing effect, was synthesized. The curcumin encapsulated NLC (CUR-NLC) was produced and optimized followed by...

  17. Comparison of Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA TM with flexible laryngeal mask airway in terms of device stability and ventilation characteristics in pediatric ophthalmic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani A Sunder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supraglottic airway devices play an important role in ophthalmic surgery. The flexible laryngeal mask airway (LMA TM is generally the preferred airway device. However, there are no studies comparing it with the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA TM in pediatric ophthalmic procedures. Aims: To analyze the intraoperative device stability and ability to maintain normocarbia of CobraPLA TM and compare it to that with flexible LMA TM . Materials and Methods: Ninety children of American Society for Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2, aged 3-15 years scheduled for elective ophthalmic surgeries were randomly assigned to either the CobraPLA TM or the flexible LMA TM group. After placement of each airway device, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP was noted. Adequate seal of the devices was confirmed at an inspired pressure of 15 cm H 2 O and pressure-controlled ventilation was initiated. Device displacement was diagnosed if there was a change in capnograph waveform, audible or palpable gas leak, change in expired tidal volume to 6 kPa, or need to increase inspired pressure to >18 cm H 2 O to maintain normocarbia. Results: Demographic data, duration, and type of surgery in both the groups were similar. A higher incidence of intraoperative device displacement was noted with the CobraPLA TM in comparison to flexible LMA TM (P < 0.001. Incidence of displacement was higher in strabismus surgery (7/12. Insertion characteristics and ventilation parameters were comparable. The OLP was significantly higher in CobraPLA TM group (28 ± 6.8 cm H 2 O compared to the flexible LMA TM group (19.9 ± 4.5 cm H 2 O (P < 0.001. Higher surgeon dissatisfaction (65.9% was seen in the CobraPLA TM group. Conclusion: The high incidence of device displacement and surgeon dissatisfaction make CobraPLA TM a less favorable option than flexible LMA TM in ophthalmic surgery.

  18. Reversal in the Diameter of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein after an Epidural Blood Patch in a Case of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chen Yu; Tsai, Yuh Feng [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is caused by single or multiple cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in the spine with the prototypical symptom of postural headache. One of the characteristic MRI features in SIH is intracranial venous engorgement. This report presents a case of SIH with engorgement of the bilateral superior ophthalmic veins (SOVs) which resume their normal diameters by the third day of successful epidural blood patches (EBPs). We define this phenomenon as the 'reversal of the SOV' sign.

  19. Endovascular treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by transvenous embolisation through the superior ophthalmic vein via cannulation of a frontal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new approach for transvenous embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), i.e., via percutaneous cannulation of a frontal vein. Modern neurointerventional angiographic materials make it possible to reach the SOV in this way without puncturing it in the orbit or a surgical exposure. Orbital phlebography should still be in the repertoire of interventional neuroradiology units in large centres. (orig.)

  20. Reversal in the Diameter of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein after an Epidural Blood Patch in a Case of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is caused by single or multiple cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in the spine with the prototypical symptom of postural headache. One of the characteristic MRI features in SIH is intracranial venous engorgement. This report presents a case of SIH with engorgement of the bilateral superior ophthalmic veins (SOVs) which resume their normal diameters by the third day of successful epidural blood patches (EBPs). We define this phenomenon as the 'reversal of the SOV' sign.

  1. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, "What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers?" by obtaining information from students about (1 various methods used in surgical training (2 numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3 their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1 st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction.

  2. Development and validation of Ultra violet spectrophotometric and Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography techniques for simultaneous estimation of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic suspension formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekar Manoharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and fast UV spectrophotometric technique and feasible reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic formulation has been developed.Linearity ranges for both methods were 5 - 25 μg/ml and 1-5 μg/ml for brinzolamide and brimonidine tartrate respectively.The absorption maxima were observed at 232 and 257 nm for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine. The UV, ophthalmic formulation assay shows percentage purity ranging from 98.90 to 101.01% for Brinzolamide and 98.20 to 100.80% for Brimonidine. The mean percentage purity is 99.82% and 99.80% for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine respectively. The chromatographic retention time forBrinzolamide and Brimonidine was found to be 5.9 and 8.4 minutes respectively. The tailing factor was 0.808 and 0.860 for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate respectively. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and the method was found to be applicable for determination of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate from combined ophthalmic form.

  3. 76 FR 72619 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Eprinomectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Merial Ltd. The supplemental NADA provides for addition of a warning statement against the use of eprinomectin topical solution... supplement to NADA 141-079 for EPRINEX (eprinomectin) Pour-On for Beef and Dairy Cattle, a topical...

  4. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systemat...

  5. Clinical outcomes with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis due to potentially consequential pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comstock TL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock,1 Timothy W Morris,2 Lynne S Gearinger,2 Heleen H DeCory11Medical Affairs, 2Department of Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Besifloxacin is a chlorofluoroquinolone approved for use in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% against conjunctivitis infections caused by potentially consequential pathogens.Design: Post hoc analysis of clinical outcomes for patients with conjunctival infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Neisseria spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE who were treated with besifloxacin in four multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trials.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of besifloxacin against potentially consequential pathogens were pooled. Clinical outcome data for patients treated with besifloxacin with baseline infections due to these pathogens were pooled and summarized. Bacterial eradication was defined as the absence of ocular bacterial species present at or above threshold at baseline.Results: A total of 1,317 patients had culture-confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis across the four studies, and 151 infections were due to the aforementioned pathogens (P. aeruginosa n=9; S. marcescens n=10; Neisseria spp. n=16; MRSA n=35; MRSE n=81. Among MRSA and MRSE infections, 48.3% demonstrated concurrent ciprofloxacin resistance (ciprofloxacin-resistant [CipR]-MRSA n=24; CipR-MRSE n=32. The MIC90 (MIC for 90% of isolates for besifloxacin was 1 µg/mL for S. marcescens, 0.25 µg/mL for Neisseria spp., 0.06 µg/mL for both ciprofloxacin-sensitive MRSA and ciprofloxacin-sensitive MRSE, and 4 µg/mL for both CipR-MRSA and CipR-MRSE. Against P. aeruginosa, the MIC range was 1–4 µg/mL. Bacterial eradication rates in patients treated with besifloxacin were 100% by

  6. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requir- ing the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as goniosco-py that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  7. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagner, G.R.; Garaev, A.S.; Guzenko, L.P.; Khaber, N.V.; Kruglitskii, N.N.; Kurochkin, B.M.; Shumilov, V.A.

    1981-03-23

    Proposed is a plugging solution which contains cement, hydrophilic biosilica, polymer, and water, and which is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the strength properties of the stone with simultaneous increase in its resistance to the effect of corrosive bed water under conditions of normal temperatures, as hydrophilic biosilica the solution contains carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil, and as a polymer, carboxylate divinyl styrene latex and it also contains sodium with the following ingredient ratio, wt %: 63.47-66.08% cement, 0.66-1.28% carboxylate divinyl styrene latex, 1.26-1.32% sodium chloride, 0.22-0.36% carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil, and the rest water. The plugging solution is distinguished by the fact that carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil have a specific surface of 50-300 m/g.

  8. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  9. Design and construction of ophthalmic simulators for clinical applications; Projeto e confeccao de simuladores oftalmicos para aplicacoes clinicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea

    2006-07-01

    This work presents a calculational methodology for dose determination in human eye structures, such as: sclera, choroid, retina, lens, vitreous body, optic nerve and disc, and cornea, as well as tumor due to treatment to the eye plaques. A human eye model was constructed taking into consideration its main structural and dimension characteristics. Beyond that a mathematical model for the Co-60 and 1-125 plaques with all geometric details were built employing the MCNP-4C code. This model is able to calculate the axial and radial doses in any point of the eye and for each of its structures. An acrylic eye simulator was also built with the aim to obtain experimental results for the both model validations. This simulator is made of an acrylic sphere split into foils of 1 mm thickness which allow the introduction of a radiographic film to measure the axial and radial doses. The experimental data were used to validate the MCNP-4C results. The data from the mathematical model will serve as the basis to build a data bank for all the eye structures allowing different position and sizes of tumor as well as the replacement of all ophthalmic plaques used in the treatment. This data bank will be the principal part for the construction of a national software for the dose calculation and can be of great help for a reliable treatment system planning in radiotherapy/brachytherapy. (author)

  10. Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, O. M.; Keller, B.; Viehland, C.; Shen, L.; Waterman, G.; Todorich, B.; Shieh, C.; Hahn, P.; Farsiu, S.; Kuo, A. N.; Toth, C. A.; Izatt, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Minimally-invasive microsurgery has resulted in improved outcomes for patients. However, operating through a microscope limits depth perception and fixes the visual perspective, which result in a steep learning curve to achieve microsurgical proficiency. We introduce a surgical imaging system employing four-dimensional (live volumetric imaging through time) microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (4D MIOCT) capable of imaging at up to 10 volumes per second to visualize human microsurgery. A custom stereoscopic heads-up display provides real-time interactive volumetric feedback to the surgeon. We report that 4D MIOCT enhanced suturing accuracy and control of instrument positioning in mock surgical trials involving 17 ophthalmic surgeons. Additionally, 4D MIOCT imaging was performed in 48 human eye surgeries and was demonstrated to successfully visualize the pathology of interest in concordance with preoperative diagnosis in 93% of retinal surgeries and the surgical site of interest in 100% of anterior segment surgeries. In vivo 4D MIOCT imaging revealed sub-surface pathologic structures and instrument-induced lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope during standard surgical maneuvers. In select cases, 4D MIOCT guidance was necessary to resolve such lesions and prevent post-operative complications. Our novel surgical visualization platform achieves surgeon-interactive 4D visualization of live surgery which could expand the surgeon’s capabilities.

  11. Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, O M; Keller, B; Viehland, C; Shen, L; Waterman, G; Todorich, B; Shieh, C; Hahn, P; Farsiu, S; Kuo, A N; Toth, C A; Izatt, J A

    2016-01-01

    Minimally-invasive microsurgery has resulted in improved outcomes for patients. However, operating through a microscope limits depth perception and fixes the visual perspective, which result in a steep learning curve to achieve microsurgical proficiency. We introduce a surgical imaging system employing four-dimensional (live volumetric imaging through time) microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (4D MIOCT) capable of imaging at up to 10 volumes per second to visualize human microsurgery. A custom stereoscopic heads-up display provides real-time interactive volumetric feedback to the surgeon. We report that 4D MIOCT enhanced suturing accuracy and control of instrument positioning in mock surgical trials involving 17 ophthalmic surgeons. Additionally, 4D MIOCT imaging was performed in 48 human eye surgeries and was demonstrated to successfully visualize the pathology of interest in concordance with preoperative diagnosis in 93% of retinal surgeries and the surgical site of interest in 100% of anterior segment surgeries. In vivo 4D MIOCT imaging revealed sub-surface pathologic structures and instrument-induced lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope during standard surgical maneuvers. In select cases, 4D MIOCT guidance was necessary to resolve such lesions and prevent post-operative complications. Our novel surgical visualization platform achieves surgeon-interactive 4D visualization of live surgery which could expand the surgeon's capabilities. PMID:27538478

  12. Moxifloxacin-Gelrite in situ ophthalmic gelling system against photodynamic therapy for treatment of bacterial corneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Laithy, Hanan M; Nesseem, Demiana I; El-Adly, Amira A; Shoukry, Meriana

    2011-10-01

    In this study, six in situ gelling formulations based on Gelrite were prepared and evaluated for the retained ophthalmic delivery of Moxifloxacin (Mox). The effectiveness of the best developed formula G5 was compared with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the recent expanding approach for the treatment of ophthalmologic disorders after the assessment of optimum photodynamic inactivation parameters that permit efficient pathogens eradication. It was found that, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (Gram-positive) was more susceptible to effective lethal photosensitization that reaches 93.5% reduction in viable count than Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Gramnegative) of 76.1% using 3 mg/mL Hematoporphyrin (HP), illuminated by 630 nm Light Emitting Diode (LED) at 9 J/cm(2) and incubated for 15 min. Following topical instillation of G5 to rabbits corneas, higher amount of Mox was retained in the aqueous humor up to 24 h with significant 6-fold increase in the C(max) and AUC((0-∞)) compared to vigamox commercial eye drops. After post corneal infection with S. aureus, both approaches were effectively treating the infection without causing ocular irritation or collateral damage to corneal tissue where G5 showed remarkable improvement after four days compared to seven days of PDT treatment.

  13. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  14. Comparison of intima-media thickness and ophthalmic artery resistance index for assessing subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Mariangela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications that potentially increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in this population. Measurement of arterial wall thickness has been used as a surrogate of extent, severity and progression of atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed to compare the validity of two non-invasive arterial measures: carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, a parameter of atherosclerosis, and ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease. Methods A total of 95 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for more than 12 months were consecutively enrolled. IMT and OARI were measured by 7.5 MHz linear probe. Results There was a significant linear increase in IMT and OARI values as the grade of cardiovascular risk (0.70 and 0.69 for very low risk, 0.86 and 0.72 for low risk and 0.98 and 0.74 for medium/high risk, p 0.83 and an OARI > 0.72 were the most discriminatory values for predicting a cardiovascular risk ≥ 10% (sensibility 89.6% and 75.8%; sensitivity 70.5% and 68.4%; p Conclusions Our data indicate that OARI may have a potential as a new precocious marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients.

  15. Direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein for carotid cavernous fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, A.; Suzuki, S.; Iwamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Inukai, M.; Abe, K.; Niki, J.; Yamada, M.; Fujii, K. [Kitasato University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa (Japan); Kan, S. [Kitasato University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an available approach for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), especially in the event that there is no other suitable approach route to the fistula. Surgical exposure of the peripheral roots of the SOV is commonly used; however, often, the SOV is often not accessible because of anatomical problems and/or complications. In this paper, we present and discuss our original direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV. An attempt on three patients with traumatic CCF failed with the transarterial approach and the conventional venous approach via the inferior petrosal sinus; therefore, the patients were treated with the direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV using two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography with local anesthesia. All cases that had tortuous and partially stenotic division of the SOV were treated successfully with this approach and without complications. This approach will become an alternate approach, especially when the peripheral roots of the SOV are focally narrowed and tortuous, making it impossible to insert a catheter. (orig.)

  16. Direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein for carotid cavernous fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an available approach for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), especially in the event that there is no other suitable approach route to the fistula. Surgical exposure of the peripheral roots of the SOV is commonly used; however, often, the SOV is often not accessible because of anatomical problems and/or complications. In this paper, we present and discuss our original direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV. An attempt on three patients with traumatic CCF failed with the transarterial approach and the conventional venous approach via the inferior petrosal sinus; therefore, the patients were treated with the direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV using two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography with local anesthesia. All cases that had tortuous and partially stenotic division of the SOV were treated successfully with this approach and without complications. This approach will become an alternate approach, especially when the peripheral roots of the SOV are focally narrowed and tortuous, making it impossible to insert a catheter. (orig.)

  17. Stability-indicating liquid Chromatographic assaymethod for Opthalmic solutions containing combination of Dexamethasone and Chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selective high-performance chromatographic procedure for the stability monitoring of ophthalmic solutions containing a combination of dexamethasone and chloramphenicolis demonstrated. The separation of the active components and the degradation product of chloramphenicol (1-amino-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-propane-1, 3diol) was achieved on a u-Bondapack C-18 column ( 5 um, 300 mm x 3.9 mm) maintained at ambient temperature (15-20C) by utilizing a mobile phase consisting acidified water (5% actified water with glacial acetic acid ) : acetonitrile : triethyl amine 700 : 300 : 2and pH was adjusted to 5.0 by using 10 M Na OH. The flow rate was 1.5 ml min-1; and elutes were followed with UV-detection at 254 nm. Complete resolution of dexamethasone, chloramphenicol and its hydrolytic product could be attained. The sensitivity, accuracy and specificity were tested. The method was successfully applied in post-marketing stability of the commercial batches of ophthalmic solutions. (author)

  18. PACSPLUS Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A Zoroofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Medal Electronic (ME Engineering Company provides high quality systems, software and services in medical image management, processing and visualization. We assist health care professionals to improve and extend the efficiency of their practices with cost effective solutions. ME is the developer of several medical software including MEDAL-PACS, 3D-Sonosoft, Analytical-Electrophoresis, CBONE and Rhino-Plus. ME is also the exclusive distributor of PACSPLUS in Iran. PACSPLUS is an international, standard, scalable and enterprise PACS solution. PACSPLUS is of ISO, CE and FDA-510 approvals. It is now operational in more than 1000 clinical environment throughout the globe. We discuss about the key features of PACSPLUS system for dealing with real world challenge in PACS as well as the PACS solu-tions needed to fulfill the demands of the clinicians in Iran. Our experience in developing high-end medical software confirms our capability in providing the PACSPLUS as an ultimate PACS solution in Iran.

  19. Compatible solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  20. 氟康唑滴眼凝胶的制备与质量控制%Preparation and quality control of Fluconazole Ophthalmic Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满玉清; 魏传梅; 刘明华; 左小信; 胡丽敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prepare Fluconazole Ophthalmic Gel and establish its quality control standards. Methods the matrix formulation was optimized by orthogonal design;HPLC was used to determine the content of fluconazole,and in-vestigate the stimulating and stability of the preparation. Results The best prescription of Fluconazole Ophthalmic Gel for quality(mass to volume ratio)were:carbomer - 940 0. 3% ,borax 0. 4% and glycerol 2% . The linear range of fluconazole was 1. 0 ~ 8. 0 μg(r = 0. 999 8),and the average recovery was 99. 43%(RSD = 0. 75% );The prescription was stable and nonirritating. Conclusion The prescription of Fluconazole Ophthalmic Gel was reasonable,and the quality was controlla-ble.%目的:制备氟康唑滴眼凝胶并建立质量控制方法。方法采用正交设计对基质处方进行优化;用高效液相色谱法测定氟康唑的含量,并进行制剂刺激性及稳定性考察。结果氟康唑眼凝胶最佳基质处方为(质量体积比):卡波姆-9400.3%,硼砂0.4%,甘油2%;氟康唑进样量在1.0~8.0μg 的范围内线性关系良好( r =0.9998),加样回收率为99.43%(RSD =0.75%);制剂无刺激性,稳定性好。结论氟康唑滴眼凝胶处方合理,质量可控。

  1. Integrative advances for OCT-guided ophthalmic surgery and intraoperative OCT: microscope integration, surgical instrumentation, and heads-up display surgeon feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justis P Ehlers

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate key integrative advances in microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT technology that will facilitate adoption and utilization during ophthalmic surgery. METHODS: We developed a second-generation prototype microscope-integrated iOCT system that interfaces directly with a standard ophthalmic surgical microscope. Novel features for improved design and functionality included improved profile and ergonomics, as well as a tunable lens system for optimized image quality and heads-up display (HUD system for surgeon feedback. Novel material testing was performed for potential suitability for OCT-compatible instrumentation based on light scattering and transmission characteristics. Prototype surgical instruments were developed based on material testing and tested using the microscope-integrated iOCT system. Several surgical maneuvers were performed and imaged, and surgical motion visualization was evaluated with a unique scanning and image processing protocol. RESULTS: High-resolution images were successfully obtained with the microscope-integrated iOCT system with HUD feedback. Six semi-transparent materials were characterized to determine their attenuation coefficients and scatter density with an 830 nm OCT light source. Based on these optical properties, polycarbonate was selected as a material substrate for prototype instrument construction. A surgical pick, retinal forceps, and corneal needle were constructed with semi-transparent materials. Excellent visualization of both the underlying tissues and surgical instrument were achieved on OCT cross-section. Using model eyes, various surgical maneuvers were visualized, including membrane peeling, vessel manipulation, cannulation of the subretinal space, subretinal intraocular foreign body removal, and corneal penetration. CONCLUSIONS: Significant iterative improvements in integrative technology related to iOCT and ophthalmic surgery are demonstrated.

  2. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANT ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN NON-OPHTHALMIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia, increased circulating catecholamines and increase in intraocular pressure. Aim of this study is to compare the effect of IV Dexmedetomidine and IV Clonidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes, haemodynamic responses after succinylcholine injection and intubation. METHODS Sixty cases both male and female patients ranging between the age group 18 to 60 years belonging to ASA 1 or ASA 2 grades, undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied. All patients were randomized into 3 groups of 20 patients each. Each group consists of 20 patients. Dexmedetomidine Group (Group 1 patients received intravenous Dexmedetomidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Clonidine Group (Group 2 patients received intravenous Clonidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Control Group (Group 3 patients received intravenous 100 mL saline infused over 10 minutes. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, Heart Rate (HR and IOP were recorded at before premedication 5 min. after premedication, 30 s after succinylcholine, 1 min. after intubation, 5 mins. after intubation. RESULT Fall in Pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure, Mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure were observed following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation. Pulse rate, blood pressure (Systolic, Diastolic and Mean and IOP differences were statistically significant (p value between 0.000 and 0.5 in dexmedetomidine and clonidine group compared to control groups 1 min. and 5 minutes after intubation, but it was statistically not significant between dexmedetomidine and clonidine group. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine (1 micro/kg given 10 minutes before induction is much more effective in controlling both the tachycardia, hypertension and IOP following laryngoscopy and intubation

  4. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

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    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  5. Preferences of ophthalmic plastics patients and their caregivers toward the doctors′ attire and initial communications: A tertiary eye care study

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    Sadiya Iram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the acceptability levels of different styles of the doctors′ dress and the expectations from the initial phases of physician-patient encounter. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive type using the survey methodology. A survey based on a five-point questionnaire was performed on all consecutive patients or their caregivers, aged ≥15, visiting the ophthalmic plastics outpatient clinics at a tertiary eye care institute. The participants were shown three sets of photographs and were required to answer a questionnaire which consisted of five questions. Data collected include participant demographics and their preferences with regards to the physician′s attire and initial communications. Results: A total of 300 consecutive responses were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 37.2 years. Among the participants, 87.6% (263/300 and 90.3% (271/300 preferred a white coat for the male and female physicians, respectively (P < 0.001. The most common second preference was scrubs for both the males and female physicians. 92.3% (277/300 preferred the attire to have an identification display. The overwhelming majority of respondents (95.6%, 287/300 preferred the physicians to address them by their name and 98.6% (296/300 liked if their physicians smiled while addressing them. Conclusions: White coat was the main preferred attire among respondents. Increased awareness of the patient′s expectations plays a crucial role in enhancing their satisfaction.

  6. Safety, efficacy, and intraoperative characteristics of DisCoVisc and Healon ophthalmic viscosurgical devices for cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi SS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Satish S Modi1, James A Davison2, Tom Walters3 1Seeta Eye Centers, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA; 2Wolfe Clinic, Marshalltown, IA, USA; 3Texas Eye Care, Austin, TX, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of DisCoVisc ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD, Alcon Laboratories, Inc with respect to a comparator, Healon OVD (Advanced Medical Optics, Inc. Patients and methods: In this prospective study, patients with cataracts were randomized to an OVD, and then received phacoemulsification and injection of an intraocular lens. After each surgery, unmasked investigators completed subjective questionnaires about OVD characteristics during each stage of the procedure. Masked technicians evaluated objective safety parameters of intraocular pressure (IOP and endothelial cell density, with 90 days of follow-up. Results: The DisCoVisc OVD group (128 eyes and the Healon OVD group (121 eyes had statistically similar outcomes for IOP and for endothelial cell loss. Subjectively assessed viscosity was statistically different (P < 0.0001, with Healon OVD most often rated “cohesive” and DisCoVisc OVD most often rated “both dispersive and cohesive”. Workspace maintenance differed between groups (P < 0.0001, with workspace most frequently rated “full chamber maintained” when using DisCoVisc OVD and most frequently rated “workspace maintained” when using Healon OVD. “Flat” or “shallow” workspace ratings occurred only in the Healon OVD group. Conclusion: DisCoVisc OVD had both cohesive and dispersive properties, and was safe and effective for every stage of cataract surgery. Keywords: cataract, endothelial cell density, viscoelastic, phacoemulsification

  7. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

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    Chiavaroli Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality. Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. Results The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%. Conclusions Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  8. Calculation of beta-ray dose distributions from ophthalmic applicators and comparison with measurements in a model eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distributions throughout the eye, from three types of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators, were calculated using the EGS4, ACCEPT 3.0, and other Monte Carlo codes. The applicators were those for which doses were measured in a recent international intercomparison [Med. Phys. 28, 1373 (2001)], planar applicators of 106Ru-106Rh and 90Sr-90Y and a concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator. The main purpose was to compare the results of the various codes with average experimental values. For the planar applicators, calculated and measured doses on the source axis agreed within the experimental errors (106Ru-106Rh and 5 mm for 90Sr-90Y. At greater distances the measured values are larger than those calculated. For the concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator, there was poor agreement among available calculations and only those calculated by ACCEPT 3.0 agreed with measured values. In the past, attempts have been made to derive such dose distributions simply, by integrating the appropriate point-source dose function over the source. Here, we investigated the accuracy of this procedure for encapsulated sources, by comparing such results with values calculated by Monte Carlo. An attempt was made to allow for the effects of the silver source window but no corrections were made for scattering from the source backing. In these circumstances, at 6 mm depth, the difference in the results of the two calculations was 14%-18% for a planar 106Ru-106Rh applicator and up to 30% for the concave applicator. It becomes worse at greater depths. These errors are probably caused mainly by differences between the spectrum of beta particles transmitted by the silver window and those transmitted by a thickness of water having the same attenuation properties

  9. Protective role of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) against gamma irradiation-induced ophthalmic and histological changes in rat's eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. This study examined the protective ability of aspirin against radiation-induced ophthalmic and histological disorders in the eye of rats exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose of gamma irradiation, Acetylsalicylic acid was given daily to rats in drinking water (2.5 g/ L) 1 week pre-irradiation, during irradiation and 9 weeks post-irradiation. Experimental investigations showed that irradiation caused cataract formation. Irradiation also caused histopathological changes in the retina of the eyes described as focal degeneration and necrosis of the inner and outer nuclear layers, vacuolation of ganglionic cell layer as well as necrosis of retinal inner and outer segments of the rods and cones. The cornea revealed vacuolation of stratified epithelial layer, edema in substantia propria with dispersion of the connective tissue as well as presence of extravasated red blood cells as a result of exposure to radiation. The lens became homogenous and oesinophilic due to radiation exposure. The eye tissues of rats .that received acetylsalicylic acid supplement showed slight improvement of radiation-induced histological damage in the eyes and it also delayed the onset of cataract formation. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that oral administration of aspirin gave only a slight, nonsignificant reduction of eye radiation injury after exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the visual system make the eye uniquely vulnerable to damage from injurious agents, physical and chemical. Although many studies were conducted on a broad range of agents, the majority of all efforts are directed at deleterious effect of radiation on the eye tissues, and

  10. Common ophthalmic problems of urban and rural postmenopausal women in a population sample of Raciborz district, a RAC-OST-POL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Rokicki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. We wished to establish the prevalence of eye diseases and eye disease risk factors at postmenopausal age and to compare ophthalmic problems in urban and rural areas of Raciborz. Patients and methods. The study was performed in 2010. Out of the whole population of Raciborz, Poland, 10 percent (1750 of women were randomly selected for the reported study. Finally, ocular diseases, ophthalmic agents, health status (physical activity level, body mass index – BMI, reproductive history, the use of psychotropic drugs and hormone replacement therapy – HRT were recorded in 623 women. The women underwent visual acuity test and anterior segment examination, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results. The mean age of the selected patients was 66.01±7.76 years, 275 (44% of them originating from rural and 348 (56% from urban regions. The average woman was obese (BMI=30.54±5.38 kg/m2, with near normal agility and reproductive history of 2.59±1.55 births, 147 (24% subjects remained under regular HRT support. According to the WHO, the visual acuity was classified as normal or near normal in 87.5%, while no blindness was recorded at all. Visual acuity depended, first of all, on lens status and was better among subjects with good agility (R=-0.31, p=0.001. Dry eye prevalence increased significantly over age of 67 years (p=0.000 and HRT seemed to be a dry eye protective factor (p=0.010. Except age, No other risk factors of cataract, other than age, were identified. Normal agility (p=0.003 and HRT (p=0.032 were associated with lower AMD (age-related macular degeneration prevalence rates. The differences between urban and rural participants were presented only in education, reproductive history, hypertension and frequency of ophthalmic examinations. Conclusions. Older adult women living in neighboring urban and rural areas present no differential in ophthalmic health problems.

  11. Pharmacology and clinical application of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution%比马前列素滴眼液的药理和临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宁; 史爱欣; 傅得兴

    2006-01-01

    比马前列素是合成的前列酰胺F2α衍生物,通过增加小梁网通道和葡萄膜巩膜通道的房水流出而降低眼内压(IOP),被认为是目前降眼压作用最强的局部抗青光眼药物.主要用于开角型青光眼(POAG)或高眼压症(OHT)的患者,全身不良反应较少.现主要综述该药的药理作用、药动学及临床应用.

  12. Optimization of methazolamide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Li; Jiang, Sunmin; He, Jun; Zhang, Xiumei; Peng, Jin; Xu, Qunwei; Li, Rui

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to optimize methazolamide (MTZ)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which were used as topical eye drops by evaluating the relationship between design factors and experimental data. A three factor, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for the optimization procedure, choosing the amount of GMS, the amount of phospholipid, the concentration of surfactant as the independent variables. The chosen dependent variables were entrapment efficiency, dosage loading, and particle size. The generated polynomial equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The optimal nanoparticles were formulated with 100 mg GMS, 150 mg phospholipid, and 1% Tween80 and PEG 400 (1:1, w/v). A new formulation was prepared according to these levels. The observed responses were close to the predicted values of the optimized formulation. The particle size was 197.8 ± 4.9 nm. The polydispersity index of particle size was 0.239 ± 0.01 and the zeta potential was 32.7 ± 2.6 mV. The entrapment efficiency and dosage loading were about 68.39% and 2.49%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study indicated that the drug was entrapped in nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed a sustained release followed the Peppas model. MTZ-SLNs showed significant prolonged decreasing intraocular pressure effect comparing with MTZ solution in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The results of acute eye irritation study indicated that MTZ-SLNs and AZOPT both had no eye irritation. Furthermore, the MTZ-SLNs were suitable to be stored at low temperature (4 °C).

  13. Research progress of gender difference in ophthalmic disorders%眼病中性别差异的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁小娜; 严宏

    2016-01-01

    •There is the strong epidemiologic evidence of gender-specific difference for the incidence of the same ophthalmic disorder recently. Physiologic, behavioral, environmental and hereditary factors may contribute to these differences, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. This paper gives a brief review of research progress on epidemiologic feature and mechanism of the common ophthalmic disorders, including cataract, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, and hereditary ocular disorders.%近年来,流行病学资料显示人群中同一眼病的发病率存在着显著的性别差异,可能与男女本身的生理结构、行为习惯、环境、遗传等因素有关,但具体机制尚不清楚,仍需进一步研究。本文就白内障、青光眼、神经性眼病、遗传性眼病等眼科常见病的流行病学特征及可能原因的研究进展作一综述。

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a timolol maleate drug-resin ophthalmic suspension as a sustained-release formulation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fuhong; Zeng, Li; Zhu, Yongtao; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the performance of resin as an ocular delivery system. Timolol maleate (TM) was chosen as the model drug and an ion exchange resin (IER) as the carrier. The drug-resin complex was prepared using an oscillation method and then characterized regarding particle size, zeta potential, morphology, and drug content. After in vitro drug release study and corneal permeation study were performed, in vivo studies were performed in New Zealand albino rabbits using a suspension with particles sized 4.8 ± 1.2 μm and drug loading at 43.00 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that drug released from the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension permeated the cornea and displayed a sustained-release behavior. Drug levels in the ocular tissues after administration of the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension were significantly higher than after treatment with an eye drop formulation but were lower in body tissues and in the plasma. In conclusion, resins have great potential as effective ocular drug delivery carriers to increase ocular bioavailability of timolol while simultaneously reducing systemic drug absorption. PMID:26368660

  15. OPHTHALMIC REFERENCE VALUES AND LESIONS IN TWO CAPTIVE POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN OWLS: GREAT GREY OWLS (STRIX NEBULOSA) AND SNOWY OWLS (BUBO SCANDIACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Sarah; Pinard, Chantale; Nykamp, Stephanie; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    This study established ophthalmic reference values and characterized ocular lesions in two captive populations of boreal owls, including 46 eyes of 23 great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and 38 eyes from 19 snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). A complete ophthalmologic exam was conducted, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, Schirmer tear test I (STT-I), intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal measurements using Jameson calipers, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. Eyes with an STT of owls and snowy owls (IOP: 9.6 ± 2.6 mm Hg and 9.1 ± 1.9 mm Hg, respectively, and STT-I: 9.8 ± 2.8 mm/min and 9.8 ± 2.4 mm/min, respectively). However, snowy owls overall had a significantly larger eye than did great grey owls, reflected in corneal diameters (23.4 ± 1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively) and sonographic biometry. In both species, the most common ocular lesions included keratitis, cataracts, chorioretinal lesions, and abnormal pecten. Establishment of reference ocular parameters will help wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators determine an appropriate treatment plan and will aid in correctly identifying the presence of ocular disease. PMID:27010284

  16. Brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension: a review of its pharmacology and use in the treatment of open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Iester

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Michele IesterClinica Oculistica, University of Genoa, ItalyAbstract: Brinzolamide is a white powder commercially formulated as a 1% ophthalmic suspension to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP. Pharmacologically, brinzolamide is a highly specific, non-competitive, reversible, and effective inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II, able to suppress formation of aqueous humor in the eye and thus to decrease IOP. Several clinical trials have evaluated its safety and the most commonly ocular adverse events are blurred vision (3%–8%, ocular discomfort (1.8%–5.9%, and eye pain (0.7%–4.0%. Brinzolamide has been introduced to treat ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. In some clinical studies it has been estimated that brinzolamide reduced IOP by was about 18%. Brinzolamide can be added to beta-blockers and prostaglandins. In the latter combination, because prostaglandin derivatives improve the uveoscleral outflow but also increase the activity of CA in ciliary epithelium with a secondary increase in aqueous humor secretion, and slightly reduce the efficacy of prostaglandin analogues, theoretically topical CA inhibitors (CAI decrease IOP by inhibiting CA-II, thus improving prostaglandin efficacy as well as lowering IOP. Brinzolamide could have a secondary possible effect on ocular flow too. Some clinical studies showed a mild improvement of ocular blood flow. Theoretically, CAI could give rise to metabolic acidosis, with secondary vasodilatation and improvement of blood flow. Systemic acidosis can occur in the setting of oral CAI therapy, and local acidosis within ocular tissues is theoretically possible with topical CAI therapy, with the potential for a local increase in ocular blood flow. In conclusion, topical CAI treatment has efficacy in IOP-lowering ranging from 15% to 20%. From published data, brinzolamide can be used as first-line medication, even if other medications have a higher efficacy, with few side effects and it is a

  17. Life's Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  18. Staff dose of hospitalization in the treatment of patients in ophthalmic brachytherapy with 125 I; Dosis al personal de hospitalizacion en el tratamiento de pacientes de braquiterapia oftalmica con I-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron Leon, J. A.; Gomez Palacios, M.; Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Perales Molina, A.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work, therefore, has been the evaluation of the dose levels which nursing staff can receive in care for ophthalmic brachytherapy patients treated with 125 I from measurements made on the same, evaluating, in an experimental way, job security following the PR rules laid down for these treatments. (Author)

  19. Multiscale modelling approach combining a kinetic model of glutathione metabolism with PBPK models of paracetamol and the potential glutathione-depletion biomarkers ophthalmic acid and 5-oxoproline in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Geenen; J.W.T. Yates; J.G. Kenna; F.Y. Bois; I.D. Wilson; H.V. Westerhoff

    2013-01-01

    A key role of the antioxidant glutathione is detoxification of chemically reactive electrophilic drug metabolites within the liver. Therefore glutathione depletion can have severe toxic consequences. Ophthalmic acid and 5-oxoproline are metabolites involved in glutathione metabolism, which can be me

  20. The additional yield of a periodic screening programme for open-angle glaucoma : a population-based comparison of incident glaucoma cases detected in regular ophthalmic care with cases detected during screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; de Voogd, S.; Wolfs, R. C. W.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P. T. V. M.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the additional yield of a periodic screening programme for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by comparing, in a population-based setting, incident OAG (iOAG) cases detected in regular ophthalmic care with those detected during screening. Methods: Participants aged 55 and over from the populati

  1. Evaluating the cytotoxicity of contact lens multi-purpose solutions in an in vitro lens system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relative cytotoxic effects of contact lens multipurpose solutions on cultured crystalline lenses.Methods: A comparison of the fluorescence emission levels of cultured bovine lenses as affected by three hour experimental exposure to three contact lens multipurpose solutions (COMPLETE Moisture Plus, AMO; OPTI-FREE Express, Alcon; and ReNu MultiPlus, Bausch & Lomb was carried out. The pre- and post-exposure fluorescence levels of the lenses were obtained and values were compared to baseline and control measurements.Results: The solutions yielded varying degrees of cytotoxicity, demonstrating significant (p < 0.01 reversible reduction of cellular viability levels of the cultured crystalline lenses as revealed by the degree of fluorescence emissions in the following order (OPTI-FREE Express > ReNu MultiPlus > COMPLETE MoisturePlus multi-purpose solutionsConclusions: The results show that OPTI-FREE Express and ReNu MultiPlus solutions exhibited more cytotoxic effect compared to COMPLETE MoisturePlus solution. The findings support reportsfrom previous clinical and laboratory studies. These results suggest that the in vitro approach herein presented would be a valuable system for relatively inexpensive and repeatable laboratory investigations of the possible ocular surface reactions of ophthal-mic solutions, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals at pre- and during commercial phases. 

  2. 加替沙星眼用凝胶剂的制备与质量控制%Preparation and quality control of gatifioxacin ophthalmic gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟学娜; 刘青; 王姿婧; 房志仲

    2012-01-01

    目的:制备加替沙星滴眼用凝胶剂并建立其质量控制方法.方法:以卡波姆974P为凝胶基质,以NaCl为渗透压调节剂,尼泊金乙酯为抑菌剂,制备加替沙星眼用凝胶剂;采用高效液相色谱法测定加替沙星的含量,测定波长为325 nm.结果:制剂为无色澄明液体,质量符合2010年版《中国药典》中的相关规定;加替沙星浓度在15.00~180.00 μg/mL范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为99.71%( RSD=0.63%).结论:该处方工艺简单、实用,质量控制方法可靠、易行.%Objective: To investigate the preparation of gatifioxacin ophthalmic gel and establish the methods for the quality control. Methods: Gatifioxacin ophthalmic gel was prepared by utilizing carbomer 974P as gel matrix, NaCl as osmoregulation agent and ethyl-paraben as bacteriostatic agent. The concentration of gatifioxacin in the gel formulation was determined by HPLC with the detection wavelength at 325 nm. Results: Preparation was a colorless transparent liquid and the quality satisfied the relevant formulations in the 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia". The concentration of gatifioxacin determined by HPLC was linear in the range of 15-180 μg/ mL(r=0.999 9). Its average recovery rate was 99.71% (RSD=0.63%, n=9). Conclusion: The formulation and preparation of gatifioxacin ophthalmic gel are simple and practical. The methods for its quality control are reliable and easy.

  3. Dorzolamide and Timolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called topical beta blockers. Dorzolamide and timolol lowers pressure in the eye ... Be sure to mention any of the following: beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ...

  4. Resveratrol and Ophthalmic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K. Abu-Amero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant polyphenol found in grapes, is the principal biologically active component in red wine. Clinical studies have shown that resveratrol due to its potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are cardio-protective, chemotherapeutic, neuroprotective, and display anti-aging effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the initiation and progression of age-related ocular diseases (glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration that lead to progressive loss of vision and blindness. In vitro and in vivo (animal model experimental studies performed so far have provided evidence for the biological effects of resveratrol on numerous pathways including oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, pro-survival or angiogenesis that are implicated in the pathogenesis of these age-related ocular disorders. In this review, we provide a brief overview of current scientific literature on resveratrol, its plausible mechanism(s of action, its potential use and current limitations as a nutritional therapeutic intervention in the eye and its related disorders.

  5. Discussion on Application of Humanized Management in Ophthalmic Nursing Management%眼科护理管理中人性化管理的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池成涛; 艾德梅; 张宝弟

    2012-01-01

    With the development of economy, the improvement of people's living standard, people's health consciousness and rights protection consciousness is also more and more high, and nursing work of cardiovascular surgery has gotten the attention of people. This paper made a simple analysis on how to strengthen humanized management to ophthalmic nursing and its significance.%随着经济的发展,人民生活水平的提高,人们对于健康意识和维权意识也越来越高,心外科的护理工作得到了人们的关注.如何加强对眼科护理进行人性化的管理和对眼科护理人性化管理有什么意义,本文在这里针对这个问题进行简单的分析.

  6. 眼科药物实验研究应注意的一些问题%Experimental tests of ophthalmic drugs and related issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠延年

    2008-01-01

    Study of new or previously known drugs for new applications in the treatments of eye diseases hasbeen one of the ma ior subjects in the ophthalmic field.However,we had found several caveats in the recently publishedpapers on experimental ophthalmic drug studies,such as new-drug trials lack of systemic designing,experimentalstudies without following the standard guidelines,in-vivo animal tests bypassed the necessary in-vitro cell screenings,and studies lack known-drug controls,etc.In order to improve the quality of such kind of studies,researchers should befamiliar with the standard procedures of new drug testing,and with the basic rules for drug screenings and efficacyassessments by in-vitro cell culture systems and in-vivo animal models.%新药或已知药物在眼病的应用研究是眼科研究的一个主要课题.但近年发表的眼科药物实验研究文献中,反映出部分实验研究存在缺乏系统、规划和规范;没有细胞学筛选实验,直接进行动物实验;缺乏与已知药物对照等问题.为提高相关研究的质量,研究者应该熟悉新药研究的规范步骤、应用体外细胞学模型以及活体动物模型进行药物筛选和效果评估研究的基本规则.

  7. Reported toxicity in 1486 liquid detergent capsule exposures to the UK National Poisons Information Service 2009-2012, including their ophthalmic and CNS effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hayley; Jones, Stephen; Wood, Kelly; Scott, Robert A H; Eddleston, Michael; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John Paul; Vale, J Allister

    2014-02-01

    CONTEXT. Data on the ophthalmic and central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects of liquid detergent capsules (liquid laundry pods) are limited. OBJECTIVE. To ascertain the reported toxicity of liquid detergent capsules, particularly their ophthalmic and CNS adverse effects, in a large case series. METHODS. Between 1 May 2009 and 30 July 2012 the UK National Poisons Information Service collected prospectively 1509 telephone enquiries (involving 1486 exposures) relating to liquid detergent capsules. RESULTS. The majority of patients (95.6%) were children aged less than 5. Exposure to these products occurred mainly as a result of ingestion alone (n = 1215; 81.8%), with eye contact alone (n = 110; 7.4%), and skin contact alone (n = 20; 1.3%) being less common; multiple routes of exposure were involved in 141 (9.5%) cases. Following ocular exposure (n = 212), features suggesting conjunctivitis (n = 145; 68.4%) and corneal ulceration (n = 6; 2.8%) developed. The most common features reported following ingestion alone were nausea and vomiting (n = 721; 59.3%), followed by coughing (n = 53; 4.4%), drowsiness/CNS depression (n = 49; 42 of these were children were aged 2 years or less) and foaming at the mouth (n = 47; 3.9%). A rash occurred in 22 patients where ingestion was considered to be the route of exposure. Twenty patients were exposed via the dermal route alone and developed erythema (n = 9), rash (n = 6) and burn (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS. Ocular exposure to liquid detergent capsules may lead to conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration; detergent ingestion may result in central nervous system (CNS)depression. Greater consumer awareness is required to reduce injury from liquid detergent capsules, particularly that involving the eye.

  8. Curative effects of probing alone and probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital duct obstruction of children from 3-12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sun; Sui-Fang Chen; Jing Li; Huan-Huan Zhao; Su-Zhen Xie; Xue-Lin Huang; Shu-Ke Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the 1-time success rate of probing alone and nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in young children. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on 494 cases (647 eyes) of 3–12 month-old children with CNLDO between July 2014 and July 2015. Material obtained from the lacrimal sac was cultured to isolate infectious agents. Susceptibility testing was done. Children from 3–12 months of age who were found to be sensitive to Levofloxacin (n=493 eyes) were separated into two groups: 3–6 months of age (276 eyes) and 7–12 months of age (217 eyes). Each of the groups were then randomized into group A (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 102 eyes of 7–12 months of age) and group B (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 115 eyes of 7–12 months of age). Children in group A underwent nasolacrimal duct probing alone; those in group B underwent nasolacrimal duct probing plus nasolacrimal duct injection of levofloxacin and the efficacy of probing was evaluated. Results: The average detection rate of pathogenic bacteria in dacryocystitis was 75.1%, andStaphylococcus aureuswas found to be the main pathogenic bacteria (42.59%, 106 cases). Among children from 7–12 months of age, the 1-time success rate of nasolacrimal duct probing alone was 88.24% and the 1-time success rate of probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin ophthalmic gel was 96.52% (statistical signiifcance, P=0.02<0.05). Conclusions: Most pathogenic bacteria (96.81%) were sensitive to levofloxacin. Nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin may improve the success rate of probing in children older than 6 months of age.

  9. Potential advantages of a novel chitosan-N-acetylcysteine surface modified nanostructured lipid carrier on the performance of ophthalmic delivery of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Li, Jinyu; Pan, Hao; He, Fengwei; Liu, Zhidong; Wu, Qingyin; Bai, Chunping; Yu, Shihui; Yang, Xinggang

    2016-01-01

    The transient precorneal retention time and low penetration capacity into intraocular tissues are the key obstacles that hinder the ophthalmic drug delivery of many therapeutic compounds, especially for drugs with poor solubility and permeability. To break the stalemate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine functionalized chitosan copolymer (CS-NAC), which exhibit marked bioadhesion and permeation enhancing effect, was synthesized. The curcumin encapsulated NLC (CUR-NLC) was produced and optimized followed by surface absorption of CS-NAC. After coating, changed particle size from 50.76 ± 2.21 nm to 88.64 ± 1.25 nm and reversed zeta potential from −20.38 ± 0.39 mV to 22.51 ± 0.34 mV was observed. The in vitro CUR release from NLC was slower than that of CUR-NLC and chitosan hydrochlorides (CH) coated NLC due to the inter and/or intramolecular disulfide formation of thiomers on the surface of nanocarriers. The modification also significantly enhanced transcorneal penetration compared with CH-NLC and the uncoated ones. The effect on bioadhesion and precorneal retention were evaluated by in vivo imaging technique and ocular pharmacokinetics studies revealing that the clearance of the formulations was significantly delayed in the presence of CS-NAC and the effect was positively related to the degree of thiolation. In summary, CS-NAC-NLC presented a series of notable advantages for ophthalmic drug application. PMID:27350323

  10. Potential advantages of a novel chitosan-N-acetylcysteine surface modified nanostructured lipid carrier on the performance of ophthalmic delivery of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Li, Jinyu; Pan, Hao; He, Fengwei; Liu, Zhidong; Wu, Qingyin; Bai, Chunping; Yu, Shihui; Yang, Xinggang

    2016-01-01

    The transient precorneal retention time and low penetration capacity into intraocular tissues are the key obstacles that hinder the ophthalmic drug delivery of many therapeutic compounds, especially for drugs with poor solubility and permeability. To break the stalemate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine functionalized chitosan copolymer (CS-NAC), which exhibit marked bioadhesion and permeation enhancing effect, was synthesized. The curcumin encapsulated NLC (CUR-NLC) was produced and optimized followed by surface absorption of CS-NAC. After coating, changed particle size from 50.76 ± 2.21 nm to 88.64 ± 1.25 nm and reversed zeta potential from -20.38 ± 0.39 mV to 22.51 ± 0.34 mV was observed. The in vitro CUR release from NLC was slower than that of CUR-NLC and chitosan hydrochlorides (CH) coated NLC due to the inter and/or intramolecular disulfide formation of thiomers on the surface of nanocarriers. The modification also significantly enhanced transcorneal penetration compared with CH-NLC and the uncoated ones. The effect on bioadhesion and precorneal retention were evaluated by in vivo imaging technique and ocular pharmacokinetics studies revealing that the clearance of the formulations was significantly delayed in the presence of CS-NAC and the effect was positively related to the degree of thiolation. In summary, CS-NAC-NLC presented a series of notable advantages for ophthalmic drug application. PMID:27350323

  11. Endovascular treatment for unruptured small wide-necked ophthalmic segment aneurysms: Technique feasibility, efficacy and mid-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Lie Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular treatment (EVT for unruptured small wide-necked ophthalmic segment aneurysms (OSAs of the internal carotid artery (ICA. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and May 2013, 17 patients with 19 unruptured small wide-necked OSAs received EVT. Occlusion rates were classified as total/near-total (95-100%, subtotal (80-95% and partial (<80% occlusions. This was determined by immediate and follow-up angiography. Follow-up outcome was assessed by using modified ranking scale (mRS. Results: EVT was successfully performed in all the patients: Coiling only in 2 (10.5% and stent-assisted coiling in 17 (89.5% of the aneurysms. The immediate total/near-total occlusion was seen in 1 (5.3%, sub-total occlusion in 8 (42.1% and partial occlusion in 10 (52.6%. Follow-up angiography performed at 9.4 (±4.7 months revealed total/near-total occlusion in 13 (68.4%, subtotal occlusion in 5 (26.3% and partial occlusion in 1 (5.3%. At the end of the follow-up period of 17.4 (±6.9 months, no aneurysm rupture was found and 16 (94.1% of the patients had mRS scores of: Grade 0 in (5.9% an mRS 1 in the remaining. Conclusions: EVT may be feasible and effective treatment option for unruptured small wide-necked ophthalmic aneurysms of the ICA.

  12. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Physiologic Imaging of Choroidal Melanoma: Before and After Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) standardized uptake values (SUV) in uveal melanoma before and after plaque brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 217 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma and eligible for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy underwent preoperative PET/CT to evaluate their intraocular tumor and screen for metastasis. Subsequent to undergoing plaque brachytherapy, patients' PET/CT SUV were periodically reevaluated over 42 months. Results: In this series, 37 (17%) choroidal melanoma patients were found to have an SUV of >2.0. Of these, 18 patients were able to undergo interval follow-up PET/CT scanning. There were 3 patients with T2, 11 patients with T3, and 4 patients with T4 melanomas according to 7th edition AJCC-UICC criteria. Mean apical thickness was 8.8 mm (range, 3-12.3 mm), and the largest mean tumor diameter was 15.1 mm (range, 12-19.9 mm). The mean initial SUV was 3.7 (range, 2.1-7.3). Patients were followed for a median 16 months (range, 6-42 months). The median time to a tumor SUV of 0 was 8.0 months (range, 6-18 months). There was one case of one interval increase in SUV that diminished after circumferential laser treatment. Conclusions: Intraocular PET/CT imaging provides a physiological assessment of tumor metabolism that can be used to evaluate changes after treatment. In this study, ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy was associated with extinguished tumor PET/CT SUV over time. PET/CT imaging can be used to assess choroidal melanomas for their response to treatment.

  13. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh ophthalmic applicators;Respostas de diferentes dosimetros termoluminescentes na dosimetria beta de aplicadores oftalmicos de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, D.F.P.; Daros, K.A.C.; Segreto, R.A.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  14. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stonecipher KG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1,2 Gail L Torkildsen,3 George W Ousler III,4 Scot Morris,5 Linda Villanueva,6 David A Hollander6 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 3Andover Eye Associates, 4Ora, Inc., Andover, MA, 5Eye Consultants of Colorado, Conifer, CO, 6Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye.Methods: This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer’s score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events.Results: A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40–78 years were enrolled; 35 (87.5% were female and 37 (92.5% completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001. Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041. At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup

  15. PERSIST: Physician's Evaluation of Restasis® Satisfaction in Second Trial of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% for dry eye: a retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Francis Mah,1 Mark Milner,2 Samuel Yiu,3 Eric Donnenfeld,4 Taryn M Conway,5 David A Hollander51University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 2The Eye Center, Hamden, CT, 3University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island and Connecticut, Rockville Centre, New York, NY, 5Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USABackground: Chronic dry eye disease often requires long-term therapy. Tear film alterations in the setting of dry eye may include reduced tear volume as well as an increase in inflammatory cytokines and osmolarity. Topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®; Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA is indicated to increase tear production in patients with dry eye and reduced tear production presumed to be due to ocular inflammation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a second trial of topical cyclosporine in patients with dry eye who were previously considered treatment failures.Materials and methods: This multicenter (three cornea practices retrospective chart review evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye who received a second trial of cyclosporine after a prior treatment failure, defined as prior discontinuation of topical cyclosporine after less than 12 weeks.Results: Thirty-five patients, most of whom were female (71.4% and Caucasian (62.9%, were identified. Prior discontinuation was most commonly due to burning/stinging (60%. The median duration of second treatment was 10 months (range 1 week to 45 months. Physician education was provided in the second trial in 97.1% of cases. At initiation of the second trial of cyclosporine, 10 (28.6% patients received courses of topical corticosteroids. Physicians reported on a questionnaire that 80% of patients achieved clinical benefit with a second trial of cyclosporine.Conclusion: A repeat trial with topical cyclosporine can achieve clinical success. Direct patient education via the physician and staff may be key to success. Proper patient

  16. Perioperative management of ophthalmic patients on antithrombotic therapy%抗栓治疗患者眼科围手术期的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫瑾; 王莉; 杨扬

    2015-01-01

    大多数需要眼科手术的老年患者同时定期应用抗血小板和抗凝药物。抗栓治疗可引起球后出血、脉络膜上腔出血等出血性并发症,甚至导致失明,然而中断患者的抗血栓药物可能诱发血栓形成,造成严重不良后果。但目前并没有针对应用抗血小板和抗凝药物眼科患者围手术期管理的指南。患者回顾了传统和新型抗栓药物在白内障、玻璃体视网膜、青光眼及眼眶手术前后的使用,对眼科手术围手术期各类抗血小板和抗凝药物的继续使用、中断和恢复用药提出建议,以减少出现出血性或血栓性并发症的风险。%The large majority of elderly patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery take antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs on a regular basis. Antithrombotic treatments predisposes to bleeding complications that may lead to retrobulbar haemorrhage, suprachoroidal haemorrhage and ultimately, to loss of vision. However, discontinuation of antithrombotic medication in such patients may lead to thromboembolic events with serious consequences. There are no guidelines on perioperative management of ophthalmic patients who are on antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. We reviewed traditional and newer agents in the context of cataract, vitreoretinal, glaucoma and oculoplastic surgery. Recommendations are given for continuation, cessation and recommencement of these agents in order to minimise the risk of bleeding and thrombotic complications.

  17. Effect of Zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel on HSV-Ⅰ herpes Simplex Keratitis%莪术油眼用凝胶对HSV-Ⅰ单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔友; 刘敏; 姜程曦

    2011-01-01

    objective: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel on herpes simplex keratitis.Methods: By heroes simplex keratitis infection was established to observe the in vivio anti -viral effects of zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel,ACV and normal saline for 10 days respectively,and the effects were studied through the observation of the rabbit corneas by slit - lamp exam ination after dyeing flouresce in - natrium.Results: Compared with model group ,both zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel and ACV significantly reduced severity of HSV - Ⅰ dendritic Keratitis,shortened healing time of HSK.There was no statistical significance between zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel and ACV ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion: Zedoary oil Ophthalmic Gel has evident effects on HSK,it can be developed as a new drug for HSK.%目的:考察莪术油眼用凝胶对家兔单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎的治疗.方法:采用单纯性疱疹病毒HSV-Ⅰ感染家兔角膜,建立体内病毒感染模型,家兔分别用莪术油眼用凝胶、阿昔洛韦、生理盐水治疗10天,眼角膜每天经荧光素钠染色后,裂隙灯观察药物对家兔病毒性角膜炎模型的治疗作用.结果:与模型组相比,莪术油眼用凝胶和阿昔洛韦组均能有效地治疗单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎,减轻角膜病变程度,缩短平均治愈时间,其疗效与阿昔洛韦组相似(P>0.05).结论莪术油眼用凝胶对单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎有明显的治疗作用.

  18. Acanthamoeba encystment: multifactorial effects of buffers, biocides, and demulcents present in contact lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs CJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J Kovacs, Shawn C Lynch, Marjorie J Rah, Kimberly A Millard, Timothy W Morris Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: To determine whether agents which are purportedly capable of inducing encystment of Acanthamoeba can recapitulate the signal when tested in differing formulations. Methods: In accordance with the International Standard ISO 19045, Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50370 trophozoites were cultured in antibiotic-free axenic medium, treated with test solutions, and encystment rates plus viability were measured via bright field and fluorescent microscopy. Test solutions included phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, borate-buffered saline, biguanide- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-based biocides, propylene glycol (PG and povidone (POV ophthalmic demulcents, and one-step H2O2-based contact lens disinfection systems. Results: Only PBS solutions with 0.25 ppm polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB and increasing concentrations of PG and POV stimulated A. castellanii encystment in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PBS solutions containing 3% H2O2 and increasing concentrations of PG and POV did not stimulate encystment. Borate-buffered saline and PBS/citrate solutions containing PG also did not stimulate encystment. In addition, no encystment was observed after 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days of exposures of trophozoites to one-step H2O2 contact lens disinfection products or related solutions. Conclusion: The lack of any encystment observed when trophozoites were treated with existing or new one-step H2O2 contact lens care products, as well as when trophozoites were exposed to various related test solutions, confirms that Acanthamoeba encystment is a complex process which depends upon simultaneous contributions of multiple factors including buffers, biocides, and demulcents. Keywords: propylene glycol, contact lens care system, hydrogen peroxide disinfecting solution

  19. Manifestações oftalmológicas de carcinoma neuroendócrino: relato de caso Ophthalmic manifestations of neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Paula Miranda Aguiar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatar o caso de um paciente de 43 anos com metástase de carcinoma neuroendócrino intracraniana e intra-orbitária, cujas primeiras manifestações foram oftalmológicas. Relato de caso. Remissão temporária do quadro clínico após um ciclo de quimioterapia. A análise histopatológica e a imuno-histoquímica foram sugestivas de carcinoma neuroendócrino. A regressão das manifestações clínicas após quimioterapia e o óbito posterior aos ciclos de quimioterapia nos faz pensar na necessidade da criação de protocolos de tratamento para essa forma de neoplasia, levando em consideração, fatores locais e/ou sistêmicos.Ophthalmic manifestations of neuroendocrine carcinoma. This case report describes the clinical apresentation, diagnosis and treatment of a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 43-year-old man presented with ocular manifestation due to orbital and brain metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. The histopatologic and imunohistochemical analysis suggested the diagnosis. Partial and temporary remission of the symptoms occurred after the first chemotherapy cycle. We discuss the importance of creating treatment guidelines for this type of neoplasm, that can be very agressive and fatal.

  20. Research on knowledge dimension of ophthalmic chief resident%眼科住院总医师应具备的学科知识维度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海生

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ophthalmological consultation diseases in the duration of 1 year ophthalmic chief resident training,to identify the breadth and depth of knowledge an ophthalnic chief resident should have.Methods A retrospective analysis of ophthalmological consultation patients in the past 1 year,to identify proportion of the source department and constituent ratio of ophthalmologic consultation disease in top five sections,top five eye diseases and to understand five special consultation need routine ophthalmology examination which an ophthalmic chief resident should be confronted with.Results Among 25 departments which request ophthalmic consultation,the top five closely related sections were the Department of Endocrinology (452 cases,20.9%),Department of ENT (296 cases,14.5%),Department of Cardiology (194 cases,9.5%),Neurological department of internal medicine (154 cases,7.6%) and Department of gerontology (144 cases,7.1%).Among 32 ophthalmologic consultation diseases,clearly the top five diseases were cataract (630 cases,30.9%),refractive error (368 cases,18.1%),diabetic retinopathy (222 cases,10.9%),conjunctivitis (154 cases,7.6%),glaucoma (66 cases,3.2%) and pregnancy induced hypertension retinopathy (66 cases,3.2%).With the development of new technology and the new situation and the doctor's self-protection awareness,five special consultation circumstances were Department of ENT preoperative routine ophthalmology examination (196 cases,9.6%),further clarify the diagnosis of traumatic optic neuropathy (26 cases,1.28%),Department of Hematology pre-transplantation of stem cell ophthalmologic routine examination (22 cases,1.08%),glaucoma excluded before the atropine experiment checking (20 cases,0.98%) and cornea K-F ring further examination (16 cases,0.79%).Conclusion Ophthalmology-related consultation departments are widely distributed,involving more sorts of eye disease,and part of the consultation needs an eye

  1. Fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for detecting endotoxin contamination in ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Moinuddin; Ilev, Ilko

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Devices (OVDs) in clinical setting are a major health risk factor for potential endotoxin contamination in the eye, due to their extensive applications in cataract surgery for space creation, stabilization and protection of intraocular tissue and intraocular lens (IOL) during implantation. Endotoxin contamination of OVDs is implicated in toxic anterior syndrome (TASS), a severe complication of cataract surgery that leads to intraocular damage and even blindness. Current standard methods for endotoxin contamination detection utilize rabbit assay or Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assays. These endotoxin detection strategies are extremely difficult for gel-like type devices such as OVDs. To overcome the endotoxin detection limitations in OVDs, we have developed an alternative optical detection methodology for label-free and real-time sensing of bacterial endotoxin in OVDs, based on fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) transmission spectrometry in the mid-IR spectral range from 2.5 micron to 12 micron. Endotoxin contaminated OVD test samples were prepared by serial dilutions of endotoxins on OVDs. The major results of this study revealed two salient spectral peak shifts (in the regions 2925 to 2890 cm^-1 and 1125 to 1100 cm^-1), which are associated with endotoxin in OVDs. In addition, FO-FTIR experimental results processed using a multivariate analysis confirmed the observed specific peak shifts associated with endotoxin contamination in OVDs. Thus, employing the FO-FTIR sensing methodology integrated with a multivariate analysis could potentially be used as an alternative endotoxin detection technique in OVD.

  2. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer; Estudo e desenvolvimento de uma semente de iridio-192 para aplicacao em cancer oftalmico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio Rodrigues de

    2013-07-01

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  3. Clinical profile, evaluation, management and visual outcome of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a neuro-ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary referral ophthalmic center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To discuss the clinical features and management of patients who presented with optic disc edema and had features of presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. Materials and Methods: Case series of all patients diagnosed to have IIH from January 2000 to December 2003 in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary referral ophthalmic institution, were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis was done for 50/106 patients who fulfilled modified Dandy′s criteria and had optic disc edema and a minimal follow-up period of two years. Results: Most (40/50, 80% of the patients were females and the mean age of presentation for all the 50 patients was 32.89 years. Chief complaints were headache in 38 (76% patients, 24 (48% patients had transient visual obscuration, 24 (48% patients had reduced vision, 15 (30% patients had nausea, vomiting, 4 (8% patients had diplopia. Bilateral disc edema was seen in 46 (92% patients and unilateral disc edema in 4 (8% patients. 60 eyes had enlarged blind spot as the common visual field defect. Neuroimaging revealed prominent perioptic CSF spaces in 14 patients and empty sella in three patients. CSF opening pressure was 250-350 mm H2O (water in 39 patients and was > 350 mm H2O in 11 patients. Medical treatment was started for all patients; whereas 35 [70%] patients responded, 15 [30%] patients had to undergo LP shunt.

  4. Development of a non-settling gel formulation of 0.5% loteprednol etabonate for anti-inflammatory use as an ophthalmic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Martin J; Decory, Heleen H; Lane, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The eye has protective barriers (ie, the conjunctival and corneal membranes) and defense mechanisms (ie, reflex tearing, blinking, lacrimal drainage) which present challenges to topical drug delivery. Topical ocular corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of anterior segment diseases and inflammation associated with ocular surgery, and manufacturers continually strive to improve their characteristics. We describe the development of a novel ophthalmic gel formulation of loteprednol etabonate (LE), a C-20 ester-based corticosteroid with an established safety profile, in the treatment of ocular inflammatory conditions. The new LE gel formulation is non-settling, eliminating the need to shake the product to resuspend the drug, has a pH close to that of tears, and a low preservative concentration. The rheological characteristics of LE gel are such that the formulation is instilled as a drop and transitions to a fluid upon instillation in the eye, yet retains sufficient viscosity to prolong ocular surface retention. The new formulation provides consistent, uniform dosing as evidenced by dose extrusion studies, while pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits demonstrated rapid and sustained exposure to LE in ocular tissues following instillation of LE gel. Finally, results from two clinical studies of LE gel in the treatment of postoperative inflammation and pain following cataract surgery indicate that it was safe and effective. Most patients reported no unpleasant drop sensation upon instillation, and reports of blurred vision were rare. PMID:23430378

  5. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  6. PFP solution stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage

  7. Microdialysis Procedure to Investigate the Extent of Neutralization of Palliative Calcium Gluconate Following Ophthalmic Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navpreet Pandher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance and validity of the microdialysis system in a time based calibration of the fluoride ion permeation inside the sheep eye following hydrofluoric acid burn was tested. The HF diffusion was measured in microdialysate samples after exposure to 0.15 ml of acid followed by neutralization with calcium gluconate formulations. The in vitro and in situ probe calibration and integrity test were performed. Methods: The stability of 10 BAS microdialysis probes was tested with 0.05 M HF by calculating the in vitro probe recovery. The effect of flow rate variation on recovery of fluoride ions was evaluated by performing an in vitro study for 0.01 M HF, with a constant sample volume of 40 μl at flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μl/min. The in situ probe calibration was performed on the aqueous and vitreous humor samples of the sheep eye, which could provide the baseline fluoride concentrations required for the calcium gluconate therapy. Two different formulations, solution (2.5% and 5.0% w/v calcium gluconate and the 3% HPMC gel containing 2.5% w/v calcium gluconate were subjected to neutralization potential study. Results: The BAS probe was accurate and stable with a CV of 0.44-2.45%. A flow rate of 4.0 μl/min can be used for fluoride permeation study. The results showed that the MD probe is capable of dialyzing the acid without interacting with the probe. The in situ testing showed that the HPMC based calcium gluconate formulation showed longer residence time compared to the solution form. Conclusions: The microdialysis technique can be used to ascertain the fluoride ions penetrating in the HF-burnt eyes. The increase in amount of calcium ions available on eye surface, increases the free acid neutralization; the gel preparation being better than the solution of same concentration.

  8. Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tscheliessnig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.

  9. Solution to manufacturing execution system; MES solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H.; Kato, T.; Tanaka, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    In structuring supply chain management (SCM) in the manufacturing industry, the role of the manufacturing execution system (MES) is very important. In the region of SCM and enterprise resource planning (ERP), even if an optimum system is planned and supply chain planning (SCP) software is actually introduced, only a limited SCM effect can be expected. Fuji Electric has integrated long-cultivated manufacturing know-how into the solution to the MES with an intention to structure manufacturing-field-oriented SCM by linking solutions to SCM, ERP and logistics. (author)

  10. Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol®) administered two times daily for managing ocular inflammation and pain following cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen; Lorenz, Douglas; Peace, James; McLeod, Kimberly; Crockett, RS; Vogel, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of twice-daily difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol®) versus placebo administered before surgery for managing inflammation and pain following cataract extraction. Methods: Eligible subjects (N = 121) were randomized 2:1 to topical treatment with 1 drop difluprednate or placebo administered twice daily for 16 days, followed by a 14-day tapering period. Dosing was initiated 24 hours before unilateral ocular surgery. Clinical signs of inflammation (anterior chamber [AC] cell and flare grade, bulbar conjunctival injection, ciliary injection, corneal edema, and chemosis), ocular pain/discomfort, intraocular pressure (IOP), and adverse events were assessed. Results: Clearing of inflammation on day 14 (primary endpoint), defined as an AC cell grade of 0 (≤5 cells) and a flare grade of 0 (complete absence), was achieved in a significantly greater percentage of subjects treated with difluprednate, compared with placebo (74.7% vs 42.5%; P = 0.0006). A significantly greater percentage of difluprednate-treated subjects were free of ocular pain/discomfort on day 14 than placebo-treated subjects (64.6% vs 30.0%; P = 0.0004). Three subjects (3.7%) in the difluprednate group had a clinically significant IOP rise (defined as ≥21 mmHg and a change from baseline ≥10 mmHg at same visit). Conclusions: Difluprednate, administered 2 times daily starting 24 hours before cataract surgery, was highly effective for managing ocular inflammation and relieving pain and discomfort postoperatively. Difluprednate was well tolerated and provides a convenient twice-daily option for managing postoperative ocular inflammation. PMID:20856594

  11. Development of a non-settling gel formulation of 0.5% loteprednol etabonate for anti-inflammatory use as an ophthalmic drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin J Coffey,1 Heleen H DeCory,2 Stephen S Lane31Pharmaceutical Product Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USA; 3Associated Eye Care, Stillwater, MN, USAAbstract: The eye has protective barriers (ie, the conjunctival and corneal membranes and defense mechanisms (ie, reflex tearing, blinking, lacrimal drainage which present challenges to topical drug delivery. Topical ocular corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of anterior segment diseases and inflammation associated with ocular surgery, and manufacturers continually strive to improve their characteristics. We describe the development of a novel ophthalmic gel formulation of loteprednol etabonate (LE, a C-20 ester-based corticosteroid with an established safety profile, in the treatment of ocular inflammatory conditions. The new LE gel formulation is non-settling, eliminating the need to shake the product to resuspend the drug, has a pH close to that of tears, and a low preservative concentration. The rheological characteristics of LE gel are such that the formulation is instilled as a drop and transitions to a fluid upon instillation in the eye, yet retains sufficient viscosity to prolong ocular surface retention. The new formulation provides consistent, uniform dosing as evidenced by dose extrusion studies, while pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits demonstrated rapid and sustained exposure to LE in ocular tissues following instillation of LE gel. Finally, results from two clinical studies of LE gel in the treatment of postoperative inflammation and pain following cataract surgery indicate that it was safe and effective. Most patients reported no unpleasant drop sensation upon instillation, and reports of blurred vision were rare.Keywords: loteprednol etabonate, gel, drug delivery, clinical trial, ocular surface

  12. Analysis of drug use for ophthalmic diseases in our hospital from 2011 to 2012%我院2011~2012年眼科外用药使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫红; 王娟

    2013-01-01

    目的统计分析眼科外用药的使用特点及应用趋势。方法对我院2011~2012年眼科外用药的销售金额、数量进行统计和分析。结果眼科外用药种类较多,激素及非甾体类抗炎用药和抗生素类滴眼剂使用数量占据前2位,角膜损伤用药及青光眼、降眼压用药使用数量也较大,双氯芬酸钠滴眼液和左氧氟沙星滴眼液效果显著,价格适中,其销售数量和销售金额都排在前3位。结论我院眼科使用的外用药品种基本没有变化,但用量增长较快,青光眼及降眼压药和结膜炎用药使用数量增长较快,总体眼科外用药品使用基本合理。%Objective To investigate the current situation and developing trend in the use of ophthalmic drugs ,and to provide a reference for clinical rational drug use .Methods The utilization of ophthalmic drugs in our hospital from 2011 to 2012 was ana-lyzed statistically in aspect of amount of drugs consumption sum etc .Results In our hospital ,the use quantity of steroids ,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotic eye drops occupies the first place .The amount of corneal damage repair drugs and anti-glaucoma and ocular hypotensive drugs was also large ;because of the significant effect ,moderate price ,the quantity and the sales amount of diclofenac sodium eye drops and levofloxacin eye drops were ranked in the top three .Conclusion Although the numbers of varieties of ophthalmic drugs in our hospital were basically no change ,the sales volume increased .The consumption sum of anti-glaucoma and ocular hypotensive drugs and conjunctivitis drugs increased rapidly .The utilization of ophthalmic drugs in our hospital is basically rational .

  13. Solutions to Organizational Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    Organizations face all kinds of paradoxical problems. There exist various solutions to organizational paradoxes. We develop a typology that lists nine possible logical approaches to understanding the relationship between paradoxical opposites, out of which we identify five types of solutions...... to organizational paradox. Four of the five solutions are explicitly associated with four prominent philosophies. We show the relevance of the five solutions to the real world by applying our scheme to understand different solutions to the generic strategy paradox. Finally, we address the question whether...... there is a superior solution and point out the paradox of paradox resolving, namely, paradoxes cannot be resolved once for all and we have to live with them....

  14. Mobile Backhaul Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mo; Fei Yuan; Jian Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of mobile backhaul solutions and propose an MPLS-centered solution that takes intoaccount timing synchronization, OAM, and protection: We also propose an evolved protection bandwidth allocation mechanism that makes the transport network as efficient as possible.

  15. Another exact inflationary solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, A T; Kruger, Adam T.; Norbury, John W.

    2000-01-01

    A new closed-form inflationary solution is given for a hyperbolic interaction potential. The method used to arrive at this solution is outlined as it appears possible to generate additional sets of equations which satisfy the model. In addition a new form of decaying cosmological constant is presented.

  16. Solution structure of (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A B; LaMarche, M J; Falcone-Hindley, M

    2001-03-01

    [structure: see text]. The solution structure of (+)-discodermolide (1) has been determined via 1- and 2-D NMR techniques in conjunction with Monte Carlo conformational analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrate that in solution (+)-discodermolide occupies a helical conformation remarkably similar to the solid state conformation.

  17. Solvent wash solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  18. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references

  19. Hindlimb Suspension as a Model to Study Ophthalmic Complications in Microgravity Status Report: Optimization of Rat Retina Flat Mounts Staining to Study Vascular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Corey A.; Zanello, Susana B.

    2014-01-01

    Unmixing method and allows us to remove the autofluorescence originating from the photoreceptor layer. In summary, we have an improved method for studying the retinal microvasculature that will provide an increase in the quality of images captured and will be applied throughout the various animal cohorts of the recentlyinitiated study that will evaluate rodent HS as a model to study ophthalmic complications in microgravity.

  20. An evaluation of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in the management of tear film stability and ocular surface staining in patients diagnosed with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler III G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available George Ousler III,1 Douglas K Devries,2 Paul M Karpecki,3 Joseph B Ciolino41Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Eye Care Associates of Nevada, Sparks, NV, USA; 3Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 4Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A single-center, open-label study consisting of two visits over the course of approximately 2 weeks was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in improving the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Forty-two subjects were enrolled and received 1–2 drops twice daily of Retaine™ beginning at the first visit (day 1 and ending at the second visit. Subjects were instructed to complete a symptomatology diary twice daily prior to drop instillation through the morning of the second visit. Ocular sign and symptom assessments, visual acuity procedures, and comfort assessments were conducted during both visits. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean breakup area on the second visit between the predose time and the postdose time (P=0.026. On the second visit, subjects had significantly less corneal fluorescein staining in the superior (P=0.002, central (P=0.017, corneal sum (P=0.011, and all ocular regions combined (P=0.038 than on the first visit. On the second visit, statistically significant reductions in dryness (P<0.001, grittiness (P=0.0217, ocular discomfort (P=0.0017, and all symptoms (P<0.001 were also seen as measured by the Ora Calibra™ Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire (0–5 scale. Subjects reported a statistically significant improvement in their abilities to work with a computer at night (P=0.044. Mean drop comfort scores ranged from 1.29–1.81 on the Ora Calibra™ 0–10 Drop Comfort Scale, on which 0 is very comfortable and 10 is very uncomfortable. Retaine™ demonstrates promising results as a novel artificial tear option for individuals suffering from dry eye. The unique mechanism of action of Retaine™ provides enhanced comfort