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Sample records for bromelia tillandsia usneoides

  1. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

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    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  2. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  3. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

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    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  4. Quality study of the air at Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) as biomonitor; Estudo da qualidade do ar na regiao de Sepetiba usando Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) como biomonitor

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    Pitassi, Gabriel Quadros; Julianelli, Olivia B.; Oliveira, Antonio Roberto Barboza de; Leite, Carlos Barros [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da, E-mail: kenya@ird.gov.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Luana; Medeiros, Geisa [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper studies the utilization of the bromelia specie Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) for characterization of the particle dispersion at urban and industrial regions. As a case study, a program will be developed for the monitoring the aerosols generated due to action of weather on the solid waste open sky stored and over the waste basin belonging to the INGA, located at Sepetiba bay. The identification of the stable metals will be done by the PIXE technique, and the radionuclides identification by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The preliminary results of aerosol samples collected at Ilha da Madeira region indicate the presence of particles containing Cd, V, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cu, Co and S. The variation in the percentage of each element at the points of collection suggests that there exist more than one aerosol source at the region

  5. Alterations to throughfall water and solute flux by Tillandsias usneoides L. (Spanish moss) cover in a maritime live oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, T. E.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Reichard, J. S.; Moore, L. D.; Lewis, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Alterations to forest canopy structures can have a direct effect on hydrological and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. Epiphytes act as additional canopy biomass intercepting water, effecting pathways under different micrometeorological conditions and alternating nutrient uptake/releases. Most studies on epiphyte cover have focused on non-vascular epiphytes (e.g., lichen and bryophyte mosses), leaving vascular epiphytes like Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) relatively understudied. To fill this gap, we characterized alterations to throughfall water and dissolved ion enrichment/flux to soils by T. usneoides in a Quercus Virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) stand on St. Catherine's Island. Specifically, we compare throughfall generated from heavy T. usneoides coverage, bare canopy, and a continuum of T. usneoides cover percentages (~400 water & 210 chemistry observations over ~40 storms for each canopy cover category). Findings show T.usneoides acts as a significant water storage agent, significantly reducing throughfall. However, under certain meteorological conditions T. usneoides can become saturated and act as a funneling "hotspot." Tillandsia usneoides coverage enriched throughfall with primarily dry deposited ions (Na+,Cl-, SO42-, Li+), leached greater Mg2+, Ca2+, reduced NO3- and increased NH4+ concentrations. Dry deposited ion enrichment is likely a result of the moss' greater surface roughness. It has been shown that epiphytes prefer to leach Mg2+ and Ca2+. Increased NH4+ suggests that the saturated T. usneoides mat likely hosts microbial decomposition of leaf, branch, and bark biomass ensnared in the plant itself. K-means cluster analysis on the storms revealed 4 storm types of the differing meteorological conditions (windy/calm, dry/wet [high/low VPD], high/low intensity, intermittent/consistent), and these throughfall dynamics varied between these storm types. Discussion of future research questions regarding how these throughfall

  6. Invertebrados acuáticos asociados a la Bromelia Tillandsia turneri Baker. en un bosque altoandino

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    Ospina María Fabiola

    2000-12-01

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    Las bromelias como plantas fitotelmas mantienen una compleja cadena trófica que incluye invertebrados asociados a depósitos de agua. Se determinó la comunidad de invertebrados acuáticos de la bromelia Tillandsia turneri en un bosque altoandino en el Municipio de Chocontá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se estudiaron 37 individuos de la bromelia ubicadas desde 0 hasta 6 m de altura, a las cuales se realizaron mediciones morfológicas, de contenido de agua y análisis fisicoquímico de esta y se colectaron los invertebrados asociados. Los órdenes mas abundantes fueron Coleóptera, Díptera y Cladócera; por medio de un análisis de similaridad de Morisita Horn se encontró que las bromelias son similares en cuanto a composición de invertebrados, por lo que se sugiere que pertenecen a un solo estrato dentro del bosque y que los procesos de ovoposición y dispersión para los grupos estudiados tienen igual probabilidad de ocurrir en las bromelias ubicadas de 0 a 6 m de altura.

  7. [CAM in Tillandsia usneoides: Studies on the pathway of carbon and the dependency of CO2-exchange on light intensity, temperature and water content of the plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, M; Lange, O L; Eichmann, M V; Schmid, R

    1973-12-01

    Tillandsia usneoides, in the common sense a non-succulent plant, exhibits CO2 exchange characterized by net CO2 dark fixation during the night and depression of CO2 exchange during the day. Malate has been demonstrated to accumulate during CO2 dark fixation and to be converted to carbohydrates in light. Thus, T. usneoides exhibits CAM like typical succulents.Net CO2 uptake during the day is increased with net CO2 output being suppressed in duration of time and extent when light intensity increases. Furthermore, a slight increase in CO2 fixation during the following night can be observed if the plants were treated with high light intensity during the previous day.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM are obtained if T. usneoides is kept at 15°C and 20°C. Lower temperature tend to increase CO2 uptake during the day and to inhibit CO2 dark fixation. Temperatures higher than 20°C favour loss of CO2 by respiration, which becomes apparent during the whole day and night at 30°C and higher temperatures. Thus, T. usneoides gains carbon only at temperatures well below 25°C.Net CO2 uptake during the day occurs only in moist plant material and is inhibited in plants cept under water stress conditions. However, CO2 uptake during the night is clearly favoured if the plants dry out. Therefore dry plants gain more carbon than moist ones.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM were also obtained with 13 other species of the genus Tillandsia.The exhibition of CAM by the non-succulent T. usneoides calls for a new definition of the term "succulence" if it is to remain useful in characterizing this metabolic pathway. Because CO2-fixing cells of T. usneoides possess relatively large vacuoles and are relatively poor in chloroplasts, they resembles the assimilatory cells of typical CAM-exhibiting succulents. Therefore, if "succulence" only means the capacity of big vacuoles to store malate, the assimilatory cells in T. usneoides are succulent. It seems to be useful to investigate

  8. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

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    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  9. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

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    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  10. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues.

  11. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  12. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  13. Bromelia reageert vooral op gemiddelde temperatuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.

    2005-01-01

    Met koudeperioden na de bloei-inductie is het mogelijk energie te besparen bij bromelia. De teeltduur wordt daardoor echter langer. De toepassing van koudeperiodes wordt in de praktijk beperkt door de bloeibehandeling

  14. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: The three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspiration to evaluate Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia taxa with three pinnate inflorescences for the Peruvian flora. Tillandsia extensa characteristics are clarified, confirming its distribution for northeastern Peru, and recognizing a specimen, previously considered being the second record for this species, as T. platyphylla.

  15. Belichting bromelia: het optimum verschilt per soort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Het afstemmen van de hoeveelheid assimilatiebelichting en bemesting in de teelt van bromelia's is vakwerk. Extra mest en licht is beter, maar er is een optimum; een plant kan ook te veel mest en licht ontvangen. Voor bepaling van een aangepast teeltrecept is vervolgonderzoek nodig

  16. Optimalisatie belichting en bemesting bij Bromelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2010-01-01

    Als vervolg op onderzoek uit 2007-2008 waaruit de optimale belichtingsniveaus in combinatie met voeding voor drie verschillende Bromelia waren vastgesteld, is tussen september 2008 en december 2009 in twee parallel lopende proeven verder gewerkt aan optimalisatie van bemesting in combinatie met beli

  17. Bromelia: Effect belichten voor meeste soorten positief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Onderzoek leert dat voor een aantal soorten belichting in meerdere aspecten loont: meer groei, een kortere teelt, een grotere bloeiwijze met meer vertakkingen en een verbetering van de houdbaarheid. Voor een deel van de onderzochte Vriesea’s en voor de onderzochte Tillandsia blijft het voordeel van

  18. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  19. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  20. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  1. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog drip or occult precipitation can result in negative interception because small drops are deposited on all plant surfaces and subsequently fall to the ground once vegetation storage capacities are exceeded. Fog drip is normally disregarded, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions through applying simulated rain or fog. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543±77 vs. 325±56 mg, p=0.048. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.54 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. T. recurvata contributed 20% to the rain interception of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata. Meteorological data registered during one year at Cadereyta, México showed that radiative fog formation was possible during the dry season. The results showed the potential role of T. recurvata in capturing fog, which probably is a main source of water during the dry season that supports their reproductive and physiological activity at that time. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be

  2. 特殊植物类群空气凤梨对大气污染物甲醛的净化%Purification of air pollutant-formaldehyde with special plant group-epiphytic Tillandsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊霖; 李鹏; 王恒蓉; 郑桂灵

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic Tillandsia species uptake nutrients and moistures directly from the atmosphere, so they are often used for monitoring atmospheric heavy metal pollutants and organic pollutants, but have not been applied to the study of purifying formaldehyde yet. Two species of Tillandsia, i. e. T. usneoides and T. stricta, as well as Chlorophytum malayense, were exploited to test their ability of removing formaldehyde under two different conditions, i. e. sealed glass boxes and closed laboratory. Although the morphology and physiology of these plants had some changes, no obvius damages were suffered under formaldehyde stress. After 6-8 hours of purification with three plants, two species of Tillandsia achieved similar results with Chlorophytum. However, the speed that Tillandsia purifying formaldehyde was much higher than Chlorophytum within first 2 hours, which may due to the existence of the foliar hydrophilic trichomes on the leave surface of Tillandsia. The above results suggested that Tillandsia could purify formaldehyde more rapidly and efficiently than Chlorophytum, and it could be applied to remove indoor formaldehyde pollutant.%空气凤梨是一类生长在空气中、不需要土壤、生长所需的水分和营养可以全部来自空气的特殊植物.它们常被用来指示与修复大气重金属污染物和有机污染物,但尚未应用于甲醛净化研究.为了探讨空气凤梨对甲醛的净化效果,我们以2种空气凤梨为实验材料,吊兰为对照材料,通过密封箱内甲醛熏蒸及在封闭的实际环境中进行了实验.结果表明,松萝铁兰、硬叶空凤和吊兰3种植物在甲醛胁迫下,外部形态和生理指标有一定的变化,但未受到明显的伤害.更重要的是,3种植物对甲醛均有相当强的净化作用.6~8h后,2种空气凤梨对甲醛的净化可达到与吊兰相近的效果.而在2h内,空气凤梨净化甲醛的速度远远大于吊兰,这可能是与空气凤梨叶片表面覆盖有亲水性

  3. Reinvestigation of the proteolytically active components of Bromelia pinguin fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Natalucci, Claudia L; Caffini, Néstor O

    2005-09-01

    Pinguinain is the name given to a proteolytic enzyme preparation obtained from Bromelia pinguin fruits that has been scarcely studied. The present paper deals on the reexamination of the proteases present in fruits of B. pinguin grown in Cienfuegos, Cuba. The preparation (partially purified pinguinain, PPP) showed the main characteristics of the cysteine proteases, i.e., optimum pH within alkaline range (pH 7.2-8.8), inhibition of proteolytic activity by thiol blocking reagents, which is usually reverted by addition of cysteine, a remarkable thermal stability and notable stability at high ionic strength values. Isoelectric focusing and zymogram of PPP revealed the presence of several proteolytic components between pI 4.6 and 8.1. Preliminary peptidase purification by cationic exchange chromatography showed the presence of two main proteolytic fractions with molecular masses of approximately 20.0 kDa, according to SDS-PAGE.

  4. The effect of Bromelia pinguin extract on the pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matadial, L; West, M E; Gossell-Williams, M; The, T L

    1999-12-01

    A non proteinaceous extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit was examined for activity on the rat uterus in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo experiments involved pregnant rats given the extract intraperitoneally. These rats did not abort nor were any foetal deformities observed. The extract inhibited spontaneous activity of the pregnant rat uterus in vitro. These results do not support the claimed folklore use of the plant as an abortifacient. The extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit may have some utero-active compound which inhibits uterine motility.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bromelia hieronymi: comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-03-01

    Some plant proteases (e. g., papain, bromelain, ficin) have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, and especially bromelain is still being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. Bromelain is an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus. In this study the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract of Bromelia hieronymi fruits, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases, is presented. Different doses of a partially purified extract of B. hieronymi were assayed on carrageenan-induced and serotonine-induced rat paw edema, as well as in cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of the partially purified extract and bromelain showed significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses. Treatment of the partially purified extract and bromelain with E-64 provoked loss of anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, a fact which is consistent with the hypothesis that the proteolytic activity would be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action.

  6. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  7. Toepassing assimilatiebelichting bij Bromelia: belichtingsniveau en belichtingsduur in relatie tot voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2008-01-01

    Tussen september 2007 en april 2008 is een teeltonderzoek uitgevoerd bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk teneinde meer kennis te verkrijgen over de optimale belichtingniveaus en belichtingduur bij Bromelia, in interactie met de voeding EC. Voor de proef is belichting geïnstalleerd met oplope

  8. Supplementary light and higher fertigation EC in the cultivation of bromelia improve quality and accelerate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In order to provide Bromelia growers with lacking information about optimal levels of supplementary light and nutrient EC, two consecutive greenhouse experiments were conducted by Wageningen UR Glasshouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk (The Netherlands). In the first experiment a light intensit

  9. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  10. Tillandsia recurvata L. (Bromeliaceae: aspectos farmacognósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lucena de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura superior das florestas tropicais, formada pelas copas das árvores, constitui um ambiente de extrema diversidade vegetal. Contribuindo com a grande riqueza dessas florestas encontram-se as espécies botânicas epífitas, cuja importância pode ser observada do ponto de vista ecológico, faunístico, etnobotânico e até mesmo farmacológico. Dentre as espécies adaptadas à vida epifítica podemos citar as bromeliáceas, que compõem uma das famílias mais representativas dessa flora com elevada variabilidade genética. Tillandsia recurvata é uma espécie epífita cosmopolita, nativa, adaptada a habitats áridos, utilizada para o tratamento de diversas doenças, mas pouco se tem publicado a respeito das comprovações científicas de suas propriedades. O presente trabalho revisa os aspectos etnofarmacológicos, atividades biológicas e compostos químicos relacionados à espécie em questão, pertencente à Bromeliaceae. A partir do levantamento de dados realizado, observa-se que esta se trata de uma espécie de conhecido uso popular no tratamento de diferentes distúrbios, com alguns estudos farmacológicos que comprovam suas propriedades terapêuticas. Do ponto de vista químico observa-se a presença de terpenos, flavonoides e derivados cinâmicos em sua constituição, em que alguns compostos isolados ilustram a potencialidade desta espécie como fonte de biomoléculas de interesse. Todos estes aspectos considerados nesta revisão contribuem para o conhecimento a respeito da importância biológica e o potencial terapêutico acerca dos metabólitos desta promissora espécie.

  11. A VALID NAME FOR THE TAXON KNOWN AS TILLANDSIA BRYOIDES AUCT. (BROMELIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Donadío

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia bryoides fue incluida en la sinonimia de T. tricholepis porque todos los elementos del lectotipo (P. Lorentz 128, BM pertenecen a esta última especie. Sin embargo, se observaron en el campo, en distintos herbarios y en diversas publicaciones, materiales que fueron previamente considerados como T. bryoides y que en realidad corresponden a una nueva especie de Tillandsia subgen. Diaphoranthema. Esta nueva especie tiene flores solitarias, sésiles, amarillas y una bráctea floral glabra, y crece en el centro de Perú, en Bolivia, y en el centro y noroeste de Argentina. En este trabajo se establece un nombre válido para esta especie, junto con una ilustración detallada, datos de distribución, y una discusión de sus relaciones con las especies morfológicamente más afines.

  12. It takes two to tango: self incompatibility in the bromeliad Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ramírez Morillo, Ivón; Chi May, Francisco; Carnevali, Germán; May Pat, Filogonio

    2008-01-01

    Floral phenology and breeding system of Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) were studied in a low inundated forest in Yucatan, Mexico. During the flowering season, from March to August, terminal scapose 1-branched, paniculate inflorescences are produced with one flower per branch opening per day, over a period of 11-29 days. Flowers are tubular, light violet, with the stigma placed below the anthers, both protruding above the corolla. Flowers are protandrous, with anthers releasing pollen...

  13. Properties of a milk clotting protease isolated from fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Caffini, N O; Natalucci, C L

    2001-05-01

    Unripe fruit extracts of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae), whose principal endopeptidase is balansain I (isolated for anion exchange chromatography: pI = 5.45, molecular weight = 23192), exhibit a pH profile with a maximum activity around pH 9.0 and are inhibited only by cysteine peptidases inhibitors. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters were strongly preferred by the enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis of milk and soy proteins yield characteristic patterns at pH 9.0. The N-terminal sequence showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  14. Hemisphaericin-D, a dialysable and polymerizable protease found in Bromelia hemisphaerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agundis, C; Reyes, M; Córdoba, F

    1977-07-15

    Proteolytic activity was detected outside dialysis bag filled with Bromelia hemisphaerica fruit juice. The dialysable protease was concentrated and purified from small molecular weight contaminants on Sephadex G-10 columns. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the dialysable protease, in the presence of SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol, demonstrated a single protein band of about 8000 daltons mol. wt. The same single band with identical mobility was shown with Hemisphaericin, the enzyme retained inside the dialysis bag. The small protease, named Hemisphaericin-D was antigenic in rabbits and the antibodies cross-reacted fully with Hemisphaericin. Hemisphaericin-D appears not to be a degradation product of Hemisphaericin.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of Bromelia hemisphaerica protease by affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, N; Agundis, C; Córdoba, F

    1987-01-01

    Hemisphaericin, the protease from Bromelia hemisphaerica fruit juice was isolated by affinity chromatography in one step, using a mercurial sepharose derivative. The enzyme behaves as a single component in immunodifussion, immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis in the presence of SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol. Association and dissociation of active components were evidenced in electrophoresis at pH 3.6 and at pH 8.6. Immunoelectrophoresis analyses also disclosed a certain degree of internal immunological heterogeneity. The results are explained by the presence of an enzyme subunit, of about 8000 daltons, endowed with polymeric properties induced by the pH and oxidative environment.

  16. Bloeibehandeling Bromelia: Orienterend onderzoek naar mogelijkheden om: a. ongewenste spontane bloei te belemmeren b. de bloeibehandeling te verbeteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    De bloei van Bromelia wordt kunstmatig geïnduceerd met ethyleen of ethyleenachtige verbindingen. In de praktijk kunnen twee problemen optreden: spontane bloei van enkele planten uit een partij (vóórbloeiers) en onvolledige inductie van alle planten uit een partij. In dit onderzoek zijn tegen deze pr

  17. CARACTERIZAÇÃO ESTRUTURAL DA EMBRIOLOGIA EM TILLANDSIA AERANTHOS (LOIS.) L. B. SM. (TILLANDSIOIDEAE-BROMELIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliaceae possui grande diversidade de espécies na região neotropical, compreendendo cerca de 3140 espécies, sendo 551 do gênero Tillandsia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever o desenvolvimento da antera e do rudimento seminal, além da caracterização da espogênese e gametogênese, com a finalidade de auxiliar na taxonomia e filogenia da família, ainda em fase de mudança. Tillandsia aeranthos, apresenta flores com estames em número de seis e ovário súpero, tricar...

  18. The pollination of Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae) in southeastern Brazil: ornithophilous versus melittophilous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, M B F; Sazima, M

    2005-07-01

    Bromelia antiacantha flowered from December to February and during this period the central leaves and bracts displayed a bright red colour. The inflorescence bears 150-350 flowers, with 10-35 flowers opening per day over 4-5 days. The flowers are dark magenta coloured with white margins, tubular-shaped with a wide opening, and their stigma is situated below the anthers. Anthesis began around 4:00 h and flowers lasted approximately 15 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occurred between 4:00-6:00 h; after this period, both decreased throughout the day. B. antiacantha is partially self-incompatible, non-autogamous, and therefore, pollinator dependent. The hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis, Amazilia fimbriata, and Ramphodon naevius were its most frequent pollinators (55% of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the afternoon. The scattered distribution of B. antiacantha promoted trap-lining behaviour of the hummingbirds, which favoured fruit set through xenogamy. Corolla colour, wide flower opening, sweet odour and concentrated nectar early in the day favoured bee visitation. Of the 38 % of bee visits, 96% were made by Bombus morio, mainly in the morning and their behaviour promoted self-pollination. The bee Trigona spinipes frequently acted as a pollen and nectar thief early in the morning, excluding most of the hummingbirds. Bromelia antiacantha has ornithophilous and melittophilous features, and despite being pollinated by two kinds of agents, its reproductive success depends on a given set of circumstances.

  19. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  20. Plant structure predicts leaf litter capture in the tropical montane bromeliad Tillandsia turneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ospina-Bautista

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself. The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number. In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness.

  1. Proteolytic enzymes from Bromelia antiacantha as tools for controlled tissue hydrolysis in entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macció, Laura; Vallés, Diego; Cantera, Ana Maria

    2013-12-01

    A crude extract with high proteolytic activity (78.1 EU/mL), prepared from ripe fruit of Bromelia antiacantha was used to hydrolyze and remove soft tissues from the epigyne of Apopyllus iheringi. This enzymatic extract presented four actives isoforms which have a broad substrate specificity action. Enzyme action on samples was optimized after evaluation under different conditions of pH, enzyme-substrate ratio and time (parameters selected based on previous studies) of treatment (pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 at 42°C with different amount of enzyme). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate conditions resulting in complete digestion of epigyne soft tissues. Optimal conditions for soft tissue removal were 15.6 total enzyme units, pH 6.0 for 18 h at 42°C.

  2. Hieronymain I, a new cysteine peptidase isolated from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Pardo, Marcelo F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2003-02-01

    A new peptidase, named hieronymain I, was purified to homogeneity from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae) by acetone fractionation followed by cation exchange chromatography (FPLC) on CM-Sepharose FF. Homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF), isoelectric focusing, and SDS-PAGE. Hieronymain is a basic peptidase (pI > 9.3) and its molecular mass was 24,066 Da. Maximum proteolytic activity on casein (>90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 8.5-9.5. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine; these results strongly suggest that the isolated protease should be included within the cysteine group. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain (ALPESIDWRAKGAVTEVKRQDG) was compared with 25 plant cysteine proteases that showed more than 50% of identity.

  3. COMPOSIÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM FRUTOS DE Bromelia antiacantha BERTOL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA DÖRING KRUMREICH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutas e hortaliças, de forma geral, são fontes de vitaminas, sais minerais e fibras. Recentemente, tem sido verificada a presença de compostos bioativos, incluindo carotenoides, antocianinas e compostos fenólicos, para os quais pesquisas relatam ação antioxidante e potencial terapêutico. A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol., popularmente conhecida por banana-do-mato, caraguatá, gravatá, carauatá e croatá, ocorre naturalmente no Rio Grande do Sul-Brasil. Informações científicas quanto à composição nutricional e a atividade biológica para essa espécie ainda são restritas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a composição físico-química, incluindo o teor de compostos bioativos da Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. Elevado teor de lipídios (5,07 ± 0,4 %, ácido ascórbico (60,01 ± 5,04 mg.100g-1 e carotenoides (162,67 ± 36,70 mg.100g-1 foram encontrados para a espécie Bromelia antiacantha Bertol., assim como baixo teor de carboidratos (8,75%.

  4. Superação da dormência em sementes de Bromelia balansae (Bromeliaceae Overcoming seed dormancy of Bromelia balansae (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima B Coelho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da temperatura, substratos e tratamentos pré-germinativos para a superação da dormência foram avaliados na germinação de sementes de Bromelia balansae (caraguatá oriundas de frutos coletados em Chapada dos Guimarães-MT. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições de 50 sementes por parcela. No primeiro experimento as sementes foram submetidas a seis tratamentos: a 25°C e sobre papel, b 30°C e entre papel, c 25°C sobre papel, d 30°C e entre papel, e alternada 25/30°C e sobre papel e f alternada 25/30°C e entre papel. No segundo foram avaliados os pré-tratamentos: a ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 60 minutos; b ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 15 minutos; c ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 5 minutos; d escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 80 e e controle. No terceiro experimento os pré-tratamentos foram: a ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 1 minuto; b ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 3 minutos; c ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 5 minutos; d escarificação com lixa nº 80; e imersão em água a 100ºC por 15 min. e f controle. Nos dois primeiros experimentos houve baixa percentagem de germinação, com maior média de 25%. No terceiro experimento a germinação foi maior nos tratamentos com ácido sulfúrico (40% a 70%. As sementes de B. balansae apresentam dormência tegumentar que é superada com a imersão em ácido sulfúrico PA (98% por 1 minuto.The effects of temperature and substrates and different methods to overcome dormancy of Bromelia balansae (caraguatá seeds were evaluated. The fruits were collected on Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications of 50 seeds for each sample. On the first experiment the seeds were submitted to six treatments: a 25°C and over the paper, b 30°C and over the paper, c 25°C and between papers, d 35°C and between papers, e alternating 25/30°C and over the paper f alternating 25

  5. Ripe fruits of Bromelia antiacantha: investigations on the chemical and bioactivity profile Quimica e atividade in vitro da banana-do-mato (Bromelia antiacantha Bertol., Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. C. Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromelia antiacantha (known as wild banana is traditionally used to treat coughs, as an emollient and antitussive, and to treat mouth and skin ulcers. To investigate the radical scavenger properties, DPPH and phosphomolybdenium were used, with low antioxidant activity being observed for both (below 5 mg/ml of extract presented no activity for both techniques. An HPLC fingerprint of phenolic compounds was developed and total phenolics through Folin-Ciocalteau method was an average of 500 µg/g of fresh fruits. Any cytotoxicity was observed on L929 fibroblasts cells for aqueous, methanol and lipid extracts between 500 and 0.01 µg/ ml. The wild banana extract (1000 µg/mL shown a lower genotoxicity when compared to the negative and positive (MMS controls. Abundant calcium oxalate crystals and sucrose were found and characterized through NMR and X-ray diffraction respectively. Its centesimal composition indicated abundant carbohydrates (45% and lipids (18%. The carbohydrate analysis showed acidic monosaccharides, and the lipid analysis shown palmitic and linoleic acids in similar quantities (30% each and oleic acid 20%, among others, through GC-FID. The viscosity of the water-soluble polysaccharide sub-fraction (5 g/L was similar to that of water.O chá dos frutos maduros de Bromelia antiacantha (banana-de-bugre; banana-do-mato é usado tradicionalmente para tratar desordens respiratórias, como antitussígeno e também para tratar ulceras de pele e boca. Neste trabalho pesquisou-se o potencial de captação de radicais livres do extrato aquoso e extrato metanólico através da reação de redução do DPPH e do fosfomolibdenio, sendo encontrada baixa atividade nos dois modelos (abaixo de 5 mg/ml nenhuma atividade foi detectada em ambos extratos. Os compostos fenólicos totais foram determinados através de Folin-Ciocalteau, sendo encontrados 500 µg/g de fruto maduro fresco, e foi desenvolvido fingerprint dos compostos fenólicos através de CLAE

  6. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  7. Una nueva especie de Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) del Cañón de Escahuasco, Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Tillandsia escahuascensis, especie rupícola conocida hasta ahora sólo del cañón de Escahuasco, en el municipio de Tetela de Ocampo, Puebla, México. El nuevo taxon comparte algunas similitudes con T. parryi y T. suesilliae, pero se distingue de ellas por sus inflorescencias 2 a 3 veces divididas, con las espigas muy angostamente oblongas a lineares y largamente estipitadas.

  8. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4–5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds. PMID:28158320

  9. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  10. Remote Sensing-Based Detection and Spatial Pattern Analysis for Geo-Ecological Niche Modeling of Tillandsia SPP. In the Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Siegmund, A.; del Río, C.; Osses, P.; García, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called `fog oases' dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF) are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  11. REMOTE SENSING-BASED DETECTION AND SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR GEO-ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING OF TILLANDSIA SPP. IN THE ATACAMA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called ‘fog oases’ dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant and antimycobacterial activities of Bromelia balansae (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta Gomes; Honda, Neli Kika; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Brum, Rosenei Louzada; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Cardoso, Claudia Andréa Lima

    2010-10-01

    Bromelia balansae (Family Bromeliaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in the central region of Brazil as a cough syrup and also eaten roasted. The methanolic extract of ripe fruits was analyzed by chromatographic methods and spectrometrically. Four glycoside flavonols were isolated: kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4). The resazurin microtiter assay was used to measure the biological activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results showed a moderate activity of the methanolic extract with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 128 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as free radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of peroxidation. Free radical scavenging capacity was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. The methanolic extract showed low values of antioxidant activities, whereas the methanolic fraction exhibited free radical scavenging activity ranging from 20.2% to 91.1%, and the inhibition of peroxidation values ranging from 5.6% to 27.5%. This is the first chemical study reported in the literature about this species.

  13. Purification and characterization of hieronymain III. Comparison with other proteases previously isolated from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2008-12-01

    A new proteolytic enzyme, named hieronymain III, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez. The new peptidase belongs to the cysteine catalytic type, as well as hieronymain I and II, the other two peptidases previously isolated from this species. Hieronymain III showed optimum alkaline pH range (8.6-9.3) and the molecular mass (MALDI-TOF) was 23713 Da. The N-terminal sequence (AVPQSIDWRRYGAVTTSRNQG) exhibited a higher percentage identity with hieronymain II (93%) than with hieronymain I (71%). The three peptidases showed notable differences on synthetic substrates degradation: whereas hieronymain III was the only one able to hidrolyze Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide, hieronymain I and II could degrade Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide; on the other hand, PFLNA was only split by hieronymain I. Finally, the three proteases showed different preferences on N-alpha-CBZ-p-nitrophenyl aminoacid ester substrates. From a biotechnological point of view, cleavage specificity differences are significant enough to use these enzymes as potential tools in that area.

  14. Cloning, sequencing, and identification using proteomic tools of a protease from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela Anahí; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; López, Laura Maria Isabel

    2011-09-01

    Fruits of Bromelia hieronymi, a tropical South American plant, possess a high content of peptidases with potential biotechnological uses. Total RNA was extracted from unripe fruits and peptidase cDNA was obtained by 3'RACE-PCR. The consensus sequence of the cysteine peptidase cDNA contained 875 bp, the 690 first ones codifying for a hypothetical polypeptide chain of the mature peptidase, named Bh-CP1 (molecular mass 24.773 kDa, pI 8.6, extinction molar coefficient 58,705 M(-1) cm(-1)). Bh-CP1 sequence shows a high percentage of identity with those of other cysteine plant proteases. The presence of highly preserved residues is observed, like those forming the catalytic site (Gln19, Cys25, His159, and Asn175, papain numbering), as well as other six Cys residues, involved in the formation of disulfide bounds. Molecular modeling results suggest the enzyme belongs to the α + β class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys23-Cys63 and Cys57-Cys96) in the α domain, while the β domain is stabilized by another disulfide bridge (Cys153-Cys203). Additionally, peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) of the three peptidases previously isolated from B. hieronymi fruits (namely hieronymain I, II, and III) were performed and compared with the theoretical fingerprint of PMF of Bh-CP1, showing a partial matching between the in silico-translated protein and hieronymain II.

  15. Isolation and characterization of hieronymain II, another peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Avilés, Xavier F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2006-04-01

    From unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae), a partially purified protease preparation was obtained by acetone fractionation of the crude extract. Purification was achieved by anionic exchange chromatography (FPLC) on Q-Sepharose HP followed by cationic exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose HP). Homogeneity of the new enzyme, named hieronymain II, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-TOF). The molecular mass of was 23,411 Da, and maximum proteolytic activity (more than 90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 7.5-9.0 on casein and at pH 7.30-8.3 on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain II (AVPQSIDWRVYGAV) was compared with those of 12 plant cysteine proteases which showed more than 70% of identity. Kinetic enzymatic assays were made on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide (Km = 0.72mM, kcat = 1.82 seg(-1) , kcat/ Km = 2.54seg(-1) mM(-l)). No detectable activity could be found on PFLNA or Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide.

  16. Purification of balansain I, an endopeptidase from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Canals, F; Avilés, F X; Natalucci, C L; Caffini, N O

    2000-09-01

    A new plant endopeptidase was obtained from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae). Crude extracts were partially purified by ethanol fractionation. This preparation (redissolved ethanol precipitate, REP) showed maximum activity at pH 8.8-9.2, was very stable even at high ionic strength values (no appreciable decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 24 h in 1 M sodium chloride solution at 37 degrees C), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 60 min at 75 degrees C). Anion exchange chromatography allowed the isolation of a fraction purified to mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and IEF homogeneity, named balansain I, with pI = 5.45 and molecular mass = 23192 (mass spectrometry). The purification factor is low (2.9-fold), but the yield is high (48.3%), a common occurrence in plant organs with high proteolytic activity, where proteases represent the bulk of protein content of crude extracts. Balansain I exhibits a similar but narrower pH profile than that obtained for REP, with a maximum pH value approximately 9.0 and was inhibited by E-64 and other cysteine peptidases inhibitors but not affected by inhibitors of the other catalytic types of peptidases. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters was strongly preferred by the enzyme. The N-terminal sequence of balansain I showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  17. Physicochemical, nutritional and antibacterial characteristics of the fruit of Bromelia pinguin L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pío-León, Juan Fernando; López-Angulo, Gabriela; Paredes-López, Octavio; Uribe-Beltrán, Magdalena de Jesús; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco

    2009-09-01

    Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico, where its fruit is used as food or as a phytotherapeutic agent. The fruits of B. pinguin were characterized and they could be considered as a functional food. These fruits show an average weight of 13.7 g and a yellow color of high luminosity (b* = 43.2, L* = 74.5). The values for acidity (4.6%, as citric acid) and pH (3.7) of B. pinguin fruit are similar to those of citrics. The edible portion is characterized by a high content of vitamin C (126 mg/100 g), ash (10.6 g/100 g d.w.), crude fiber (3.4 g/100 g d.w.), calcium (1290 mg/100 g d.w.), magnesium (500 mg/100 g d.w.), manganese (2.95 mg/100 g d.w.) and it is a good source of zinc (2.8 mg/100 g d.w.). Polar fractions extracted from the pulp fruit showed activity against several genera of human pathogenic-bacteria (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia and Pseudomonas).

  18. Subunit structure of karatasin, the proteinase isolated from Bromelia plumieri (karatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C; Amador, M; Cuevas, D; Cordoba, F

    1990-01-01

    Close to 15% of the karatasin proteinase activity in the fruit juice of Bromelia plumieri (karatas) is present outside dialysis Visking tubing in 7 days in 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH) 3.5 or 6.5) containing phenyl mercuric acetate. The small proteinase(s), distinct from the 85% activity in juice due to nondialysable karatasin with a reported Mr of 24,868, separates across Spectrapore (13 kDa) membranes but not across Spectrapore with 3.5 kDa average pore diameter. The dialyzed proteinase is named karatasin-D (K-D). Purified non-Dialysable karatasin can be dissociated to what seems to be K-D by incubation in a buffer solution, containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol with phenyl mercuric acetate, in dialysis experiments for 8 days at room temperature using Spectrapore 13 kDa tubing. Thus, native karatasin in B. plumieri fruit juice seem to be the result of association of 2 small molecular mass K-D subunits, linked together by disulfide bonds and electrostatic forces, in equilibrium with small amounts of free K-D molecules. The amino acid composition and partial sequence of karatasin up to the 14th position from the amino terminus have discrete analogies with papain and with stem bromelain.

  19. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%).

  20. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla.

  1. Classical macroautophagy in Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae) and possible plastidial autophagy in Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-05-01

    The tapetum in anthers is a tissue that undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during the production of pollen. We observed two types of autophagy prior to cell death. In Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae), tapetum cells showed plant-type autophagosomes-autolysosomes, which have been found previously exclusively in root meristem cells. The autophagic structures were formed by a network of tubules which apparently merged laterally, thereby sequestering a portion of the cytoplasm. The organelles observed in the sequestered material included multilamellar bodies, which have not been reported earlier in these organelles. By contrast, Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells contained no such organelles but showed plastids that might possibly carry out autophagy, as they contained portions of the cytoplasm similar to the phenomenon reported earlier in Phaseolus and Dendrobium. However, the ultrastructure of the T. albida plastids was different from that in the previous reports. It is concluded that in L. rauschii classical plant macroautophagy was involved in degradation of the cytoplasm, while in T. albida such classical macroautophagy was not observed. Instead, the data in T. albida suggested the hypothesis that plastids are able to carry out degradation of the cytoplasm.

  2. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  3. Does structural parasitism by epiphytes exist? A case study between Tillandsia recurvata and Parkinsonia praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, A

    2016-05-01

    The effects that epiphytes have on their hosts have been poorly explored in an experimentally. Correlational evidence suggests that epiphytes may be either mutualists or structural parasites, as has been proposed for Tillandsia recurvata on Parkinsonia praecox. To test the effect of T. recurvata upon P. praecox, the epiphyte load on branches of P. praecox was measured and two 1-year experiments were performed to detect the effect of transplantation/removal of epiphytes and shade (0%, 35%. 50% and 80%) on shoot dynamics. If T. recurvata represents a selective pressure for P. praecox, then the frequency of branches carrying large epiphyte loads will be high, and host shoot survival will decrease in the presence of T. recurvata and with increased shade. A weak inverse relationship between epiphyte load and percentage of dead shoots in the host was detected. Shoot survival was independent of epiphyte presence. Shade decreased shoot survival by 35-72%. Results suggest that at the study site, T. recurvata is a commensalist of P. praecox. An alternative hypothesis to explain the correlation between high epiphyte load and branch/tree decay is that older branches carry more epiphytes, receive more shade from neighbouring branches and could be undergoing a natural decline process.

  4. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate.

  5. Purification and characterization of four new cysteine endopeptidases from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. grown in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O

    2008-02-01

    Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant broadly distributed in Central America and Caribbean islands. The fruits have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic, probably owed to the presence of a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases, initially termed pinguinain. This work deals with the purification and characterization of the four main components of that mixture, two of them showing acid pI and the other two alkaline pI. Molecular masses (SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF), N-terminal sequence and the reactivity and kinetic parameters versus synthetic substrates (p-nitrophenyl-N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid esters, PFLNA, Z-Arg-Arg-p-NA, and Z-Phe-Arg-p-NA) of the studied peptidases are given, as well as the N-terminal sequences of the enzymes and the homology degree with other plant endopeptidases.

  6. Morfoanatomia de rizomas e raízes de Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae dos Campos Gerais, PR, Brasil Morphology and anatomy of rhizomes and roots in Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", PR, Brazil

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    Simone Segecin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfoanatomia dos rizomas e das raízes de Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T. streptocarpa Baker, T. tenuifolia L. e Tillandsia sp., epífitas dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil. Os rizomas são horizontais, ou levemente inclinados e apresentam raízes intracorticais. São revestidos por epiderme unisseriada ou súber estratificado. O córtex parenquimático é constituído por células isodiamétricas, apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grãos de amido. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas. O periciclo é uni ou multisseriado, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O cilindro vascular apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais. As raízes são adventícias intracorticais ou externas. Estas últimas apresentam velame multisseriado. O córtex apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grandes espaços intercelulares na região interna. A exoderme apresenta duas a quatro camadas de células com paredes espessadas. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O periciclo é unisseriado, com células de paredes finas. O cilindro vascular é reduzido, poliarco. As raízes intracorticais diferem das externas por não apresentarem velame. A presença de rizoma com raízes intracorticais, raízes com velame, espaços intercelulares no córtex interno, idioblastos de ráfides e grande quantidade de células com paredes espessadas são caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, que provavelmente ocorrem como resposta ao hábito epifítico dessas plantas.Morphological and anatomical features of rhizomes and roots were studied in Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of Bromelia plumieri (E. Morren L.B. Sm., leaves in STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats.

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    Adolfo eAndrade-Cetto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study confirms the hypoglycemic effects of two extracts obtained from the Bromelia plumieri (BP plant in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats (STZ-NA. BP has been traditionally used in the municipality of Hidalgo, Mexico, to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D. Two different BP extracts were prepared and tested. The first extract was a water extract (WE, similar to that traditionally used to make tea, and the second extract was an ethanol:water extract (EWE. The extracts (WE at 35 and 350 mg/kg, and EWE at 30 and 300 mg/kg were tested in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats to determine whether hypoglycemia occurred after administration of the extracts. Phytochemistry: Two different extracts were prepared, n-hexane and butanol, to determine the presence of alkaloids, terpenes and flavonoids.The extracts that were administered to the STZ-NA induced diabetic rats produced a significant hypoglycemic effect as compared with the control group, similar to that achieved with glibenclamide. We also determined that flavonoids were the main components of BP leaves.The results presented here support the hypothesis that extracts obtained from this plant have hypoglycemic effects, which are in agreement with the traditional uses of this plant.

  8. Partial Characterization of the Proteolytic Properties of an Enzymatic Extract From "Aguama" Bromelia pinguin L. Fruit Grown in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Hernández, Jesús Martín; Hernández-Mancillas, Xitlalli Desideria; Navarrete, Evelia Lorena Coss; Mazorra-Manzano, Miguel Ángel; Osuna-Ruiz, Idalia; Rodríguez-Tirado, Víctor Alfonso; Salazar-Leyva, Jesús Aarón

    2016-11-09

    Plant proteases are capable of performing several functions in biological systems, and their use is attractive for biotechnological process due to their interesting catalytic properties. Bromelia pinguin (aguama) is a wild abundant natural resource in several regions of Central America and the Caribbean Islands but is underutilized. Their fruits are rich in proteases with properties that are still unknown, but they represent an attractive source of enzymes for biotechnological applications. Thus, the proteolytic activity in enzymatic crude extracts (CEs) from wild B. pinguin fruits was partially characterized. Enzymes in CEs showed high proteolytic activity at acid (pH 2.0-4.0) and neutral alkaline (pH 7.0-9.0) conditions, indicating that different types of active proteases are present. Proteolytic activity inhibition by the use of specific protease inhibitors indicated that aspartic, cysteine, and serine proteases are the main types of proteases present in CEs. Activity at pH 3.0 was stable in a broad range of temperatures (25-50 °C) and retained its activity in the presence of surfactants (SDS, Tween-80), reducing agents (DTT, 2-mercapoethanol), and organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, 2-propanol), which suggests that B. pinguin proteases are potential candidates for their application in brewing, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of Bromelia plumieri (E. Morren) L.B. Sm., leaves in STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Medina-Hernández, Anamarel E

    2013-01-01

    This study confirms the hypoglycemic effects of two extracts obtained from the Bromelia plumieri (BP) plant in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (STZ-NA). BP has been traditionally used in the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo, Mexico, to treat type 2 diabetes. Two different BP extracts were prepared and tested. The first extract was a water extract (WE), similar to that traditionally used to make tea, and the second extract was an ethanol:water extract (EWE). The extracts (WE at 35 and 350 mg/kg, and EWE at 30 and 300 mg/kg) were tested in STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats to determine whether hypoglycemia occurred after oral administration of the extracts. Phytochemistry: Two different extracts were prepared, n-hexane and butanol, to determine the presence of alkaloids, terpenes and flavonoids. The extracts that were administered to the STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats produced a significant hypoglycemic effect as compared with the control group, similar to that achieved with glibenclamide. We also determined that flavonoids were the main components of BP leaves. The results presented here support the hypothesis that extracts obtained from this plant have hypoglycemic effects, which are in agreement with the traditional uses of this plant.

  10. Seed morphology and post-seminal development of Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Vera Lucia Scatena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the morphology and post-seminal development of seeds of Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, and T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The seeds (ca. 2.0 mm long presented plumose appendages at their micropylar end, an important structure in the taxonomy of the family since it represented an elaborate apparatus allowing effective wind-dispersal. Seeds germinated after circa twenty days. The haustorial cotyledon, responsible for the seedling nutrition, appeared first during the germination process. No cataphyll or primary roots developed. A small tank came along in the seedling, formed by the base of the sheath of the first leaf, which overlapped that of the second leaf. This tank can store water and litter. The adventitious roots developed later.Foi estudada a morfologia da semente e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, e T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae, que ocorrem nos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Brasil. As sementes apresentaram cerca de 2,0 mm de comprimento e testa com apêndices plumosos na região micropylar. A presença desses apêndices é um caráter importante na taxonomia da família e garante sucesso na dispersão anemocórica das sementes. Após a embebição, as sementes levaram cerca de 20 dias para germinar. A primeira estrutura que emergiu durante a germinação foi o cotilédone haustorial, que é responsável pela nutrição da plântula. Eram ausentes catafilo e raiz primária. Na plântula ocorreu a formação de um pequeno tanque, que é constituído pela base da bainha da folha primária superposta à base da bainha da folha secundária. Esse pequeno tanque permaneceu na posição vertical e armazenou água e detritos orgânicos para a nutrição da plântula. As raízes adventícias emergiram tardiamente.

  11. Distribution and sources of bioaccumulative air pollutants at Mezquital Valley, Mexico, as reflected by the atmospheric plant Tillandsia recurvata L.

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    L. Chang Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mezquital Valley (MV, a Mexican wastewater-based agricultural and industrial region, is a ''hot spot'' of regulated air pollutants emissions, but the concurrent unregulated ones, like hazardous metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, remain undocumented. A biomonitoring survey with the epiphytic Tillandsia recurvata was conducted there to detect spatial patterns and potential sources of 20 airborne elements and 15 PAH. The natural δ13C and δ15N ratios of this plant helped in source identification. The regional mean concentrations of most elements was two (Cr to over 40 times (Ni, Pb, V higher than reported for Tillandsia in other countries. Eleven elements, pyrene and chrysene had 18–214% higher mean concentration at the industrial south than at the agricultural north of MV. The total quantified PAH (mean, 572 ng g−1; range, 142.6–2568 were composed by medium (65%, phenanthrene to chrysene, low (28%, naphthalene to fluorene and high molecular weight compounds (7%, Benzo(bfluoranthene to indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene. The δ13C (mean, −14.6‰; range, −5.7 to −13.7‰ was lower (<−15‰ near the major petroleum combustion sources. The δ15N (mean, −3.0‰; range, −9.9 to 3.3‰ varied from positive at agriculture/industrial areas to negative at rural sites. Factor analysis provided a five-factor solution for 74% of the data variance: (1 crustal rocks, 39.5% (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Sr, Ti; (2 soils, 11.3%, contrasting contributions from natural (Mg, Mn, Zn and saline agriculture soils (Na; (3 cement production and fossil fuel combustion, 9.8% (Ca, Ni, V, chrysene, pyrene; (4 probable agricultural biomass burning, 8.1% (K and benzo(g,h,iperylene, and (5 agriculture with wastewater, 5.2% (δ15N and P. These results indicated high deposition of bioaccumulative air pollutants at MV, especially at the industrial area. Since T. recurvata reflected the regional differences in exposition, it is recommended as a biomonitor for comparisons

  12. HClO4/SiO2催化合成橙花素%Synthesis of Nerolin Bromelia Catalyzed by HCIO4/SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骁勇; 张玉恒; 杨金会; 段丽萍

    2011-01-01

    在二氧化硅负载高氯酸(HClO4/SiO2)催化下,β-萘酚与乙醇反应合成了橙花素,收率86.O%,其结构经1H NMR和IR确证.%Nerolin bromelia in yield of 86% was synthesized from β-naphthol and ethyl alcohol using HCl04/Si02 as catalyst. The structures was confirmed by 1H NMR and IR.

  13. Avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae

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    L.M. Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 e E. coli (ATCC 8739. A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS, foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda, não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35% de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1. Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and E. coli (ATCC 8739

  14. Tissue Culture and Rapid Micropropagation of Tillandsia stricta%空气凤梨组培快繁技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凯; 丁久玲; 蔡鸿宇

    2016-01-01

    以斯垂科特空气凤梨(Tillandsia stricta)的种子为外植体,采用组织培养法,研究了不同基础培养基、植物生长调节剂种类及浓度对其生长的影响,以期筛选出适宜斯垂科特空气凤梨种子组培快繁的培养基配方.结果表明:以1/2MS为基础培养基,添加0.5 mg· L-1IAA,空气凤梨的发芽率和幼苗成活率高,幼苗生长健壮,色泽浓绿,真叶数多,比常规种子繁殖速度快2倍左右,幼苗成活率高1.45倍.

  15. Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Laurel K; Erhardt, Erik B; Santiago, Louis S; Allen, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    We studied C stable isotopic composition (delta(13)C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C(3) photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in (13)C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue delta(13)C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in (13)C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C(3) pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C(3) pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis.

  16. Impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Fabio da Silva do Espírito Santo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae, espécie endêmica da Caatinga. Os estudos de campo foram desenvolvidos na localidade de Caboclo (8º28'56,4"S, 40º56'6,9"W, 588 m alt., Município de Afrânio, Pernambuco. Essa área é considerada de alta importância biológica e, portanto, prioritária para a conservação. A análise quantitativa desse impacto foi realizada a partir do inventário de 10 parcelas com 2.000 m², ao longo de uma trilha pré-existente na área de estudo, e consistiu em contabilizar os indivíduos de B. laciniosa em floração e o porcentual de indivíduos que tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas pelos caprinos. Adicionalmente, também foram obtidas informações referentes à fenologia, à morfologia floral e às taxas de formação de frutos e sementes dessa Bromeliaceae. Verificou-se que, dos 246 indivíduos inventariados, 65,8% tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas por esses animais. A estimativa do número de flores consumidas foi de 8.748 e o número provável de frutos e sementes que deixaram de ser produzidos, de aproximadamente 7.227 e 252.945, respectivamente. O forrageamento das inflorescências diminuiu as taxas de formação de frutos e sementes, podendo, desse modo, interferir diretamente na conservação dessa bromélia.

  17. Produção de frutos para uso medicinal em Bromelia antiancatha (caraguatá: fundamentos para um extrastivismo sustentável Fruit production for medicinal use in Bromelia antiacantha ("caraguatá": foundations for sustainable extraction

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    S. Filippon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as várias espécies que têm sido utilizadas como fontes de subprodutos florestais estão a Bromelia antiacantha, espécie nativa da Mata Atlântica com grande potencial de uso com características alimentícias, ornamentais, industriais e farmacológicas. Os frutos da espécie são utilizados tradicionalmente no Planalto Norte Catarinense na confecção de xaropes para tratamento de males das vias respiratórias. Neste contexto, objetivou-se quantificar a produção de frutos e fundamentar estratégias para possível manejo de populações naturais de B. antiacantha. Foram acompanhadas 39 infrutescências de Janeiro/2008 a Agosto/2008 distribuídas em área de mata secundária na FLONA de Três Barras, SC. Nesta mesma área, indivíduos da espécie foram acompanhados através de estudos demográficos de 2001 a 2008. As infrutescências apresentaram em média 0,68m de comprimento, número médio de 187 frutos/infrutescência, o diâmetro médio dos frutos foi de 1,9 cm e o peso médio das infrutescências de 3,6 kg. A média de frutos aproveitáveis foi de 157 frutos/infrutescência totalizando 2,5 kg. A safra estimada para 2005 foi de 146 kg de frutos ha-1 e 80 kg de frutos ha-1 para 2008, e a renda líquida a partir da produção de xarope foi estimada em R$ 1168,00 por hectare, por ano. Os resultados mostraram que o manejo de B. antiacantha consiste em atividade economicamente interessante e que esta possibilidade, além de complementar a renda de comunidades locais onde a espécie se faz presente, também amplia o valor das áreas com cobertura florestal.Among the large number of species that have been used as sources of forest byproducts is Bromelia antiacantha, a species native to the Atlantic Forest and that has great potential of use with nourishing, ornamental, industrial and pharmacological characteristics. The fruits of this species are traditionally used in the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the

  18. Explore About the Method for Extracting DNA of Ornamental Bromelia%观赏凤梨DNA提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓岚; 葛亚英; 俞信英; 王炜勇; 毛碧增

    2009-01-01

    观赏凤梨(Bromelia ceae)叶片呈革质化且多纤维,含大量次生代谢产物,常常导致提取的DNA产量低、质量差,影响后续的酶切和PCR扩增.针对观赏凤梨多个属的植物,通过多种不同因素包括提取液、提取部位、研磨方法、沉淀时间等的对比,对观赏凤梨的基因组DNA提取方法进行研究,成功地掌握了高效的凤梨叶片DNA提取方法,为凤梨后期分子标记等基因组研究打下一定的基础.

  19. Categorization of risk of extinction of Dyckia limae L. B. Sm. and Tillandsia catimbauensis Leme, W. Till & J. A. Siqueira by geographical criteria

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution criteria are good alternatives for the categorization of endangered species that are little known scientifically. The aim of this study was to use these criteria to categorize the species Dyckia limae L. B. Sm. and Tillandsia catimbauensis Leme, W. Till & J. A. Siqueira, which are endemic to Valley National Park Catimbau (PARNA Catimbau, D. limae and T. catimbauensis. Their extent of occurrence and area of occupancy were measured and the dispersion sites weighted with respect to the state of conservation. The extent of occurrence of D. limae and T. catimbauensis was respectively 15.1 and 22.1 km², while their area of occupancy was 5 and 8.5 km². In view of these values, along with the conservation conditions of the locality, the species fall under the category of “Critically Endangered.”

  20. 空气凤梨Tillandsia velutina分蘖芽发育过程中内源激素含量变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凯; 丁久玲

    2016-01-01

    为研究空气凤梨在分蘖芽发育过程中体内激素的动态变化,以Tillandsia velutina为研究对象,采用酶联免疫法(ELISA)测定不同生长阶段母株及分蘖芽体内ZRs、GAs、IAA及ABA等含量,并进行动态分析.结果表明,随着分蘖芽的生长,芽体内IAA和GAs含量表现出先升后降的趋势,母株体内IAA和GAs含量表现出降低趋势;芽和母株体内ZRs含量逐渐降低,ABA含量逐渐升高;分蘖芽为2 cm时母株体内GAs、ZRs和IAA含量最高,芽为4 cm时母株体内的IAA和ZRs含量最低,分蘖芽高于4 cm,芽体内IAA和ZRs含量均显著降低;说明分蘖芽在2~4 cm时处于旺盛生长期,其生长趋于稳定,宜进行分株繁殖;另外,高水平的IAA和ZRs对维路缇纳空气凤梨的开花可能起正向调控的作用.Tillandsia velutina分蘖芽发育过程中体内激素含量与分蘖芽的生长密切相关.

  1. Antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo and mechanisms of protection against melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells by fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Carla A; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Mortara, Renato A; Cabral, Hamilton; Serrano, Fabiana A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Travassos, Luiz R

    2007-09-01

    In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57Bl/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, and very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, and became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes) migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein-chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBS-injected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, and cathepsins B and L cross-reacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

  2. Effects on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation of proteolytic extracts from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes, Bromelia balansae, and B. hieronymi (Bromeliaceae) in comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Prospitti, Anabela; Viana, Carolina A; Gonzalez, Mariana M; Ramos, Márcio V; Rotelli, Alejandra E; Caffini, Néstor O

    2016-06-01

    Extracts rich in cysteine proteases obtained from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Pm), Bromelia balansae (Bb), and B. hieronymi (Bh) have previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect on animal models. Given the close relationship between hemostasis and inflammation, it is attractive to investigate therapeutic agents capable of modulating both systems. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Pm, Bb, and Bh on fibrin(ogen) and blood coagulation compared with stem bromelain (Bro). Action on fibrinogen was electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated, fibrinolytic activity was measured both electrophoretically and by the fibrin plate assay, and the effect on blood coagulation was studied by conventional coagulation tests (PT and APPT). All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrinogen subunits, that is Aα > Bβ, whereas γ was partially hydrolyzed by 100-fold concentration increase. Unlike Bro, cysteine proteases of Pm, Bb, and Bh increased absorbance at 540 nm of fibrinogen solution, suggesting thrombin-like activity, which was time-dependent and reached maximum values at lower concentration. All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrin subunits; however Pm, Bb, and Bh showed lower fibrinolytic activity than Bro at the assayed concentrations. Although Bb acted only as anticoagulant, Pm, Bh, and unexpectedly Bro showed dual action on blood coagulation: at low concentration showed procoagulant effect and at high concentration anticoagulant effect. Results reveal new plant species as potential sources of pharmacological agents for the treatment of a wide range of hemostatic disorders as well as to wound healing.

  3. Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Guimarães-Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57BI/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein -chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBSinjected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, cathepsins B and L crossreacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

  4. Efecto de 1- MCP (1-metilciclopropeno y Promalina® en la duración del color de brácteas florales de Tillandsia caacticola (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgarejo Muñoz Luz Marina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las brácteas florales de Tillandsia cacticola conservan hasta por un año su color cuando no son cortadas de la
    planta; cuando las inflorescencias son cortadas y empacadas su color desaparece rápidamente. Plantas de T.
    cacticola fueron sumergidas completamente en soluciones de AG4+7 + BAP (Promalina y 1-MCP (1- metilciclopropeno a diferentes concentraciones El tratamiento de las plantas con 2,0 mg/l de 1-MCP por 16 h a 23 C retrasó la pérdida del color en las brácteas florales por diez días respecto al testigo sin tratar. Las plantas
    tratadas individualmente con 90 y 180 mg/l de AG4+7 + BAP no mostraron incremento en la duración del
    color de sus brácteas florales e incluso se redujo la duración del color respecto a la del testigo.

  5. Evaluación de la contaminación atmosférica en puntos críticos de la ciudad de Lima y Callao, utilizando Tillandsia capillaris como biomonitor

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Ubillús, Marco; Hurtado, Jazmín; Mendoza, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación del nivel de contaminación atmosférica por metales pesados en la zona de Puerto Nuevo, Callao, empleando como biomonitor Tillandsia capillaris. Se aplicó el mismo monitoreo en el distrito residencial de San Isidro como control negativo a contaminación y como control positivo en el distrito de Ate, basados en un estudio previo realizado en ocho distritos de Lima Metropolitana. La cuantificación de los elementos químicos, se realizó utilizando la técnica de análisi...

  6. Size-dependent allocation of biomass to ancillary versus flowers of the inflorescences of the epiphyte Tillandsia stricta Soland (Bromeliaceae Influência do tamanho do corpo na alocação de biomassa em estruturas de suporte e flores da bromélia epífita Tillandsia stricta Soland. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of resources invested in reproduction is closely correlated to plant size. However, the increase in reproductive investment is not always proportional to the increase in vegetative growth, as the proportion of plant resources allocated to reproduction can increase, decrease or be maintained along different plant sizes. Although comprising thousand of species, epiphytes are poorly studied in relation to reproductive allocation (RA. We describe the variation in the RA of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia stricta Soland with increasing plant sizes. Our goal is not only to evaluate the RA of the whole inflorescence but also quantify the contribution of ancillary structures in the final RA of this plant species. With increasing sizes of T. stricta the reproductive allocation of biomass to the whole inflorescence decreased significantly along plant sizes from 37% to 12%. Reproductive allocation to ancillary and to flowers decreased respectively from 30% to 9% and 10% to 3%. As leaves are the main source of water and nutrients absorption in atmospheric Tillandsia, the total leaf area and area per leaf were used as indicators of foraging capacity, that also increased with plant size. We discuss these results with respect to the capacity of T. stricta to reproduce in the heterogeneous environment of the canopies.A quantidade de recursos investidos na reprodução sexuada em geral é positivamente correlacionada à quantidade dos mesmos recursos investidos no corpo vegetativo da planta; porém nem sempre de forma proporcional. A proporção dos recursos da planta alocados na reprodução sexuada pode aumentar, diminuir ou se manter constante ao longo do aumento do tamanho do corpo vegetativo. Embora compreendendo milhares de espécies, as epífitas são pouco conhecidas quanto ao padrão de alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada. Neste estudo é descrita a variação da alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada da bromélia ep

  7. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration.

  8. The potential of Tillandsia dune ecosystems for revealing past and present variations in advective fog along the coastal Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Hidalgo, C.; García, J. L.; Gonzalez, A. L.; Marquet, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal Atacama Desert is home to a complex geo-ecosystem supported by fog with multiple atmospheric and oceanic drivers. Fog collectors in place for the last 17 years reveal that monthly fog intensity and amount are significantly linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO 1+2) with cold (warm) anomalies correlated to increased (decreased) fog (R2 = 0.41). Rainfall, however, can occur during extreme positive ENSO anomalies. Tillandsia landbeckii is an epiarenitic plant common to the coastal Atacama where fog is intercepted by the coastal escarpment between 950-1250 m.a.s.l. These plants possess multiple adaptations to survive exclusively on fog, including the construction of "dune" ecosystems known as "tillandsiales". Buried T. landbeckii layers in such dunes contain a record of past variations of fog over time (dunes can top 3 m in height) and alternating plant and sand layers are readily visible in dune stratigraphy. Stable N isotopes on modern plants and fog indicate that these plants reflect δ15N values of total N dissolved in fog. We measured δ15N values from buried T. landbeckii layers from five different tillandsiales found across c. 50 km the coastal escarpment. The isotope values in these buried plants indicate a prominent c. 8.0 ‰ shift towards more negative δ15N values on average over the last 3,200 years. Based on differences in δ15N between modern and more extensive "paleo" tillandsiales at one of our lowest elevation study sites, we interpret this shift as an increase in available moisture due to increased fog input during the late Holocene. Increased variability in ENSO as well as increased upwelling and southerly winds along the coastal Atacama would explain in part this increase. Clearly, the Atacama tillandsiales have considerable potential for monitoring past and present change of these large-scale ocean-atmosphere systems.

  9. How many taxa can be recognized within the complex Tillandsia capillaris (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae? Analysis of the available classifications using a multivariate approach

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    Lucía Castello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav., which belongs to the subgenus Diaphoranthema is distributed in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern and central Argentina, and Chile, and includes forms that are difficult to circumscribe, thus considered to form a complex. The entities of this complex are predominantly small-sized epiphytes, adapted to xeric environments. The most widely used classification defines 5 forms for this complex based on few morphological reproductive traits: T. capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. capillaris f. incana (Mez L.B. Sm., T. capillaris f. cordobensis (Hieron. L.B. Sm., T. capillaris f. hieronymi (Mez L.B. Sm. and T. capillaris f. virescens (Ruiz & Pav. L.B. Sm. In this study, 35 floral and vegetative characters were analyzed with a multivariate approach in order to assess and discuss different proposals for classification of the T. capillaris complex, which presents morphotypes that co-occur in central and northern Argentina. To accomplish this, data of quantitative and categorical morphological characters of flowers and leaves were collected from herbarium specimens and field collections and were analyzed with statistical multivariate techniques. The results suggest that the last classification for the complex seems more comprehensive and three taxa were delimited: T. capillaris (=T. capillaris f. incana-hieronymi, T. virescens s. str. (=T. capillaris f. cordobensis and T. virescens s. l. (=T. capillaris f. virescens. While T. capillaris and T. virescens s. str. co-occur, T. virescens s. l. is restricted to altitudes above 2000 m in Argentina. Characters previously used for taxa delimitation showed continuous variation and therefore were not useful. New diagnostic characters are proposed and a key is provided for delimiting these three taxa within the complex.

  10. Screening CAM-fotosynthese Bromelia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Marissen, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2006-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname bij de meeste planten gebeurt overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. CO2 wordt opgenomen door de huidmondjes, dus is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag (als het licht is) open staan. ‘s Nachts

  11. Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Carla A; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Mortara, Renato A; Cabral, Hamilton; Serrano, Fabiana A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Travassos, Luiz R

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57Bl/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, and very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, and became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes) migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein-chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBS-injected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, and cathepsins B and L cross-reacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies. PMID:17898868

  12. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  13. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  14. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a diversidade da fauna de culicídeos em bromélias de solo segundo ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata primitiva. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, em tanques de bromélias de ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata. Realizaram-se coletas de imaturos quinzenalmente, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999. A presença e freqüência de espécies nos diferentes ambientes foram comparadas com base em estimativas da diversidade para medir a riqueza, dominância e análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 31.134 formas imaturas de mosquitos nas bromélias, distribuídas em sete gêneros e 37 espécies. O ambiente urbano registrou maior abundância, 14.575 indivíduos, seguido do periurbano com 10.987, e a mata, com o menor número de exemplares, 5.572. Foram coletadas 30 espécies no habitat urbano, 32 no periurbano e 33 na mata. As espécies dominantes foram Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus nos ambientes urbano e periurbano, e Culex ocellatus na mata. De acordo com teste ANOVA a freqüência de mosquitos em bromélias não foi diferente entre os ambientes pesquisados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. A diversidade de espécies na mata foi maior, e semelhante entre periurbano e urbano. CONCLUSÕES: A composição específica de culicídeos em bromélias de solo mostrou-se diversificada, sendo maior naquelas de ambiente de mata. As espécies dominantes foram Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJETIVO: Comparar la diversidad de la fauna de culícidos en bromelias de suelo según ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en el municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en tanques de bromelias de ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. Se realizaron colectas de inmaduros quincenalmente, de marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999. La presencia y frecuencia de especies en los diferentes ambientes fueron

  15. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11 Aechmea fendleri (1 1 Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7 durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004 y sequía (Marzo 2005. Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%, Culicidae (25% y Chaoboridae (6% del Orden Diptera, y Scyrtidae (5% del Orden Coleoptera. En Culicidae las especies más abundan- tes fueron: Culex consolador (31%, Cx. neglectus (27% y Wyeomyia celaenocephala (17%. La mayor abundancia y riqueza se encontró en la época de sequía, con el aumento de diversidad en Culicidae. La diversidad y equitabilidad de macroinvertebrados fue mayor H. stellata , pero similares entre estaciones para las comunidades de A. fendleri y A. fendleri y A. fendleri H. stellata .

  16. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions.

  17. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  18. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  19. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography of Cystoseira usneoides for purification of antioxidant compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Santos

    2014-07-01

    The results suggest that the compounds we are trying to isolate have strong affinity with the stationary phase, and therefore, weren’t eluted with the solvents, even with the increasing polarity along the chromatography. Even though VLC, with a silica gel column, have already revealed to be efficient for separation of compounds extracted with dichloromethane, as regards to antioxidant compounds, these continue to be a great challenge.

  20. Synthesis of nerolin bromelia%香料橙花素的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李善吉

    2004-01-01

    介绍了以乙醇和β-萘酚为原料,在对甲苯磺酸催化下合成橙花素的方法,讨论了反应时间,催化剂用量以及反应物摩尔比对合成工艺的影响,确定了最佳工艺条件.

  1. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE MACAMBIRA (Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEK SANDRO DUTRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macambira is a bromélia used in the alimentation of man and domestic animals on Northeast of Brazilian, especially in times of drought. The study was conducted to evaluate at identifying breaking dormancy methods and verifying how temperature and light can affect germination of its seeds. In the first experiment, the seeds were treated the following treatments: immersion in acetone, in alcohol, to eter, hot water, wash in running water, dry cold and dry heat, aiming at breaking dormancy and control. Were determinate the percentage of germination, first count of germination, index of velocity of germination and the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, after treatment of immersion in acetone during 60 minutes, the seeds were germinated under the following conditions: continued light and 25 ºC constant; continued light and 30 ºC constant; continued light and 35 ºC constant; continued light and temperatures (35 ºC/8 h and 20 ºC/16 h; continued dark and 25 ºC constant; continued dark and 30 ºC constant; continued dark and 35 ºC constant; continued dark and temperatures (35 ºC/8 h and 20 ºC/16 h; alternation of light (dark/16 h and light/8 h and temperature of 25 ºC constant; alternation of light (dark/16 h and light/8 h and temperature of 30 ºC onstant; alternation of light (dark/16 h and light/8 h and temperature of 35 ºC constant; alternation of light and temperature (dark/20 ºC/16 h and light/35 ºC/8 h and alternation of light and temperature (dark/25 ºC/16 h and light/35 ºC/8 h. It follows that the immersion in acetone during 60 minutes was the treatment more efficient to promote the of vigor and germination of seeds. The seeds do not germinate in the light absence, behaving as fotoblásticas positive.

  2. Cultivation Calendar to Ornamental Bromelias%凤梨养管月历

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇勒

    2006-01-01

    近年来,千姿百态,品种繁多的凤梨受到越来越多人们的喜爱。时值新年,红艳艳的凤梨一枝独秀,好看又讨喜,而且观赏期长,养管又较方便,更令它成为家庭养花的新宠。若是家有凤梨,应该怎样养护?每个月要做些什么工作?本栏的“凤梨养管月历”会为你——细细解说。

  3. Synthesis of Nerolin Bromelia Catalyzed by Stannic Chloride%四氯化锡催化合成橙花素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞善信; 文瑞明; 李旺英

    2003-01-01

    四氯化锡能够代替硫酸作为醚化催化剂.在五水四氯化锡存在下,由β-萘酚和乙醇合成了橙花素(β-萘乙醚).当β-萘酚、乙醇和四氯化锡的物质的量比为1:4:0.114,回流反应12h,醚收率达74.4%.

  4. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  5. A Pictorial Key for the Identification of the Mosquitoes Associated with Yellow Fever in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Foreleg Midleg Foreleg Midleg lilii Q bromeliae Q Q Foretarsomeres I,2 (posterior view) simpsoni Q /i/ii Q Q Midtarsomeres I,2 (posterior view... bromeliae Q simpsoni Q /i/ii Q bromeliae Q Mosquito Systematics Vol. 13(2) 1981 149 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We wish to express our sincere appreciation

  6. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  7. 观果凤梨的组织培养研究%A Study on Tissue Culture of Bromelia(A.comosus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小精; 潘学峰; 梁启明

    2008-01-01

    以光滑凤梨腋芽为外植体,研究观果凤梨组培快繁的适宜条件.结果表明:培养基MS+6-BA 1.0mg·L-1+NAA0.2 mg·L-1+ρ(蔗糖)30 g·L-1有利于诱导出芽,可用于初代培养;MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA0.2 mg·L-1+ψ(CW)10%+ρ(蔗糖)40 g·L-1有利于形成丛生芽,可用于增殖培养,月增殖系数可达5.3倍;1/2 MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA0.5 m·L-1+ρ(蔗糖)40 g·L-1适宜诱导生根,生根率达96.7%;试管苗经晾苗4 d后,移栽在椰糠与表土(V:V=1:1)的混合基质中,成活率高达95.0%.

  8. 无机固体酸催化合成橙花素%SYNTHESIS OF NEROLIN BROMELIA CATALYZED BY INORGNIC SOLID ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管仕斌; 俞善信; 文瑞明

    2004-01-01

    在一水硫酸氢钠存在下,由β-萘酚和乙醇合成了橙花素(β-萘乙醚).研究了反应的影响因素和催化剂的重复使用性能,当β-萘酚、乙醇和硫酸氢钠的物质的量比为1∶4∶0.44,回流反应12 h,醚收率达90.0%.结果表明:硫酸氢钠能够代替硫酸作为醚化催化剂.比较了六水三氯化铁、五水四氯化锡和一水硫酸氢钠催化合成橙花素的催化活性.

  9. 菠萝叶纤维及其混纺织物的研究%Research on the Bromelia Fiber and Its Blended Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素敏; 虞树荣; 周小红

    2009-01-01

    制备了30/70菠萝叶纤维/长绒棉混纺纱和30/30/40菠萝叶纤维/粘胶/腈纶混纺纱,研究由该两种纱线制成的相应纬编针织物的服用性能,结果表明:菠萝叶纤维在混纺纱中呈束状,强伸性及初始模量差异性大;菠萝叶纤维/长绒棉纬编针织物可缝性、手感风格、抗折皱性能、起毛起球性较好,菠萝叶纤维/粘胶/腈纶纬编针织物柔软、易扭曲、弯曲起皱,悬垂性较好;织物的压缩性能、后整理稳定性能好.

  10. Biomonitoring and Control of Air Pollutants with Air Plant Tillandsia%空气凤梨对气体污染物的监测和修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桂灵; 王思维; 李鹏

    2011-01-01

    空气凤梨是一类生长在空气中、不需要土壤的特殊植物.其生长所需的水分和营养可以全部来自空气,因此也能够同时吸附或吸收大气降尘中的污染物(包括有机污染物及重金属污染物),从而成为有效的监测环境变化的"指示生物"和去除环境污染的修复植物.文章综述了空气凤梨的生物学特征,以及对环境污染的响应机制.

  11. Germinação de sementes de espécies medicinais do Rio Grande do Sul: Bromelia antiacantaha Bert., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. Macbride e Talinum patens (Jacq. Willdenow Seed germination of medicinal plants of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: Bromelia antiacantha Bert., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. Macbride and Talinum patens (Jacq. Willdenow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. T. da Rosa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies estudadas são ervas de expressiva dispersão no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e com uso difundido na farmacopeia popular. Estudou-se a influência de diferentes temperaturas constantes (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC sob condição de escuro ou de luz (fotoperíodo: luz/escuro 8h/16h e as temperaturas alternadas (10-20, 15-25, 20-30 e 25-35ºC sobre o comportamento germinativo das sementes. As sementes não germinadas foram submetidas ao teste de tetrazólio. Sementes de B. antiacantha germinaram acima de 80% nas temperaturas constantes de 25, 30 e 35ºC na luz e no escuro. Abaixo de 25ºC, as sementes apresentaram dormência relativa. No armazenamento por um ano sob condições ambientais (25 ºC e sob refrigeração (5ºC, a viabilidade das sementes foi mantida em 90%. Sementes de C cartliagenensis germinaram acima de 80% nas temperaturas alternadas. Em temperaturas constantes, a germinação foi nula, mas as sementes estavam viáveis. Em T patens constatou-se acima de 50% se sementes deterioradas e a germinabilidade foi semelhante nas temperaturas constantes em relação às alternadas. As três espécies podem ser propagadas através de sementes, se as condições de temperatura apropriadas forem observadas.These species of herbs are well distributed over all Rio Grande do Sul State, and are used to prepare medicine for the human population. The influence of constant temperatures (10ºC; 15ºC; 20ºC; 25ºC; 30ºC and 35ºC on the germination of seeds during a photoperiod of 8 hours, was analyzed. Experiments were also performed in darkness, and at alternating temperatures (10-20ºC; 15-25ºC; 20-30ºC; 25-35ºC. Seeds that did not germinate were submitted to the tetrazolium test. Over 80% of the seeds of B. antiacantha germinated at constant temperatures of 25º, 30º or 35ºC, both in light and darkness. Below 25ºC, the seeds presented relative dormancy. Storage during one year under laboratory conditions (25ºC, or at a low temperature (5ºC allowed for 90% of seed viability. Over 80% of the seeds of C. cartliagensis germinated at alternating temperatures, but no germination was observed at constant temperatures, although the seeds remained viable. T. patens presented over 50% of deteriorated seeds and final germination was similar at constant and alternating temperatures. The three species can be propagated through seeds, if the appropriate temperature requirements are observed for each of them.

  12. Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    species previously called simpsoni in Kenya, Tanzania, and Malawi is bromeliae . In Uganda, specimens of Irmba and Kampala counties, which were identified...as sin soni, are bromeliae , and the specimens of Karamoja Kaabong, identified as soni, are romeliae and lilii (Theobald). However, 91t of the...specimens o the complex were bromeliae and only 9t of the specimens were lilii, which may be the non-man-biting member of the complex. Examination of all

  13. Medical Entomology Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study of the type-specimens of simpsoni, Zilii, bromeliae and other available material from the African region was completed and a...designated, fully described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters for recognizing si.mpsoni, lilii and bromeliae females are presented. Characters for...highly variable species as simpsoni, bromeliae and closely related species. Morphological differences exhibited in the adult stage of "simpsoni

  14. Systematics of Aedes Mosquitoes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    for publication. The first paper, entitled "Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus vector in East Africa," was...ssp. denderensis Wolfs- (new record for, Ivory Coast, should be elevated to specific status) bromeliae (Theobald) dendrophilus complex nir. opok

  15. H2SO4改性活性炭催化合成橙花素%Synthesis of Nerolin Bromelia Catalyzed by Activated Carbon Modified by H2SO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖东彩; 杨金会; 赵艳敏; 王伟; 刘万毅

    2010-01-01

    以活性炭负载硫酸作为一种新型、便宜且有效的环境友好固体催化剂,催化合成了橙花素.考察了反应时间、无水乙醇用量、催化剂用量对合成工艺的影响,确定了最佳反应条件为n(β-萘酚):n(无水乙醇)=1:8,催化剂用量1.2 g,反应时间5 h,反应温度80℃.在此条件下,橙花素产率为91.8%.

  16. Response of a lichen and two epiphytic vascular species as indicators of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, G.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Gudino, G.L.; Wannaz, E.D. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales; Carreras, H.A.; Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Plant material from Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog and Swinsc., Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia tricholepis Baker were transplanted to eleven monitoring sites, categorized as urban, farming and farming/cattle-raising. The concentrations of pigments, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were determined. Chlorophyll b / chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a / chlorophyll a ratios were also calculated, and a Pollution Index (PI) and a Foliar Damage Index (FDI) were calculated from some physiological parameters. (orig.)

  17. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  18. 铁兰的结构及其作为重金属生物监测器在空气污染评估研究中的应用%The structure of Tillandsia and its application as heavy metals biomonitor in metallic air pollution assessment studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEIKHNEJAD-BISHE Ommeaymen; 赵峰; RAJABTABAR-DARVISHI Ali; MOSTOFIZADEH Ali; 黄玉东

    2014-01-01

    铁兰是一种不从土壤汲取养分的气生植物,在很多国家被用于空气污染的监测研究.虽然铁兰作为生物监测被广泛报道,但却很少有关于铁兰自身结构与其作为生物监测器间相关性的研究.由于它们从降水中吸收水分、养料以及大气污染物,因此,通过检测其组织中累积的重金属即可判断空气的主要污染源.为了进行环境监测,常需要依据土地使用类型、人类活动范围以及距离重金属源的距离进行分类采样,并且要区分农业、城镇、工业及交通区域,铁兰因其广泛的生长适应性、低廉的成本、可长期在不同区域生长并易于采样,被许多研究者认为是环境污染监测中重金属富集的理想植物.

  19. UNA NUEVA COMBINACIÓN Y NUEVOS REGISTROS EN LAS BROMELIACEAE DE EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una nueva combinación, Werauhia montana y se discuten sus relaciones con W. nephrolepis. Además se registra por primera vez, la presencia de Aechmea bromeliifolia, Pitcairnia maidifolia y Tillandsia balbisiana para El Salvador.

  20. Spider-fed bromeliads: seasonal and interspecific variation in plant performance

    OpenAIRE

    GONCALVES, Ana Zangirolame; MERCIER, Helenice; MAZZAFERA, Paulo; Romero,Gustavo Quevedo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Several animals that live on bromeliads can contribute to plant nutrition through nitrogen provisioning (digestive mutualism). The bromeliad-living spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae) inhabits and breeds on Bromelia balansae in regions of South America, but in specific regions can also appear on Ananas comosus (pineapple) plantations and Aechmea distichantha. Methods Using isotopic and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments, the role of labelled ((15)N) spider faec...

  1. VASCULAR EPIPHYTE COMPONENT OCCURING IN URBAN TREES IN THE SQUARE PROFESSOR JOSE INACIO IN PIRATININGA COUNTY, SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are plants cropped in other plants to damage them. The main characteristics of this group of plants is unknown in this part of Brazil, making it important to study this subject. The aim of this work was to characterize the structural and the floristic composition of vascular epiphytes on urban trees; to classify ecological categories species, according to hoist and to calculate community diversity. The studied area (Professor Jose Inacio Square, standed at the municipal district of Piratininga, Sao Paulo State. The climate is Cwa according to Köeppen classification and sandy phase dark red oxisol (latosol. It had been identified 10 species encompassing 6 gender and 6 families, being with best improvement the Bromeliaceae, representing 30 % of data. Tillandsia, with 3 species, was the most abundant gender and featured holoepiphytes were represented, with 70% species. About epiphyte community structure: Tillandsia recurvata and Tillandsia tricholepis were the most important (with bigger VIe in the studies community. Diversity was 2.371 nats/individual to specie and 2.04 nats/individual per family. The small number of species and low diversity index should be due to local conditions, urban area, with different features from that founded at normal eco-systems.

  2. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring.

  3. [Myths concerning malarial transmission among Amazonian Indians and their relation with 2 types of transmission encountered in the Amazonian forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molez, J F

    1999-01-01

    Among the Indians Desana's (Tukano amerindians) in the Upper Rio Negro, the interseasonal variation of the malarial fevers were associated with two myths (localised in two distinguishable places). One myth associates the malarial with the rivers which contain "malaria pots". Conception based on an observation of localised water collection in the banks and the rocky rapids ("banks and rocky's fever"). The transmission and the anophelian density present variation between the seasons in relation to the river's level. Another myth associates malarial fevers in the forest, with the song of a frog ("fever's frog") and the flowering and fructification of a tree (Poaqueira sericea Thul.). There is in South America a particular type of forest malaria, known as "Bromelia malaria" and denounced in human and/or simian transmission. This forest malaria is transmitted by the a sub-genus anopheles (Kerteszia) which larval breeding are areal in the canopy. The breeding places are found in the forest in the epiphyte bromeliads. To understand this type of transmission, we must take reference to the previous endomological data at the Upper Oyapock Wayâpi (Tupi amerindians). This Bromelia malaria could fluctuated according larval density variation, related to washing of epiphytes (end of the rainy season) or to their flowering (end of the dry season). The "fever's frog" myth collected at the Desana's in the Upper Rio Negro can be related to the existence of Bromelia malaria in this amazonian habitat. These myths showed the perfect adaptation of the amerindians to their environment and their complete knowledge of the neotropical forest.

  4. Cambios en el patrón de desarrollo floral de Neoregelia 'Flandria' (Bromeliaceae analizados mediante Cadenas de Markov Floral Developmental Pattern Changes on Neoregelia‘Flandria’(BROMELIACEAE Analysed by Markov Chain methodologyADRIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparo de Barrera Ángela

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoregelia 'Flandria'y N. 'Van Durme'son cultivares ornamentales de bromelias. Sussemillas no son viables y la propagación in vitrocausa alteraciones en el variegado delfollaje, por tanto la brotación vegetativa se constituye en la única opción de propa-gación estable. Este artículo hace referencia a los patrones de desarrollo floral (p de72 bromelias y su relación con la brotación vegetativa por efecto de 3 tratamientos:ANA 190 ppm (T1, Ethrel: ANA + ETHREL (T2 y ETHREL, (T3, y divididos poredad: E1 y E2. El resultado de la aplicación de estos tratamientos fue que se obtu-vieron plantas más elongadas y 6 nuevos patrones. Mediante la metodología de cade-nas de Markov se estimaron la evolución de cada patrón hacia los demás a nivel deprobabilidad (si/no y el porcentaje de esta para cada caso.Neoregelia 'Flandria'and N. 'Van Durme'are ornamental cultivars of Bromelia.Propagation by seeds is not viable and prunes constitutes the only way to propagateavoiding alterations. In this article the developmental floral pattern of 72 Bromeliastreated with ANA 190 ppm (T1, Ethrel: ANA + ETHREL,(T2 y ETHREL, (T3 anddivided into two age groups: E1 y E2 are shown. The treatments studied generated moreelongated plants and six new patterns. Using the Markov chain methodology theprobability to evolve to any pattern and the percentage of each were studied.

  5. Studies of Cystoseira assemblages in Northern Atlantic Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fernández, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula contains 24 specific and infraespecific taxa of the genus Cystoseira, but only 6 inhabit in Northern Iberia: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia, and C. usneoides. The Cystoseira assemblages exhibit a complex structure and stratification that allows the presence of a large associate biota and a rich epiphytic flora. Although in the Mediterranean Sea several species have been analyzed in depth, the Atlantic ones are less studied. A revision of the literature (1931-2014 and grey information was made to know the diversity of the North Atlantic Iberian Cystoseira assemblages. The community of C. baccata harbors the biggest number of species (215, followed by C. tamariscifolia (162 and C. usneoides (126, whereas the community with fewest species was the C. foeniculacea one (34. More than 70 species were present in the majority of the Cystoseira assemblages. In this article, are revised also environmental issues in the Cystoseira assemblages, as pollution and anthropogenic pressures or disturbances that cause regression in their communities, and effects of biological invasions by non-native species. As a conclusion, it will necessary to study the Cystoseira assemblage in depth, starting by research of C. baccata along Northern Iberia, as it is an exclusive and widely distributed Atlantic species with very scarce information concerning its role in structuring the communities.La Península Ibérica contiene 24 táxones del género Cystoseira, pero sólo 6 habitan en las costas del norte: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia y C. usneoides. Las comunidades de Cystoseira muestran una estructura compleja debido a su estratificación, lo que permite el desarrollo de una amplia biota asociada y una gran riqueza de flora epífita. Aunque diversas especies mediterráneas han sido analizadas en profundidad, las atl

  6. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

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    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  7. La selva baja caducifolia en una corriente de lava volcánica en el centro de veracruz: lista florística de la flora vascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castillo Campos; Patricia Dávila Aranda; José Alejandro Zavala Hurtado

    2007-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Tillandsia borealis, conocida de los estados de Durango y Sinaloa, México. Los caracteres que permiten reconocer a la especie aquí propuesta son: las inflorescencias erectas, las espigas elípticas a ovado elípticas, provistas de un pedúnculo corto, robusto y ebracteado y los pétalos verdes pálidos. Se compara T. borealis con T. carloshankii Matuda, T. prodigiosa Baker y T. macrochlamys Baker las cuales presentan características similares y se incluye un cuadro comparativ...

  8. NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA LA FLORA DE HONDURAS Y EL PARQUE NACIONAL MONTAÑA DE CELAQUE

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    Hermes VEGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  9. Nuevos registros para la flora de Honduras y el Parque Nacional Montaña de Celaque.

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    Hermes Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  10. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2003-12-01

    Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appears again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  11. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  12. First record of arthropods associated with Greigia juareziana (Bromeliaceae Primer registro de artrópodos asociados a Greigia juareziana (Bromeliaceae

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    Fernando Hernández-Baz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first known records for Mexico and the Neotropics of arthropods associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Greigia juareziana. The site locality for the collection of the host species is the southeast portion of the San Martín Tuxtla volcano in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Four species of arthropods were detected within the leaf axils and infloresences of the bromeliad, 3 of which were insects Anasa bellator, Proxis punctulatus and Apion sp. belonging to the Orders of Hemiptera and Coleoptera. The remaining species was identified only to family (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Lithobidae.Presentamos los primeros registros conocidos para México y los neotrópicos de los artrópodos asociados con la bromelia terrestre Greigia juareziana. La localidad para la recolección de esta especie es la parte sureste del volcán San Martín Tuxtla, en el estado de Veracruz, México. Se detectaron 4 especies de artrópodos dentro de las axilas de las hojas e inflorescencias de la bromelia, 3 de los cuales fueron insectos Anasa bellator, Proxies punctulatus y Apion sp., pertenecientes a los órdenes Hemiptera y Coleoptera. La especie restante fue identificada sólo hasta familia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Lithobidae.

  13. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae populations

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    Carvalho-Pinto Carlos José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appers again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  14. Potential impact of harvesting on the population dynamics of two epiphytic bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana; Valverde, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Large numbers of epiphytes are extracted from cloud forests for ornamental use and illegal trade in Latin America. We examined the potential effects of different harvesting regimes on the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia multicaulis and Tillandsia punctulata. The population dynamics of these species were studied over a 2-year period in a tropical montane cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Prospective and retrospective analyses were used to identify which demographic processes and life-cycle stages make the largest relative contribution to variation in population growth rate (λ). The effect of simulated harvesting levels on population growth rates was analysed for both species. λ of both populations was highly influenced by survival (stasis), to a lesser extent by growth, and only slightly by fecundity. Vegetative growth played a central role in the population dynamics of these organisms. The λ value of the studied populations did not differ significantly from unity: T. multicaulis λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.982 (0.897-1.060) and T. punctulata λ = 0.967 (0.815-1.051), suggesting population stability. However, numerical simulation of different levels of extraction showed that λ would drop substantially even under very low (2%) harvesting levels. Matrix analysis revealed that T. multicaulis and T. punctulata populations are likely to decline and therefore commercial harvesting would be unsustainable. Based on these findings, management recommendations are outlined.

  15. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  16. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

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    Erllens Éder-Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas convencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl. A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia.This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symmetrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome

  17. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought.

  18. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct.

  19. Reproductive behavior and seasonal occurrence of Psecas viridipurpureus (Salticidae, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa-Feres; Romero; Gonçalves-De- Freitas E; Feres

    2000-05-01

    The reproductive behavior and the seasonal occurrence of Psecas viridipurpureus were studied at the Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista, a small conservation area in the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil (49 degrees 22'50"W and 20 degrees 48'36"S). P. viridipurpureus occurred on "gravatá", a bromeliaceous plant (Bromelia balansae, Bromeliaceae) which does not accumulate rain water. During the courtship display the couple occupied the median region of the "gravatá" leaves, with the male always located in a higher position than the female. The males of P. viridipurpureus showed a complex courtship behavior, which included five motor patterns. The courtship and mating behavior occurred preponderantly during the rainy season and the juvenile recruitment between December and July. The retreat of P. viridipurpureus differs from the Salticidae pattern, since the egg sacs are covered with a plain silk cover and are not wrapped in cocoons.

  20. Spatial variation in the strength of mutualism between a jumping spider and a terrestrial bromeliad: Evidence from the stable isotope 15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q.; Vasconcellos-Neto, João; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2008-05-01

    Psecas chapoda, a neotropical jumping spider strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae in cerrados and semi-deciduous forests in South America, effectively contributes to plant nutrition and growth. In this study, our goal was to investigate if spider density caused spatial variations in the strength of this spider-plant mutualism. We found a positive significant relationship between spider density and δ15N values for bromeliad leaves in different forest fragments. Open grassland Bromeliads were associated with spiders and had higher δ15N values compared to forest bromeliads. Although forest bromeliads had no association with spiders their total N concentrations were higher. These results suggest that bromeliad nutrition is likely more litter-based in forests and more spider-based in open grasslands. This study is one of the few to show nutrient provisioning and conditionality in a spider-plant system.

  1. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

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    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  2. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

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    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  3. Phylogeny of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA loci reveals the evolution of the tank habit within the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Katharina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Zizka, Georg

    2009-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within subfamily Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae, Poales) were inferred using DNA sequence data from the low-copy nuclear gene phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and five plastid loci (matK gene, 3'trnK intron, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, atpB-rbcL spacer). The PRK dataset exhibited a considerably higher proportion of potentially informative characters than the plastid dataset (16.9% vs. 3.1%), leading to a higher resolution and improved nodal support of the resulting phylogenies. Bromelia is resolved as sister to the remainder of the subfamily, albeit this relationship receives only weak nodal support. The basal position of Bromelia, as well as Deinacanthon, Greigia, Ochagavia, Fascicularia and Fernseea within the subfamily is corroborated and the remainder of the subfamily forms a highly supported clade (the eu-bromelioids). By the inclusion of nuclear data the sister group position of Fernseea to the eu-bromelioids is now highly supported. Within the eu-bromelioids the resolution of the clade representing the more advanced core bromelioids has increased and further demonstrates the highly problematic generic concept of Aechmea as well as Quesnelia. Moreover, the data were used to examine the evolution of sepal symmetry and the tank habit. Tracing of character transitions onto the molecular phylogeny implies that both characters have undergone only few transitions within the subfamily and thus are not as homoplasious as previously assumed. The character state reconstruction reveals the great importance of the evolution of the tank habit for the diversification of the core bromelioids.

  4. Dysmicoccus de la Región Neotropical (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Dysmicoccus from the Neotropical Region (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    María Cristina Granara de Willink

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran 16 especies: D. alius sp. nov., D. bonaerensis sp. nov., D. cacao sp. nov., D. caribensis sp. nov., D. fusagasugae sp. nov., D. gracilis sp. nov., D. patagonicus sp. nov., D. perotensis sp. nov., D. pini sp. nov., D. plenus sp. nov., D. rex sp. nov., D. tillandsiae sp. nov., D. tococae sp. nov., D. umbambae sp. nov., D. varius sp. nov., D. vescum sp. nov. y se diagnostican 19: D. boninsis (Kuwana, D. brachydactylus Miller & McKenzie, D. brevipes (Cockerell, D. dactylus Miller & McKenzie, D. dariensis Williams & Granara de Willink, D. grassi (Leonardi, D. hambletoni Wlliams & Granara de Willink, D. hurdi McKenzie, D. inquilinus (Newstead, D. joannesiae (Costa Lima, D. mackenziei Beardsley, D. neobrevipes Beardsley, D. pinicolus McKenzie, D. probrevipes (Morrison, D. radicis Green, D. rapaneae Williams & Granara de Willink, D. sylvarum Williams & Granara de Willink, D. texensis (Tinsley y D. tibouchinae (Hambleton. Se cita por primera vez para la Argentina, D. brachydactylus; para Costa Rica, D. hambletoni; para Cuba, D. hurdi y para Uruguay, D. brevipes. Las nuevas especies fueron encontradas en: Argentina: D. alius, D. bonaerensis y D, patagoniensis; Brasil: D. tococae y D. umbambae; Colombia: D. cacao, D. fusagasugae y D. vescum; Costa Rica: D. rex; Puerto Rico: D. plenum; México: D. perotensis, D, pini y D. tillandsiae; Brasil y Uruguay: D. umbambae; Colombia y Venezuela: D. caribensis y D. varius; Brasil, Costa Rica y Guyana: D. gracilis. Se incluye una clave para las 35 especies de Dysmicoccus de la región neotropical, que afectan 178 especies reunidas en 50 familias vegetales; se amplía la distribución de varias especies.Sixteen new species are described and illustrated in the present paper: D. alius sp. nov., D. bonaerensis sp. nov., D. cacao sp. nov., D. caribensis sp. nov., D. fusagasugae sp. nov., D. gracilis sp. nov., D. patagonicus sp. nov., D. perotensis sp. nov., D. pini sp. nov., D. plenus sp. nov. D

  5. Poluição e a densidade de vegetação: BTEX em algumas áreas públicas de Curitiba - PR, Brasil Pollution and density of vegetation: BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba - PR, Brazil

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    Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba-PR, Brazil, was evaluated. Their concentrations were then related to the vegetation's density in each area. Average benzene concentrations varied from 3.9 to 6.1 μg m-3, with higher values occurring in poorly dense vegetation areas. For toluene, average concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 μg m-3. The effect of such pollutants was evaluated by means of a bio indicator, Tillandsia stricta. Variation in total chlorophyll content and in stomatic density were detected in some samples and may be related to the BTEX concentrations found in the studied areas.

  6. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

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    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  7. Anatomia de raízes de nove espécies de Bromeliaceae (Poales da região amazônica do estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Anatomy of the roots of nine species of Bromeliaceae (Poales from the Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca caracterizar raízes de Bromeliaceae: Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae e T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae ocorrentes nas regiões amazônicas (Mato Grosso-MT, procurando levantar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. As espécies estudadas são epífitas e suas raízes se caracterizam por apresentar velame pluriestratificado, córtex diferenciado, endoderme e periciclo unisseriados, cilindro vascular poliarco e medula com células de paredes espessadas. Estruturas anatômicas como: número de camadas e tipo de espessamento das paredes das células do velame, tipo de espessamento de parede da exoderme e endoderme, presença de idioblastos contendo cristais e número de pólos de protoxilema agrupam as espécies nos diferentes gêneros e subfamílias. A presença de canais de mucilagem no córtex de A. castelnavii relatados pela primeira vez na literatura para Bromeliaceae é caráter diagnóstico. As raízes de Dyckia e Tillandsia apresentam maior número de caracteres comuns, representando maior similaridade entre Pitcairnioideae e Tillandsioideae. Raízes com velame, exoderme com células de paredes espessadas constituindo uma camada mecânica, canais de mucilagem, lacunas de ar no córtex interno e idioblastos com cristais são estruturas adaptativas ao hábito epifítico.This study aimed to characterize the roots of Bromeliaceae, Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae and T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae, that occur in Amazonian regions (Mato Grosso-MT, in order to find features of taxonomic value and ecological importance. The studied species are epiphytes and their roots are characterized by a multi-layered velamen, differentiated cortex, uniseriate

  8. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    TC. Rocha-Pessôa

    Full Text Available We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m² (10 x 10 m recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5 and density (6360 ramets.ha-1 of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  9. Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes along an urbanization gradient.

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    Becker, Diego Fedrizzi Petry; Linden, Rafael; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

    2017-01-27

    Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes were analyzed in isolated trees along an urbanization gradient in Southern Brazil. A total of 20 phorophytes were sampled in the main street of each site. Concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc were measured in the leaves of Tillandsia recurvata L. using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. A decreasing gradient of epiphyte richness and coverage was observed as urbanization increased. Vehicle fleet and demographic density were the parameters most correlated with the reduction of epiphytic diversity. In T. recurvata, significantly higher values of cadmium, lead and zinc were recorded in the most urbanized areas, and were strongly related to the vehicle fleet and to the demographic density in these sites. The results demonstrated that these parameters could be applied to the diagnosis of environmental quality in urban areas, allowing standardized analyses in other regions.

  10. The role of flowering plant species in the survival of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae along the lower Orange River, South Africa

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    E. Myburgh

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of the role that plants play in the survival of adult blackflies by providing shelter and carbohydrate food. A detailed phenological study of the 29 most abundant plant species in the Augrabies Falls National Park showed that throughout the year the percentage of plant species flowering was remarkably constant. It is therefore unlikely that the availability of carbohydrates would limit adult Simulium survival at any time of the year. Blackflies were recorded feeding on the flowers of Pappea capensis. Acacia karroo, A. mellifera, Tamarix usneoides, Ziziphus mucronata, Scholia afra and Sisyndite spartea. An additional survey showed that another 64 plant species flowered throughout the year, and these can be regarded as potential carbohydrate sources. Blackflies were observed sheltering in dense shrubs and trees that provide protection against predation and harsh environmental conditions. This study suggests that vegetated drainage lines are the means by which adult blackflies survive dispersal away from the river. It is concluded that carbohydrate scarcity cannot be considered a limiting factor to adult blackfly survival along the lower Orange River.

  11. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

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    Patrícia Valentão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight. As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight, followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight. These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process.

  12. Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya

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    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Upreti, Dalip Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ13C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ13C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent micro-environmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.

  13. Dysmicoccus de la Región Neotropical (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    María Cristina GRANARA de WILLINK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran 16 especies: D. alius sp. nov., D. bonaerensis sp. nov., D. cacao sp. nov., D. caribensis sp. nov., D. fusagasugae sp. nov., D. gracilis sp. nov., D. patagonicus sp. nov., D. perotensis sp. nov., D. pini sp. nov., D. plenus sp. nov., D. rex sp. nov., D. tillandsiae sp. nov., D. tococae sp. nov., D. umbambae sp. nov., D. varius sp. nov., D. vescum sp. nov. y se diagnostican 19: D. boninsis (Kuwana, D. brachydactylus Miller & McKenzie, D. brevipes (Cockerell, D. dactylus Miller & McKenzie, D. dariensis Williams & Granara de Willink, D. grassi (Leonardi, D. hambletoni Wlliams & Granara de Willink, D. hurdi McKenzie, D. inquilinus (Newstead, D. joannesiae (Costa Lima, D. mackenziei Beardsley, D. neobrevipes Beardsley, D. pinicolus McKenzie, D. probrevipes (Morrison, D. radicis Green, D. rapaneae Williams & Granara de Willink, D. sylvarum Williams & Granara de Willink, D. texensis (Tinsley y D. tibouchinae (Hambleton. Se cita por primera vez para la Argentina, D. brachydactylus; para Costa Rica, D. hambletoni; para Cuba, D. hurdi y para Uruguay, D. brevipes. Las nuevas especies fueron encontradas en: Argentina: D. alius, D. bonaerensis y D, patagoniensis; Brasil: D. tococae y D. umbambae; Colombia: D. cacao, D. fusagasugae y D. vescum; Costa Rica: D. rex; Puerto Rico: D. plenum; México: D. perotensis, D, pini y D. tillandsiae; Brasil y Uruguay: D. umbambae; Colombia y Venezuela: D. caribensis y D. varius; Brasil, Costa Rica y Guyana: D. gracilis. Se incluye una clave para las 35 especies de Dysmicoccus de la región neotropical, que afectan 178 especies reunidas en 50 familias vegetales; se amplía la distribución de varias especies.

  14. Plantas y hongos tintóreos de los wichís del Gran Chaco

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    María Eugenia Suárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación etnobotánica que trata los tintes vegetales y fúngicos entre los indígenas wichí del Chaco Semiárido. Se realizaron trabajos de campo con informantes calificados y ocasionales de ambos sexos en localidades de las provincias argentinas de Salta y Formosa. Asimismo, se hizo una revisión minuciosa de la bibliografía vinculada con el tema. Se encontraron 24 especies de plantas y 2 de hongos que son usadas para colorear productos textiles realizados a partir de fibras de cháguar (Bromelia hieronymi y B. urbaniana. Se proporcionan informaciones y detalles sobre los nombres vernáculos de las especies, las partes usadas, los procedimientos de tinción y los colores logrados. El número total de plantas tintóreas encontrado es alto comparado con los que fueron citados para otras etnias chaquenses y se registraron especies que antes no fueron mencionadas como tintóreas entre los wichís.Dye plants and fungi among the Wichí people of the Gran Chaco. This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical investigation into plant and fungal dyes used by the Wichí people of the Semiarid Chaco. Fieldwork was carried out with occasional and key informants, both men and women, in several locations of Salta and Formosa provinces in Argentina. Moreover, a detailed examination of the bibliography on the topic was conducted. Twenty-four plant species and two fungi that are used for coloring textile products made from cháguar fibers (Bromelia hieronymi and B. urbaniana were found. Information and details on the vernacular names of the species, the parts that are used, the dying technique and the colors obtained are provided. The total number of dye plants found is high compared with the ones cited among other Chaco ethnic groups, and records were made of species that had not previously been mentioned among the Wichí people as being used for dyes.

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE HOJAS CONSUMIDAS POR Tremarctos ornatus (URCIDAE Y POSIBLE RELACIÓN EN SU DATACIÓN Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

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    YUSLENI FIERRO TOSCAZO

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus, con base a la presencia de microorganismos aislados de restos vegetales de las hojas de Tillandsia spp. recogidos en campo, correspondientes a diferentes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm de la base de la hoja consumida por el animal fueron procesadas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y caracterización de los microorganismos presentes, encontrando que los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron cocobacilos (Pseudomonas sp. y bacilos Gram negativos, (los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras menores a seis meses. Morfotipos correspondientes a cocobacilos Gram positivos solo se encontraron en hojas entre 13 meses y bacilos Gram positivos (Bacillus sp. en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos Gram positivos solo se presentaron en la muestra de hoja con 56 meses de descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, dos corresponden a Mucor sp. y Trichoderma sp., además de Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. El género Trichoderma sp. se encontró asociado a por lo menos uno de los morfotipos anteriormente mencionados en rastros mayores de un mes e inferiores a cinco meses.We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between one and three months old. Positive

  16. Bromeliaceae from Pico Piraí, Guaratuba Municipality (Parana, Brazil Bromeliaceae Juss. do Pico Piraí, município de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil

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    Rosemeri Morokawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a Bromeliaceae Juss. floristic survey in the Piraí Mountain, Araraquara complex(Guaratuba Municipality, Paraná State are presented. Twenty six species included in nine genera and three subfamilies were registered. Bromelioideae presented the highest genera diversity and Tillandsioideae showed the highest species diversity, including twelve species belonging to the genus Vriesea (46%. It was the first register of Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vrieseaflava And.Costa, H. Luther & Wand., Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm. at the Guaratuba Municipality. Dyckia leptostachya Baker was collected for the first time at the coastal zone of Paraná State, being this record done after 40 years since its last register in the State. For each species, information on phenology, geographic distribution and vulnerability level are included. Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Bromeliaceae Juss. no Pico Piraí, Complexo do Araraquara (Guaratuba, Paraná. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 26 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros e três subfamílias. Bromelioideae englobou a maior diversidade de gêneros e Tillandsioideae registrou-se a maior diversidade de espécies, sendo 12 delas incluídas no gênero Vriesea (46%. As seguintes espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez no município de Guaratuba: Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vriesea flava And. Costa, H. Luther & Wand.,Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm.. Dyckia leptostachya Baker foi registrada pela primeira vez na zona litorânea paranaense e após 40 anos do último

  17. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

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    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  18. Diversidade de bromeliáceas epífitas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil Diversity of epiphytic bromeliads in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a diversidade no nível de espécie oferecem subsídios importantes para o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação biológica. Neste contexto, estudos com Bromeliaceae merecem destaque, especialmente porque o grupo é importante ecologicamente, mas ainda pouco conhecido na Região Norte. Neste trabalho, foram demarcadas duas parcelas de 100 m x 100 m em uma floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, em Belém, Estado do Pará. Cada parcela foi subdividida em oito parcelas de 50 m x 50 m, tendo todas as espécies e espécimes de bromeliáceas epífitas registradas e quantificadas. A diversidade do grupo foi calculada utilizando o índice de Shannon-Wiener. Foram registrados 1.339 indivíduos pertencentes a oito espécies e quatro gêneros. Tillandsia e Aechmea apresentaram maior riqueza. A diversidade de espécies na área foi de H= 1,10, apresentando dominância acentuada de muitos indivíduos em poucas espécies.Information about diversity at the species level offers data for sustainable development and biological conservation. In this context, studies about Bromeliaceae are noteworthy, especially because this group is ecologically important and poorly known in the North Region of Brazil. In this study, two grids (100 m x 100 m were delineated in a floodplain forest in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The grids were subdivided into eight grids of 50 m x 50 m, and all species and individuals of epiphytic Bromeliaceae were recorded and quantified. The diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener index. A total of 1,339 individuals, belonging to eight species and four genera were recorded. Tillandsia and Aechmea presented the greatest richness. The diversity of species was H= 1.10, presenting sharp dominance of many individuals of few species.

  19. Carcterización de microorganismos asociados a la descomposición de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae y posible relación en su datación Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

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    Sánchez Jimena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus, con base a la presencia de microorganismos aislados de restos vegetales de las hojas de Tillandsia spp. recogidos en campo, correspondientes a diferentes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm de la base de la hoja consumida por el animal fueron procesadas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y caracterización de los microorganismos presentes, encontrando que los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron cocobacilos (Pseudomonas sp. y bacilos Gram negativos, (los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras menores a seis meses. Morfotipos correspondientes a cocobacilos Gram positivos solo se encontraron en hojas entre 13 meses y bacilos Gram positivos (Bacillus sp. en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos Gram positivos solo se presentaron en la muestra de hoja con 56 meses de descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, dos corresponden a Mucor sp. y Trichoderma sp., además de Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. El género Trichoderma sp. se encontró asociado a por lo menos uno de los morfotipos anteriormente mencionados en rastros mayores de un mes e inferiores a cinco meses.We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between

  20. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm, de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cortos y microhábitat exclusivo en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son largas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por 6-8 notas y un armónico. La descripción de Pristimantis paquishae sp. nov., es el resultado de un levantamiento de información de la herpetofauna, en una de las mesetas de arenisca remotas y menos conocidas, en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

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    RODOLFO DE MORAES PEIXOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem. A.C.Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hayne, and Selaginella convoluta Spring. The presence of phenolic components, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids was verified for all the tested extracts. The mean minimal bactericide concentrations of the extracts of E. spectabile, B. laciniosa, and N. variegate were 11,379, 11,405, and 11,995 μg/mL, respectively. The highest inhibitory activities were observed for A. cearensis and H. martiana, which inhibited 88.1 and 99.4% of the isolates, respectively. Other studies focusing on in vitro and in vivo activities should be undertaken.

  2. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  3. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  4. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light.

  5. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  6. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  7. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: hcarreras@com.uncor.edu; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases.

  8. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M C; Kawakita, K; Slusarski, S R; Pereira, G F

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq-Site 6). The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.

  9. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μ g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μ g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  10. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  11. Influence of growth regulators (IBA, BA on anatomical and morphological changes in bromeliads in in vitro culture

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    Renata Galek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study were Tillandsia coronata and Guzmania monostachya. The material has been obtained by means of in vitro propagation. The plants were grown for 18 weeks on various kinds of media. Morphological changes were recorded in both species subjected to action of growth regulators. The changes in plant habit were linked with anatomic build. The effect of cytokinin BA upon growth of the stem pith was found, transversely to its axis, through development of numerous meristematic centres and growth and development of adventitious shoots. Leaves of plant grown on media containing cyto-kinin BA were build of a higher number of cell layers of assimilation parenchyma. In plants grown on media with addition of cytokinin the size of stomatal cells was smaller and was accompanied by analogous changes in size of epidermis cells proper. The bushy type of the plants, caused by presence of cytokinin in medium, resulted from the increase of thickness and breadth of leaves and growth of the stem pith, with simultaneous inhibition of cells' elongation. Auxin IBA did not favour the growth of the existing axillary shoots, but stimulated elongation of the stem pith. The stomata of plants of both species grown on media with addition of auxin were bigger. As result of the applied growth regulators a higher frequency of appearance of binucleate cells was found in parenchyma cells of the stem and leaves in both the species studied.

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE HOJAS CONSUMIDAS POR Tremarctos ornatus (URCIDAE Y POSIBLE RELACIÓN EN SU DATACIÓN

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    YUSLENI FIERRO TOSCAZO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus, con base a la presencia de microorganismos aislados de restos ve- getales de las hojas de Tillandsia spp. recogidos en campo, correspondientes a diferen- tes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm de la base de la hoja consumida por el animal fueron procesadas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y caracteriza- ción de los microorganismos presentes, encontrando que los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron cocobacilos (Pseudomonas sp. y bacilos Gram negativos, (los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras menores a seis meses. Morfotipos correspondientes a cocobacilos Gram positivos solo se encontraron en hojas entre 1-3 meses y bacilos Gram positivos (Bacillus sp. en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos Gram positivos solo se presentaron en la muestra de hoja con 5-6 meses de descomposición. Se encontra- ron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, dos corresponden a Mucor sp. y Trichoderma sp., además de Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. El género Trichoderma sp. se encontró asociado a por lo menos uno de los morfotipos anteriormente mencionados en rastros mayores de un mes e inferiores a cinco meses.

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF NANOPARTICLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND ECOTOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta M. Gatti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A special greenhouse was constructed to verify the impact of nanoparticles dispersed in air and in the soil on plant and small animal models.  A 40x4m2 greenhouse was divided in two specular parts in order to have a polluted area (B  and the reference one (A. Two different systems to spray nanoparticles (NPs were set up: the first consists in a combustion of wood or coke perfused with an alcoholic solution containing Copper and Cobalt NPs and following emission of the micro and nanosized by-products in the greenhouse. The second system is a suitable sprayer of NPs starting from a water solution of engineered NPs of Cobalt, Nickel, Silver, Titania, Cerine. Plants (tomato, rice, tillandsia and moss and insects (Ceratitis capitata were exposed to NPs according to specific protocols, as well as  aquatic marine animal models (Earth worms (Lumbricus rubellus, Sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus, Brine shrimps (Artemia salina, Zebrafish (Danio rerio, Barnacles (Balanus amphitrite. The results indicate that the NPs produce some effects in photosinthesis in the plant and biological damages at the developmental stage in the sea urchins.

  14. Bromeliaceae endémicas del Perú

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    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Bromeliaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 19 géneros y alrededor de 450 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004, todas hierbas, epífitas o terrestres. En este trabajo reconocemos 223 endemismos en 13 géneros. Se asignó las categorías de amenaza de la UICN a 161 taxones. Tres géneros, Tillandsia, Puya y Pitcairnia, son los que incluyen la mayoría de los endemismos en la familia. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan la mayoría de las regiones ecológicas, desde Bosques Pluviales Montanos, Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos en el lado oriental del país, hasta las regiones Mesoandina, de la Puna Seca y Húmeda y Altoandina en el lado occidental, entre los 100 y 4700 m de altitud. Aproximadamente la mitad de los endemismos es conocido solamente de una localidad, reflejando, en parte, la escasa herborización de los ambientes donde esta familia es diversa y por otro la falta de especialista (-s en el país. Veintiún de estas especies se encuentran representadas en áreas naturales protegidas.

  15. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  16. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  17. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Flores-Palacios

    Full Text Available Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  18. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

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    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  19. Caracterización de microorganismos involucrados en la descomposición de material vegetal consumido por Oso Andino Tremarctos ornatus (Ursidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinzón María Alejandra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus al establecer presencia o ausencia de microorganismos en restos vegetales de Tillandsia spp., recogidos en campo y que corresponden a diferentes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm a la base de la hoja consumida por el animal, fueron posteriormente procesadas en el laboratorio y se realizó la caracterización y determinación de los microorganismos presentes. Los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron los cocobacilos y bacilos Gram (-, los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras
    menores a seis meses. Cocobacilos Gram (+ solo aparecieron en hojas entre uno y tres meses y los bacilos Gram (+ exclusivamente en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos se presentaron únicamente en la muestra de hoja de cinco y seis meses en descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, de los cuales se identificaron Mucor spp. y Thricoderma spp. Los otros dos morfotipos no fueron identificados. Thricoderma spp. se encuentra asociado a por lo menos un hongo más.

  20. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  1. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Corona-López, Angélica María; Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Valencia-Díaz, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC) 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound) and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load) that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  2. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil; Biomonitoracao da qualidade do ar na Regiao Metropolitana do Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-08-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  3. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Henry I C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased. The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  4. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species (Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  5. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  6. Las plantas vasculares de los afloramientos rocosos de Suesca, Cordillera Oriental colombiana

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    Betancur Julio César

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon las plantas vasculares presentes en tres tipos de afloramientos rocosos del municipio de Suesca, departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia, ubicados entre 2.800 y 3.000 m de altitud. Estos sitios se denominaron Valle de los Halcones (VH, Farallones de Suesca (FS y Los Monolitos (LM. Cada planta fue recolectada, determinada y se le anotó la superficie en la que crecía (placa, repisa o fisura y el hábito de crecimiento (erecta, colgante o perpendicular a la superficie. Se encontraron 97 especies, correspondientes a 38 familias y 70 géneros. La familia más diversa fue Asteraceae, seguida de Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae y Polypodiaceae. El género con más especies fue Tillandsia, seguido de Polypodium. Los sitos de muestreo con mayor diversidad fueron VH y FS. En LM las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae y Poaceae, en FS Poaceae y Asteraceae y en VH Asteraceae y Orchidaceae. En VH las placas fue la superficie con mayor número de especies, mientras que en LM fueron las repisas y en FS las placas y las repisas. La mayoría de las especies encontradas en todos los sitos fueron erectas, seguidas de las perpendiculares a la superficie. Los tres sitios de muestreo mostraron alta similitud florística entre sí.

  7. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae) in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, G I; Mondragón, D; Santos-Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest), one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove), and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove). All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  8. Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiárido (Argentina Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine

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    Gustavo F. Scarpa

    Full Text Available Los indígenas Chorote pertenecen a la familia lingüística Mataco-mataguayo y se hallan asentados en el Chaco Semiárido argentino sobre las costas del río Pilcomayo, provincia de Salta. Tradicionalmente subsistían de la caza, recolección y pesca, siendo esta última de considerable importancia cultural y económica aún en nuestros días. Se realizaron siete investigaciones de campo donde se registró la información y se colectó el material vegetal de referencia. Se efectuaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas con informantes cualificados acerca de los roles de las plantas en su cultura, y especialmente en la captura y aprovechamiento del pescado. Se registraron 49 especies vegetales con un total de 100 datos etnobotánicos, los cuales se pueden clasificar en: rituales; indicadores temporales; confección de artes de pesca; armas; trampas sobre el río; cebos; instrumental de acarreo, de cocción y de almacenamiento. Los cebos y la confección de redes y armas involucraron el mayor número de especies y de usos. Las plantas más importantes en la pesca son Bromelia urbaniana, B. hieronymi, Mimozyganthus carinatus, Ruprechtia triflora, Salix humboldtiana, Solanum argentinum y Tessaria integrifolia var. ambigua . Sin ellas la explotación pesquera sería prácticamente imposible para esta gente; actividad a partir de la cual obtienen hoy día buena parte de su subsistencia.Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value at present times already. Seven fieldwork expeditions were carried out in order to obtain the information and to collect plant specimens. Semi-structured interviews were made to 37 qualified informants about the roles of plants in their culture and, specifically, in fishing

  9. Relationships in Ananas and other related genera using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, M F; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, F R; Noyer, J L; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G; Hamon, P; Ferreira, M E

    2003-12-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was examined using PCR-RFLP to study phylogenetic relationships in Ananas and related genera. One hundred fifteen accessions representing the seven Ananas species and seven other Bromelioideae including the neighboring monospecific genus Pseudananas, two Pitcairnioideae, and one Tillandsioideae were included in the study. Eight primers designed from cpDNA were used for generating fragments. Restriction by 18 endonucleases generated 255 variable fragments. Dissimilarities were calculated from the resulting matrix using the Sokal and Michener index and the neighbor-joining method was used to reconstruct the diversity tree. Phylogenetic reconstruction was attempted using Wagner parsimony. Phenetic and cladistic analyses gave consistent results. They confirm the basal position of Bromelia in the Bromelioideae. Ananas and Pseudananas form a monophyletic group, with three strongly supported sub-groups, two of which are geographically consistent. The majority of Ananas parguazensis accessions constitute a northern group restricted to the Rio Negro and Orinoco basins in Brazil. The tetraploid Pseudananas sagenarius joins the diploid Ananas fritzmuelleri to constitute a southern group. The third and largest group, which includes all remaining species plus some accessions of A. parguazensis and intermediate phenotypes, is the most widespread and its distribution overlaps those of the northern and southern groups. Ananas ananassoides is dominant in this sub-group and highly variable. Its close relationship to all cultivated species supports the hypothesis that this species is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pineapple. The data indicate that gene flow is common within this group and scarcer with both the first and second groups. Comparison of cpDNA data with published genomic DNA data point to the hybrid origin of Ananas bracteatus and support the autopolyploidy of Pseudananas. The Ananas-Pseudananas group structure and distribution are

  10. Antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of plants against gramnegative bacilli isolated from cervicovaginal mucosa of sheep bred in the region of Petrolina-PE

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    Valdenice Félix da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract infections are the main causes of losses from the low reproductive efficiency of sheep. Gram negative bacilli belonging to the normal flora of the genital region can trigger diseases. The pathogenicity of these agents is expressed when females are with weakened immune system, either by food or stress management. Flaws in and concern about antibiotic residues in animal production have prompted research regarding alternatives for the treatment of diseases. The herbal medicine hás been considered in this context is the subject of numerous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol extracts of plants belonging to the flora of the Northeast against gram negative bacilli isolated from cervical-vaginal mucosa of sheep. Six plants were selected from Caatinga biome: Encholirium spectabile, Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata, Amburana cearensis Hymenaea martiana and Selaginella convoluta. The plant material was processed to obtain the crude extract. This was tested by microdilution plate and determining the minimum bactericidal concentration, the second document of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the extracts diluted in water and alcohol. We used 43 gram negative isolates, as follows: 14 E. coli, 10 Enterobacter spp., 10 Acinetobacter spp. 9 and Klebsiella spp. In the aqueous dilution Klebsiella spp. showed response only to species B. laciniosa, S. convoluta and H. martiana. All tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter spp and no activity against E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among the extracts diluted in water H. martiana showed the highest antibacterial activity. In all dilution alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all bacterial genera, but no statistical difference between them.

  11. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae Baker, en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trataron algunos aspectos sobre la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae, una bromelia terrestre de los páramos colombianos. Se observó una separación espacio-temporal de los órganos
    reproductivos que determina la condición de protoginia en las flores a partir del inicio de la antesis, fase de la
    flor cuyo estigma se torna receptivo y la producción de néctar es significativa. Se encontró en P. trianae un sistema reproductivo auto compatible, lo que permitió a las inflorescencias auto polinizarse y ser fecundadas con polen foráneo; la fructificación de la población bajo condiciones naturales (éxito reproductivo estuvo limitada por la predación y los polinizadores. Las rosetas solo asignaron el 13% de su biomasa en su esfuerzo reproductivo, el porcentaje restante fue invertido en su crecimiento vegetativo. Se registró la floración de la población hacia la época húmeda (junio-agosto de 2003, el clima fue poco favorable para los polinizadores, pero adecuado para evitar la deshidratación de las flores y la evaporación del néctar. La fructificación ocurrió en la época seca (diciembre-febrero de 2004, tiempo propicio para la dehiscencia de los frutos y la dispersión eólica de las semillas. Se observaron y determinaron los colibríes Aglaeactis cupripennis y Pterophanes cyanopterus como polinizadores eficientes, además de los insectos residentes de las familias Nitidulidae (Coleoptera y Phoridae (Diptera, cuyas larvas fueron predadores importantes de la inflorescencia.

  12. Morphoanatomy and ontogeny of fruit in Bromeliaceae species Morfoanatomia e ontogenia de fruto em espécies de Bromeliaceae

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    Natividad Ferreira Fagundes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to give an overall view of fruit structure in Bromeliaceae, since these studies are extremely scarce in this family, showing the morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of fruits of six species belonging to six different genera, representing three subfamilies. All species studied have a tricarpellary and trilocular ovary, with an obturator covering the placental region. Dyckia maritima, Pitcairnia flammea, Tillandsia aeranthos and Vriesea carinata have capsular fruits (septicidal or biscidal, characterized mainly by the presence of macrosclereids in the exocarp or endocarp, fibers in the ventral region of the carpels, six dehiscence lines and three vascular bundles in each carpel. Aechmea calyculata and Billbergia nutans have fruits classified as berries, presenting exocarp and hypodermis as mechanical layers and many vascular bundles in each carpel. Many useful characters for taxonomy of Bromeliaceae were revealed, so fruits are excellent tools for delimitation of genera and subfamilies. In relation to Bromeliaceae capsules, macrosclereids are conspicuous structures of the pericarp and fruit anatomy is greatly related to dehiscence type. The U-shaped cell wall thickenings are a very common character in this family and can be identified as structures also occurring in monocot fruits.O presente estudo objetivou apresentar um panorama acerca da estrutura de frutos em Bromeliaceae, devido à extrema escassez de estudos nessa área; revelando a morfologia, anatomia e ontogenia dos frutos de seis espécies pertencentes a seis gêneros distintos, representativos de três subfamílias. Todas as espécies estudadas apresentam ovário tricarpelar e trilocular, com obturador na região da placenta. Dyckia maritima, Pitcairnia flammea, Tillandsia aeranthos e Vriesea carinata possuem frutos do tipo cápsula (septicida ou biscida, caracterizados pela presença de macroesclereídes no exocarpo ou endocarpo, fibras na região ventral dos carpelos

  13. Fenologia reprodutiva de espécies de bromélias na Serra da Piedade, MG, Brasil Reproductive phenology of bromeliad species at Serra da Piedade, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Andréa Rodrigues Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia reprodutiva das espécies de Bromeliaceae da Serra da Piedade. Das dezoito espécies estudadas, 72% floresceram na estação chuvosa e 28% na estação seca. Observou-se que a floração das bromélias ao longo do gradiente altitudinal da Serra da Piedade foi seqüencial e influenciada pela sazonalidade das chuvas. A maioria das espécies que ocorrem no habitat xérico pedregoso (acima de 1.400 m de altitude apresentou a floração na estação chuvosa, enquanto que três das cinco espécies que ocorrem no ambiente mésico florestal (abaixo de 1.300 m de altitude floresceram na estação seca. Espécies simpátricas com características florais semelhantes, como Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea crassa e V. citrina, também apresentaram floração seqüencial. A dispersão das espécies com sementes aladas (Pitcairnoideae e plumosas (Tillandsioideae ocorreu na estação seca, exceto para Dyckia saxatilis e Racinaea aerisincola. Foi observada assincronia na maturação dos frutos e dispersão das sementes entre as bromélias zoocóricas. É provável que essas condições permitam às espécies de bromélias da Serra da Piedade evitar a sobreposição do uso de animais vetores de pólen e de sementes.This work characterizes the phenology of Bromeliaceae species at Serra da Piedade. Of the i8 species studied, 72% flowered in the rainy season and 28% in the dry season. We observed sequential flowering of bromeliads along the entire altitudinal gradient at Serra da Piedade; flowering was also influenced by rainfall seasonality. Most species that occur in the rocky xeric habitat (above 1400 m altitude flowered during the rainy season, while three of the five species found in the mesic forest (below 1300 m altitude flowered in the dry season. Sympatric species with similar floral characteristics, such as Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea citrina and V. crassa, also flowered

  14. CÁTALOGO DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES DEL SECTOR EL SILENCIO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

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    Rosalba RUIZ VEGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan  nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.   Catalogue of Vascular Epiphytic Sector Silencio (Natural National Park Paramillo and Buffer Zone, Cordoba, ColombiaThe catalogue of the vascular epiphyte vegetation of Silencio sector (Paramillo National Natural Park and buffer zone (Córdoba is showed. Sampling was conducted in an area of 0,1 ha, collecting all vascular epiphytes distributed in phorophytes with a DAP≥2,5 cm, in four sectors. Collections were performed in the Silencio sectors (PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba and Alto Chibogadó (buffer zone of the tropical rain forest (Bh -T in Tierralta town. 2504 individuals were recorded as vascular epiphytes. The catalog includes 73 species in 41 genera and 18 families. The sector Tuis Tuis showed the greatest representation of

  15. CÁTALOGO DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES DEL SECTOR EL SILENCIO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

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    Rosalba RUIZ VEGA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥ 2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.

  16. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  17. Vascular epiphytes in seasonal semideciduous forest in the Espírito Santo State and similarity with other seasonal forests in Eastern Brazil

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    Dayvid Rodrigues Couto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliamos a composição florística de epífitos vasculares em remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semedicidual na bacia hidrográfica do rio Itapemirim, sul do estado do Espírito Santo, com o intuito de analisar sua similaridade com outras florestas semidecidual estudadas no Brasil. Excursões quinzenais foram realizadas entre junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 e os epífitos coletados e registrados (55 espécies, 34 gêneros e seis famílias. Orchidaceae, com 21 espécies, foi a mais rica, enquanto os gêneros com o maior riqueza foram Tillandsia (7 spp., Rhipsalis (4, Aechmea, Epidendrum e Peperomia, com três espécies cada. A categoria ecológica mais representativa foi holoepífita característica com 84% das espécies. O ambiente mais importante para a flora epifítica foi as matas ciliares. Análise de similaridade e PCA sustentaram quatro grupos, onde a área estudada aparece disjunta das demais, corroborando a hipótese de que a proximidade geográfica, a altitude e clima tem forte efeito sobre a composição florística, condicionando a formação de floras distintas. Estudos detalhados sobre a composição florística e estrutura dessa comunidade é importante para a elaboração de estudos de impactos ambientais coerentes, porque epífitas é típico de florestas tropicais, e é importante componente florístico, estrutural e funcional desses ecossistemas.

  18. Mecanismos de repartición de recursos entre dos especies de colibríes (Coeligena prunellei - Doryfera ludoviciae en la reserva biológica Cachalú, Santander, colombia

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    Sandoval Parra Cristian Camilo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos algunos de los factores que pueden dar explicación a la coexistencia de dos especies de colibríes en la reserva biológica Cachalú, Santander, Colombia. Las especies involucradas, Coeligena prunellei y Doryfera ludoviciae, presentan algunas similitudes en cuanto a su morfología y uso de algunos recursos, pero por otro lado, son especies con diferente rango de distribución pues C. prunellei es una especie endémica a la cordillera oriental que esta categorizada como en peligro (EN y D. ludoviciae se extiende desde Costa Rica hasta el norte de Bolivia. Comparamos la abundancia de las dos especies en dos hábitats contrastantes, un rastrojo y el interior de bosque, empleando los registros obtenidos mediante observaciones y capturas con redes de niebla, encontrando que la especie dominante fue Coeligena prunellei en ambos hábitats, mientras que Doryfera ludoviciae presentó mayor abundancia en el interior de bosque. Encontramos que el inca negro hace uso de los estratos bajos y medios del bosque, mientras que el pico de lanza frentiverde hizo
    uso de los tres estratos del bosque. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre las medidas morfométricas del culmen expuesto, la longitud de la cuerda alar, la cola y el peso; mientras que no se encontraron diferencias entre las medidas de culmen total comisura y tarso. Los recursos florales estuvieron concentrados en el interior del bosque, con seis especies vegetales (Palicourea sp., Tillandsia sp., Guzmania sp. y Gesneriaceae entre otras, mientras que en el rastrojo solo encontramos tres (Macleania sp., Cavendishia sp., y Centropogon sp.. En las cargas de polen contamos 4.890 granos, entre los que identifique seis palinomorfos que correspondieron a Ericaceas, Campanulaceas, Onagraceas y Bromeliaceas. Los granos de polen fueron transportados en orden de proporción en la frente, en la garganta y en el pico.

  19. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

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    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  20. Antimycobacterial activity of some Brazilian indigenous medicinal drinks

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    D. G. OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculosis (TB is a very serious problem worldwide and the increasing number of multiple drugs resistant TB cases makes the search for new anti-TB drugs an urgent need. Indigenous knowledge about the use of native plants to treat illnesses has contributed to the discovery of new medicines. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of seven medicinal drinks was assessed: Ananas sativus (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Aristolochia triangularis (aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf, root and stem extracts, Bromelia antiacantha (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Stryphnodendron adstringens (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Tabebuia ovellanedae (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Vernonia polyanthes (hydroalcoholic root extract, all used by the Vanuíre indigenous community in the treatment of respiratory diseases. The activity was evaluated by using a time-to-kill assay, in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium, after thirty minutes, one, three, six, twelve and twenty-four hours contact of the bacteria with each drink. Within half to one hour contact, the hydroalcoholic drinks of A. triangularis, S. adstringens, T. ovellanedae and V. polyanthes reduced the bacterial growth by 2 orders of magnitude in CFU/mL, and all bacterial growth was absent after three hours contact. In contrast, no mycobactericidal effect was detected in the aqueous extract of A. triangularis or in the hydroalcoholic beverages of A. sativus and B. antiacantha, even after twenty-four hours contact. Keywords: Tuberculosis; indigenous drinks; Aristolochia triangularis; Stryphnodendron adstringens; Tabebuia ovellanedae; Vernonia polyanthes.

  1. El néctar de especies de Puya como recurso para picaflores Altoandinos de Ancash, Perú

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    Letty Salinas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la región altoandina de Ancash la mayor diversidad de flores ornitófilas se encuentran en ambientes de matorral, en contraste a roquedales y pajonales, en los que encontramos rodales de bromelias del género Puya, cuyo néctar podría constituir un importante recurso para picaflores altoandinos en estos tipos de ambiente. Para documentar esta hipótesis, entre el 2004 y el 2005 se realizaron un total de 264 horas de observación de picaflores de dos rodales de Puya, ubicados encima de los 3000 m de altitud. El primer rodal fue de Puya raimondiien un pajonal del Parque Nacional Huascarán (9º39’ S—77º13’ W, el segundo fue de Puya rauhii en roquedales del Callejón de Conchucos (8º10’ S—77º52’ W. La frecuencia de visita de los picaflores a las inflorescencias de Puyafue evaluada desde 10 puntos fijos de observación, además capturas con redes de niebla permitieron identificar el polen de su pico y frente. En P. raimondiise identificaron cuatro especies de Trochilidae alimentándose de su néctar (Oreotrochilus stolzmanni, Patagona gigas, Aglaeactis cupripennisy Metallura phoebe, siendo O. stolzmannila especie más frecuentemente avistada (60%. El 80% de las muestras de polen obtenidas de estos picaflores correspondían a P. raimondii. En el rodal de Puya rauhii se identificaron diez especies de Trochilidae (Colibri coruscans, Oreotrochilus stolzmanni, Patagona gigas, Aglaeactis cupripennis, Coeligena iris, Chalcostigma stanleyi, Lesbia nuna, Myrtis fanny, Metallura phoebe yMetallura tyrianthina, siendo las especies con mayores avistamientos M. phoebe (26%, C. coruscans (21% y P. gigas (17%. El 31% de las muestras de polen obtenidas de estos picaflores correspondían a Puya. Las especies altoandinas de Puyaproporcionan un importante recurso alimenticio para picaflores, en especial para los de grandes altitudes donde la diversidad de plantas disminuye.

  2. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Gonçalves Cezar Neubert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.

  3. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: I. Fluctuación de la población larval y características de sus criaderos Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K,, 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: I. Flutuação da população larval e características dos seus berçários (criadouros Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific coast of Colombia: I. Fluctuation of larval population and characteristics of the breeding places

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    César Murillo B.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available En Charambirá, localidad del município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, donde existe un problema de malaria endémica, se estudió la fluctuación de la población larval y las características de los criaderos de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie considerada como posible vectora de malaria en esa región del país. La vegetación circundante fue dividida en tres estratos de acuerdo al grado de cobertura foliar. Se demarcaron cuadrantes de 100 m² en cada estrato para el muestreo de plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, en las cuales se acumula agua que sirve como criadero para esta especie de anofelino. Se tomaron datos de temperatura, pH y volumen del agua contenida en cada bromelia. El mayor número de larvas se detectó en el estrato 1 (manglar a una altitud inferior a 4 m, pero no se encontró evidencia significativa de estratificación vertical de la población larval de A. neivai hasta los 8 m. Se evidenció una correlación lineal positiva entre el número de larvas y el volumen de agua contenida en cada bromelia; por otra parte se observó también una correlación directa entre la precipitación mensual acumulada y la fluctuación poblacional de esta especie. Los índices larvales mas altos se observaron entre los meses de marzo a abril y de julio a agosto. La mortalidad larval fue alta en el primer estadío (43,5% y solo un 23,7% sobrevivió hasta el cuarto.Em Charambirá, localidade do Município de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, localidade endêmica de malária, estudou-se a flutuação da população larval e as características dos locais de criação do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, espécie considerada como possível vector da malária naquela região do país. A vegetação circundante foi dividida em três estratos segundo seu grau de cobertura foliar. Demarcaram-se quadrantes de 100 m² para a amostragem de plantas epífitas da família Bromeliaceae, nas quais se

  4. Relações solo-vegetação em áreas sob processo de desertificação no município de Jataúba, PE Soils and vegetation relations in areas under desertification in Jataúba County, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Izabel Cristina de Luna Galindo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação das terras na região semi-árida resulta de processos naturais, que podem ser induzidos ou catalisados pelo homem por meio do uso inadequado dos recursos naturais, produzindo a deterioração da cobertura vegetal, do solo e dos recursos hídricos. Visando relacionar os processos de degradação da vegetação e dos solos na zona do agreste de Pernambuco, foram caracterizados os solos e o recobrimento vegetal em doze parcelas representativas de ambientes conservados, moderadamente degradados e degradados, no município de Jataúba. Para caracterizar a vegetação, os indivíduos foram classificados em três estratos verticais ou classes de altura: 3- indivíduos com altura superior a 3,0 m (lenhosas altas, amostrados em toda a área da parcela (200 m²; 2- indivíduos com altura variando de 0,51 a 3,0 m, amostrados em subárea de 100 m² (lenhosas baixas; 1- indivíduos com altura igual ou inferior a 0,5 m, amostrados em 18 miniparcelas de 25 x 50 cm (estrato da regeneração. Os solos de cada parcela foram caracterizados morfologicamente e as amostras coletadas por horizonte para realização das análises físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. A vegetação no segundo estrato vertical apresentou significativa diminuição da densidade absoluta de acordo com a intensidade de degradação dos solos. As espécies com maiores densidades relativas foram: Neoglaziovia variegata (caroá e Cordia leucocephala (moleque duro, no ambiente conservado; Bromelia laciniosa (macambira, Aspidosperma pyryfolium (pereiro e Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira, no ambiente moderadamente degradado, e C. pyramidalis e Sida galheirensis (malva branca, no ambiente degradado. As características dos Planossolos mais bem relacionadas com a vegetação preservada foram: os maiores conteúdos de cascalho nos horizontes superficiais, a maior espessura dos horizontes A + E e os teores mais elevados de CO. A ocorrência de encrostamento superficial e erosão e

  5. Caracterização de dois estratos da vegetação em uma área de cerrado no município de Brotas, SP, Brasil

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    Durigan Giselda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se dois estratos da vegetação de uma área de cerca de 300 ha de cerrado stricto sensu, localizada no município de Brotas, SP, quanto à sua estrutura e diversidade, pelo método de parcelas. Para amostragem do estrato arbóreo (diâmetro mínimo de 5 cm, medido a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, foi amostrada área total de 5000 m² (250 x 20 m, divididos em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 x 10 m (100 m². Para o estrato inferior (altura < 50 cm e diâmetro do caule inferior a 5 cm, a área total de amostragem foi de 500 m², distribuídos em 50 sub-parcelas de 10 x 1 m (10 m², demarcadas dentro de cada uma das parcelas maiores. Determinou-se a cobertura do estrato arbóreo pelo método de interceptação de linhas e o índice de agregação das espécies e da comunidade, segundo Payandeh. Foram identificadas, no total, 78 espécies (36 famílias. O estrato arbóreo apresentou densidade de 1150 ind/ha, 7,2 m²/ha de área basal e 19,6 % de cobertura. Foram amostradas, neste estrato, 44 espécies (27 famílias, com H=3,02 e os indivíduos da comunidade como um todo apresentaram-se agregados (P=4,26. As espécies de maior valor de importância no estrato superior, em ordem decrescente, foram: Acosmium subelegans, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Eriotheca gracilipes, Styrax ferrugineus e Tabebuia ochracea. No estrato inferior, com densidade de 10.220 ind/ha, foram amostradas 61 espécies (32 famílias, destacando-se, em ordem decrescente de densidade relativa: Campomanesia adamantium, Bromelia balansae, Attalea geraensis, Xylopia aromatica e Ocotea pulchella. A comunidade apresentou-se também agregada no estrato inferior (P=3,89 e obteve-se índice de diversidade (H' de 3,32. Algumas espécies abundantes no estrato arbóreo, como Styrax ferrugineus, Eriotheca gracilipes, Piptocarpha rotundifolia e Annona crassiflora, não foram amostradas no estrato inferior, sugerindo a existência de restrições aos processos naturais de reprodução e

  6. Análisis del sitio de un bosque altoandino con énfasis en el mantillo. Microcuenca de la quebrada "La Vieja", Bogotá, Colombia

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    Vargas Núñez Johanna Paola

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa materia orgánica es un compartimento importante dentro de los ecosistemas y su estudiopuede proporcionar criterios de manejo para ecosistemas con conflicto de uso, como son los Bos-ques Altoandinos en Colombia. Para realizar este estudio, se escogió un bosque altoandino en loscerros orientales de la ciudad de Bogotá. Para el sitio de estudio se caracterizaron las reservasorgánicas y minerales de los compartimentos foliar, mantillo y suelo; adicionalmente se establecióla descomposición mediante el método de canastas de descomposición de tres mantillos de dis-tintas procedencias (bosque altoandino de Bojacá, bosque de robles de Pacho y páramo de CruzVerde, además del mantillo del sitio, y de cuatro especies seleccionadas (Clusia multiflora, Piperbogotense, Juglans neotropicay Tillandsia fendleri. Las especies con mayor descomposición fueronJuglans neotropicay Piper bogotense, las cuales presentaron también los mayores contenidos denutrientes y la mayor liberación de nutrientes en la descomposición; Clusia multifloray Tillandsiafendleripresentaron menor descomposición y menores contenidos de nutrientes. C. multiflorapre-sentó una liberación media de nutrientes y T. fendleriuna liberación baja. Basándose en estascaracterísticas, se sugiere utilizar a J. neotropicay P. bogotense para la movilización de nutrientesdentro del sitio y a C. multiflorapara promover la reserva de nutrientes dentro del mantillo delbosque. El aporte desde el compartimento foliar al compartimento mantillo representado en lacaída de hojarasca fue de 13.4 Ton · Ha-1 · Año-1, siendo las especies que más aportan Clusiamultiflora, Vaccinumsp. y Weinmannia tomentosa. La profundidad promedio del mantillo fue de 16cm, con una densidad promedio de 14.32 Kg · m-3y un peso promedio de 23.49 Ton por hectárea.El mantillo proveniente de Bojacá y el mantillo nativo del sitio presentaron la mayor descom-posición, los mayores contenidos de nutrientes y

  7. A Distinct Magnetic Isotope Effect Measured in Atmospheric Mercury in Epiphytes

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    Ghosh, S.; Odom, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Due to the importance of Mercury as an environmental contaminant, mercury cycling in the atmosphere has been extensively studied. However, there still remain uncertainties in the relative amounts of natural and anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric deposition rates as well as the spatial variation of atmospheric mercury. Part of a study to determine the isotopic composition of mercury deposited from the atmosphere has involved the use of epiphytes as monitors. The greatest advantage of such natural monitors is that a widespread, high-density network is possible at low cost. One of the disadvantages at present is that these monitors likely contain different mercury species (for example both gaseous, elemental mercury trapped by adsorption and Hg (II) by wet deposition). The project began with the understanding that biochemical reactions involving metallothioneins within the epiphytes might have produced an isotopic effect. One such regional network was composed of samples of Tillandsia usenoides (common name: Spanish moss) collected along the eastern Coastal Plain of the U.S. from northern Florida to North Carolina. The isotopic composition of a sample is expressed as permil deviations from a standard. The deviations are defined as δAHg = \\left(\\frac{Rsample}{Rstd}-1 \\right)1000 ‰ , where A represents the atomic mass number. R=\\frac{AHg}{202Hg} were measured for the isotopes 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg and 204Hg relative to the mercury standard SRM NIST 3133, by a standard-sample bracketing technique. For all samples, the delta values of the even-N plotted against atomic mass numbers define a linear curve. For the odd-N isotopes, δ199Hg and δ201Hg deviate from this mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) relationship and indicate a mass-independent fractionation (MIF) effect and a negative anomaly, i.e. a depletion in 199Hg and 201Hg relative to the even-N isotopes. These deviations are expressed as Δ199Hg = δ199Hgtotal - δ199HgMDF. A Δ201Hg/Δ199Hg