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Sample records for bromelia tillandsia usneoides

  1. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  2. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  3. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1–100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. - Highlights: • Sr contents in T. usneoides increase significantly with the increase of Sr concentrations. • Leaf relative conductivity is significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plant. • Tillandsia has high potential for monitoring Sr.

  4. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  6. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado Filho, G. M.; Andrade, L. R.; Farina, M.; Malm, O.

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702±318 μg Hg g -1 was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding.

  7. Quality study of the air at Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) as biomonitor; Estudo da qualidade do ar na regiao de Sepetiba usando Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitassi, Gabriel Quadros; Julianelli, Olivia B.; Oliveira, Antonio Roberto Barboza de; Leite, Carlos Barros [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da, E-mail: kenya@ird.gov.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Luana; Medeiros, Geisa [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper studies the utilization of the bromelia specie Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) for characterization of the particle dispersion at urban and industrial regions. As a case study, a program will be developed for the monitoring the aerosols generated due to action of weather on the solid waste open sky stored and over the waste basin belonging to the INGA, located at Sepetiba bay. The identification of the stable metals will be done by the PIXE technique, and the radionuclides identification by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The preliminary results of aerosol samples collected at Ilha da Madeira region indicate the presence of particles containing Cd, V, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cu, Co and S. The variation in the percentage of each element at the points of collection suggests that there exist more than one aerosol source at the region

  8. Quality study of the air at Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitassi, Gabriel Quadros; Julianelli, Olivia B.; Oliveira, Antonio Roberto Barboza de; Leite, Carlos Barros; Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Carneiro, Luana; Medeiros, Geisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the utilization of the bromelia specie Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) for characterization of the particle dispersion at urban and industrial regions. As a case study, a program will be developed for the monitoring the aerosols generated due to action of weather on the solid waste open sky stored and over the waste basin belonging to the INGA, located at Sepetiba bay. The identification of the stable metals will be done by the PIXE technique, and the radionuclides identification by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The preliminary results of aerosol samples collected at Ilha da Madeira region indicate the presence of particles containing Cd, V, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cu, Co and S. The variation in the percentage of each element at the points of collection suggests that there exist more than one aerosol source at the region

  9. Invertebrados acuáticos asociados a la Bromelia Tillandsia turneri Baker. en un bosque altoandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fabiola Ospina

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Las bromelias como plantas fitotelmas mantienen una compleja cadena trófica que incluye invertebrados asociados a depósitos de agua. Se determinó la comunidad de invertebrados acuáticos de la bromelia Tillandsia turneri en un bosque altoandino en el Municipio de Chocontá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se estudiaron 37 individuos de la bromelia ubicadas desde 0 hasta 6 m de altura, a las cuales se realizaron mediciones morfológicas, de contenido de agua y análisis fisicoquímico de esta y se colectaron los invertebrados asociados. Los órdenes mas abundantes fueron Coleóptera, Díptera y Cladócera; por medio de un análisis de similaridad de Morisita Horn se encontró que las bromelias son similares en cuanto a composición de invertebrados, por lo que se sugiere que pertenecen a un solo estrato dentro del bosque y que los procesos de ovoposición y dispersión para los grupos estudiados tienen igual probabilidad de ocurrir en las bromelias ubicadas de 0 a 6 m de altura.

  10. Potential of monitoring nuclides with the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides: Uptake and localization of 133Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zheng, Guiling; Chen, Xuan; Pemberton, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Epiphytic Tillandsia plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors and traditionally used to monitor atmospheric heavy metal pollution, but rarely nuclides monitoring. Here we evaluated the potential of Tillandsia usneoides for monitoring (133)Cs and investigated if Cs was trapped by the plant external surface structures. The results showed that T. usneoides was able to survive relatively high Cs stress. With the increase of Cs solution concentration, the total of Cs in plants increased significantly, which suggests that the plants could accumulate Cs quickly and effectively. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Cs polluted environments. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that Cs was detected in each type of cells in foliar trichomes, and the ratio of Cs in the internal disc cell was higher than that in ring cell and wing cell, which indicates that the mechanism of adsorption Cs in Tillandsia has an active component. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Determination of trace elements in Tillandsia usneoides by neutron activation analysis for environmental biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Saiki, M.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Markert, B.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ti, Th, V, Zn and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb in the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides. The samples were collected at an unpolluted area and exposed in different sites of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and in a control site outside Sao Paulo. The results obtained showed an accumulation of Al, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, Ti, V and Zn elements in Tillandsia usneoides exposed in polluted sites, indicating a promising potential of this species as a biomonitor of air pollution in Sao Paulo. (author)

  12. The bromelias (Tillandsia sp.) stuck the prone public electrician as indicator of air cationic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, C. J.C.; Alcaraz, G.; Riquelme, I.; Romero, V.

    2006-07-01

    The report of advance in the investigation it focuses the possibility that of the landscape for an attentive observation and question, with low cost and limited time can obtain a vision most approximate thing possible of the quality of the atmosphere to be able on that base to elaborate programs of development and minimize of the contamination. For that objective Tillandsias is photographed fixed in electric cable that based on the environmental balance of the ecosystem and of the visualized parameters indicate atmospheric pollution after an analysis of fluorescence of rays X. Was verifies that the collected bromelias captures all the ions differing in quantity according to the local collection and the dominant pollution. With the data and gathered approaches can take decisions the most appropriate possible to guide policies of the law that spread to remedy the environmental risks and to minimize them especially the atmospheric controlling the industrial pollution [es

  13. Alterations to throughfall water and solute flux by Tillandsias usneoides L. (Spanish moss) cover in a maritime live oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, T. E.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Reichard, J. S.; Moore, L. D.; Lewis, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Alterations to forest canopy structures can have a direct effect on hydrological and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. Epiphytes act as additional canopy biomass intercepting water, effecting pathways under different micrometeorological conditions and alternating nutrient uptake/releases. Most studies on epiphyte cover have focused on non-vascular epiphytes (e.g., lichen and bryophyte mosses), leaving vascular epiphytes like Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) relatively understudied. To fill this gap, we characterized alterations to throughfall water and dissolved ion enrichment/flux to soils by T. usneoides in a Quercus Virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) stand on St. Catherine's Island. Specifically, we compare throughfall generated from heavy T. usneoides coverage, bare canopy, and a continuum of T. usneoides cover percentages (~400 water & 210 chemistry observations over ~40 storms for each canopy cover category). Findings show T.usneoides acts as a significant water storage agent, significantly reducing throughfall. However, under certain meteorological conditions T. usneoides can become saturated and act as a funneling "hotspot." Tillandsia usneoides coverage enriched throughfall with primarily dry deposited ions (Na+,Cl-, SO42-, Li+), leached greater Mg2+, Ca2+, reduced NO3- and increased NH4+ concentrations. Dry deposited ion enrichment is likely a result of the moss' greater surface roughness. It has been shown that epiphytes prefer to leach Mg2+ and Ca2+. Increased NH4+ suggests that the saturated T. usneoides mat likely hosts microbial decomposition of leaf, branch, and bark biomass ensnared in the plant itself. K-means cluster analysis on the storms revealed 4 storm types of the differing meteorological conditions (windy/calm, dry/wet [high/low VPD], high/low intensity, intermittent/consistent), and these throughfall dynamics varied between these storm types. Discussion of future research questions regarding how these throughfall

  14. The use of Tillandsia usneoides L. as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Alcala, A.L.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Saiki, M.; Domingos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides was used as a biomonitor of metal atmospheric pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed for 8 weeks in 10 sites of the city and in a control site. The data obtained showed that the control site presented lower concentration for most elements analyzed and the highest concentrations of Na, Cl, Br, K. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and V were observed in stations submitted to industrial and vehicular sources. The results obtained for rare earth elements, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Rb and Sc indicate mineral dust origin. The elements Ba, As and Sb presented higher values in stations near streets with heavy traffic. (author)

  15. Effects of irradiance on Crassulacean acid metabolism in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.E.; Eades, C.A.; Pitner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO 2 uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM

  16. Effects of Irradiance on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E.; Eades, Carol A.; Pitner, Renee A.

    1986-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO2 uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM. PMID:16664587

  17. Effects of Irradiance on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Eades, C A; Pitner, R A

    1986-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO(2) uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM.

  18. Anomalous scales of Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) exposed in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, SP, Brazil as air pollution markers

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaoli, Patrícia; Capelli, Natalie do Valle; Tavares, Armando Reis; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Domingos, Marisa; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2015-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad that has been used as a universal bioindicator. The species accumulates metals and presents foliar scale variations when exposed to air pollutants. This study aimed to use the variations in foliar scales as microscopic markers of pollutant effects in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), São Paulo State, Brazil. T. usneoides plants were exposed for 12 weeks during dry and wet seasons, totaling four exposures, at five sites in the MRC. Sample...

  19. Assessment of heavy metals in the particulate matter of two Brazilian metropolitan areas by using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Nelzair A; Gonçalves, Daniel; Brandão, Flavia; de Barros, Roberta P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf; D'Oliveira Júnior, Argemiro; Andrade, Leonardo R

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this paper were to quantify the heavy metals (HM) in the air of different sites in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Salvador (SA) using Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) as a biomonitor, and to study the morphology and elemental composition of the air particulate matter (PM) retained on the Tillandsia surface. Tillandsia samples were collected in a noncontaminated area and exposed to the air of five sites in RJ State and seven in SA for 45 days, in two seasons. Samples were prepared to HM quantification by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while morphological and elemental characterizations were studied by using scanning electron microscopy. HM concentrations were significantly higher when compared to control sites. We found an increasing metal concentration as follows: Cd < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn. PM exhibited a morphology varying from amorphous- to polygonal-shaped particles. Size measurements indicated that more than 80% of particles were less than 10 μm. PM contained aluminosilicates iron-rich particles, but Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ba were also detected. HM input in the atmosphere was mainly associated with anthropogenic sources such as vehicle exhaust. Elemental analysis detected HM in the inhalable particles, indicating that those HMs may intensify the toxic effects of PM on human health. Our results indicated T. usneoides as an adequate biomonitor of HM in the PM belonging to the inhalable fraction.

  20. Responses of photosynthetic O2 evolution to PPFD in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; McKee, J M; Schmitt, A K

    1989-09-01

    Past studies of the effects of varying levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on the morphology and physiology of the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) have resulted in two important findings: (1) CAM, measured as integrated nocturnal CO2 uptake or as nocturnal increases in tissue acidity, saturates at relatively low PPFD, and (2) this plant does not acclimate to different PPFD levels, these findings require substantiation using photosynthetic responses immediately attributable to different PPFD levels, e.g., O2 evolution, as opposed to the delayed, nocturnal responses (CO2 uptake and acid accumulation). In the present study, instantaneous responses of O2 evolution to PPFD level were measured using plants grown eight weeks at three PPFD (20-45, 200-350, and 750-800 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) in a growth chamber, and using shoots taken from the exposed upper portions (maximum PPFD of 800 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) and shaded lower portions (maximum PPFD of 140 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) of plants grown ten years in a greenhouse. In addition, nocturnal increases in acidity were measured in the growth chamber plants. Regardless of the PPFD levels during growth, O2 evolution rates saturated around 500 μmol m(-2)s(-1). Furthermore, nocturnal increases in tissue acidity saturated at much lower PPFD. Thus, previous results were confirmed: photosynthesis saturated at low PPFD, and this epiphyte does not acclimate to different levels of PPFD.

  1. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest

  2. Identification of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) as a hypoglycemic principle of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherup, K M; McLaughlin, J L; Judd, R L; Ziegler, M H; Medon, P J; Keller, W J

    1995-08-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation, using brine shrimp lethality and murine hypoglycemia, of an ethanol extract prepared from Tillandsia usneoides, led to the isolation of four apparently bioactive compounds from the water-soluble fraction. The compounds were identified as citric acid, succinic acid, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG), and 3,6,3',5'-tetramethoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-beta-D-g lucoside. The brine shrimp lethality of the acids was simply due to acidity; however, HMG elicited significant hypoglycemic responses in fasting normal mice. Ethyl and methyl esters of citric acid were prepared and tested in the murine hypoglycemic assay. Five of the predominant sugars were identified by tlc. Free thymidine was also isolated. Further evaluation of HMG and other potential inhibitors of HMG CoA lyase, in the treatment of symptoms of diabetes mellitus, is suggested.

  3. Deep Sequencing-Identified Kanamycin-Resistant Paenibacillus sp. Strain KS1 Isolated from Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) in Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Pushpa; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Qi, Feng; Li, Jian-Liang; Sahoo, Malaya K

    2017-02-02

    Paenibacillus sp. strain KS1 was isolated from an epiphyte, Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss), in central Florida, USA. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 398 contigs spanning 6,508,195 bp, with a G+C content of 46.5% and comprising 5,401 predicted coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Lata et al.

  4. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  5. [CAM in Tillandsia usneoides: Studies on the pathway of carbon and the dependency of CO2-exchange on light intensity, temperature and water content of the plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, M; Lange, O L; Eichmann, M V; Schmid, R

    1973-12-01

    Tillandsia usneoides, in the common sense a non-succulent plant, exhibits CO2 exchange characterized by net CO2 dark fixation during the night and depression of CO2 exchange during the day. Malate has been demonstrated to accumulate during CO2 dark fixation and to be converted to carbohydrates in light. Thus, T. usneoides exhibits CAM like typical succulents.Net CO2 uptake during the day is increased with net CO2 output being suppressed in duration of time and extent when light intensity increases. Furthermore, a slight increase in CO2 fixation during the following night can be observed if the plants were treated with high light intensity during the previous day.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM are obtained if T. usneoides is kept at 15°C and 20°C. Lower temperature tend to increase CO2 uptake during the day and to inhibit CO2 dark fixation. Temperatures higher than 20°C favour loss of CO2 by respiration, which becomes apparent during the whole day and night at 30°C and higher temperatures. Thus, T. usneoides gains carbon only at temperatures well below 25°C.Net CO2 uptake during the day occurs only in moist plant material and is inhibited in plants cept under water stress conditions. However, CO2 uptake during the night is clearly favoured if the plants dry out. Therefore dry plants gain more carbon than moist ones.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM were also obtained with 13 other species of the genus Tillandsia.The exhibition of CAM by the non-succulent T. usneoides calls for a new definition of the term "succulence" if it is to remain useful in characterizing this metabolic pathway. Because CO2-fixing cells of T. usneoides possess relatively large vacuoles and are relatively poor in chloroplasts, they resembles the assimilatory cells of typical CAM-exhibiting succulents. Therefore, if "succulence" only means the capacity of big vacuoles to store malate, the assimilatory cells in T. usneoides are succulent. It seems to be useful to investigate

  6. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Nogueira, C.A.; Saiki, M.; Milian, F.M.; Domingos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America

  7. ALTERNATIVE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN THE SURROUNDING REGION OF A LARGE STEEL INDUSTRY APPLYING Tillandsia usneoides AS BIOMONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benevides dos Santos

    Full Text Available From the beginning of its operation, this large steel industrial complex in the Santa Cruz Industrial District, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with an annual capacity of 5 million tons, has been at the center of controversy related to its atmospheric emissions. Since the air filter used for its routine air particulate monitoring network is not appropriate for a source apportionment study, biomonitoring was tested as an alternative way to carry out this evaluation. Thus, the bromeliad species Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bioindicator in the Santa Cruz Industrial District, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six samplings were performed over a period of approximately one year. The results showed that the sampling point located inside the industrial complex presented higher elemental concentration values for all samples. Among the quantifiable elements found in the biomonitor samples, iron seems to be the element that best represents the emissions from the steelwork complex, which was corroborated based on the analysis of dust jar samples collected inside the complex area.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the CAM epiphyte Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae and its comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Poczai

    Full Text Available Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate America. This plant is highly adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Striking features of this species include specialized trichomes (scales covering the surface of its shoots aiding the absorption of water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere and a specific photosynthesis using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM. Here we report the plastid genome of Spanish moss and present the comparison of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. The plastome of Spanish moss has a quadripartite structure consisting of a large single copy (LSC, 87,439 bp, two inverted regions (IRa and IRb, 26,803 bp and short single copy (SSC, 18,612 bp region. The plastid genome had 37.2% GC content and 134 genes with 88 being unique protein-coding genes and 20 of these are duplicated in the IR, similar to other reported bromeliads. Our study shows that early diverging lineages of Poales do not have high substitution rates as compared to grasses, and plastid genomes of bromeliads show structural features considered to be ancestral in graminids. These include the loss of the introns in the clpP and rpoC1 genes and the complete loss or partial degradation of accD and ycf genes in the Graminid clade. Further structural rearrangements appeared in the graminids lacking in Spanish moss, which include a 28-kb inversion between the trnG-UCC-rps14 region and 6-kb in the trnG-UCC-psbD, followed by a third <1kb inversion in the trnT sequence.

  10. Physiological responses of the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) to variations in light and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard; Borland, Anne; Maxwell, Kate; Griffiths, Howard

    2003-06-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms that sustain rootless atmospheric plants, the modulation of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in response to variations in irradiance and water supply was investigated in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides. Plants were acclimated to three light regimes, i.e. high, intermediate and low, with integrated photon flux densities (PFD) of 14.40, 8.64 and 4.32 mol m-2 d-1 equivalent to an instantaneous PFD of 200, 100, and 50 mumol m-2 s-1, respectively. Daily watering was then withdrawn from half of the plants at each PFD for 7 d prior to sampling. In response to the three PFD treatments, chlorophyll content increased in plants acclimated to lower irradiances. Light response curves using non-invasive measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence demonstrated that photosystem II efficiency (phi PSII) was maintained in high PFD acclimated plants, as they exhibited a larger capacity for non-photochemical dissipation (NPQ) of excess light energy than low PFD acclimated plants. Net CO2 uptake increased in response to higher PFD, reflecting enhanced carboxylation capacity in terms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activities. After water was withdrawn, nocturnal net CO2 uptake and accumulated levels of acidity declined in all PFD treatments, concomitant with increased respiratory recycling of malate. Examining the strategies employed by epiphytes such as T. usneodies to tolerate extreme light and water regimes has demonstrated the importance of physiological mechanisms that allow flexible carboxylation capacity and continued carbon cycling to maintain photosynthetic integrity.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the CAM epiphyte Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) and its comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is an epiphytic bromeliad widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate America. This plant is highly adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Striking features of this species include specialized trichomes (scales) covering the surface of its shoots aiding the absorption of water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere and a specific photosynthesis using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Here we report the plastid genome of Spanish moss and present the comparison of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. The plastome of Spanish moss has a quadripartite structure consisting of a large single copy (LSC, 87,439 bp), two inverted regions (IRa and IRb, 26,803 bp) and short single copy (SSC, 18,612 bp) region. The plastid genome had 37.2% GC content and 134 genes with 88 being unique protein-coding genes and 20 of these are duplicated in the IR, similar to other reported bromeliads. Our study shows that early diverging lineages of Poales do not have high substitution rates as compared to grasses, and plastid genomes of bromeliads show structural features considered to be ancestral in graminids. These include the loss of the introns in the clpP and rpoC1 genes and the complete loss or partial degradation of accD and ycf genes in the Graminid clade. Further structural rearrangements appeared in the graminids lacking in Spanish moss, which include a 28-kb inversion between the trnG-UCC-rps14 region and 6-kb in the trnG-UCC-psbD, followed by a third <1kb inversion in the trnT sequence.

  12. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  13. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  14. On the controls of leaf-water oxygen isotope ratios in the atmospheric Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, Brent R

    2011-04-01

    Previous theoretical work showed that leaf-water isotope ratio (δ(18)O(L)) of Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphytes was controlled by the δ(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (δ(18)O(a)), and observed δ(18)O(L) could be explained by both a non-steady-state model and a "maximum enrichment" steady-state model (δ(18)O(L-M)), the latter requiring only δ(18)O(a) and relative humidity (h) as inputs. δ(18)O(L), therefore, should contain an extractable record of δ(18)O(a). Previous empirical work supported this hypothesis but raised many questions. How does changing δ(18)O(a) and h affect δ(18)O(L)? Do hygroscopic trichomes affect observed δ(18)O(L)? Are observations of changes in water content required for the prediction of δ(18)O(L)? Does the leaf need to be at full isotopic steady state for observed δ(18)O(L) to equal δ(18)O(L-M)? These questions were examined with a climate-controlled experimental system capable of holding δ(18)O(a) constant for several weeks. Water adsorbed to trichomes required a correction ranging from 0.5‰ to 1‰. δ(18)O(L) could be predicted using constant values of water content and even total conductance. Tissue rehydration caused a transitory change in δ(18)O(L), but the consequent increase in total conductance led to a tighter coupling with δ(18)O(a). The non-steady-state leaf water models explained observed δ(18)O(L) (y = 0.93*x - 0.07; r(2) = 0.98) over a wide range of δ(18)O(a) and h. Predictions of δ(18)O(L-M) agreed with observations of δ(18)O(L) (y = 0.87*x - 0.99; r(2) = 0.92), and when h > 0.9, the leaf did not need to be at isotopic steady state for the δ(18)O(L-M) model to predict δ(18)O(L) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A M G; Nogueira, C A; Saiki, M; Milian, F M; Domingos, M

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source.

  16. Tillandsia usneoides: a successful alternative for biomonitoring changes in air quality due to a new highway in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Alves, Edenise Segala; Victorio, Mariana Pereira; Moura, Barbara Baesso; Domingos, Marisa; Rodrigues, Caroline Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2016-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that absorbs water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere by scales covering its surface. We expanded the use of this species as a broader biomonitor based on chemical and structural markers to detect changes in air quality. The usefulness of such comprehensive approach was tested during the construction and opening of a highway (SP-21) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The biomonitoring study was performed from 2009 to 2012, thus comprising the period during construction and after the highway inauguration. Metal accumulation and structural alterations were assessed, in addition to microscopy analyses to understand the metal chelation in plant tissues and to assess the causes of alterations in the number and shape of scale cells. Altogether, our analyses support the use of this species as a wide biomonitor of air quality in urbanized areas.

  17. "Avaliação da poluição atmosférica por metais na região metropolitana de São Paulo utilizando a Bromélia Tillandsia Usneoides L. como biomonitor"

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Ailton Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. é uma bromélia que vive em árvores ou em outros substratos inertes, absorvendo água e nutrientes diretamente do ambiente, sem apresentar raízes. Devido às suas características morfológicas e fisiológicas, esta espécie acumula os poluentes presentes na atmosfera. No presente trabalho, Tillandsia usneoides foi usada como biomonitor de poluição atmosférica por metais em São Paulo, Brasil, que é a maior cidade da América do Sul, com uma população de cerca de 18 milhões de ...

  18. Comparison of Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) water and leachate dynamics between urban and pristine barrier island maritime oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T.; Stubbins, A.; Reichard, J. S.; Wright, K.; Jenkins, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Epiphyte coverage on forest canopies can drastically alter the volume and chemical composition of rainwater reaching soils. Along subtropical and tropical coastlines Tillandisa usneoides L. (Spanish moss), in particular, can envelop urban and natural tree crowns. Several cities actively manage their 'moss' covered forest to enhance aesthetics in the most active tourist areas (e.g., Savannah GA, St. Augustine FL, Charleston SC). Since T. usneoides survives through atmospheric water and solute exchange from specialized trichomes (scales), we hypothesized that T. usneoides water storage dynamics and leachate chemistry may be altered by exposure to this active urban atmosphere. 30 samples of T. usneoides from managed forests around the tourist center of Savannah, Georgia, USA were collected to compare with 30 samples from the pristine maritime live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) forests of a nearby undeveloped barrier island (St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA). Maximum water storage capacities were determined via submersion (for all 60 samples) along with dissolved ion (DI) and organic matter (DOM) concentrations (for 15 samples each) after simulated throughfall generation using milliQ ultrapurified water. Further, DOM quality was evaluated (for 15 samples each) using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS). Results show significant alterations to water storage dynamics, DI, DOM, and DOM quality metrics under urban atmospheric conditions, suggesting modified C and water cycling in urban forest canopies that may, in turn, influence intrasystem nutrient cycles in urban catchment soils or streams via runoff.

  19. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. TILLANDSIA USNEOIDES (L.) COMO FERRAMENTA DE MONITORAMENTO DE POLUIÇÃO ATMOSFÉRICO PARA METAIS-TRAÇO NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE CAMPINAS E PAULÍNIA, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, SP, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Guilherme Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236117011293O monitoramento da atmosfera na região de Campinas e Paulínia com a introdução em campo da bromélia Tillandsia usneoides (L.) abrangeu sete áreas de acordo com a identificação de possíveis fontes e distâncias envolvidas durante cinco períodos entre Abril (2009) a Março (2010). Os objetivos foram conhecer as variações espaciais e sazonais das concentrações de metais-traço em T. usneoides a partir de análises por ICP-MS e a relação com os dados climáticos ...

  1. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  2. On the Controls of Leaf-Water Oxygen Isotope Ratios in the Atmospheric Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, Brent R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical work showed that leaf-water isotope ratio (δ18OL) of Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphytes was controlled by the δ18O of atmospheric water vapor (δ18Oa), and observed δ18OL could be explained by both a non-steady-state model and a “maximum enrichment” steady-state model (δ18OL-M), the latter requiring only δ18Oa and relative humidity (h) as inputs. δ18OL, therefore, should contain an extractable record of δ18Oa. Previous empirical work supported this hypothesis but raised many questions. How does changing δ18Oa and h affect δ18OL? Do hygroscopic trichomes affect observed δ18OL? Are observations of changes in water content required for the prediction of δ18OL? Does the leaf need to be at full isotopic steady state for observed δ18OL to equal δ18OL-M? These questions were examined with a climate-controlled experimental system capable of holding δ18Oa constant for several weeks. Water adsorbed to trichomes required a correction ranging from 0.5‰ to 1‰. δ18OL could be predicted using constant values of water content and even total conductance. Tissue rehydration caused a transitory change in δ18OL, but the consequent increase in total conductance led to a tighter coupling with δ18Oa. The non-steady-state leaf water models explained observed δ18OL (y = 0.93*x − 0.07; r2 = 0.98) over a wide range of δ18Oa and h. Predictions of δ18OL-M agreed with observations of δ18OL (y = 0.87*x − 0.99; r2 = 0.92), and when h > 0.9, the leaf did not need to be at isotopic steady state for the δ18OL-M model to predict δ18OL in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides. PMID:21300917

  3. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac-Olivé, K.; Solís, C.; Martínez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E.; López, C.; Longoria, L.C.; Lucho-Constantino, C.A.; Beltrán-Hernández, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  4. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  5. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Olivé, K; Solís, C; Martínez-Carrillo, M A; Andrade, E; López, C; Longoria, L C; Lucho-Constantino, C A; Beltrán-Hernández, R I

    2012-04-01

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstructing the δ(18) O of atmospheric water vapour via the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides: seasonal controls on δ(18) O in the field and large-scale reconstruction of δ(18) Oa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, Brent R

    2014-03-01

    Using both oxygen isotope ratios of leaf water (δ(18) OL ) and cellulose (δ(18) OC ) of Tillandsia usneoides in situ, this paper examined how short- and long-term responses to environmental variation and model parameterization affected the reconstruction of the atmospheric water vapour (δ(18) Oa ). During sample-intensive field campaigns, predictions of δ(18) OL matched observations well using a non-steady-state model, but the model required data-rich parameterization. Predictions from the more easily parameterized maximum enrichment model (δ(18) OL-M ) matched observed δ(18) OL and observed δ(18) Oa when leaf water turnover was less than 3.5 d. Using the δ(18) OL-M model and weekly samples of δ(18) OL across two growing seasons in Florida, USA, reconstructed δ(18) Oa was -12.6 ± 0.3‰. This is compared with δ(18) Oa of -12.4 ± 0.2‰ resolved from the growing-season-weighted δ(18) OC . Both of these values were similar to δ(18) Oa in equilibrium with precipitation, -12.9‰. δ(18) Oa was also reconstructed through a large-scale transect with δ(18) OL and the growing-season-integrated δ(18) OC across the southeastern United States. There was considerable large-scale variation, but there was regional, weather-induced coherence in δ(18) Oa when using δ(18) OL . The reconstruction of δ(18) Oa with δ(18) OC generally supported the assumption of δ(18) Oa being in equilibrium with precipitation δ(18) O (δ(18) Oppt ), but the pool of δ(18) Oppt with which δ(18) Oa was in equilibrium - growing season versus annual δ(18) Oppt - changed with latitude. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optimalisatie belichting en bemesting bij Bromelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2010-01-01

    Als vervolg op onderzoek uit 2007-2008 waaruit de optimale belichtingsniveaus in combinatie met voeding voor drie verschillende Bromelia waren vastgesteld, is tussen september 2008 en december 2009 in twee parallel lopende proeven verder gewerkt aan optimalisatie van bemesting in combinatie met

  8. Bromelia: Effect belichten voor meeste soorten positief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Onderzoek leert dat voor een aantal soorten belichting in meerdere aspecten loont: meer groei, een kortere teelt, een grotere bloeiwijze met meer vertakkingen en een verbetering van de houdbaarheid. Voor een deel van de onderzochte Vriesea’s en voor de onderzochte Tillandsia blijft het voordeel van

  9. Triterpenoids from Tillandsia fasciculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo-Ciau, Z; Brito-Loeza, W; Quijano, L

    2001-07-01

    The leaves of Tillandsia fasciculata afforded four tetracyclic triterpenoids of the cycloartane type, two new compounds identified as cyclolaudenyl formate (2) and the (24S)-24-isopropenyl cycloartanone, which we named tillandsinone (1), and the known cyclolaudenone (3) and cyclolaudenol (4).

  10. Las microalgas de Tillandsia multicaulis Steud. (Bromeliaceae de la Reserva Ecológica “La Martinica”, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisceida Hernández-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bromelias tienen la capacidad de retener agua en las axilas de las hojas lo que es conocido como tanques o fitotelmata; mantienen cadenas tróficas complejas con todo tipo de organismos, desde bacterias hasta vertebrados pequeños. En este trabajo, presentamos la primera aproximación a las microalgas que viven en las cisternas de una especie de bromelia en la Reserva Ecológica “La Martinica” en Banderilla, Veracruz. Las recolecciones se estudiaron en material preservado y en cultivos. Se obtuvieron cerca de 60 algas pertenecientes a las Cyanoprokariota, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Chlorophyta y Bacillariophyta, sin embargo, solo se lograron identificar 16 especies. Se concluye que los tanques de Tillandsia multicaulis brindan las condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo de microalgas y que la ubicación y la morfología de la bromelia influyen en la distribución de este grupo biológico. La escasez de individuos en las muestras analizadas no permitió una identificación precisa de todas las especies. En los cultivos aparecieron especies no observadas en el material preservado, lo que indica una flora mucho más rica de la que puede observarse directamente.

  11. It takes two to tango: self incompatibility in the bromeliad Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón M Ramírez Morillo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Floral phenology and breeding system of Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae were studied in a low inundated forest in Yucatan, Mexico. During the flowering season, from March to August, terminal scapose 1-branched, paniculate inflorescences are produced with one flower per branch opening per day, over a period of 11-29 days. Flowers are tubular, light violet, with the stigma placed below the anthers, both protruding above the corolla. Flowers are protandrous, with anthers releasing pollen from 0500 hours and stigma becoming receptive around 0900 hours. Controlled experimental crosses suggest that Tillandsia streptophylla is self incompatible and therefore, pollinator-dependent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 761-770. Epub 2009 September 30.Estudiamos la fenología floral y el sistema de cruzamiento de la bromelia Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae en una selva baja inundable en Yucatán, México. Durante la estación de floración (marzo a agosto, las plantas producen una inflorescencia terminal, escaposa, paniculada, 1-dividida, con una flor abriendo por rama por día para un período de floración de 11-29 días por inflorescencia. Las flores son tubulares, de corola violeta claro, con el estigma y anteras exertos, pero las anteras más largas que el estigma en antesis. Las flores son protandras, con las anteras liberando el polen desde las 0500 horas y la receptividad del estigma comenzando a las 0900 horas. Los cruces experimentales controlados sugieren que Tillansdia streptophylla es auto incompatible y por ende, dependiente de los polinizadores.

  12. Chemical constituents from Tillandsia recurvata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroga, Marcos Aurélio; de Andrade, Lucimara Mariano; Florêncio, Karina Chagas; de Fátima Agra, Maria; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; da-Cunha, Emidio Vasconcelos Leitão

    2004-06-01

    The CHCl3 extract of Tillandsia recurvata yielded 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavanone (1), 1,3-di-O-cinnamoyl-glycerol (2) and ethyl ester of caffeic acid. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods such as mass spectroscopy and 1 and 2D-NMR. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  13. O GÊNERO TILLANDSIA L. (BROMELIACEAE-TILLANDSIOIDEAE) NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    DÉBORA KREMER

    2011-01-01

    Tillandsia L. é o maior gênero da subfamília Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) com 557 espécies, distribuídas desde o sul dos Estados Unidos até a Argentina e o Chile. Tradicionalmente, está dividido em sete subgêneros: Tillandsia subg. Allardtia (A. Dietrich) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Anoplophytum (Beer) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Phytarrhiza (Vis.) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Diaphoranthema (Beer) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Tillandsia L., Tillandsia subg. Pseudalcantarea Mez e Tillandsia subg. Pseudo- ...

  14. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E.; Siedow, James N.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of CO2 exchange in Spanish moss under various experimental conditions were measured using an infrared gas analysis system. Plants were collected from a study site in North Carolina and placed in a gas exchange chamber for several days of continuous measurements. No substantial seasonal effects on CO2 exchange were observed. High rates of nocturnal CO2 uptake were observed under day/night temperature regimes of 25/10, 25/15, 25/20, 30/20, and 35/20 C; however, daytime temperatures of 40 C eliminated nighttime CO2 uptake and a nighttime temperature of 5 C eliminated nocturnal CO2 uptake, regardless of day temperature. Constant chamber conditions also inhibited nocturnal CO2 uptake. Constant high relative humidity (RH) slightly stimulated CO2 uptake while low nighttime RH reduced nocturnal CO2 uptake. Reductions in daytime irradiance to approximately 25% full sunlight had no effect on CO2 exchange. Continuous darkness resulted in continuous CO2 loss by the plants, but a CO2 exchange pattern similar to normal day/night conditions was observed under constant illumination. High tissue water content inhibited CO2 uptake. Wetting of the tissue at any time of day or night resulted in net CO2 loss. Abrupt increases in temperature or decreases in RH resulted in sharp decreases in net CO2 uptake. The results indicate that Spanish moss is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, irradiances, and water contents. They also indicate that high nighttime RH is a prerequisite for high rates of CO2 uptake. PMID:16661912

  15. Supplementary light and higher fertigation EC in the cultivation of bromelia improve quality and accelerate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In order to provide Bromelia growers with lacking information about optimal levels of supplementary light and nutrient EC, two consecutive greenhouse experiments were conducted by Wageningen UR Glasshouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk (The Netherlands). In the first experiment a light

  16. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA BIOMASA Y ALGUNAS CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS DE LAS BROMELIAS FITOTELMATAS DE UN BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaza Carolina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas características morfológicas para seis especies de bromelias fitotelmata (Guzmania gloriosa, Racinaea tetrantha, Tillandsia biflora, T. complanata, T. fendleri y T. turneri con el fin de establecer cuales características podrían utilizarse como estimadores indirectos de la biomasa total de la planta. El estudio se realizó en un bosque alto andino de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, ubicado a 2900 m de altitud. Para cada especie se recolectaron entre 32 y 64 individuos en diferentes estadios de crecimiento, a cada uno de los cuales se le registró: 1 el número de hojas por roseta; 2 el perímetro de la base de la roseta; 3 la cobertura de la planta; 4 el largo de la lámina foliar; 5 la altura de la roseta; y 6 la biomasa total. Los resultados de la prueba Wilcoxon muestran que la cobertura fue la variable que más se relacionó con la biomasa. Una prueba de ajuste de curva mostró que la línea recta es la que más explica la relación entre la cobertura y la biomasa, permitiendo hacer estimaciones a partir de la ecuación sin ser necesario un muestreo destructivo.

  17. Medição do aporte atmosférico dos elementos-traço nos municípios de Campinas e Paulínia com auxílio da espécie vegetal Tillanásia usneoides (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Gonçalves Pereira da Silva Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A bromélia epífita Tillandsia usneoides (L.) foi utilizada para realizar um biomonitoramento atmosférico em sete locais ao longo de uma transecta que passa pelos municípios de Campinas e Paulínia. Os pontos escolhidos situam-se próximos a rodovias, indústrias e avenidas, assim como em locais mais afastados de atividades antrópicas. Amostras da planta foram introduzidas por aproximadamente dois meses em cada um locais durante cinco intervalos sequenciais, entre abril de 2009 e março de...

  18. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: The three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspiration to evaluate Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia taxa with three pinnate inflorescences for the Peruvian flora. Tillandsia extensa characteristics are clarified, confirming its distribution for northeastern Peru, and recognizing a specimen, previously considered being the second record for this species, as T. platyphylla.

  19. Multielement determination in Tillandsia by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Cecchi, A.; Cecchi-Fiordi, A.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure 43 elements, including some macroconstituents, in the leaves of some species of the epiphytic genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae). The results, confirming the oligotrophyc nature of the genus, are briefly discussed with regard to a possible role as multielemental environmental monitors. (author) 7 refs

  20. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  1. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) : RESPONSES OF CO(2) EXCHANGE TO CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Siedow, J N

    1981-08-01

    Patterns of CO(2) exchange in Spanish moss under various experimental conditions were measured using an infrared gas analysis system. Plants were collected from a study site in North Carolina and placed in a gas exchange chamber for several days of continuous measurements. No substantial seasonal effects on CO(2) exchange were observed. High rates of nocturnal CO(2) uptake were observed under day/night temperature regimes of 25/10, 25/15, 25/20, 30/20, and 35/20 C; however, daytime temperatures of 40 C eliminated nighttime CO(2) uptake and a nighttime temperature of 5 C eliminated nocturnal CO(2) uptake, regardless of day temperature. Constant chamber conditions also inhibited nocturnal CO(2) uptake. Constant high relative humidity (RH) slightly stimulated CO(2) uptake while low nighttime RH reduced nocturnal CO(2) uptake.Reductions in daytime irradiance to approximately 25% full sunlight had no effect on CO(2) exchange. Continuous darkness resulted in continuous CO(2) loss by the plants, but a CO(2) exchange pattern similar to normal day/night conditions was observed under constant illumination. High tissue water content inhibited CO(2) uptake. Wetting of the tissue at any time of day or night resulted in net CO(2) loss. Abrupt increases in temperature or decreases in RH resulted in sharp decreases in net CO(2) uptake.The results indicate that Spanish moss is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, irradiances, and water contents. They also indicate that high nighttime RH is a prerequisite for high rates of CO(2) uptake.

  2. Circunscripción de Tillandsia chaetophylla Mez y descripción de Tillandsia sessemocinoi (Bromeliaceae: Tillandsioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ferrari, Ana Rosa; Espejo Serna, Adolfo; Blanco Fernández de Caleya, Paloma

    2006-01-01

    Se discute y aclara la situación nomenclatural de Tillandsia chaetophylla Mez y se describe como nueva para la ciencia e ilustra a T. sessemocinoi López-Ferrari, Espejo et P. Blanco. Se aportan datos sobre la distribución y la fenología de ambas especies. The nomenclatural status of Tillandsia chaetophylla Mez is discussed and clarified, and a new species, Tillandsia sessemocinoi López-Ferrari, Espejo et P. Blanco, is described and illustrated. Data concerning the distribution and phenolog...

  3. Bloeibehandeling Bromelia: Orienterend onderzoek naar mogelijkheden om: a. ongewenste spontane bloei te belemmeren b. de bloeibehandeling te verbeteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    De bloei van Bromelia wordt kunstmatig geïnduceerd met ethyleen of ethyleenachtige verbindingen. In de praktijk kunnen twee problemen optreden: spontane bloei van enkele planten uit een partij (vóórbloeiers) en onvolledige inductie van alle planten uit een partij. In dit onderzoek zijn tegen deze

  4. Tillandsia recurvata L. as a bioindicator of sulfur atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Graciano, Corina; Fernández, L V; Caldiz, D O

    2003-01-01

    Tillandsia recurvata L. is an epiphyte that absorbs nutrients from the air, so it could be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric sulfur pollution. In order to test this idea, Tillandsia recurvata samples were seasonally collected for two years at three sites of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in a suburban park and in a rural area 60 km away from the city. Macro- and microscopic observations were carried out and chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations of the tissue were measured to ...

  5. Novos registros em Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae) para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Büneker,Henrique Mallmann; Pontes,Rodrigo Corrêa; Witeck-Neto,Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Resumo São registradas pela primeira vez para a flora do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) Tillandsia loliacea Mart. ex Schult.f. e Tillandsia pohliana Mez, sendo também redescoberta Tillandsia bandensis Baker neste estado e Brasil. São fornecidas descrições, fotografias e dados de suas distribuições geográficas.

  6. Estudio farmacognóstico de bromelia pinguin l. (Piña de Ratón.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los resultados del estudio de secado preliminar de las partes aéreas de Bromelia pinguin L., recolectadas en lugares cercanos a la ciudad de Cienfuegos, así como los valores de las cenizas y los resultados del tamizaje fitoquímico obtenidos en el estudio de estas partes de la planta y sus extractos.The results of the study of the preliminary drying of the aerial parts of Bromelia pinguin L., picked up in areas near the city of Cienfuegos, as well as the values of the ashes and the results of the phytochemical screening obtained through the study of these parts of the plant and its extracts, are described.

  7. COMPOSIÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM FRUTOS DE Bromelia antiacantha BERTOL.

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    FERNANDA DÖRING KRUMREICH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutas e hortaliças, de forma geral, são fontes de vitaminas, sais minerais e fibras. Recentemente, tem sido verificada a presença de compostos bioativos, incluindo carotenoides, antocianinas e compostos fenólicos, para os quais pesquisas relatam ação antioxidante e potencial terapêutico. A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol., popularmente conhecida por banana-do-mato, caraguatá, gravatá, carauatá e croatá, ocorre naturalmente no Rio Grande do Sul-Brasil. Informações científicas quanto à composição nutricional e a atividade biológica para essa espécie ainda são restritas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a composição físico-química, incluindo o teor de compostos bioativos da Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. Elevado teor de lipídios (5,07 ± 0,4 %, ácido ascórbico (60,01 ± 5,04 mg.100g-1 e carotenoides (162,67 ± 36,70 mg.100g-1 foram encontrados para a espécie Bromelia antiacantha Bertol., assim como baixo teor de carboidratos (8,75%.

  8. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: the three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    OpenAIRE

    León, Blanca; Sagástegui, Abundio

    2008-01-01

    La recolección reciente de un ejemplar de inflorescencia tri-pinnada motivó la evaluación de los taxones con inflorescencias tri-pinnadas de Tillandsia subgénero Tillandsia para la flora peruana. Se aclara las características de T. extensa, confirmándose su distribución para el noreste del Perú y reconociéndose un ejemplar, previamente considerado como el segundo registro de la especie, como T. platyphylla. A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspirat...

  9. Adventitious bud development and regeneration in Tillandsia eizii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickens, K.A.; Wolf, J.H.D.; Affolter, J.M.; Wetzstein, H.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The bromeliad Tillandsia eizii is a striking species with large, colorful, and persistent inflorescences that can reach 1m in length. The value of this plant as an ornamental and its importance in cultural and religious activities has led to its overcollection in the wild. Clonal propagation via

  10. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  11. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  12. Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae

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    Ole Johan Juvik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa, N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata, E. spectabile, and B. laciniosa. Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR plant metabolomics.

  13. Cultivation of Tillandsia geminiflora Brongn. in different growing media

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    Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia geminiflora is little grown in Brazil, but has good potential for exportation. Tree fern fiber was used in mixtures for bromeliad cultivation until the prohibition of this practice. The replacement of tree fern by other materials with similar properties has been researched. Thus, and the aim of this study was to compare the development of T. geminiflora grown in media with different vegetal components (tree fern, coconut husk and pinus bark. Plant development was evaluated for about two years. Pure coconut bark husk gave the best results.

  14. Two new 24-isopropenyl-lanostanoids from Tillandsia brachycaulos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Quintero-Mármol, Esther; Jiménez-Díaz, Antonio; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2003-01-01

    The leaves of Tillandsia brachycaulos afforded two novel tetracyclic triterpenoids identified as (24S)-24-isopropenyl-29-nor-5alpha-lanosta-7-en-3beta-ol (1) and (24S)-24-isopropenyl-29-nor-5alpha-lanosta-7-en-3-one (2), in addition to the known isopimaric acid (3) and chlorogenic acid (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HMQC and HMBC) and by comparison with data in the literature. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were studied. The compounds did not show significant activity.

  15. Actividad farmacológica preliminar del fruto de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón

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    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio farmacológico preliminar de un extracto hidroalcohólico concentrado de los frutos de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón mediante bioensayos sencillos y confiables. Se determinó la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina Leach, que resultó muy baja. Se probó la actividad antihelmíntica contra Lombricus terrestri, con resultados relevantes. El extracto no mostró actividad contra diversas cepas de hongos y bacterias.The results of the preliminary pharmacological study of a concentrated hydroalcoholic extract from the fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. ("piña de ratón" by simple and reliable bioassays are presented. The toxicity against Artemia salina Leach, which was very low, was determined. The anthelmintic activity against Lombricus terrestri was proved with remarkable results. No activity of the extract against the strains of fungi and bacteria was observed.

  16. How many taxa can be recognized within the complex Tillandsia capillaris (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae)? Analysis of the available classifications using a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Lucía V; Galetto, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav., which belongs to the subgenus Diaphoranthema is distributed in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern and central Argentina, and Chile, and includes forms that are difficult to circumscribe, thus considered to form a complex. The entities of this complex are predominantly small-sized epiphytes, adapted to xeric environments. The most widely used classification defines 5 forms for this complex based on few morphological reproductive traits: Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, Tillandsia capillaris f. incana (Mez) L.B. Sm., Tillandsia capillaris f. cordobensis (Hieron.) L.B. Sm., Tillandsia capillaris f. hieronymi (Mez) L.B. Sm. and Tillandsia capillaris f. virescens (Ruiz & Pav.) L.B. Sm. In this study, 35 floral and vegetative characters were analyzed with a multivariate approach in order to assess and discuss different proposals for classification of the Tillandsia capillaris complex, which presents morphotypes that co-occur in central and northern Argentina. To accomplish this, data of quantitative and categorical morphological characters of flowers and leaves were collected from herbarium specimens and field collections and were analyzed with statistical multivariate techniques. The results suggest that the last classification for the complex seems more comprehensive and three taxa were delimited: Tillandsia capillaris (=Tillandsia capillaris f. incana-hieronymi), Tillandsia virescens s. str. (=Tillandsia capillaris f. cordobensis) and Tillandsia virescens s. l. (=Tillandsia capillaris f. virescens). While Tillandsia capillaris and Tillandsia virescens s. str. co-occur, Tillandsia virescens s. l. is restricted to altitudes above 2000 m in Argentina. Characters previously used for taxa delimitation showed continuous variation and therefore were not useful. New diagnostic characters are proposed and a key is provided for delimiting these three taxa within the complex.

  17. First record of bat-pollination in the species-rich genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, Pedro Adrián; MacSwiney G, M Cristina; Krömer, Thorsten; García-Franco, José G; Knauer, Anina; Kessler, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Bromeliaceae is a species-rich neotropical plant family that uses a variety of pollinators, principally vertebrates. Tillandsia is the most diverse genus, and includes more than one-third of all bromeliad species. Within this genus, the majority of species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds; however, the flowers of some Tillandsia species show some characteristics typical for pollination by nocturnal animals, particularly bats and moths. In this study an examination is made of the floral and reproductive biology of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia macropetala in a fragment of humid montane forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. The reproductive system of the species, duration of anthesis, production of nectar and floral scent, as well as diurnal and nocturnal floral visitors and their effectiveness in pollination were determined. Tillandsia macropetala is a self-compatible species that achieves a higher fruit production through outcrossing. Nectar production is restricted to the night, and only nocturnal visits result in the development of fruits. The most frequent visitor (75 % of visits) and the only pollinator of this bromeliad (in 96 % of visits) was the nectarivorous bat Anoura geoffroyi (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae). This is the first report of chiropterophily within the genus Tillandsia. The results on the pollination biology of this bromeliad suggest an ongoing evolutionary switch from pollination by birds or moths to bats.

  18. Comparison of oxidative stress in four Tillandsia species exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Hedbavny, Josef

    2014-07-01

    This is first study comparing four morphologically variable species of the genus Tillandsia and therefore various responses to the cadmium (Cd) action were expected. In accordance, Cd accumulation increased in order Tillandsia fasciculata Tillandsia brachycaulos Tillandsia pruinosa Tillandsia capillaris, reaching 29.6 and 197.4 μg g(-1) DW in first and last species after watering with 2 μM Cd(2+) solution over 30 days. Fluorescence visualization of oxidative stress confirmed increase in ROS and especially elevation in hydroperoxides though no visible symptoms appeared on the plants. At the same time, nitric oxide generation and nitroso-glutathione depletion by Cd treatment were typically observed. Fluorescence staining of Cd using two dyes (PhenGreen and Leadmium) showed that Leadmium fits better with AAS quantification. Macro- and micro-nutrients were not considerably affected except for zinc. Reduced glutathione content was the highest in control T. fasciculata while oxidized glutathione in T. capillaris. Ascorbic acid amount revealed extreme quantitative differences among species and decreased in T. fasciculata only. Free amino acids accumulation was similar among species except for T. capillaris and Cd caused both depletion and increase but without high quantitative differences. Data are explanatively discussed in the context of limited literature related to oxidative stress in epiphytic plants and with general responses of plants to cadmium/heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. It takes two to tango: self incompatibility in the bromeliad Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Morillo, Ivón M; Chi May, Francisco; Carnevali, Germán; May Pat, Filogonio

    2009-09-01

    Floral phenology and breeding system of Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) were studied in a low inundated forest in Yucatan, Mexico. During the flowering season, from March to August, terminal scapose 1-branched, paniculate inflorescences are produced with one flower per branch opening per day, over a period of 11-29 days. Flowers are tubular, light violet, with the stigma placed below the anthers, both protruding above the corolla. Flowers are protandrous, with anthers releasing pollen from 0500 hours and stigma becoming receptive around 0900 hours. Controlled experimental crosses suggest that Tillandsia streptophylla is self incompatible and therefore, pollinator-dependent.

  20. Megasporogenesis and programmed cell death in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Milocani, Eva; Tani, Gabriele; Di Falco, Pietro; Brighigna, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    The degeneration of three of four meiotic products is a very common process in the female gender of oogamous eukaryotes. In Tillandsia (and many other angiosperms), the surviving megaspore has a callose-free wall in chalazal position while the other three megaspores are completely embedded in callose. Therefore, nutrients and signals can reach more easily the functional megaspore from the nucellus through the chalazal pole with respect to the other megaspores. The abortion of three of four megaspores was already recognized as the result of a programmed cell death (PCD) process. We investigated the process to understand the modality of this specific type of PCD and its relationship to the asymmetric callose deposition around the tetrad. The decision on which of the four megaspores will be the supernumerary megaspores in angiosperms, and hence destined to undergo programmed cell death, appears to be linked to the callose layer deposition around the tetrad. During supernumerary megaspores degeneration, events leading to the deletion of the cells do not appear to belong to a single type of cell death. The first morphological signs are typical of autophagy, including the formation of autophagosomes. The TUNEL positivity and a change in morphology of mitochondria and chloroplasts indicate the passage to an apoptotic-like PCD phase, while the cellular remnants undergo a final process resembling at least partially (ER swelling) necrotic morphological syndromes, eventually leading to a mainly lipidic cell corpse still separated from the functional megaspore by a callose layer.

  1. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Grießbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m-2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m-2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  2. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Straeter, E. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Larrain, H. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile (Chile). Atacama Desert Center ADC; Univ. Bolivariana, Iquique (Chile); Osses, P.; Cereceda, P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Inst. of Geography

    2009-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m{sup -2} of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m{sup -2}. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog. (orig.)

  3. Kinase inhibition by the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Watson, Charah T; Badal, Simone; Toyang, Ngeh J; Bryant, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    This research was undertaken in order to investigate the inhibitory potential of the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata against several kinases. The inhibition of these kinases has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays, which have been previously established and authenticated. Four hundred and fifty one kinases were tested against the Jamaican ball moss extract and a dose-response was tested on 40 kinases, which were inhibited by more than 35% compared to the control. Out of the 40 kinases, the Jamaican ball moss selectively inhibited 5 (CSNK2A2, MEK5, GAK, FLT and DRAK1) and obtained Kd(50)s were below 20 μg/ml. Since MEK5 and GAK kinases have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer, the inhibitory properties of the ball moss against them, coupled with its previously found bioactivity towards the PC-3 cell line, makes it promising in the arena of drug discovery towards prostate cancer.

  4. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  5. Impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Fabio da Silva do Espírito Santo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o impacto da herbivoria por caprinos sobre as populações naturais de Bromelia laciniosa Mart. ex Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae, espécie endêmica da Caatinga. Os estudos de campo foram desenvolvidos na localidade de Caboclo (8º28'56,4"S, 40º56'6,9"W, 588 m alt., Município de Afrânio, Pernambuco. Essa área é considerada de alta importância biológica e, portanto, prioritária para a conservação. A análise quantitativa desse impacto foi realizada a partir do inventário de 10 parcelas com 2.000 m², ao longo de uma trilha pré-existente na área de estudo, e consistiu em contabilizar os indivíduos de B. laciniosa em floração e o porcentual de indivíduos que tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas pelos caprinos. Adicionalmente, também foram obtidas informações referentes à fenologia, à morfologia floral e às taxas de formação de frutos e sementes dessa Bromeliaceae. Verificou-se que, dos 246 indivíduos inventariados, 65,8% tiveram suas inflorescências forrageadas por esses animais. A estimativa do número de flores consumidas foi de 8.748 e o número provável de frutos e sementes que deixaram de ser produzidos, de aproximadamente 7.227 e 252.945, respectivamente. O forrageamento das inflorescências diminuiu as taxas de formação de frutos e sementes, podendo, desse modo, interferir diretamente na conservação dessa bromélia.

  6. Extracto etéreo de frutos de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón por el sistema acoplado CG-EM

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    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio del extracto etéreo de frutos de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón mediante el sistema acoplado CG-EM. Se detectó la presencia de los ácidos 2-pentenodioico, octanodioico, ftálico, cítrico, nonanodioico, 12-metiltetradecanoico, palmítico, oleico, linolénico, esteárico, 11,14,17-eicosatrienoico y 11,14-eicosadienoico. La identificación fue realizada sobre la base de los tiempos de retención y fue confirmada por comparación de los espectros de masas con los de patrones. Por primera vez es informada la presencia de estos compuestos en los frutos de B. pinguin L.The study of the ethereal extract from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. ("piña de ratón" was conducted by the CG-EM coupled system. The following acids were detected: 2-pentanedioic, octanedioic, phthalic, citric, nonanodioic, 12-methyltetradecanoic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, stearic, 11,14,17-eicosatrie-noic and 11,14-eicosadienoic. Their identification was based on the times of retention and it was confirmed by comparing the spectra of masses with those of patterns. The presence of these compounds in the fruits of B. pinguin L. is reported for the first time.

  7. The salt glands of Tamarix usneoides E. Mey. ex Bunge (South African Salt Cedar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hayden; Mycock, David; Weiersbye, Isabel M

    2017-06-03

    Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialized glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz. two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall that could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells. It was hypothesized that the ions are moved across the excretory cells in endocytotic vesicles that fuse with the plasmalemma or form junctional complexes, allowing ion movement from one excretory cell to the next. In the apical cell, the vesicles fuse with the plasmalemma, releasing the ions into the network of cell wall ingrowths which channel the ions to the outside surface of the cell. This study shows that there are distinct structural adaptations for the processing of ions for excretion, although the mechanism by which ions enter the cells still needs to be determined.

  8. Active Uptake of Amino Acids by Leaves of an Epiphytic Vascular Plant, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, L P; Davis, J P; O'dell, S J; Arditti, J; Stephens, G C; Benzing, D H

    1987-03-01

    Specialized epidermal trichomes on the leaves of the epiphyte, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) accumulate amino acids from solution. Simultaneous net uptake of 17 amino acids was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Uptake occurs against concentration gradients at least as high as 10(4).

  9. Active Uptake of Amino Acids by Leaves of an Epiphytic Vascular Plant, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Leslie Paul; Davis, James P.; O'Dell, Stephen J.; Arditti, Joseph; Stephens, Grover C.; Benzing, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Specialized epidermal trichomes on the leaves of the epiphyte, Tillandsia paucifolia (Bromeliaceae) accumulate amino acids from solution. Simultaneous net uptake of 17 amino acids was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Uptake occurs against concentration gradients at least as high as 104. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665307

  10. Antileukemic activity of Tillandsia recurvata and some of its cycloartanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Toyang, Ngeh J; Watson, Charah T; Ayeah, Kenneth N N; Bryant, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 250,000 deaths were caused by leukemia globally in 2012 and about 40%-50% of all leukemia diagnoses end-up in death. Medicinal plants are a rich source for the discovery of new drugs against leukemia and other types of cancers. To this end, we subjected the Jamaican ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata) and its cycloartanes, as well as some analogs, to in vitro screening against a number of leukemia cell lines. The WST-1 anti-proliferation assay was used to determine the anticancer activity of ball moss and two cycloartanes isolated from ball moss and four of their analogs against four leukemia cell lines (HL-60, K562, MOLM-14, monoMac6). Ball moss crude methanolic extract showed activity with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) value of 3.028 μg/ml against the Molm-14 cell line but was ineffective against HL-60 cells. The six cycloartanes tested demonstrated varying activity against the four leukemia cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.83 μM to 18.3 μM. Five out of the six cycloartanes demonstrated activity, while one was inactive against all four cell lines. The preliminary activity demonstrated by the Jamaican ball moss and its cycloartanes against selected leukemia cell lines continues to throw light on the broad anticancer activity of ball moss. Further studies to evaluate the efficacy of these molecules in other leukemia cell lines are required in order to validate the activity of these molecules, as well as to determine their mechanisms of action and ascertain the activity in vivo in order to establish efficacy and safety profiles. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Produção de frutos para uso medicinal em Bromelia antiancatha (caraguatá: fundamentos para um extrastivismo sustentável Fruit production for medicinal use in Bromelia antiacantha ("caraguatá": foundations for sustainable extraction

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    S. Filippon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as várias espécies que têm sido utilizadas como fontes de subprodutos florestais estão a Bromelia antiacantha, espécie nativa da Mata Atlântica com grande potencial de uso com características alimentícias, ornamentais, industriais e farmacológicas. Os frutos da espécie são utilizados tradicionalmente no Planalto Norte Catarinense na confecção de xaropes para tratamento de males das vias respiratórias. Neste contexto, objetivou-se quantificar a produção de frutos e fundamentar estratégias para possível manejo de populações naturais de B. antiacantha. Foram acompanhadas 39 infrutescências de Janeiro/2008 a Agosto/2008 distribuídas em área de mata secundária na FLONA de Três Barras, SC. Nesta mesma área, indivíduos da espécie foram acompanhados através de estudos demográficos de 2001 a 2008. As infrutescências apresentaram em média 0,68m de comprimento, número médio de 187 frutos/infrutescência, o diâmetro médio dos frutos foi de 1,9 cm e o peso médio das infrutescências de 3,6 kg. A média de frutos aproveitáveis foi de 157 frutos/infrutescência totalizando 2,5 kg. A safra estimada para 2005 foi de 146 kg de frutos ha-1 e 80 kg de frutos ha-1 para 2008, e a renda líquida a partir da produção de xarope foi estimada em R$ 1168,00 por hectare, por ano. Os resultados mostraram que o manejo de B. antiacantha consiste em atividade economicamente interessante e que esta possibilidade, além de complementar a renda de comunidades locais onde a espécie se faz presente, também amplia o valor das áreas com cobertura florestal.Among the large number of species that have been used as sources of forest byproducts is Bromelia antiacantha, a species native to the Atlantic Forest and that has great potential of use with nourishing, ornamental, industrial and pharmacological characteristics. The fruits of this species are traditionally used in the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the

  12. Tillandsia recurvata L. (Bromeliaceae: aspectos farmacognósticos

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    Alex Lucena de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura superior das florestas tropicais, formada pelas copas das árvores, constitui um ambiente de extrema diversidade vegetal. Contribuindo com a grande riqueza dessas florestas encontram-se as espécies botânicas epífitas, cuja importância pode ser observada do ponto de vista ecológico, faunístico, etnobotânico e até mesmo farmacológico. Dentre as espécies adaptadas à vida epifítica podemos citar as bromeliáceas, que compõem uma das famílias mais representativas dessa flora com elevada variabilidade genética. Tillandsia recurvata é uma espécie epífita cosmopolita, nativa, adaptada a habitats áridos, utilizada para o tratamento de diversas doenças, mas pouco se tem publicado a respeito das comprovações científicas de suas propriedades. O presente trabalho revisa os aspectos etnofarmacológicos, atividades biológicas e compostos químicos relacionados à espécie em questão, pertencente à Bromeliaceae. A partir do levantamento de dados realizado, observa-se que esta se trata de uma espécie de conhecido uso popular no tratamento de diferentes distúrbios, com alguns estudos farmacológicos que comprovam suas propriedades terapêuticas. Do ponto de vista químico observa-se a presença de terpenos, flavonoides e derivados cinâmicos em sua constituição, em que alguns compostos isolados ilustram a potencialidade desta espécie como fonte de biomoléculas de interesse. Todos estes aspectos considerados nesta revisão contribuem para o conhecimento a respeito da importância biológica e o potencial terapêutico acerca dos metabólitos desta promissora espécie.

  13. Modelos de regressão para estimativa da área foliar de espécies brasileiras do gênero Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gabarra Mendonça

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar equações de regressão para estimativa da área foliar de Tillandsia spp. nativas do Brasil. Determinaram-se o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal (C, a largura máxima (L e a área foliar real de, no mínimo, 100 folhas de cada espécie, mantidas intactas nas plantas. Calcularam-se relações lineares existentes entre a área foliar real e as dimensões C, L e CL (produto entre o comprimento e a largura da folha. O modelo de regressão linear com intercepto foi o mais adequado, e as equações recomendadas, sendo AFE= área foliar estimada, foram: para Tillandsia carminea, AFE= 0,281188 + 0,562219 CL (R2= 0,7296; :Tillandsia dura, AFE= 0,891231 + 0,412457 CL (R2= 0,8432; Tillandsia gardneri, AFE= 2,54412 + 0,445525 CL (R2= 0,8662; Tillandsia geminiflora, AFE= 0,674484 + 0,444418 CL (R2= 0,8474; Tillandsia globosa, AFE= 1,9494 + 0,3804 CL (R2= 0,8178; Tillandsia grazielae, AFE= 0,518512 + 0,530259 CL (R2= 0,7608; Tillandsia kautskyi, AFE= 0,59338 + 0,374353 CL (R2= 0,6931; Tillandsia reclinata, AFE= 0,0379111 + 0,641623 CL (R2= 0,9169; Tillandsia stricta, AFE= 0,3937 + 0,4277 C (R2= 0,8661, ou AFE= 1,21336 + 0,385727 CL (R2= 0,8607; Tillandsia tenuifolia, AFE= 0,991226 + 0,402221 CL (R2= 0,7523.

  14. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae

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    Luigi Brighigna

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city. Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  15. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, L; Gori, A; Gonnelli, S; Favilli, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José) with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city). Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  16. A VALID NAME FOR THE TAXON KNOWN AS TILLANDSIA BRYOIDES AUCT. (BROMELIACEAE

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    Sabina Donadío

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia bryoides fue incluida en la sinonimia de T. tricholepis porque todos los elementos del lectotipo (P. Lorentz 128, BM pertenecen a esta última especie. Sin embargo, se observaron en el campo, en distintos herbarios y en diversas publicaciones, materiales que fueron previamente considerados como T. bryoides y que en realidad corresponden a una nueva especie de Tillandsia subgen. Diaphoranthema. Esta nueva especie tiene flores solitarias, sésiles, amarillas y una bráctea floral glabra, y crece en el centro de Perú, en Bolivia, y en el centro y noroeste de Argentina. En este trabajo se establece un nombre válido para esta especie, junto con una ilustración detallada, datos de distribución, y una discusión de sus relaciones con las especies morfológicamente más afines.

  17. The influence of humidity, nutrients and light on the establishment of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia guatemalensis in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Castro Hernández

    1999-12-01

    after being transplanted out of their original habitat suggest that nutrients are limiting growth.En los Altos de Chiapas, la rápida destrucción y alteración del hábitat amenaza a las epífitas. Aparentemente, la transformación del bosque incrementa la vegetación abierta y de borde, caracterizada por condiciones más secas que las prevalecientes en el interior del bosque. De acuerdo con esto, las epífitas mésicas serían especialmente afectadas. Investigamos el papel de la disponibilidad de agua durante el crecimiento de una población de la ampliamente distribuida bromelia fitotelma mésica C3 Tillandsia guatemalensis. Chiapas presenta una pronunciada estación seca entre noviembre y abril, cuando las plantas observadas en el campo liberaron sus semillas. La germinación en altos porcentajes (arriba del 93%, observación confirmada en laboratorio se presentó siete semanas después del inicio de las lluvias. Muchas de las livianas plántulas desaparecieron antes de poder anclarse al sustrato, probablemente arrastradas por las lluvias torrenciales. Más de la mitad de las plántulas de una población establecida naturalmente murió durante la estación seca. Esta alta mortalidad se puede deducir también de la distribución de tamaños en una población natural. La mortalidad de plántulas sobre cortezas de árboles grandes, de la base del tronco hasta una altura de 1.3 m, es similar sobre dos especies de encino comparada con dos especies de pino. Estas cortezas también mostraron una alta capacidad de retención de agua. Sin embargo, la corteza de encino de las partes altas en el árbol absorbió mayor cantidad de agua por superficie y liberó agua durante un mayor período de tiempo que las cortezas equivalentes de Pinus tecunumanii. Además la capacidad de la corteza de absorber agua por lo general fue mayor en los árboles más grandes. Sugerimos que las diferencias en la absorción de agua pueden explicar, al menos en parte, la "preferencia" de las ep

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia Usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, south east Brazil--Part I: PCDD and PCDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Waller, Ulrich; Reifenhäuser, Werner; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf; Körner, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring of immission of persistent organic pollutants in the industrialized area of Volta Redonda (V.R.) and in the National Park of Itatiaia (PNI) in southeast Brazil was performed using an endemic Bromeliad species as biomonitor and measuring total deposition rates on funnels covered with polyurethane foams. Samples were collected during 78 days in V.R. and 95 days in PNI in winter (dry season, June-August 2003) and during 114 days in both areas in summer (rainy season, December 2003-February 2004). The PCDD/PCDF deposition rates ranged from 0.10 to 1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in winter and from 0.11 to 2.2 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in summer. Deposition rates found in V.R. in summer were four- to ninefold higher than those measured in PNI, while in winter deposition rates in both regions were in the same range. Deposition rates in V.R. in summer were about five fold lower than those measured in 1996. PCDD/PCDF levels in biomonitor samples were between 0.95 and 14.6 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in winter and between 2.2 and 5.2 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in summer. In winter, concentrations found in V.R. were up to 11 times higher than those found in PNI, while in summer the levels measured in both areas were comparable. The homologue and isomer profiles found in the deposition as well as in the biomonitor samples from V.R. indicate that steel production is the main source of contamination in the region, whereas in PNI, the long range transport of these pollutants is the predominant contamination pathway.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil--Part II: PCB and PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Heitmann, Dieter; Reifenhäuser, Werner; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Santos, Luciana Silva; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf; Körner, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring of immission of persistent organic pollutants in the industrialized area of Volta Redonda (V.R.) and in the National Park of Itatiaia (PNI) in southeast Brazil was performed using an endemic bromeliad species as biomonitor and measuring bulk deposition rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). For the sum of PCB, overall deposition rates were between 17 and 314 ng/(m2 day) in winter and between 43 and 81 ng/(m2 day) in summer, respectively. Deposition rates of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.14 to 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in winter and from 0.90 to 4.3 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in summer. PCB deposition rates (total PCB and WHO-TEQ) were in the same range in winter in V.R. and PNI. In summer, contamination levels in V.R. were 6-10-folds higher than in PNI. PCB concentrations in biomonitor samples from V.R. and PNI were in the same range in summer and in winter. Concentrations of total PCB ranged from 14 to 95 microg/kg dry matter (d.m.) in winter and from 18 to 27 microg/kg d.m. in summer, respectively. The TEQ values were between 1.7 and 4.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in winter and between 1.9 and 2.9 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in summer. PCB concentrations of di-ortho PCB but not of non-ortho PCB were a factor of 2-4 lower in summer in both areas. PCB congener profiles resembled those from technical formulations. The profiles shifted to the higher chlorinated congeners in summer, probable due to revolatilisation of the lighter components at higher temperatures. PCB profiles in biomonitor resembled those from deposition samples and the shift to the heavier congeners in summer was even more pronounced. PAH deposition rates were in a similar range in both areas (131-2415 ng/(m2 day)). PAH levels in biomonitor samples from V.R. were about one order of magnitude higher than in samples from PNI indicating the impact of local sources. PAH profiles revealed stationary thermal processes as main source of contamination in V.R. whereas in PNI, biomass burning seems to be the main contamination source.

  20. Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Guimarães-Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57BI/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein -chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBSinjected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, cathepsins B and L crossreacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

  1. Plant structure predicts leaf litter capture in the tropical montane bromeliad Tillandsia turneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ospina-Bautista

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself. The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number. In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness.

  2. Plant structure predicts leaf litter capture in the tropical montane bromeliad Tillandsia turneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Bautista, F; Estévez Varón, J V

    2016-05-03

    Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself. The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number. In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness.

  3. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  4. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived

  5. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  6. Air pollution patterns in two cities of Colombia, S. A. according to trace substances content of an epiphyte (Tillandsia recurvata L. ). [Tillandsia recurvata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpff, E.

    1984-01-01

    The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: Zn and the PAH; BHCs, endrine and DDTs; Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.

  7. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries.

  8. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Mosti; Papini, Alessio; Brighigna, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible.

  9. Population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii in cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana

    2016-02-01

    Epiphytes are a major component of tropical montane cloud forests. Over-exploitation and forest loss and degradation affect remnant populations. In this study, we analysed the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii over a 2-y period in a tropical montane cloud forest fragment in southern Mexico. Matrix analysis revealed that the T. butzii population is likely to be stable at the study site. On average the λ value did not differ significantly from unity: λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.978 (0.936-1.001). λ was highly influenced by stasis, to a lesser extent by growth and only slightly by fecundity. Overall, adult plant stasis and phalanx growth habit played a fundamental role in population maintenance. T. butzii tolerance to xeric conditions may contribute to population stability in the studied region.

  10. Stomata of the CAM plant Tillandsia recurvata respond directly to humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, O L; Medina, E

    1979-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, CO 2 exchange of Tillandsia recurvata showed all characteristics of CAM. During the phase of nocturnal CO 2 fixation stomata of the plant responded sensitively to changes in ambient air humidity. Dry air resulted in an increase, moist air in a decrease of diffusion resistance. The evaporative demand of the air affected the level of stomatal resistance during the entire night period. Due to stomatal closure, the total nocturnal water loss of T. recurvata was less at low than at high humidity. It is concluded that stomata respond directly to humidity and not via bulk tissue water conditions of the leaves. Such control of transpiration may optimize water use efficiency for this almost rootless, extreme epiphyte.

  11. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  12. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Štork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. ► Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. ► Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. ► Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. ► Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g −1 DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  13. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  14. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Victoriano-Romero

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera and low (Conzattia multiflora epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  15. Remote Sensing-Based Detection and Spatial Pattern Analysis for Geo-Ecological Niche Modeling of Tillandsia SPP. In the Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Siegmund, A.; del Río, C.; Osses, P.; García, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called `fog oases' dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF) are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  16. REMOTE SENSING-BASED DETECTION AND SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR GEO-ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING OF TILLANDSIA SPP. IN THE ATACAMA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called ‘fog oases’ dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  17. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  18. Antioxidant response of three Tillandsia species transplanted to urban, agricultural, and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Pignata, María Luisa

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the physiological response of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., and T. tricholepis Baker to different air pollution sources, epiphyte samples were collected from a noncontaminated area in the province of Córdoba (Argentina) and transplanted to a control site as well as three areas categorized according to the presence of agricultural, urban, and industrial (metallurgical and metal-mechanical) emission sources. A foliar damage index (FDI) was calculated with the physiological parameters chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxyconjugated dienes, sulfur (S) content, and dry weight-to-fresh weight ratio. In addition, electrical conductivity (E-cond), relative water content (RWC), dehydration kinetics (Kin-H(2)O), total phenols (T-phen), soluble proteins (S-prot), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase were determined. The parameters E-cond, FDI, SOD, RWC, and Kin-H(2)O can serve as suitable indicators of agricultural air pollution for T. tricholepis and T. capillaris, and CAT, Kin-H(2)O, and SOD can do the same for T. recurvata. In addition, MDA, T-phen, and S-prot proved to be appropriate indicators of urban pollution for T. recurvata. Moreover, FDI, E-cond, and SOD for T. recurvata and MDA for T. tricholepis, respectively, could be used to detect deleterious effects of industrial air pollution. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  19. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-11-15

    The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd+Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd+Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd+Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g(-1) DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does structural parasitism by epiphytes exist? A case study between Tillandsia recurvata and Parkinsonia praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, A

    2016-05-01

    The effects that epiphytes have on their hosts have been poorly explored in an experimentally. Correlational evidence suggests that epiphytes may be either mutualists or structural parasites, as has been proposed for Tillandsia recurvata on Parkinsonia praecox. To test the effect of T. recurvata upon P. praecox, the epiphyte load on branches of P. praecox was measured and two 1-year experiments were performed to detect the effect of transplantation/removal of epiphytes and shade (0%, 35%. 50% and 80%) on shoot dynamics. If T. recurvata represents a selective pressure for P. praecox, then the frequency of branches carrying large epiphyte loads will be high, and host shoot survival will decrease in the presence of T. recurvata and with increased shade. A weak inverse relationship between epiphyte load and percentage of dead shoots in the host was detected. Shoot survival was independent of epiphyte presence. Shade decreased shoot survival by 35-72%. Results suggest that at the study site, T. recurvata is a commensalist of P. praecox. An alternative hypothesis to explain the correlation between high epiphyte load and branch/tree decay is that older branches carry more epiphytes, receive more shade from neighbouring branches and could be undergoing a natural decline process. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Biomonitoring potential of five sympatric Tillandsia species for evaluating urban metal pollution (Cd, Hg and Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    The present study quantifies non essential heavy metals highly toxic for biological systems (Pb, Hg and Cd) in five autochthonous epiphytic plants from Tillandsia genus (T. recurvata, T. meridionalis, T. duratii, T. tricholepis, T. loliacea) according to different traffic levels (reference, low, medium and high polluted sites) in Asunción (Paraguay). The three metals increased in polluted sites following Pb (till 62.99 ppm in T. tricholepis) > Cd (till 1.35 ppm in T. recurvata) > Hg (till 0.36 ppm in T. recurvata) and Pb and Cd levels were directly related to traffic flow. Although the species showed similar bioaccumulation pattern (namely, higher levels of metals in polluted sites), enrichment factors (maximum EF values 37.00, 18.16, and 11.90 for Pb, Hg, and Cd, respectively) reported T. tricholepis as the most relevant bioindicator due to its wide distribution and abundance in study sites, low metal content in control site and high metal contents in polluted sites, and significant correlations with traffic density of Pb and Cd. This study emphasizes the necessity of biomonitoring air pollution in areas out of air monitoring control such as Asunción, where the high levels of metal pollution especially Pb, may represent an increment of risk for the human population inhabiting this urban area.

  2. Classical macroautophagy in Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae) and possible plastidial autophagy in Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-05-01

    The tapetum in anthers is a tissue that undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during the production of pollen. We observed two types of autophagy prior to cell death. In Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae), tapetum cells showed plant-type autophagosomes-autolysosomes, which have been found previously exclusively in root meristem cells. The autophagic structures were formed by a network of tubules which apparently merged laterally, thereby sequestering a portion of the cytoplasm. The organelles observed in the sequestered material included multilamellar bodies, which have not been reported earlier in these organelles. By contrast, Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells contained no such organelles but showed plastids that might possibly carry out autophagy, as they contained portions of the cytoplasm similar to the phenomenon reported earlier in Phaseolus and Dendrobium. However, the ultrastructure of the T. albida plastids was different from that in the previous reports. It is concluded that in L. rauschii classical plant macroautophagy was involved in degradation of the cytoplasm, while in T. albida such classical macroautophagy was not observed. Instead, the data in T. albida suggested the hypothesis that plastids are able to carry out degradation of the cytoplasm.

  3. The use of Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries as biomonitors of environmental pollution in Lima city, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, Patricia; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillus, Marco; Torres, Blanca; Hurtado, Jazmin; Maza, Ily; Espinoza, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollution in the city of Lima, Peru, an environmental monitoring was carried out using two species of biomonitors: Liquen Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries. Both samples were taken from an uncontaminated area to be exposed during three months in different sampling sites of the city. Then samples were collected, prepared and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, based k 0 method. Results showed important contamination in East and North sites of the city coming from industrial activities and automotive vehicles emissions. (author).

  4. Screening CAM-fotosynthese Bromelia's

    OpenAIRE

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Marissen, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2006-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname bij de meeste planten gebeurt overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. CO2 wordt opgenomen door de huidmondjes, dus is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag (als het licht is) open staan. ‘s Nachts zijn de huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat ook waterdamp naar buiten, de planten verdampen zo overdag veel meer dan ‘s nachts. Een aantal plantenfamilies (Crassulaceae, Bromeliaceae...

  5. Screening CAM-fotosynthese Bromelia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Marissen, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2006-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname bij de meeste planten gebeurt overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. CO2 wordt opgenomen door de huidmondjes, dus is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag (als het licht is) open staan. ‘s Nachts

  6. In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of tillandsia recurvata (ball moss) from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, H I C; Toyang, N J; Bryant, J

    2013-03-01

    Tillandsia recurvata, also commonly known as Ball Moss, is endemic to Jamaica and some parts of the Caribbean and South America. The plant, despite being reported to be used in folk medicine, had not previously been evaluated for its anti-cancer potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activity ofBall Moss. The anti-proliferation activity of the crude methanolic extract of the T recurvata was evaluated in vitro in five different histogenic cancer cell lines (prostate cancer - PC-3, breast cancer Kaposi sarcoma, B-16 melanoma and a B-cell lymphoma from a transgenic mouse strain) using the trypan blue assay. The crude extract was also evaluated in vivo in tumour-bearing mice. Immunohistochemistry staining with Apoptag was used for histology and determination of apoptosis. The crude methanolic extract of T recurvata demonstrated anti-proliferation activity against all the cell lines, killing > 50% of the cells at a concentration of 2.5 microg/ml. Kaposi sarcoma xenograft tumours were inhibited by up to 75% compared to control in the in vivo study (p < 0.05). There was evidence of DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability on histological studies. The methanolic extract showed no toxic effect in the mice at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Our data suggest that T recurvata has great potential as an anti-cancer agent and that one of its mechanisms of cell kill and tumour inhibition is by the induction of apoptosis.

  7. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate

  9. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  10. Comparison of the air pollution biomonitoring ability of three Tillandsia species and the lichen Ramalina celastri in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Rodriguez, Judith H; Pignata, María L

    2009-01-01

    Bioaccumulation ability and response to air pollution sources were evaluated for Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz and Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., T. tricholepis Baker and the lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. Epiphyte samples collected from a non contaminated area in the province of Córdoba were transplanted to a control site and three areas categorised according to agricultural, urban and industrial (metallurgical and metal-mechanical) emission sources. Bioindicators were exposed for 3-, 6- and 9-month periods. A foliar damage index was established for Tillandsia and a pollution index for the lichen, and S, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations were determined. An order of efficiency for the species and conditions studied is proposed taking into account heavy metal accumulation: T. recurvata >T. tricholepis >R. celastri >T. capillaris. All species studied showed Mn to be related to agricultural activity and Fe to industries and soil particles, and Zn was related to urban and industrial sources. As far as physiological response is concerned, T. tricholepis and T. capillaris were more sensitive to agricultural activities, whereas T. recurvata was sensitive to urban and industrial sources, and only partially to agricultural sources. No relationship was found for R. celastri.

  11. Atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as a biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Wannaz, E D; Plá, R R; González, C M; Carreras, H A; Orellana, L

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals were evaluated throughout a wide region of Argentina. In addition, the biomonitor performance of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris was studied in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Argentine Republic. This area was subdivided into grids of 25 x 25 km. Pools of T. capillaris, where present, were collected at each intersection point. From each pool three sub-samples were analyzed independently. Furthermore, five replicates were collected at 20% of the points in order to analyze the variability within the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chemical-physiological parameters were also determined to detect symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used to calculate a foliar damage index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and mapping. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn and Co probably originated in the soil. For Pb, the highest values were found in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of Pb in the granitic rocks. Ni showed mainly an anthropogenic origin, with higher values found in places next to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development. The same was observed for Cu, whose presence could be related to the employment of pesticides. The foliar damage index distribution map showed that the central and southeastern zones were the ones where the major damage in the bioindicator was

  12. Use of species of the genus Tillandsia as bio monitors of the atmospheric contamination using radiochemical analysis; Utilizacion de especies del genero Tillandsia como biomonitores de la contaminacion atmosferica utilizando tecnicas radioquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M T; Wilkinson, M V; Marques, R [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica; Castro, M A [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Di Risio, C [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The use of epiphytic plants as bio monitors of environmental pollution is studied in this paper. Species of the genus Tillandsia were selected to make studies, on the one hand, using the Neutron Activation Analysis in order to make multielemental analysis to detect possible pollutants. Optimum conditions of preparation and treatment of the samples were determined to verify the elemental uptake in plant tissues. On the other hand, some studies were carried out to investigate the uptake (translocation) of possible pollutants by using radiotracers. With this aim, a conditioned area (glove box) has been developed in order to reproduce the environment of these plants. This glove box was used for studies with radiotracers. The results of the experiments with Hg as radiotracer are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Morfoanatomia de rizomas e raízes de Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae dos Campos Gerais, PR, Brasil Morphology and anatomy of rhizomes and roots in Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Segecin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfoanatomia dos rizomas e das raízes de Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T. streptocarpa Baker, T. tenuifolia L. e Tillandsia sp., epífitas dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil. Os rizomas são horizontais, ou levemente inclinados e apresentam raízes intracorticais. São revestidos por epiderme unisseriada ou súber estratificado. O córtex parenquimático é constituído por células isodiamétricas, apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grãos de amido. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas. O periciclo é uni ou multisseriado, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O cilindro vascular apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais. As raízes são adventícias intracorticais ou externas. Estas últimas apresentam velame multisseriado. O córtex apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grandes espaços intercelulares na região interna. A exoderme apresenta duas a quatro camadas de células com paredes espessadas. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O periciclo é unisseriado, com células de paredes finas. O cilindro vascular é reduzido, poliarco. As raízes intracorticais diferem das externas por não apresentarem velame. A presença de rizoma com raízes intracorticais, raízes com velame, espaços intercelulares no córtex interno, idioblastos de ráfides e grande quantidade de células com paredes espessadas são caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, que provavelmente ocorrem como resposta ao hábito epifítico dessas plantas.Morphological and anatomical features of rhizomes and roots were studied in Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T

  14. Use of species of the genus Tillandsia as bio monitors of the atmospheric contamination using radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M. T.; Wilkinson, M. V.; Marques, R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of epiphytic plants as bio monitors of environmental pollution is studied in this paper. Species of the genus Tillandsia were selected to make studies, on the one hand, using the Neutron Activation Analysis in order to make multielemental analysis to detect possible pollutants. Optimum conditions of preparation and treatment of the samples were determined to verify the elemental uptake in plant tissues. On the other hand, some studies were carried out to investigate the uptake (translocation) of possible pollutants by using radiotracers. With this aim, a conditioned area (glove box) has been developed in order to reproduce the environment of these plants. This glove box was used for studies with radiotracers. The results of the experiments with Hg as radiotracer are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Crassulacean acid metabolism, CO2-recycling, and tissue desiccation in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia schiedeana Steud (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Adams, W W

    1987-01-01

    After 23 days without water in a greenhouse, rates of nocturnal CO2 uptake in Tillandsia schiedeana decreased substantially and maximum rates occurred later in the dark period eventually coinciding with the onset of illumination. Nocturnal CO2 uptake accounted for less than half the total nighttime increase in acidity measured in well-watered plants. With increased tissue desiccation, only 11-12% of measured acid accumulation was attributable to atmospheric CO2 uptake. Plants desiccated for 30 days regained initial levels of nocturnal acid accumulation and CO2 uptake after rehydration for 10h. These results stress the importance of CO2 recycling via CAM in this epiphytic bromeliad, especially during droughts.

  16. Tillandsia myosura Griseb. ex Baker (Bromeliaceae, una nueva cita para la flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cellini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires Tillandsia myosura, coleccionada en las inmediaciones del arroyo Pereyra, Parque Provincial y Reserva de la Biosfera Parque Pereyra Iraola (Partido de Berazategui, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esta especie, conocida hasta el presente sólo para el sur de Uruguay y las provincias de Catamarca, Córdoba, Jujuy, La Rioja, La Pampa, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santiago del Estero y Tucumán en Argentina es citada por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires, ampliándose su límite sur de distribución. En el presente trabajo se describe e ilustra la especie, y se presenta una clave para diferenciarla de especies afines de distribución congruente.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Carreras, Hebe A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Pignata, Maria L.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies

  18. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannaz, Eduardo D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS/CNPq, Caixa Postal 6192, 13038-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: pignata@com.uncor.edu

    2006-05-15

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies.

  19. HLBT-100: a highly potent anti-cancer flavanone from Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Toyang, Ngeh J; Watson, Charah T; Ayeah, Kenneth N; Bryant, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortalities from cancers remain on the rise worldwide. Despite significant efforts to discover and develop novel anticancer agents, many cancers remain in the unmet need category. As such, efforts to discover and develop new and more effective and less toxic agents against cancer remain a top global priority. Our drug discovery approach is natural products based with a focus on plants. Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. is one of the plants selected by our research team for further studies based on previous bioactivity findings on the anticancer activity of this plant. The plant biomass was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction technology with CO 2 as the mobile phase. Bioactivity guided isolation was achieved by use of chromatographic technics combined with anti-proliferative assays to determine the active fraction and subsequently the pure compound. Following in house screening, the identified molecule was submitted to the US National Cancer Institute for screening on the NCI60 cell line panel using standard protocols. Effect of HLBT-100 on apoptosis, caspase 3/7, cell cycle and DNA fragmentation were assessed using standard protocols. Antiangiogenic activity was carried out using the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. A flavonoid of the flavanone class was isolated from T. recurvata (L.) L. with potent anticancer activity. The molecule was code named as HLBT-100 (also referred to as HLBT-001). The compound inhibited brain cancer (U87 MG), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), leukemia (MV4-11), melanoma (A375), and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) with IC 50 concentrations of 0.054, 0.030, 0.024, 0.003 and 0.05 µM, respectively. The molecule also exhibited broad anticancer activity in the NCI60 panel inhibiting especially hematological, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, breast and prostate cancers. Twenty-three of the NCI60 cell lines were inhibited with GI 50 values <0.100 µM. In terms of potential mechanisms of action, the molecule demonstrated effect on the

  20. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain and environmental ones (PM10, indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost, biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to surviveSe presentan los resultados de un experimento con dos especies de angiospermas epífitas (Tillandsia caput-medusae y T. bulbosa para monitorear hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs en el aire de Florencia, Italia. Los PAHs son compuestos que se sabe son peligrosos por su potencial carcinogénico, y, entre las cormófitas, las tilandsias (monocotiledóneas equipadas con tricomas epidérmicos, especializados y peculiares son consideradas promisorias para el biomonitoreo de la contaminación del aire. Se obtuvieron datos de PAHs usando el análisis de GC/MS de extractos de plantas. Los datos analíticos indicaron una tendencia creciente de la bioacumulación de PAH’s en el tiempo. Este resultado se comparó con los parámetros registrados instrumentalmente como

  1. Distribution and sources of bioaccumulative air pollutants at Mezquital Valley, Mexico, as reflected by the atmospheric plant Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano García, A.; Medina Coyotzin, C.; Rojas Amaro, A.; López Veneroni, D.; Martínez, L. Chang; Sosa Iglesias, G.

    2009-09-01

    Mezquital Valley (MV), a Mexican wastewater-based agricultural and industrial region, is a "hot spot" of regulated air pollutants emissions, but the concurrent unregulated ones, like hazardous metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), remain undocumented. A biomonitoring survey with the epiphytic Tillandsia recurvata was conducted there to detect spatial patterns and potential sources of 20 airborne elements and 15 PAH. The natural δ13C and δ15N ratios of this plant helped in source identification. The regional mean concentration of most elements was two (Cr) to over 40 times (Ni, Pb, V) higher than reported for Tillandsia in other countries. Eleven elements, pyrene and chrysene had 18-214% higher mean concentration at the industrial south than at the agricultural north of MV. The total quantified PAH (mean, 572 ng g-1; range, 143-2568) were composed by medium (65%, phenanthrene to chrysene), low (28%, naphthalene to fluorene) and high molecular weight compounds (7%, Benzo(b)fluoranthene to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene). The δ13C (mean, -14.6‰; range, -15.7‰ to -13.7‰) was consistently lower than -15‰ near the major petroleum combustion sources. The δ15N (mean, -3.0‰; range, -9.9‰ to 3.3‰) varied from positive at agriculture/industrial areas to negative at rural sites. Factor analysis provided a five-factor solution for 74% of the data variance: 1) crustal rocks, 39.5% (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Sr, Ti); 2) soils, 11.3%, contrasting contributions from natural (Mg, Mn, Zn) and saline agriculture soils (Na); 3) cement production and fossil fuel combustion, 9.8% (Ca, Ni, V, chrysene, pyrene); 4) probable agricultural biomass burning, 8.1% (K and benzo(g,h,i)perylene), and 5) agriculture with wastewater, 5.2% (δ15N and P). These results indicated high deposition of bioaccumulative air pollutants at MV, especially at the industrial area. Since T. recurvata reflected the regional differences in exposition, it is recommended as a biomonitor for comparisons

  2. Seed morphology and post-seminal development of Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the morphology and post-seminal development of seeds of Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, and T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The seeds (ca. 2.0 mm long presented plumose appendages at their micropylar end, an important structure in the taxonomy of the family since it represented an elaborate apparatus allowing effective wind-dispersal. Seeds germinated after circa twenty days. The haustorial cotyledon, responsible for the seedling nutrition, appeared first during the germination process. No cataphyll or primary roots developed. A small tank came along in the seedling, formed by the base of the sheath of the first leaf, which overlapped that of the second leaf. This tank can store water and litter. The adventitious roots developed later.Foi estudada a morfologia da semente e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tillandsia gardneri Lindl., T. streptocarpa Baker, e T. stricta Sol. ex Sims (Bromeliaceae, que ocorrem nos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Brasil. As sementes apresentaram cerca de 2,0 mm de comprimento e testa com apêndices plumosos na região micropylar. A presença desses apêndices é um caráter importante na taxonomia da família e garante sucesso na dispersão anemocórica das sementes. Após a embebição, as sementes levaram cerca de 20 dias para germinar. A primeira estrutura que emergiu durante a germinação foi o cotilédone haustorial, que é responsável pela nutrição da plântula. Eram ausentes catafilo e raiz primária. Na plântula ocorreu a formação de um pequeno tanque, que é constituído pela base da bainha da folha primária superposta à base da bainha da folha secundária. Esse pequeno tanque permaneceu na posição vertical e armazenou água e detritos orgânicos para a nutrição da plântula. As raízes adventícias emergiram tardiamente.

  3. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.) for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, Luigi; Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Cornia, Andrea; Bocchini, Paola; Galletti, Guido

    2002-06-01

    The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa) for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes) are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain) and environmental ones (PM10), indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA) where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to survive.

  4. Establishment and formation of fog-dependent Tillandsia landbeckii dunes in the Atacama Desert: Evidence from radiocarbon and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Claudio; GonzáLez, AngéLica L.; Quade, Jay; FariñA, José M.; Pinto, Raquel; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2011-09-01

    Extensive dune fields made up exclusively of the bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii thrive in the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme landscapes on earth. These plants survive by adapting exclusively to take in abundant advective fog and dew as moisture sources. Although some information has been gathered regarding their modern distribution and adaptations, very little is known about how these dune systems actually form and accumulate over time. We present evidence based on 20 radiocarbon dates for the establishment age and development of five different such dune systems located along a ˜215 km transect in northern Chile. Using stratigraphy, geochronology and stable C and N isotopes, we (1) develop an establishment chronology of these ecosystems, (2) explain how the unique T. landbeckii dunes form, and (3) link changes in foliar δ15N values to moisture availability in buried fossil T. landbeckii layers. We conclude by pointing out the potential that these systems have for reconstructing past climate change along coastal northern Chile during the late Holocene.

  5. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of the Crude Extract and two Dicinnamate Isolates from the Jamaican Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry Ic; Toyang, Ngeh J; Watson, Charah; Badal, Simone; Bahado-Singh, Perceval; Bryant, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    A crude chloroform extract from the Jamaican Ball Moss (Tillandsia recurvata L.) was tested for activity against three human cancer cell lines including; A375 (human melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) using the WST-1 assay. IC 50 s obtained against these cell lines; A375, MCF-7 and PC-3 in the presence of the crude extract are; 0.9μg/ml, 40.51μg/ml and 5.97μg/ml respectively indicating the promising anti-cancer activity of the ball moss extract. Further, preliminary phytochemical study was conducted in an attempt to identify and isolate the phytochemicals that could possibly be responsible for the observed bioactivity of the ball moss chloroform extract. As a result, two dicinnamates were isolated; 1,3-di-O-Cinnamoyl-glycerol ( 1 ) and (E)-3-(cinnamoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate ( 2 ) and we report for the first time isolation of compound 2 . Even though the bioactivity of these two islaotes were fairly weak against the cell lines, the results presented here will prove useful for further research aimed at identifying molecules that maybe effective against melanoma, breast and prostate cancers associated with fewer side-effects.

  6. El uso de Usnea sp. y Tillandsia capillaris como bioindicadores de la contaminación ambiental en la ciudad de Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Torres, Blanca; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillús, Marco; Hurtado, Jazmín; Maza, Ily; Espinoza, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Con la finalidad de evaluar la contaminación en la ciudad de Lima Metropolitana se realizó un monitoreo ambiental utilizando los biomonitores: liquen Usnea sp y Tillandsia capillaris. Las muestras fueron recogidas de una zona no contaminada y expuestas por tres meses en diferentes distritos de la ciudad, luego fueron recogidas, preparadas y analizadas utilizando la técnica de activación neutrónica. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron contaminación significativa en algunas Zonas de la ciudad pr...

  7. El uso de Usnea sp.y Tillandsia capillaris, como biomonitores de la contaminación ambiental en la ciudad de Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillús, Marco; Torres, Blanca; Hurtado, Jazmín; Maza, Ily; Espinoza, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Con la finalidad de evaluar la contaminación en la ciudad de Lima, Perú, se realizó un monitoreo ambiental utilizando los biomonitores: Liquen Usnea sp. y Tillandsia capillaris. Éstos fueron recogidos de una zona no contaminada y expuestos por tres meses en diferentes puntos de muestreo de la ciudad, luego fueron colectados, preparados y analizados utilizando la técnica de análisis por activación neutrónica, basada en el método del ksubcero. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron contaminación si...

  8. Foliar trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake in a drought-resistant epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha Planchon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, T; Nobira, H; Sakata, Y; Taji, T; Yamamoto, C; Nishida, K; Yamakawa, T; Sasuga, Y; Yaguchi, Y; Takenaga, H; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha is capable of surviving drought stress for 6 months or more without any exogenous water supply via an as of yet to be determined mechanism. When plants were soaked in water for 3 h, leaves absorbed a remarkably large amount of water (30-40% on the basis of fresh weight), exhibiting a bimodal absorption pattern. Radiolabeled water was taken up by the leaves by capillary action of the epidermal trichomes within 1 min (phase 1) and then transported intracellularly to leaf tissues over 3 h (phase 2). The removal of epidermal trichome wings from leaves as well as rinsing leaves with water significantly lowered the extracellular accumulation of water on leaf surfaces. The intracellular transport of water was inhibited by mercuric chloride, implicating the involvement of a water channel aquaporin in second-phase water absorption. Four cDNA clones (TiPIP1a, TiPIP1b, TiPIP1c, and TiPIP2a) homologous to PIP family aquaporins were isolated from the leaves, and RT-PCR showed that soaking plants in water stimulated the expression of TiPIP2a mRNA, suggesting the reinforcement in ability to rapidly absorb a large amount of water. The expression of TiPIP2a complementary RNA in Xenopus oocytes enhanced permeability, and treatment with inhibitors suggested that the water channel activity of TiPIP2a protein was regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, the high water uptake capability of T. ionantha leaves surviving drought is attributable to a bimodal trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake system based on rapid physical collection of water and subsequent, sustained chemical absorption.

  9. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Astorga, Jorge; Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Vovides, Andrew P

    2004-10-01

    The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance has directly affected the population densities of T. achyrostachys. In this study the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation were assessed by comparing the genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic differentiation in six populations of T. achyrostachys in the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve, Mexico. Allozyme electrophoresis of sixteen loci (eleven polymorphic and five monomorphic) were used. The data were analysed with standard statistical approximations for obtaining diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Genetic diversity and allelic richness were: HE = 0.21 +/- 0.02, A = 1.86 +/- 0.08, respectively. F-statistics revealed a deficiency of heterozygous plants in all populations (Fit = 0.65 +/- 0.02 and Fis = 0.43 +/- 0.06). Significant genetic differentiation between populations was detected (Fst = 0.39 +/- 0.07). Average gene flow between pairs of populations was relatively low and had high variation (Nm = 0.46 +/- 0.21), which denotes a pattern of isolation by distance. The genetic structure of populations of T. achyrostachys suggests that habitat fragmentation has reduced allelic richness and genetic diversity, and increased significant genetic differentiation (by approx. 40 %) between populations. The F-statistic values (>0) and the level of gene flow found suggest that habitat fragmentation has broken up the former population structure. In this context, it is proposed that the host trees of T. achyrostachys should be considered as a conservation priority, since they represent the

  10. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a diversidade da fauna de culicídeos em bromélias de solo segundo ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata primitiva. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, em tanques de bromélias de ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata. Realizaram-se coletas de imaturos quinzenalmente, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999. A presença e freqüência de espécies nos diferentes ambientes foram comparadas com base em estimativas da diversidade para medir a riqueza, dominância e análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 31.134 formas imaturas de mosquitos nas bromélias, distribuídas em sete gêneros e 37 espécies. O ambiente urbano registrou maior abundância, 14.575 indivíduos, seguido do periurbano com 10.987, e a mata, com o menor número de exemplares, 5.572. Foram coletadas 30 espécies no habitat urbano, 32 no periurbano e 33 na mata. As espécies dominantes foram Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus nos ambientes urbano e periurbano, e Culex ocellatus na mata. De acordo com teste ANOVA a freqüência de mosquitos em bromélias não foi diferente entre os ambientes pesquisados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. A diversidade de espécies na mata foi maior, e semelhante entre periurbano e urbano. CONCLUSÕES: A composição específica de culicídeos em bromélias de solo mostrou-se diversificada, sendo maior naquelas de ambiente de mata. As espécies dominantes foram Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJETIVO: Comparar la diversidad de la fauna de culícidos en bromelias de suelo según ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en el municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en tanques de bromelias de ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. Se realizaron colectas de inmaduros quincenalmente, de marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999. La presencia y frecuencia de especies en los diferentes ambientes fueron

  11. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch.) L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel.) L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,João Marcelo Santos de; Martins,Merielem Saldanha; Dorneles,Mariane Paludette; Freitas,Cesar Carvalho de

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulatio...

  12. Transplantation of epiphytic bioaccumulators (Tillandsia capillaris) for high spatial resolution biomonitoring of trace elements and point sources deconvolution in a complex mining/smelting urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goix, Sylvaine; Resongles, Eléonore; Point, David; Oliva, Priscia; Duprey, Jean Louis; de la Galvez, Erika; Ugarte, Lincy; Huayta, Carlos; Prunier, Jonathan; Zouiten, Cyril; Gardon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric trace elements (TE) levels and tracing their source origin is essential for exposure assessment and human health studies. Epiphytic Tillandsia capillaris plants were used as bioaccumulator of TE in a complex polymetallic mining/smelting urban context (Oruro, Bolivia). Specimens collected from a pristine reference site were transplanted at a high spatial resolution (˜1 sample/km2) throughout the urban area. About twenty-seven elements were measured after a 4-month exposure, also providing new information values for reference material BCR482. Statistical power analysis for this biomonitoring mapping approach against classical aerosols surveys performed on the same site showed the better aptitude of T. Capillaris to detect geographical trend, and to deconvolute multiple contamination sources using geostatistical principal component analysis. Transplanted specimens in the vicinity of the mining and smelting areas were characterized by extreme TE accumulation (Sn > Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > W > Cu > Zn). Three contamination sources were identified: mining (Ag, Pb, Sb), smelting (As, Sn) and road traffic (Zn) emissions, confirming results of previous aerosol survey.

  13. Size-dependent allocation of biomass to ancillary versus flowers of the inflorescences of the epiphyte Tillandsia stricta Soland (Bromeliaceae Influência do tamanho do corpo na alocação de biomassa em estruturas de suporte e flores da bromélia epífita Tillandsia stricta Soland. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of resources invested in reproduction is closely correlated to plant size. However, the increase in reproductive investment is not always proportional to the increase in vegetative growth, as the proportion of plant resources allocated to reproduction can increase, decrease or be maintained along different plant sizes. Although comprising thousand of species, epiphytes are poorly studied in relation to reproductive allocation (RA. We describe the variation in the RA of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia stricta Soland with increasing plant sizes. Our goal is not only to evaluate the RA of the whole inflorescence but also quantify the contribution of ancillary structures in the final RA of this plant species. With increasing sizes of T. stricta the reproductive allocation of biomass to the whole inflorescence decreased significantly along plant sizes from 37% to 12%. Reproductive allocation to ancillary and to flowers decreased respectively from 30% to 9% and 10% to 3%. As leaves are the main source of water and nutrients absorption in atmospheric Tillandsia, the total leaf area and area per leaf were used as indicators of foraging capacity, that also increased with plant size. We discuss these results with respect to the capacity of T. stricta to reproduce in the heterogeneous environment of the canopies.A quantidade de recursos investidos na reprodução sexuada em geral é positivamente correlacionada à quantidade dos mesmos recursos investidos no corpo vegetativo da planta; porém nem sempre de forma proporcional. A proporção dos recursos da planta alocados na reprodução sexuada pode aumentar, diminuir ou se manter constante ao longo do aumento do tamanho do corpo vegetativo. Embora compreendendo milhares de espécies, as epífitas são pouco conhecidas quanto ao padrão de alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada. Neste estudo é descrita a variação da alocação de recursos na reprodução sexuada da bromélia ep

  14. How many taxa can be recognized within the complex Tillandsia capillaris (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae? Analysis of the available classifications using a multivariate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Castello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav., which belongs to the subgenus Diaphoranthema is distributed in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern and central Argentina, and Chile, and includes forms that are difficult to circumscribe, thus considered to form a complex. The entities of this complex are predominantly small-sized epiphytes, adapted to xeric environments. The most widely used classification defines 5 forms for this complex based on few morphological reproductive traits: T. capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. capillaris f. incana (Mez L.B. Sm., T. capillaris f. cordobensis (Hieron. L.B. Sm., T. capillaris f. hieronymi (Mez L.B. Sm. and T. capillaris f. virescens (Ruiz & Pav. L.B. Sm. In this study, 35 floral and vegetative characters were analyzed with a multivariate approach in order to assess and discuss different proposals for classification of the T. capillaris complex, which presents morphotypes that co-occur in central and northern Argentina. To accomplish this, data of quantitative and categorical morphological characters of flowers and leaves were collected from herbarium specimens and field collections and were analyzed with statistical multivariate techniques. The results suggest that the last classification for the complex seems more comprehensive and three taxa were delimited: T. capillaris (=T. capillaris f. incana-hieronymi, T. virescens s. str. (=T. capillaris f. cordobensis and T. virescens s. l. (=T. capillaris f. virescens. While T. capillaris and T. virescens s. str. co-occur, T. virescens s. l. is restricted to altitudes above 2000 m in Argentina. Characters previously used for taxa delimitation showed continuous variation and therefore were not useful. New diagnostic characters are proposed and a key is provided for delimiting these three taxa within the complex.

  15. The potential of Tillandsia dune ecosystems for revealing past and present variations in advective fog along the coastal Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Hidalgo, C.; García, J. L.; Gonzalez, A. L.; Marquet, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal Atacama Desert is home to a complex geo-ecosystem supported by fog with multiple atmospheric and oceanic drivers. Fog collectors in place for the last 17 years reveal that monthly fog intensity and amount are significantly linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO 1+2) with cold (warm) anomalies correlated to increased (decreased) fog (R2 = 0.41). Rainfall, however, can occur during extreme positive ENSO anomalies. Tillandsia landbeckii is an epiarenitic plant common to the coastal Atacama where fog is intercepted by the coastal escarpment between 950-1250 m.a.s.l. These plants possess multiple adaptations to survive exclusively on fog, including the construction of "dune" ecosystems known as "tillandsiales". Buried T. landbeckii layers in such dunes contain a record of past variations of fog over time (dunes can top 3 m in height) and alternating plant and sand layers are readily visible in dune stratigraphy. Stable N isotopes on modern plants and fog indicate that these plants reflect δ15N values of total N dissolved in fog. We measured δ15N values from buried T. landbeckii layers from five different tillandsiales found across c. 50 km the coastal escarpment. The isotope values in these buried plants indicate a prominent c. 8.0 ‰ shift towards more negative δ15N values on average over the last 3,200 years. Based on differences in δ15N between modern and more extensive "paleo" tillandsiales at one of our lowest elevation study sites, we interpret this shift as an increase in available moisture due to increased fog input during the late Holocene. Increased variability in ENSO as well as increased upwelling and southerly winds along the coastal Atacama would explain in part this increase. Clearly, the Atacama tillandsiales have considerable potential for monitoring past and present change of these large-scale ocean-atmosphere systems.

  16. Cultivo de Tillandsia kautskyi E. Pereira, bromélia brasileira em risco de extinção: comparação de substratos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se conhece sobre métodos para cultivo de Tillandsia kautskyi. Este estudo teve o objetivo de observar o desenvolvimento de plantas dessa espécie em substratos de origem vegetal, tendo como padrão uma mistura contendo xaxim. O experimento foi conduzido entre dezembro de 2000 e abril de 2002, em Jaboticabal (SP, em casa de vegetação com 70% de interceptação da luz solar. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos, preenchidos com diferentes substratos: S1 = 45% de xaxim + 45% de fibra de coco + 10% de húmus de minhoca; S2 = 45% de fibra de coco + 45% de casca de Pinus + 10% de húmus de minhoca; S3 = 100% de fibra de coco com adição de macro e micronutrientes; S4 = 100% de fibra de coco. Houve diferença significativa apenas para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, maior em S3 do que em S2. Cálculos de regressão linear indicaram que as causas prováveis do menor desenvolvimento das raízes em S2 foram: maior densidade desse substrato, menor teor de matéria orgânica total, menor umidade natural, menores teores de potássio e boro, e concentrações mais altas (possivelmente tóxicas de fósforo (0,19% de P2O5, ferro (42.086 mg/kg e manganês (385 mg/kg. Concluiu-se que T. kautskyi pode ser cultivada em substratos que não contêm xaxim, e que substrato constituído por 100% de fibra de coco é um bom substituto para misturas contendo xaxim.

  17. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  19. Cultivo de Tillandsia kautskyi E. Pereira, bromélia brasileira em risco de extinção: considerações sobre adubação foliar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo observar o efeito de duas fontes de nutrientes (mineral e orgânica sobre o crescimento de Tillandsia kautskyi. O experimento foi conduzido de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2004, em Jaboticabal (SP, em telado com 70% de interceptação da luz solar. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de plástico, em substrato constituído por 100% de fibra de coco. Foram comparados os seguintes tratamentos de adubação foliar a cada 30 dias, exceto nos meses de inverno: A1 = adubo NPK 14-7-28 + Mg, na dose de 0,5 g/L; A2 = A1 + húmus solúvel, na dose de 75 mg/L; A3 = húmus solúvel, na dose de 75 mg/L; A4 = testemunha sem adubação. As plantas do tratamento A1 obtiveram maior altura da parte aérea e maior comprimento do sistema radicular que as não-adubadas.

  20. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  1. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  2. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltran H, R. I.; Issac O, K.; Lucho C, C. A.; Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  3. Cytotoxic Cytochalasins and Other Metabolites from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a Fungal Endophyte of Spanish Moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Bashyal, Bharat P; Liu, Mangping X; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-10-01

    Two new metabolites, 6-oxo-12-norcytochalasin D (1) and 4,5-di-isobutyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (2), together with seven known metabolites, cytochalasins D (3), Q (4), and N (5), 12-hydroxyzygosporin G (6), heptelidic acid chlorohydrin (7), (+)-heptelidic acid (8), and trichoderonic acid A (9), were isolated from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a fungal endophyte inhabiting Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides. Metabolite 1 is the first example of a 12-norcytochalasin. All metabolites, except 2 and 9, showed cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human tumor cell lines with IC50S of 0.2-5.0 μM.

  4. Bromeliáceas notables de colombia, iii

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lyman B.

    2012-01-01

    Aechmea (Platyaechmea) anómala / Greigia excerta / Guzmania coriostachya / Guzmania cryptantha / Guzmania gloriosa / Pitcairnia alborubra / Pitcairnia bella / Pitcairnia oblanceolata / Pitcairnia Schultzei / Pitcairnia semaphora / Tillandsia chontalensis / Tillandsia disticha / Tillandsia excavata / Tillandsia Funckiana / Tillandsia Gardneri / Tillandsia (Platystachys) mima / Tillandsia rectiflora

  5. Categorização do risco de extinção de Dyckia limae L. B. Sm. e Tillandsia catimbauensis Leme, W. Till & J. A. Siqueira por meio de critérios de distribuição geográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p203 Os critérios de distribuição geográfica favorecem a categorização do risco de extinção de espécies pouco conhecidas cientificamente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi de utilizar esses critérios para categorizar as espécies Dyckia limae L. B. Sm. e Tillandsia catimbauensis Leme, W. Till & J.A. Siqueira. Endêmicas do Parque Nacional do Vale do Catimbau (PARNA do Catimbau, D. limae e T. catimbauensis, tiveram sua extensão de ocorrência e área de ocupação aferidos e os sítios de dispersão ponderados quanto ao seu estado de conservação. As extensões de ocorrência de D. limae e T. catimbauensis foram respectivamente de 15,1 km² e 22,1 km², enquanto as áreas de ocupação foram de 5 km² e 8,5 km². Em razão destes valores, associado às condições de conservação da localidade, as espécies enquadram-se na categoria “Criticamente em Perigo” (CR.

  6. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions.

  7. Literatuuronderzoek CAM-fotosynthese en CO2-bemesting en CO2-bemesting bij bromelia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname gebeurt bij de meeste planten overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. Hiervoor is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag open staan, ‘s nachts zijn huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat

  8. Determination of rare earth elements in biomonitors by neutron activation; Determinacao de elementos terras raras em biomonitores por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Ticianelli, R.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Marcelli, M.P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are becoming more and more important from the technological point of view, due to their increasing use in modern industry. Due to this fact, environmental contamination by REE may become significant, and little information are still available about biological effects of REE in plants, animals and human beings. The use of biomonitors to control environmental pollution has been an ecological and economical alternative in Europe and United Sates, to minimize the high costs of conventional equipment s. In the present paper, neutron activation analysis was employed to determine La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in the lichen Canoparmelia texana and in Tillandsia usneoides, species that have been widely used as monitors of atmospheric pollution. The results showed an accumulation of REE in the biomonitors, indicating good possibilities of their utilization in the study of environmental contamination by REE. (author)

  9. Use of Spanish Moss as an atmospheric monitor for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padaki, P.M.; McWilliams, E.L.; James, W.D

    1992-01-01

    Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. The plant material was collected at a single location in east Texas, then deployed along a 6*6 matrix gridwork in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. The study area includes several possible pollution sources including fossil fuel fired power plants. Two separate study periods were conducted, one during the summer months of 1989 and the other the following winter. Concentrations of about 35 elements were determined and contour plots for each element were prepared for each study period. Concentration ranges were found to be somewhat lower than those reported in other studies using epihytic plants as environmental indicators. Initial correlations between elements and the possible relationships to pollution sources are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Determination of rare earth elements in biomonitors by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Ticianelli, R.B.; Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are becoming more and more important from the technological point of view, due to their increasing use in modern industry. Due to this fact, environmental contamination by REE may become significant, and little information are still available about biological effects of REE in plants, animals and human beings. The use of biomonitors to control environmental pollution has been an ecological and economical alternative in Europe and United Sates, to minimize the high costs of conventional equipment s. In the present paper, neutron activation analysis was employed to determine La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in the lichen Canoparmelia texana and in Tillandsia usneoides, species that have been widely used as monitors of atmospheric pollution. The results showed an accumulation of REE in the biomonitors, indicating good possibilities of their utilization in the study of environmental contamination by REE. (author)

  11. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Márlon de Freitas; Pinto, Fernando Neves; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas; dos Santos, Sérgio Silva; da Silveira, Ene Glória; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Christian

    2004-10-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment.

  12. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, W.R.; Freitas Fonseca, M. de; Pinto, F.N.; Freitas Rebelo, Mauro de; Silva dos Santos, Sergio; Gloria da Silveira, Ene; Torres, J.P.M.; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment

  13. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  14. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  15. Forest canopy structural controls over throughfall affect soil microbial community structure in an epiphyte-laden maritime oak stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Schrom, J. O.; Wu, T.; Reichard, J. S.; Kan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying spatiotemporal influences on soil microbial community (SMC) structure is critical to understanding of patterns in nutrient cycling and related ecological services. Since forest canopy structure alters the spatiotemporal patterning of precipitation water and solute supplies to soils (via the "throughfall" mechanism), is it possible changes in SMC structure variability could arise from modifications in canopy elements? Our study investigates this question by monitoring throughfall water and dissolved ion supply to soils beneath a continuum of canopy structure: from a large gap (0% cover) to heavy Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) canopy (>90% cover). Throughfall water supply diminished with increasing canopy cover, yet increased washoff/leaching of Na+, Cl-, PO43-, and SO42- from the canopy to the soils (p < 0.01). Presence of T. usneoides diminished throughfall NO3-, but enhanced NH4+, concentrations supplied to subcanopy soils. The mineral soil horizon (0-10 cm) from canopy gaps, bare canopy, and T. usneoides-laden canopy significantly differed (p < 0.05) in soil chemistry parameters (pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, CEC). PCR-DGGE banding patterns beneath similar canopy covers (experiencing similar throughfall dynamics) also produced high similarities per ANalyses Of SIMilarity (ANO-SIM), and clustered together when analyzed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Correlation analysis of DGGE banding patterns, throughfall dynamics, and soil chemistry yielded significant correlations (p < 0.05) between fungal communities and soil chemical properties significantly differing between canopy cover types (pH: r2 = 0.50; H+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.48; Ca2+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.43). Bacterial community structure correlated with throughfall NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ concentrations (r2 = 0.37, p = 0.16). These results suggest that modifications of forest canopy structures are capable of affecting mineral-soil horizon SMC structure via the throughfall mechanism when

  16. Throughfall-mediated alterations to soil microbial community structure in a forest plot of homogenous soil texture, litter, and plant species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John; Rosier, Carl; Moore, Leslie; Gay, Trent; Reichard, James; Wu, Tiehang; Kan, Jinjun

    2015-04-01

    Identifying spatiotemporal influences on soil microbial community (SMC) structure is critical to our understanding of patterns in biogeochemical cycling and related ecological services (e.g., plant community structure, water quality, response to environmental change). Since forest canopy structure alters the spatiotemporal patterning of precipitation water and solute supplies to soils (via "throughfall"), is it possible that changes in SMC structure could arise from modifications in canopy elements? Our study investigates this question by monitoring throughfall water and dissolved ion supply to soils beneath a continuum of canopy structure: from large gaps (0% cover), to bare Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) canopy (~50-70%), to heavy Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) canopy (>90% cover). Throughfall water supply diminished with increasing canopy cover, yet increased washoff/leaching of Na+, Cl-, PO43-, and SO42- from the canopy to the soils. Presence of T. usneoides diminished throughfall NO3-, but enhanced NH4+, concentrations supplied to subcanopy soils. The mineral soil horizon (0-10 cm) sampled in triplicate from locations receiving throughfall water and solutes from canopy gaps, bare canopy, and T. usneoides-laden canopy significantly differed in soil chemistry parameters (pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, CEC). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) banding patterns beneath similar canopy covers (experiencing similar throughfall dynamics) also produced high similarities per ANalyses Of SIMilarity (ANO-SIM), and clustered together when analyzed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). These results suggest that modifications of forest canopy structures are capable of affecting mineral-soil horizon SMC structure via throughfall when canopies' biomass distribution is highly heterogeneous. As SMC structure, in many instances, relates to functional diversity, we suggest that future research seek to identify functional

  17. Bromeliáceas Notables de Colombia, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lyman B.

    1945-04-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea (Platyaechmea anómala / Greigia excerta / Guzmania coriostachya / Guzmania cryptantha / Guzmania gloriosa / Pitcairnia alborubra / Pitcairnia bella / Pitcairnia oblanceolata / Pitcairnia Schultzei / Pitcairnia semaphora / Tillandsia chontalensis / Tillandsia disticha / Tillandsia excavata / Tillandsia Funckiana / Tillandsia Gardneri / Tillandsia (Platystachys mima / Tillandsia rectiflora

  18. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  19. ‘Grip op licht’ bij potanthurium en bromelia : Meer energie besparing bij Het Nieuwe Telen Potplanten met diffuus licht en verbeterde monitoring meer natuurlijk,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van F.R.; Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Snel, J.F.H.; Warmenhoven, M.G.; Meinen, E.; Li, T.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuus licht is gunstig voor plantgroei. Bovendien kan bij potplanten meer licht in de kas worden toegelaten als het diffuus is. In combinatie met Het Nieuwe Telen biedt dit mogelijkheden om zowel productie te verbeteren als energie te besparen. Er zijn proeven gedaan met twee Anthuriumrassen en

  20. Ácidos carboxílicos del fruto de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón por HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de un extracto acuoalcohólico del fruto de B. pinguin L. (piña de ratón por cromatografía líquida de alta presión (HPLC, con el objetivo de detectar la presencia de ácidos carboxílicos. Se ratificó la presencia de ácido cítrico, y por primera vez se señala la existencia de ácidos glicólico, málico, láctico, succínico y aconítico. Estos compuestos se identificaron por sus tiempos de retención contra patrones.The study of an aqueous-alcoholic extract from B.Pinguin L.(piña de ratón fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was conducted to detect carboxylic acids. The presence of citric acid was confirmed and for the first time, glycolic, malic, lactic, succinic and aconitic acids were detected. These compounds were identified by their holding times when compared to the patterns.

  1. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Bull Island, Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Jackson, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and associated soils. Baseline and variability data for ash, Al, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration among and within 0.5 km grid cells are given for each of the media. In general, only a few elements in Spanish moss showed statistically significant landscape patterns, whereas several elements in loblolly pine and in soils exhibited differences among sampling grids. Significant differences in the concentration of three elements in Spanish moss and eight elements (including total S) in loblolly pine were observed between two sampling dates (November and June); however, the absolute amount of these differences was small. Except for perhaps Ni and Pb concentrations in Spanish moss, element levels in all sample media exhibited ranges that indicate natural rather than anthropogenic additions of trace elements.

  2. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  3. Trace element similarity groups in north Florida Spanish moss: evidence for direct uptake of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheline, J.; Akselsson, R.; Winchester, J.W.

    1976-02-20

    The elemental composition of 10 samples of Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides L. collected mainly in forested areas near Tallahassee, Florida, has been compared to the composition of the ambient aerosol particle background in the forest measured as a function of particle size. For forest samples, moss composition is similar to the composition of aerosol particles greater than about 0.5-..mu..m diameter for the elements S, Cl, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Pb, and possibly Cu. Elements relatively enriched in the moss fall into two groups, K, Rb, Zr and Ca, Sr, Mn, based on detailed association patterns. No evidence is found for an enrichment, relative to the ambient aerosol, of pollution-derived elements Pb, Br, V, and Ni, although those elements are found at higher concentrations in moss samples from locations nearer roadways or oil-fired power plants. The moss appears to have potential value as an indicator of time average aerosol composition for particles of greater than or equal to 0.5 ..mu..m, except for the enriched elements, which may have longer biological retention times. (auth)

  4. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  5. Bacterial Flux by Net Precipitation from the Phyllosphere to the Forest Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, P.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Moore, L. D.; Bittar, T.

    2016-12-01

    Transport pathways of microbes between ecosystem spheres (atmosphere, phyllosphere, and pedosphere) represent major fluxes in nutrient cycles and have the potential to significantly affect microbial ecological processes. We quantified a previously unexamined microbial flux from the phyllosphere to the pedosphere during rainfall and found it to be substantial. Net rainfall bacterial fluxes for throughfall and stemflow were quantified using flow cytometry and a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assay for a Quercus virginiana (Mill., southern live oak) forest with heavy epiphyte cover of Tillandsia usneoides (L., Spanish moss) and Pleopeltis polypodiodes (L., resurrection fern) in coastal Georgia (Southeast USA). Total net precipitation flux of bacteria was 15 quadrillion cells year-1 ha-1, which (assuming a bacterial cell mass of 1 pg) is approximately 15 kg of bacterial biomass supply per year. Stemflow generation was low in this stand (rarely exceeded 10 L storm-1) yet still delivered half the annual net precipitation flux due to high bacterial concentration. The role of this previously unquantified bacterial flux in the forest floor has also been under studied, yet it may be significant by contributing functional community members (if living) or labile lysates (if dead).

  6. Spanish Moss as an atmospheric tracer for trace elements from fossil fuel burning power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.; Padaki, P.; McWilliams, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP), and x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. In particular, certain elements thought likely to be contributed to the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels were studied in samples collected along two transects, an east/west transect from the Louisiana line west to Dallas and a north/south transect from the Limestone electric Generating Station north to Dallas. Plants were sampled during peak electric generating periods in the summer, as well as following planned outages during the winter months. Se, As and several other volatile species known to concentrate in fly ash particles which are likely to escape power plant collection devices were shown to correlate with downwind directions of plant plumes. Attempts to determine levels of sulfur taken up by the plants which can be attributed to fossil fuel combustion through the use of these marker elements have also be made

  7. Climatic niche and flowering and fruiting phenology of an epiphytic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barve, Narayani; Martin, Craig E; Peterson, A Townsend

    2015-09-10

    Species have geographic distributions constrained by combinations of abiotic factors, biotic factors and dispersal-related factors. Abiotic requirements vary across the life stages for a species; for plant species, a particularly important life stage is when the plant flowers and develops seeds. A previous year-long experiment showed that ambient temperature of 5-35 °C, relative humidity of >50 % and ≤15 consecutive rainless days are crucial abiotic conditions for Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.). Here, we explore whether these optimal physiological intervals relate to the timing of the flowering and fruiting periods of Spanish moss across its range. As Spanish moss has a broad geographic range, we examined herbarium specimens to detect and characterize flowering/fruiting periods for the species across the Americas; we used high-temporal-resolution climatic data to assess the availability of optimal conditions for Spanish moss populations during each population's flowering period. We explored how long populations experience suboptimal conditions and found that most populations experience suboptimal conditions in at least one environmental dimension. Flowering and fruiting periods of Spanish moss populations are either being optimized for one or a few parameters or may be adjusted such that all parameters are suboptimal. Spanish moss populations appear to be constrained most closely by minimum temperature during this period. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  9. Perturbation vectors to evaluate air quality using lichens and bromeliads: a Brazilian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F; Marques, A N; Guillon, R; Losno, R; Couette, S; Navarro, N; Dongarra, G; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Chateau, C; Nepomuceno, F O

    2017-10-17

    Samples of one lichen species, Parmotrema crinitum, and one bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides, were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at four sites differently affected by anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lanthanum, lead, sulfur, titanium, zinc, and zirconium were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The environmental diagnosis was established by examining compositional changes via perturbation vectors, an underused family of methods designed to circumvent the problem of closure in any compositional dataset. The perturbation vectors between the reference site and the other three sites were similar for both species, although body concentration levels were different. At each site, perturbation vectors between lichens and bromeliads were approximately the same, whatever the local pollution level. It should thus be possible to combine these organisms, though physiologically different, for air quality surveys, after making all results comparable with appropriate correction. The use of perturbation vectors seems particularly suitable for assessing pollution level by biomonitoring, and for many frequently met situations in environmental geochemistry, where elemental ratios are more relevant than absolute concentrations.

  10. Storm-scale dynamics of bacterial community composition in throughfall and stemflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Teachey, M. E.; Pound, P.; Ottesen, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of bacteria between ecosystem spheres can significantly affect microbially-mediated biogeochemical processes. During rainfall, there is a large, temporally-concentrated exchange of bacteria between the forest phyllosphere and the pedosphere by rain dripping from canopy surfaces, as throughfall (TF), and draining to the stem, as stemflow (SF). Many phyllosphere bacteria possibly transported by TF and SF have been linked to important litter and soil processes (like cyanobacteria and actinobacteria). Despite this, no work has applied high throughput DNA sequencing to assess the community composition of bacteria transported by TF and SF. We characterized bacterial community composition for TF and SF from an epiphyte-laden (Tillandsia usneoides L., Spanish moss) southern live oak (Quercus virginiana) forest in southeastern Georgia (USA) to address two hypotheses: that bacterial community composition will differ between (1) TF and SF, and (2) TF sampled beneath bare and epiphyte-laden canopy. Variability in family-level bacterial abundance, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, and Shannon diversity index was greater between storms than between net rainfall fluxes. In fact, TF and SF bacterial communities were relatively similar for individual storms and may be driven by pre-storm atmospheric deposition rather than the communities affixed to leaves, bark, and epiphyte surfaces.

  11. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of litter production in young and old baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L.) stands at Caddo Lake, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, John W.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Keeland, Bobby D.; Darville, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Aboveground primary productivity for cypress forests was assessed from measurements of litter production in two age groups and in two hydrological regimes (standing water and free-flowing). Caddo Lake, located in northeast Texas on the Texas-Louisiana border, offered a unique study site since it is dominated by extensive stands composed entirely of Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, (baldcypress) in different age groups. Young stands (approximately 100 years old) are found along the shoreline and on shallow flooded islands. Old stands (-150 to 300 years old) are found in deeper water where they were continuously flooded. Litter production over three years from October 1998 to September 2001 was measured. Litter consisting of leaves, twigs, bark, reproductive parts, and Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Spanish moss) was collected monthly using 0.5 m2 floating traps. Tree diameters were measured within 200 m2 circular plots in each stand. The young stands supported densities greater than 2,000 stems/ha and a mean stand basal area of 72.3 m2/ha, whereas old stands supported lower densities of about 500 stems/ha but with a similar mean stand basal area of 73.3 m2/ha. There was a significant difference between old and young stands for overall yearly litter production, averaging about 670 g/m2/yr in the young stands and 460 g/m2/yr in the old stands. Leaves and twigs were significantly greater in the young stands, while reproductive parts were higher in old stands. Litter collections between years or hydrological regimes were not significantly different.

  13. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from the local oil refinery and the oil- fueled power plant. Two distinct Ni:V scatterplot trends suggest that there are two main petrogenic emission sources in the region. Calcium and, to some extent, Mg were higher near the mining areas and a calcium carbonate factory. Lead had a diffuse distribution, probably related to former gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions, rather than to current emissions. Antimony was more abundant at sites far from agriculture and industrial areas, which suggests a natural origin (rocks or soils). The spatial distribution of stable isotopes also showed distinct patterns near the industrial sources with relatively 13C -depleted and 15N -enriched values near the oil refinery and the electrical power plant. Although it is not yet possible to provide quantitative estimates for emission contributions per source type, biomonitoring with T. recurvata provided for the first time a clear picture of the relative deposition patterns for several airborne metals in the Mezquital Valley.

  14. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  15. Avaliação do potencial de acumulação de 210Pb pela Tillandsia recurvata L. para fins de biomonitoração da qualidade do ar.

    OpenAIRE

    ALMEIDA, Amanda Correia de

    2015-01-01

    A biomonitoração do ar pode utilizar organismos que têm estreita relação ecofisiológica com a atmosfera e alto grau de acumulação de elementos estáveis e/ou instáveis. Dentro deste tema, as plantas epífitas têm sido amplamente utilizadas como biomonitores, sendo consideradas ferramentas eficientes na avaliação de deposição atmosférica. Contudo, não se tem estudos que evidenciem a eficiência de acumulação de 210Pb na espécie T. recurvata L. Com base nisto, o presente trabalho avaliou a aplicab...

  16. Reproductive strategies and colonizing ability of two sympatric epiphytic bromeliads in a tropical premontane area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascante Marin, A.M.; de Jong, M.; Borg, E.D.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Wolf, J.H.D.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Predispersal characteristics that affect the reproductive success in plants may influence their colonizing ability. We evaluated this hypothesis in two sympatric epiphytic bromeliads in Costa Rica, Guzmania monostacbia and Tillandsia fasciculata, that show contrasting levels of local seedling

  17. Uptake of the natural radioactive gas radon by an epiphytic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Ruiwen; Gu, Mintian; Zheng, Guiling

    2018-01-15

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a natural radioactive gas and the major radioactive contributor to human exposure. The present effective ways to control Rn contamination are ventilation and adsorption with activated carbon. Plants are believed to be negligible in reducing airborne Rn. Here, we found epiphytic Tillandsia brachycaulos (Bromeliaceae) was effective in reducing airborne Rn via the leaves. Rn concentrations in the Rn chamber after Tillandsia plant treatments decreased more than those in the natural situation. The specialized foliar trichomes densely covering Tillandsia leaves play a major role in the uptake of Rn because the amplified rough leaf surface area facilitates deposition of Rn progeny particles and the powdery epicuticular wax layer of foliar trichomes uptakes liposoluble Rn. The results provide us a new ecological strategy for Rn contamination control, and movable epiphytic Tillandsia plants can be applied widely in Rn removal systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of a lichen and two epiphytic vascular species as indicators of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, G.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Gudino, G.L.; Wannaz, E.D. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales; Carreras, H.A.; Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Plant material from Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog and Swinsc., Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia tricholepis Baker were transplanted to eleven monitoring sites, categorized as urban, farming and farming/cattle-raising. The concentrations of pigments, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were determined. Chlorophyll b / chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a / chlorophyll a ratios were also calculated, and a Pollution Index (PI) and a Foliar Damage Index (FDI) were calculated from some physiological parameters. (orig.)

  19. Evidence of Tamarix hybrids in South Africa, as inferred by nuclear ITS and plastid trnS-trnG DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarix usneoides (Tamaricaceae) is a species native to southern Africa where it is currently being used in the mines for phytoremediation. However, Tamarix aphylla, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis, and T. parviflora have been reported as exotic species in South Africa, with T. ramosissima declared inv...

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIXOTO, RODOLFO DE MORAES; SILVA, WELLINGTON ERASMO LIMA E; ALMEIDA, JACKSON ROBERTO GUEDES SILVA; BRANCO, ALEXSANDRO; COSTA, MATEUS MATIUZZI DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A. C. Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hay...

  1. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  2. Floral Developmental Pattern Changes on Neoregelia‘Flandria’(BROMELIACEAE Analysed by Markov Chain methodologyADRIANA

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    Adriana Pico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoregelia 'Flandria'and N. 'Van Durme'are ornamental cultivars of Bromelia.Propagation by seeds is not viable and prunes constitutes the only way to propagateavoiding alterations. In this article the developmental floral pattern of 72 Bromeliastreated with ANA 190 ppm (T1, Ethrel: ANA + ETHREL,(T2 y ETHREL, (T3 anddivided into two age groups: E1 y E2 are shown. The treatments studied generated moreelongated plants and six new patterns. Using the Markov chain methodology theprobability to evolve to any pattern and the percentage of each were studied.

  3. UNA NUEVA COMBINACIÓN Y NUEVOS REGISTROS EN LAS BROMELIACEAE DE EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una nueva combinación, Werauhia montana y se discuten sus relaciones con W. nephrolepis. Además se registra por primera vez, la presencia de Aechmea bromeliifolia, Pitcairnia maidifolia y Tillandsia balbisiana para El Salvador.

  4. Drought tolerance associated with vertical stratification of two co-occurring epiphytic bromeliads in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eric A; Andrade, Jose Luis

    2004-05-01

    Vertical stratification of epiphytes generally has not been reported for dry forests. For two epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism bromeliads that segregate vertically, it was hypothesized that different potentials for photoprotection or shade tolerance rather than drought tolerance is responsible for the observed stratification. The light environment, capacity for photoprotection, germination response to light quality, and responses to light and drought were thus examined for Tillandsia brachycaulos and T. elongata. Vertical and light-environment distributions differed for the two species but photoprotection and photodamage did not where they occurred at similar field locations; T. brachycaulos had a higher pigment acclimation to light. Tillandsia brachycaulos had higher acid accumulation under low light as opposed to T. elongata, which responded similarly to all but the highest light treatment. Tillandsia brachycaulos maintained positive total daily net CO(2) uptake through 30 d of drought; T. elongata had a total daily net CO(2) loss after 7 d of drought. The vertical stratification was most likely the result of the sensitivity to drought of T. elongata rather than differences in photoprotection or shade tolerance between the two species. Tillandsia elongata occurs in more exposed locations, which may be advantageous for rainfall interception and dew formation.

  5. Contribuciones al estudio de la Parasitología en Colombia

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    Uribe-Piedrahita César

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available 1- Myxobolidae parasito de la vesícula biliar de una Rana de los Llanos Orientales (Resumen: Se observó un Myxobolidae, Myxobolus pfeitteri, parásito de la vesícula biliar de Rana palmipes, habitante de los Llanos orientales de Colombia. Se destaca su papel patógeno.  Creemos que es el primer Myxobolidae descrito en Colombia. / 2- Observaciones sobre un Trichomonas sp. (Resumen: Aechmea bromeliaefolia / Greigia Danielii / Guzmania costaricensis / Guzmania diffusa / Guzmania glomerata / Guzmania minor Mez var / Flammea / Pitcairnia Bakeri / Pitcairnia Barrigae / Pitcairnia costata / Pitcairnia diffusa / Pitcairnia excerta / Pitcairnia lepidopetalon / Pitcairnia squarrosa / Pitcairnia squarrosa var. Colorata / Tillandsia hospitalis / Tillandsia pulchella / Vriesia Hodgei.

  6. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA [es

  7. VASCULAR EPIPHYTE COMPONENT OCCURING IN URBAN TREES IN THE SQUARE PROFESSOR JOSE INACIO IN PIRATININGA COUNTY, SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are plants cropped in other plants to damage them. The main characteristics of this group of plants is unknown in this part of Brazil, making it important to study this subject. The aim of this work was to characterize the structural and the floristic composition of vascular epiphytes on urban trees; to classify ecological categories species, according to hoist and to calculate community diversity. The studied area (Professor Jose Inacio Square, standed at the municipal district of Piratininga, Sao Paulo State. The climate is Cwa according to Köeppen classification and sandy phase dark red oxisol (latosol. It had been identified 10 species encompassing 6 gender and 6 families, being with best improvement the Bromeliaceae, representing 30 % of data. Tillandsia, with 3 species, was the most abundant gender and featured holoepiphytes were represented, with 70% species. About epiphyte community structure: Tillandsia recurvata and Tillandsia tricholepis were the most important (with bigger VIe in the studies community. Diversity was 2.371 nats/individual to specie and 2.04 nats/individual per family. The small number of species and low diversity index should be due to local conditions, urban area, with different features from that founded at normal eco-systems.

  8. High but not dry: diverse epiphytic bromeliad adaptations to exposure within a seasonally dry tropical forest community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, C; Mejia-Chang, M; Griffiths, H

    2012-02-01

    • Vascular epiphytes have developed distinct lifeforms to maximize water uptake and storage, particularly when delivered as pulses of precipitation, dewfall or fog. The seasonally dry forest of Chamela, Mexico, has a community of epiphytic bromeliads with Crassulacean acid metabolism showing diverse morphologies and stratification within the canopy. We hypothesize that niche differentiation may be related to the capacity to use fog and dew effectively to perform photosynthesis and to maintain water status. • Four Tillandsia species with either 'tank' or 'atmospheric' lifeforms were studied using seasonal field data and glasshouse experimentation, and compared on the basis of water use, leaf water δ(18) O, photosynthetic and morphological traits. • The atmospheric species, Tillandsia eistetteri, with narrow leaves and the lowest succulence, was restricted to the upper canopy, but displayed the widest range of physiological responses to pulses of precipitation and fog, and was a fog-catching 'nebulophyte'. The other atmospheric species, Tillandsia intermedia, was highly succulent, restricted to the lower canopy and with a narrower range of physiological responses. Both upper canopy tank species relied on tank water and stomatal closure to avoid desiccation. • Niche differentiation was related to capacity for water storage, dependence on fog or dewfall and physiological plasticity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring.

  10. Fuelwood availability and use in the Richtersveld National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Shackleton

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been voiced about the possible over-use of fuelwood from the riparian fringe by pastoralist herders in the Richtersveld National Park (RNP. This coincided with the current examination and modelling of the supply and use of ecosystem goods and services in the Gariep Basin as part of the Southern African Millennium Assessment (SAfMA. This paper reports on a study to index the current availability of deadwood within the riparian zone of RNP, its relationship with proximity to human habitation, and species preferences of the local herders. Deadwood availability was assessed per woody species and on the ground in 12 transects within the riparian fringe. Herders were interviewed regarding their species preferences, and the composition of woodpiles was examined. There was no relationship between the percentage of attached deadwood on the tree, or the percentage deadwood ground cover, and the distance from herder stockposts. Euclea pseudobenus and Tamarix usneoides were the dominant species in the riparian fringe. There was strong selection for Ziziphus mucronata as a fuelwood species and only marginal or random selection for E. pseudobenus. Tamarix usneoides and Prosopis sp. were abundant in the riparian zone, but were not used for fuelwood. There was a significant difference between species with respect to the mean proportion of the stem that was dead, the highest being Z. mucronata (± 28 % deadwood, followed by T. usneoides (± 12 %. Most of the Prosopis trees had no deadwood. Across all species, the mean percentage dead per tree was approximately 15 %. Additionally, detached deadwood covered just less than 9 % of ground area, averaged across all plots and transects. All the variables measured indicated that there seems to be little need for concern over the current fuelwood extraction activities of pastoralists within the RNP. There was no clear evidence of cutting of branches or deadwood. The abundance of both attached and detached

  11. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  12. The narrow-leaf syndrome: a functional and evolutionary approach to the form of fog-harvesting rosette plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Carlos; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-04-01

    Plants that use fog as an important water-source frequently have a rosette growth habit. The performance of this morphology in relation to fog interception has not been studied. Some first-principles from physics predict that narrow leaves, together with other ancillary traits (large number and high flexibility of leaves, caudices, and/or epiphytism) which constitute the "narrow-leaf syndrome" should increase fog-interception efficiency. This was tested using aluminum models of rosettes that differed in leaf length, width and number and were exposed to artificial fog. The results were validated using seven species of Tillandsia and four species of xerophytic rosettes. The total amount of fog intercepted in rosette plants increased with total leaf area, while narrow leaves maximized interception efficiency (measured as interception per unit area). The number of leaves in the rosettes is physically constrained because wide-leafed plants can only have a few blades. At the limits of this constraint, net fog interception was independent of leaf form, but interception efficiency was maximized by large numbers of narrow leaves. Atmospheric Tillandsia species show the narrow-leaf syndrome. Their fog interception efficiencies were correlated to the ones predicted from aluminum-model data. In the larger xerophytic rosette species, the interception efficiency was greatest in plants showing the narrow-leaf syndrome. The adaptation to fog-harvesting in several narrow-leaved rosettes was tested for evolutionary convergence in 30 xerophytic rosette species using a comparative method. There was a significant evolutionary tendency towards the development of the narrow-leaf syndrome the closer the species grew to areas where fog is frequently available. This study establishes convergence in a very wide group of plants encompassing genera as contrasting as Tillandsia and Agave as a result of their dependence on fog.

  13. Nuevos registros para la flora de Honduras y el Parque Nacional Montaña de Celaque.

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    Hermes Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  14. Monitoreo de la contaminación atmosférica a través del empleo de bioindicadores y modelos de dispersión de contaminantes

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, Gabriela Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2014 Trata la utilización de Tillandsia capillaris como especie biomonitora que permitió caracterizar diferentes fuentes de emisión de metales pesados, elementos traza e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos a escala local en el área de estudio escogida, diferenciando por un lado, fuentes estacionarias (planta de cemento, quema de biomasa y la resuspensión de suelo) y por otro lado, fuentes móviles como es el tránsito vehicular.

  15. Antifungal activity of phlorotannins against dermatophytes and yeasts: approaches to the mechanism of action and influence on Candida albicans virulence factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, fungal infections, particularly nosocomial, increased all around the world. This increment stimulated the search for new antifungal agents, especially those derived from nature. Among natural products, those from marine sources have gained prominence in the last years. Purified phlorotannins extracts from three brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus were screened for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi. The purified phlorotannins extracts from the studied seaweeds displayed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against yeast and dermatophytes, respectively, pointing to their interest as anti-dermatophyte agent. C. albicans ATCC 10231 was the most susceptible among yeast, while Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum were the most susceptible among dermatophytes. Since the antifungal mechanism constitutes an important strategy for limiting the emergence of resistance to the commercially available agents, the mechanism of action of purified phlorotannins extracts was approached. C. nodicaulis and C. usneoides seem to act by affecting the ergosterol composition of the cell membrane of yeast and dermatophyte, respectively. F. spiralis influenced the dermatophyte cell wall composition by reducing the levels of chitin. Phlorotannins also seem to affect the respiratory chain function, as all of the studied species significantly increased the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and increased the incorporation of rhodamine 123 by yeast cells. Phlorotannins from F. spiralis inhibited the dimorphic transition of Candida albicans, leading to the formation of pseudohyphae with diminished capacity to adhere to epithelial cells. This finding is associated with a decrease of C. albicans virulence and capacity to invade host cells and can be potentially interesting for combined antifungal

  16. Assessment of risk of dengue and yellow fever virus transmission in three major Kenyan cities based on Stegomyia indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sang, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks). We surveyed water-holding containers for mosquito immature (larvae/pupae) indoors and outdoors from selected houses during the long rains, short rains and dry seasons (100 houses/season) in each County from October 2014-June 2016. House index (HI), Breteau index (BI) and Container index (CI) estimates based on Aedes (Stegomyia) immature infestations were compared by city and season. Aedes aegypti and Aedes bromeliae were the main Stegomyia species with significantly more positive houses outdoors (212) than indoors (88) (n = 900) (χ2 = 60.52, P < 0.0001). Overall, Ae. aegypti estimates of HI (17.3 vs 11.3) and BI (81.6 vs 87.7) were higher in Kilifi and Kisumu, respectively, than in Nairobi (HI, 0.3; BI,13). However, CI was highest in Kisumu (33.1), followed by Kilifi (15.1) then Nairobi (5.1). Aedes bromeliae indices were highest in Kilifi, followed by Kisumu, then Nairobi with HI (4.3, 0.3, 0); BI (21.3, 7, 0.7) and CI (3.3, 3.3, 0.3), at the respective sites. HI and BI for both species were highest in the long rains, compared to the short rains and dry seasons. We found strong positive correlations between the BI and CI, and BI and HI for Ae. aegypti, with the most productive container types being jerricans, drums, used/discarded containers and tyres. On the basis of established vector index thresholds, our findings suggest low-to-medium risk levels for urban YF and high DEN risk for Kilifi and Kisumu, whereas for Nairobi YF risk was low while DEN risk

  17. Assessment of risk of dengue and yellow fever virus transmission in three major Kenyan cities based on Stegomyia indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Agha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DEN and yellow fever (YF are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone, and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks. We surveyed water-holding containers for mosquito immature (larvae/pupae indoors and outdoors from selected houses during the long rains, short rains and dry seasons (100 houses/season in each County from October 2014-June 2016. House index (HI, Breteau index (BI and Container index (CI estimates based on Aedes (Stegomyia immature infestations were compared by city and season. Aedes aegypti and Aedes bromeliae were the main Stegomyia species with significantly more positive houses outdoors (212 than indoors (88 (n = 900 (χ2 = 60.52, P < 0.0001. Overall, Ae. aegypti estimates of HI (17.3 vs 11.3 and BI (81.6 vs 87.7 were higher in Kilifi and Kisumu, respectively, than in Nairobi (HI, 0.3; BI,13. However, CI was highest in Kisumu (33.1, followed by Kilifi (15.1 then Nairobi (5.1. Aedes bromeliae indices were highest in Kilifi, followed by Kisumu, then Nairobi with HI (4.3, 0.3, 0; BI (21.3, 7, 0.7 and CI (3.3, 3.3, 0.3, at the respective sites. HI and BI for both species were highest in the long rains, compared to the short rains and dry seasons. We found strong positive correlations between the BI and CI, and BI and HI for Ae. aegypti, with the most productive container types being jerricans, drums, used/discarded containers and tyres. On the basis of established vector index thresholds, our findings suggest low-to-medium risk levels for urban YF and high DEN risk for Kilifi and Kisumu, whereas for Nairobi YF risk was low while DEN risk

  18. Plantas y hongos tintóreos de los wichís del Gran Chaco

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    María Eugenia Suárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación etnobotánica que trata los tintes vegetales y fúngicos entre los indígenas wichí del Chaco Semiárido. Se realizaron trabajos de campo con informantes calificados y ocasionales de ambos sexos en localidades de las provincias argentinas de Salta y Formosa. Asimismo, se hizo una revisión minuciosa de la bibliografía vinculada con el tema. Se encontraron 24 especies de plantas y 2 de hongos que son usadas para colorear productos textiles realizados a partir de fibras de cháguar (Bromelia hieronymi y B. urbaniana. Se proporcionan informaciones y detalles sobre los nombres vernáculos de las especies, las partes usadas, los procedimientos de tinción y los colores logrados. El número total de plantas tintóreas encontrado es alto comparado con los que fueron citados para otras etnias chaquenses y se registraron especies que antes no fueron mencionadas como tintóreas entre los wichís.Dye plants and fungi among the Wichí people of the Gran Chaco. This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical investigation into plant and fungal dyes used by the Wichí people of the Semiarid Chaco. Fieldwork was carried out with occasional and key informants, both men and women, in several locations of Salta and Formosa provinces in Argentina. Moreover, a detailed examination of the bibliography on the topic was conducted. Twenty-four plant species and two fungi that are used for coloring textile products made from cháguar fibers (Bromelia hieronymi and B. urbaniana were found. Information and details on the vernacular names of the species, the parts that are used, the dying technique and the colors obtained are provided. The total number of dye plants found is high compared with the ones cited among other Chaco ethnic groups, and records were made of species that had not previously been mentioned among the Wichí people as being used for dyes.

  19. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  20. Potential impact of harvesting on the population dynamics of two epiphytic bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana; Valverde, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Large numbers of epiphytes are extracted from cloud forests for ornamental use and illegal trade in Latin America. We examined the potential effects of different harvesting regimes on the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia multicaulis and Tillandsia punctulata. The population dynamics of these species were studied over a 2-year period in a tropical montane cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Prospective and retrospective analyses were used to identify which demographic processes and life-cycle stages make the largest relative contribution to variation in population growth rate (λ). The effect of simulated harvesting levels on population growth rates was analysed for both species. λ of both populations was highly influenced by survival (stasis), to a lesser extent by growth, and only slightly by fecundity. Vegetative growth played a central role in the population dynamics of these organisms. The λ value of the studied populations did not differ significantly from unity: T. multicaulis λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.982 (0.897-1.060) and T. punctulata λ = 0.967 (0.815-1.051), suggesting population stability. However, numerical simulation of different levels of extraction showed that λ would drop substantially even under very low (2%) harvesting levels. Matrix analysis revealed that T. multicaulis and T. punctulata populations are likely to decline and therefore commercial harvesting would be unsustainable. Based on these findings, management recommendations are outlined.

  1. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  2. Generous-like flowers: nectar production in two epiphytic bromeliads and a meta-analysis of removal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordano, Mariano; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperm plants that respond positively to nectar removal by replenishment invest energy that can entail a reproductive cost. We investigated whether or not nectar removal stimulates replenishment in two hummingbird-pollinated bromeliad species. Nectar replenishment rates were also assessed by removing nectar from manually pollinated flowers because pollination events might be used as signals to save energy by preventing allocation to post-pollination nectar production. Then we synthesized the current understanding of nectar removal effects by reviewing existing published studies with a meta-analysis. The magnitude and significance of estimated nectar removal effects and factors associated with variation in size and direction of nectar removal effects were elucidated with the meta-analysis. We found that both Tillandsia species strongly respond to repeated nectar removal by producing >3 times additional nectar. Nectar secretion patterns were not altered by pollination (stigmatic pollen deposition) and we found no evidence of nectar reabsorption. Although the effect size varied widely across systems and/or environmental conditions, the meta-analysis showed that nectar removal had overall a positive effect on nectar replenishment (mainly among species inhabiting wet tropical habitats such as Tillandsia), and a negative effect on the secretion of additional sugar, suggesting that those plants are resource limited and conservative in the secretion of additional sugar.

  3. NUEVA ESPECIE DE RANA BROMELÍCOLA DEL GÉNERO PRISTIMANTIS (AMPHIBIA: CRAUGASTORIDAE, MESETA DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

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    JORGE BRITO M.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Describimos una especie pequeña de rana bromelícola del género Pristimantis (longitud rostro-cloaca en hembras 20.3-23.3 mm; en machos 16.1-17.4 mm, proveniente de una remota meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, en el sureste de Ecuador, con un rango altitudinal de 2.045-2.860 m. Una filogenia en base a secuencias de ADN (genes mitocondriales y nucleares muestra que la nueva especie forma parte del grupo P. orestes y está más cercanamente relacionada con una especie de Pristimantis aún no descrita de la vertiente sur oriental ecuatoriana. Difiere de sus congéneres de Ecuador, por su coloración dorsal y ventral predominantemente negra; superficie palmar amplia y robusta con dedos cortos y gruesos; presencia de un surco profundo y amplio extendido desde la base anterior del I dedo manual hasta la base posterior del tubérculo palmar; tubérculos subarticulares divididos, tubérculos supernumerarios agrandados y con granulaciones pequeñas. Todos los individuos registrados estuvieron en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son cortas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por una nota con duración de 5-15 ms. Los insectos representaron el 80% de la dieta de la especie nueva.

  4. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  5. Anatomia de raízes de nove espécies de Bromeliaceae (Poales da região amazônica do estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Anatomy of the roots of nine species of Bromeliaceae (Poales from the Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca caracterizar raízes de Bromeliaceae: Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae e T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae ocorrentes nas regiões amazônicas (Mato Grosso-MT, procurando levantar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. As espécies estudadas são epífitas e suas raízes se caracterizam por apresentar velame pluriestratificado, córtex diferenciado, endoderme e periciclo unisseriados, cilindro vascular poliarco e medula com células de paredes espessadas. Estruturas anatômicas como: número de camadas e tipo de espessamento das paredes das células do velame, tipo de espessamento de parede da exoderme e endoderme, presença de idioblastos contendo cristais e número de pólos de protoxilema agrupam as espécies nos diferentes gêneros e subfamílias. A presença de canais de mucilagem no córtex de A. castelnavii relatados pela primeira vez na literatura para Bromeliaceae é caráter diagnóstico. As raízes de Dyckia e Tillandsia apresentam maior número de caracteres comuns, representando maior similaridade entre Pitcairnioideae e Tillandsioideae. Raízes com velame, exoderme com células de paredes espessadas constituindo uma camada mecânica, canais de mucilagem, lacunas de ar no córtex interno e idioblastos com cristais são estruturas adaptativas ao hábito epifítico.This study aimed to characterize the roots of Bromeliaceae, Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae and T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae, that occur in Amazonian regions (Mato Grosso-MT, in order to find features of taxonomic value and ecological importance. The studied species are epiphytes and their roots are characterized by a multi-layered velamen, differentiated cortex, uniseriate

  6. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Pessôa, T C; Nunes-Freitas, A F; Cogliatti-Carvalho, L; Rocha, C F D

    2008-05-01

    We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 x 10 m) recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets) and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets) being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5) and density (6360 ramets.ha(-1)) of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  7. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  8. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  9. Investigation of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.

    2004-01-01

    A project has been undertaken to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analyzed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, have participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. Activities carried out within the framework of this project are described. (author)

  10. Mecanismos de repartición de recursos entre dos especies de colibríes (Coeligena prunellei - Doryfera ludoviciae en la reserva biológica Cachalú, Santander, colombia

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    Cristian Camilo Sandoval Parra

    2007-01-01

    uso de los tres estratos del bosque. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre las medidas morfométricas del culmen expuesto, la longitud de la cuerda alar, la cola y el peso; mientras que no se encontraron diferencias entre las medidas de culmen total comisura y tarso. Los recursos florales estuvieron concentrados en el interior del bosque, con seis especies vegetales (Palicourea sp., Tillandsia sp., Guzmania sp. y Gesneriaceae entre otras, mientras que en el rastrojo solo encontramos tres (Macleania sp., Cavendishia sp., y Centropogon sp.. En las cargas de polen contamos 4.890 granos, entre los que identifique seis palinomorfos que correspondieron a Ericaceas, Campanulaceas, Onagraceas y Bromeliaceas. Los granos de polen fueron transportados en orden de proporción en la frente, en la garganta y en el pico.

  11. Poluição e a densidade de vegetação: BTEX em algumas áreas públicas de Curitiba - PR, Brasil Pollution and density of vegetation: BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba - PR, Brazil

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    Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba-PR, Brazil, was evaluated. Their concentrations were then related to the vegetation's density in each area. Average benzene concentrations varied from 3.9 to 6.1 μg m-3, with higher values occurring in poorly dense vegetation areas. For toluene, average concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 μg m-3. The effect of such pollutants was evaluated by means of a bio indicator, Tillandsia stricta. Variation in total chlorophyll content and in stomatic density were detected in some samples and may be related to the BTEX concentrations found in the studied areas.

  12. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Hebe A; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Pignata, María L

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Córdoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Córdoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals.

  13. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC. Rocha-Pessôa

    Full Text Available We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m² (10 x 10 m recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5 and density (6360 ramets.ha-1 of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  14. Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Diego Fedrizzi Petry; Linden, Rafael; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

    2017-04-15

    Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes were analyzed in isolated trees along an urbanization gradient in Southern Brazil. A total of 20 phorophytes were sampled in the main street of each site. Concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc were measured in the leaves of Tillandsia recurvata L. using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. A decreasing gradient of epiphyte richness and coverage was observed as urbanization increased. Vehicle fleet and demographic density were the parameters most correlated with the reduction of epiphytic diversity. In T. recurvata, significantly higher values of cadmium, lead and zinc were recorded in the most urbanized areas, and were strongly related to the vehicle fleet and to the demographic density in these sites. The results demonstrated that these parameters could be applied to the diagnosis of environmental quality in urban areas, allowing standardized analyses in other regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

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    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  16. ANGIOSPERMAS DE LOS ARBUSTALES XERÓFILOS UBICADOS EN LOS ALREDEDORES DEL COMPLEJO LAGUNAR BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA, PENÍNSULA DE ARAYA, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA | ANGIOSPERMAE OF A XEROPHYTIC SHRUBLAND LOCATED AROUND BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA LAGOON COMPLEX, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

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    Jesús Bello Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of xeric zones of the country, a list of angiospermae species is presented that are found forming part of a xerophytic shrubland, located around the Bocaripo-Chacopata lagoon complex, in Araya Peninsula, Sucre state. A total of 56 families was identified which comprised 142 genus, 180 species and 3 intraspecific taxa. The most dominant families regarding to the species number were: Fabaceae (24 spp., Poaceae (15 spp., Cactaceae (10 spp., Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae (9 spp. c/u, Malvaceae (8 spp., Convolvulaceae (7 spp., Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae (6 spp. c/u, Portulacaceae and Bromeliaceae (5 spp. c/u. Among the most important genera, were: Senna (4 spp., Capparis, Cyperus, Opuntia, Sida and Tillandsia (3 spp. c/u. The more common biotype was herbaceous vegetation, followed by shrubs, trees, climber, epiphytes and hemiparasites. The list includes two endemic species and 8 other included in the Red Book of the Flora of Venezuela.

  17. Effect of canopy position on germination and seedling survival of epiphytic bromeliads in a Mexican humid montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Manuela; Hülber, Karl; Hietz, Peter

    2005-05-01

    Seeds of epiphytes must land on branches with suitable substrates and microclimates to germinate and for the resulting seedlings to survive. It is important to understand the fate of seeds and seedlings in order to model populations, but this is often neglected when only established plants are included in analyses. The seeds of five bromeliad species were exposed to different canopy positions in a Mexican montane forest, and germination and early seedling survival were recorded. Additionally, the survival of naturally dispersed seedlings was monitored in a census over 2.5 years. Survival analysis, a procedure rarely used in plant ecology, was used to study the influence of branch characteristics and light on germination and seedling survival in natural and experimental populations. Experimental germination percentages ranged from 7.2 % in Tillandsia deppeana to 33.7 % in T. juncea, but the seeds of T. multicaulis largely failed to germinate. Twenty months after exposure between 3.5 and 9.4 % of the seedlings were still alive. There was no evidence that canopy position affected the probability of germination, but time to germination was shorter in less exposed canopy positions indicating that higher humidity accelerates germination. More experimental seedlings survived when canopy openness was high, whereas survival in census-seedlings was influenced by moss cover. While mortality decreased steadily with age in juveniles of the atmospheric Tillandsia, in the more mesomorphic Catopsis sessiliflora mortality increased dramatically in the dry season. Seedling mortality, rather than the failure to germinate, accounts for the differential distribution of epiphytes within the canopy studied. With few safe sites to germinate and high seedling mortality, changes of local climate may affect epiphyte populations primarily through their seedling stage.

  18. The role of flowering plant species in the survival of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae along the lower Orange River, South Africa

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    E. Myburgh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of the role that plants play in the survival of adult blackflies by providing shelter and carbohydrate food. A detailed phenological study of the 29 most abundant plant species in the Augrabies Falls National Park showed that throughout the year the percentage of plant species flowering was remarkably constant. It is therefore unlikely that the availability of carbohydrates would limit adult Simulium survival at any time of the year. Blackflies were recorded feeding on the flowers of Pappea capensis. Acacia karroo, A. mellifera, Tamarix usneoides, Ziziphus mucronata, Scholia afra and Sisyndite spartea. An additional survey showed that another 64 plant species flowered throughout the year, and these can be regarded as potential carbohydrate sources. Blackflies were observed sheltering in dense shrubs and trees that provide protection against predation and harsh environmental conditions. This study suggests that vegetated drainage lines are the means by which adult blackflies survive dispersal away from the river. It is concluded that carbohydrate scarcity cannot be considered a limiting factor to adult blackfly survival along the lower Orange River.

  19. Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Upreti, Dalip Kumar

    2016-08-09

    Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ(13)C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ(13)C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent micro-environmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.

  20. Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Upreti, Dalip Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ13C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ13C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent micro-environmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.

  1. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  2. ANUROS DEL GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL DE LA ESTACIÓN EXPERIMETAL Y DEMOSTRATIVA EL RASGÓN (SANTANDER, COLOMBIA

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    SUÁREZ-BADILLO HENRY A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la fauna de anuros sobre un gradiente altitudinal de 2200 a 3200 mabarcando tres formaciones vegetales, Selva Andina, Bosque Altoandino ySubpáramo, sobre la cordillera Oriental colombiana. Se realizaron 43 sesiones detrabajo entre Agosto de 2000 y Febrero de 2002 aplicando búsqueda libre porinspección visual y transectos. Se registraron doce de las especies conocidas de lazona y una más indescrita que constituye un nuevo registro y se suma a las dosespecies indescritas previamente registradas. Las abundancias absolutas fuerondiferentes entre las 3 formaciones vegetales y entre las épocas de muestreo.Contrariamente, no hubo diferencias entre el número de individuos obtenidos enlos meses secos contrastados con los meses lluviosos. La mayoría de especies eindividuos utilizaron el estrato herbáceo y parece no haber un uso diferencial delestrato vertical. E. prolixodiscus mostró preferencia por las bromelias como sustrato.Las curvas de acumulación de especies mostraron que el inventario está casicompleto en la Selva Andina y está en sus inicios en el Bosque Altoandino y elSubpáramo. Se observó una diversidad â baja entre los sitios evaluados.Eleutherodactylus anolirex, E. prolixodiscus y Eleutherodactylus sp. 1 sedistribuyen de forma continua en el gradiente, mientras que E. douglasi, E. lutitus,E. merostictus y Eleutherodactylus sp. 3 llegan hasta su parte media. E. douglasiy E. prolixodiscus aumentaron sus cotas altitudinales superiores (en 350 y 710 mrespectivamente. La disminución de la riqueza a lo largo del gradiente (quince,siete y tres especies es reflejo de una tendencia conocida, acentuada por elsubmuestreo de las partes media y alta de El Rasgón.

  3. Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013: epidemiological and entomological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilay, Abrham; Asamene, Negga; Bekele, Abyot; Mengesha, Mesfin; Wendabeku, Milliyon; Tareke, Israel; Girmay, Abiy; Wuletaw, Yonas; Adossa, Abate; Ba, Yamar; Sall, Amadou; Jima, Daddi; Mengesha, Debritu

    2017-05-15

    Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by aedes mosquito species. Approximately, 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occur worldwide every year. In Ethiopia, the last outbreak was reported in 1966 with 2200 cases and 450 deaths. A number of cases with deaths from unknown febrile illness reported from South Ari district starting from November 2012. This investigation was conducted to identify the causative agent, source of the outbreak and recommend appropriate interventions. Medical records were reviewed and Patients and clinicians involved in managing the case were interviewed. Descriptive data analysis was done by time, person and place. Serum samples were collected for serological analysis it was done using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for initial screening and confirmatory tests were done using Plaque Reduction and Neutralization Test. Breteau and container indices were used for the entomological investigation to determine the risk of epidemic. A total of 141 Suspected YF cases with 43 deaths (CFR = 30.5%) were reported from November 2012 to October 2013 from South Omo Zone. All age groups were affected (mean 27.5, Range 1-75 Years). Of the total cases, 85.1% cases had jaundice and 56.7% cases had fever. Seven of the 21 samples were IgM positive for YF virus. Aedes bromeliae and Aedes aegypti were identified as responsible vectors of YF in affected area. The Breteau indices of Arkisha and Aykamer Kebeles were 44.4% and 33.3%, whereas the container indices were 12.9% and 22.2%, respectively. The investigation revealed that YF outbreak was reemerged after 50 years in Ethiopia. Vaccination should be given for the affected and neighboring districts and Case based surveillance should be initiated to detect every case.

  4. Antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of plants against gramnegative bacilli isolated from cervicovaginal mucosa of sheep bred in the region of Petrolina-PE

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    Valdenice Félix da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract infections are the main causes of losses from the low reproductive efficiency of sheep. Gram negative bacilli belonging to the normal flora of the genital region can trigger diseases. The pathogenicity of these agents is expressed when females are with weakened immune system, either by food or stress management. Flaws in and concern about antibiotic residues in animal production have prompted research regarding alternatives for the treatment of diseases. The herbal medicine hás been considered in this context is the subject of numerous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol extracts of plants belonging to the flora of the Northeast against gram negative bacilli isolated from cervical-vaginal mucosa of sheep. Six plants were selected from Caatinga biome: Encholirium spectabile, Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata, Amburana cearensis Hymenaea martiana and Selaginella convoluta. The plant material was processed to obtain the crude extract. This was tested by microdilution plate and determining the minimum bactericidal concentration, the second document of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the extracts diluted in water and alcohol. We used 43 gram negative isolates, as follows: 14 E. coli, 10 Enterobacter spp., 10 Acinetobacter spp. 9 and Klebsiella spp. In the aqueous dilution Klebsiella spp. showed response only to species B. laciniosa, S. convoluta and H. martiana. All tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter spp and no activity against E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among the extracts diluted in water H. martiana showed the highest antibacterial activity. In all dilution alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all bacterial genera, but no statistical difference between them.

  5. Modelagem matemática e difusividade efetiva do processo de secagem do miolo da macambira

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    Julianne Viana Freire Portela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A macambira (Bromelia laciniosa M. é uma bromélia com grande potencialidade agrícola, energética, mas escasso embasamento científico. Assim, este trabalho objetivou avaliar as condições operacionais para a secagem convectiva do miolo da macambira, a fim de gerar um produto seco viável do ponto de vista tecnológico e com possibilidade de aplicação na alimentação humana. A matéria-prima com espessura de 2,5mm e umidade média inicial de 87,20% foi disposta em bandejas no secador de bandejas, utilizando como variáveis do processo a temperatura do ar (43, 49 e 560C e a variável fixa velocidade do ar igual a 1,0m.s-1. Após a execução dos experimentos realizou-se o estudo da cinética de secagem e a modelagem matemática (Fick, Page e empírico de dois parâmetros das curvas experimentais como forma de definir a melhor condição de processo. O aumento da temperatura refletia no incremento dos valores de difusividade efetiva de água, sendo estes com ordem de grandeza de 10-10 m2.s-1 e, tendo o modelo empírico exponencial de dois parâmetros como o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais A temperatura de 560C resultou em secagem mais rápida e mais eficiente com umidade final de 12,61%.

  6. Fog deposition to the Atacama desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2010-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. We estimated the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determined the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of liquid water. Between 31 July and 19 August, 2008, measurements were realized in a 31 ha large Tillandsia carpet at Cerro Guanaco, located 15 km south of Iquique, northern Chile. Several data quality assurance procedures were applied. For the values in compliance with the applied criteria, the mean total deposition per hour was determined (0.04 L per m2) for foggy periods. This number was applied to estimate the amount of water deposited during the measuring period, during the entire month of August 2008, and throughout a whole year. For August 2008, a frequency of fog of 16 %, as established during the measuring period, was assumed. The frequency for a whole year was estimated from the differences of the collected amount of water obtained with standard fog collectors installed at Cerro Guanaco in an earlier study. Calculations resulted in an amount of 2.5 L per m2 of deposited fog water for the measuring period. During the entire August, 4.4 L per m2 have likely been available, and for a whole year, a total of 25 L per m2 was estimated to have reached the surface. Inaccuracies could have been caused by the low amount of data applied, and by a possible underestimation of the deposition due to additional formation of radiation fog during the fog events. Three days were used for further analysis because

  7. Diversidade de bromeliáceas epífitas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil Diversity of epiphytic bromeliads in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a diversidade no nível de espécie oferecem subsídios importantes para o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação biológica. Neste contexto, estudos com Bromeliaceae merecem destaque, especialmente porque o grupo é importante ecologicamente, mas ainda pouco conhecido na Região Norte. Neste trabalho, foram demarcadas duas parcelas de 100 m x 100 m em uma floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, em Belém, Estado do Pará. Cada parcela foi subdividida em oito parcelas de 50 m x 50 m, tendo todas as espécies e espécimes de bromeliáceas epífitas registradas e quantificadas. A diversidade do grupo foi calculada utilizando o índice de Shannon-Wiener. Foram registrados 1.339 indivíduos pertencentes a oito espécies e quatro gêneros. Tillandsia e Aechmea apresentaram maior riqueza. A diversidade de espécies na área foi de H= 1,10, apresentando dominância acentuada de muitos indivíduos em poucas espécies.Information about diversity at the species level offers data for sustainable development and biological conservation. In this context, studies about Bromeliaceae are noteworthy, especially because this group is ecologically important and poorly known in the North Region of Brazil. In this study, two grids (100 m x 100 m were delineated in a floodplain forest in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The grids were subdivided into eight grids of 50 m x 50 m, and all species and individuals of epiphytic Bromeliaceae were recorded and quantified. The diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener index. A total of 1,339 individuals, belonging to eight species and four genera were recorded. Tillandsia and Aechmea presented the greatest richness. The diversity of species was H= 1.10, presenting sharp dominance of many individuals of few species.

  8. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain Flora vascular da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná

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    MC. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq -Site 6. The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.Com o objetivo de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre a flora da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, foram conduzidos inventários florísticos no período de fevereiro de 2000 a março de 2008, incluídos no Programa Brasileiro de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD/CNPq - Sítio 6. O material coletado foi identificado em 774 espécies, 442 gêneros e 116 famílias. As dez famílias de maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae, que juntas reuniram 46,1% do total do número de espécies. Os gêneros com maior riqueza de espécies foram Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia

  9. Bromeliaceae from Pico Piraí, Guaratuba Municipality (Parana, Brazil Bromeliaceae Juss. do Pico Piraí, município de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil

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    Rosemeri Morokawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a Bromeliaceae Juss. floristic survey in the Piraí Mountain, Araraquara complex(Guaratuba Municipality, Paraná State are presented. Twenty six species included in nine genera and three subfamilies were registered. Bromelioideae presented the highest genera diversity and Tillandsioideae showed the highest species diversity, including twelve species belonging to the genus Vriesea (46%. It was the first register of Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vrieseaflava And.Costa, H. Luther & Wand., Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm. at the Guaratuba Municipality. Dyckia leptostachya Baker was collected for the first time at the coastal zone of Paraná State, being this record done after 40 years since its last register in the State. For each species, information on phenology, geographic distribution and vulnerability level are included. Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Bromeliaceae Juss. no Pico Piraí, Complexo do Araraquara (Guaratuba, Paraná. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 26 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros e três subfamílias. Bromelioideae englobou a maior diversidade de gêneros e Tillandsioideae registrou-se a maior diversidade de espécies, sendo 12 delas incluídas no gênero Vriesea (46%. As seguintes espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez no município de Guaratuba: Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vriesea flava And. Costa, H. Luther & Wand.,Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm.. Dyckia leptostachya Baker foi registrada pela primeira vez na zona litorânea paranaense e após 40 anos do último

  10. Dinámica de elementos en epífitos de un bosque altoandino de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

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    Caballero Rueda Luis Martín

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The reserves and transfer of bioelements were studied during two years in the epiphytic bryophytes and the bromeliad Tillandsia compacta in a high Andean forest in Guisquiza, La Calera, Cundinamarca in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Epiphyte biomass in this forest is 3766 kg/ha, ofwhich bryophytes contribute 55% and T.compacta, 9.3%. In relation to their biomass, these epihyttes store high quantities of water and nutrients and intercept materials washed from foliage, making them important to consider in watershed management. There are no significant differences in epiphyte element composition between soll and trees, or between size categories of T. compacta. Trapping of heavy elements in particular may mitigate contamination problems in diverse components of the ecosystem. T.compacta appears especially important as a regulator of potassium transfer, and therefore of cation exchange capacity of the system. These properties permit the epiphytes to be dampers of high acidity and of excess concentrations of Al, Fe and Mn common in montant ecosystems, which can be observed in the dynamic model presented.En un estudio del bosque alto andino de la vereda Guisquiza, La Calera (Cundinamarca, se analizaron las reservas y transferencia de bioelementos en briófitos y Tillandsia compacta Grisebach (Bromeliaceae, durante dos años. Las epífitas tienen una biomasa de 3766 Kg/ha en el bosque'; de este valor los briófitos son el 55 % Y T.compacta el 9.3 %. Para esta biomasa tan pequeña, resultan almacenar altas cantidades de agua, nutrientes y ser interceptoras de materiales de lavado foliar que las hacen valiosas para los planes de manejo y ordenación de cuencas. No hay diferencias entre los valores de los elementos epífitos del suelo con respecto a los de los arboles; igualmente entre las categorfas de T.compacta. El trampeo de elementos especialmente, los pesados, disminuye los problemaspor intoxicación en los diversos componentes del ecosistema. T

  11. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  12. Leaf-jams - A new and unique leaf deposit in the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia: Origin and plant taphonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch. [University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Palaeobotany Studies Group, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Rice, A. Hugh N. [University of Vienna, Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-08-01

    This paper documents a previously unrecorded type of leaf deposit, comprising essentially monospecific linear accumulations of Colophospermum mopane leaves on a point bar of the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia. In these 'leaf-jams', leaf laminae stand on edge, orientated more-or-less normal to bedding. Leaf-jams, which formed upstream of cobbles, clumps of grass and sticks wedged against the former two, were orientated subparallel to the adjacent meandering river-bed, such that over the 40 m of their occurrence, their mean azimuth changed by 59 anticlockwise downstream. The longest leaf-jam was 50 cm and contained approximately 500 leaves, as well as grass culms, twigs (C. mopane, Tamarix usneoides and unidentified) and medium- to fine-grained sand and silt. Individual leaf-jams were partially buried in the point bar sediments up to a depth of 3 cm. Leaf-jam formation occurred in the austral summer of 2006, during the waning stage of a major flood caused by anomalous tropical to extra-tropical storms. Their monospecifity is due to the overwhelming preponderance of the zonal taxon C. mopane in the catchment area, although the Khowarib Gorge contains a quite diverse azonal plant association due to the presence of a permanent water-seep. During leaf-jam formation, the water depth was less than the height of the cobbles (0.1 m), with stream flow-rates competent to transport medium-grained sand (velocity estimated at 0.5 m s{sup -} {sup 1}). Leaves must have been partially or fully waterlogged to inhibit buoyancy forces tending to lift them out of the developing leaf-jams, which propagated upstream in a manner comparable to longitudinal bars in a braided river. If fossilised, such deposits would probably lead to a very biased interpretation of the composition of the surrounding flora; the correct interpretation would be the one least favoured by palaeobotanists. (author)

  13. El néctar de especies de Puya como recurso para picaflores Altoandinos de Ancash, Perú

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    Letty Salinas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la región altoandina de Ancash la mayor diversidad de flores ornitófilas se encuentran en ambientes de matorral, en contraste a roquedales y pajonales, en los que encontramos rodales de bromelias del género Puya, cuyo néctar podría constituir un importante recurso para picaflores altoandinos en estos tipos de ambiente. Para documentar esta hipótesis, entre el 2004 y el 2005 se realizaron un total de 264 horas de observación de picaflores de dos rodales de Puya, ubicados encima de los 3000 m de altitud. El primer rodal fue de Puya raimondiien un pajonal del Parque Nacional Huascarán (9º39’ S—77º13’ W, el segundo fue de Puya rauhii en roquedales del Callejón de Conchucos (8º10’ S—77º52’ W. La frecuencia de visita de los picaflores a las inflorescencias de Puyafue evaluada desde 10 puntos fijos de observación, además capturas con redes de niebla permitieron identificar el polen de su pico y frente. En P. raimondiise identificaron cuatro especies de Trochilidae alimentándose de su néctar (Oreotrochilus stolzmanni, Patagona gigas, Aglaeactis cupripennisy Metallura phoebe, siendo O. stolzmannila especie más frecuentemente avistada (60%. El 80% de las muestras de polen obtenidas de estos picaflores correspondían a P. raimondii. En el rodal de Puya rauhii se identificaron diez especies de Trochilidae (Colibri coruscans, Oreotrochilus stolzmanni, Patagona gigas, Aglaeactis cupripennis, Coeligena iris, Chalcostigma stanleyi, Lesbia nuna, Myrtis fanny, Metallura phoebe yMetallura tyrianthina, siendo las especies con mayores avistamientos M. phoebe (26%, C. coruscans (21% y P. gigas (17%. El 31% de las muestras de polen obtenidas de estos picaflores correspondían a Puya. Las especies altoandinas de Puyaproporcionan un importante recurso alimenticio para picaflores, en especial para los de grandes altitudes donde la diversidad de plantas disminuye.

  14. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil; Biomonitoracao da qualidade do ar na Regiao Metropolitana do Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-08-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  15. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-01-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  16. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, M.; Lalor, G.C.; Preston, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  17. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove

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    MARIANA M. DE SOUSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  18. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Henry I C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased. The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  19. COMPOSICIÓN ELEMENTAL DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE PLANTAS SILVESTRES MEXICANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Raya Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocer la composición elemental de las plantas puede ser útil desde varios puntos de vista, como el saber sus necesidades nutricionales y tener una idea del tipo de mantillo que se podría formar en un momento dado. En el caso específico del silicio, las plantas que lo acumulan pueden formar fitolitos, muy útiles en paleoecología y arqueología. Se recolectaron especies de plantas de varias partes del centro-occidente de México y se determinó su composición elemental mediante sonda dispersiva de rayos X acoplada a un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las plantas semiparásitas (plantas que fotosintetizan pero que toman sus nutrientes de la planta que parasitan acumulan cantidades considerables de iones como potasio y cloro para usarlos como osmolitos. Tillandsia recurvata, a pesar de ser epífita, acumula una buena cantidad de silicio, lo mismo que Cyperus sp., registrada como acumuladora de este elemento. Otras especies como Tagetes micrantha, de uso en la cocina mexicana, podrían contribuir en alguna medida al aporte de micronutrientes como potasio y magnesio.

  20. Characterization and traditional use of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque Conservation Corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza Cortes William; Huertas Garcia Claudia; Hernandez Ortiz Astrid; Geltvez Bernal Johanna; Gonzalez Rodriguez Johanna; Lopez Gutierrez Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify species and characterize the traditional uses of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP). The study was developed with the community of the villages of El Ajizal (Moniquira), Carare (Togui), Molinos sector Piedesecho (Soata) in the state of Boyaca; Batan and Ture (Coromoro), Patios Altos and Canada (Encino), and Vegas de Padua (Onzaga) in the state of Santander. Three methods were used with the community: surveys, interviews and transect walks. We defined 13 categories of use for the zones: edible plants, medicinal plants, crafts, household utensils, tools, dyes and dyestuffs, melliferous, food wrap, magical religious, recreational, toxic, ornamental and fodder. The analysis was restricted to vascular plant species. Three hundred and forty seven species included in 103 families were found, of which 174 are new records of NTFPs in the Colombian Andes. The most representative families were Asteraceae, Solanaceae, and Lamiaceae, which is consistent with findings in other studies in Andean communities. Two new species for science were registered Tillandsia sp. nov. aff. T. fasciculata Sw. and Meriania sp. nov., which are in the process of being published. Medicinal plants were the best represented followed by edible plants and then craft plants. Relationships were found between use categories, age and gender of the population. Fi nally, we prioritize 60 species that according to the perception of the community were the most important. Crafts, edible plants and medicinal plants were the most important use categories, represent ed by species such as Smilax tomentosa, Aechmea veitchii and Calycolpus moritzianus.

  1. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μ g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μ g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  2. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  3. Vegetation pattern formation in a fog-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthagaray, Ana I; Fuentes, Miguel A; Marquet, Pablo A

    2010-07-07

    Vegetation pattern formation is a striking characteristic of several water-limited ecosystems around the world. Typically, they have been described on runoff-based ecosystems emphasizing local interactions between water, biomass interception, growth and dispersal. Here, we show that this situation is by no means general, as banded patterns in vegetation can emerge in areas without rainfall and in plants without functional root (the Bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii) and where fog is the principal source of moisture. We show that a simple model based on the advection of fog-water by wind and its interception by the vegetation can reproduce banded patterns which agree with empirical patterns observed in the Coastal Atacama Desert. Our model predicts how the parameters may affect the conditions to form the banded pattern, showing a transition from a uniform vegetated state, at high water input or terrain slope to a desert state throughout intermediate banded states. Moreover, the model predicts that the pattern wavelength is a decreasing non-linear function of fog-water input and slope, and an increasing function of plant loss and fog-water flow speed. Finally, we show that the vegetation density is increased by the formation of the regular pattern compared to the density expected by the spatially homogeneous model emphasizing the importance of self-organization in arid ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

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    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  5. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Corona-López, Angélica María; Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Valencia-Díaz, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC) 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound) and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load) that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  6. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata) and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased). The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer. PMID:23151005

  7. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: hcarreras@com.uncor.edu; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases.

  8. Bromeliaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Bromeliaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 19 géneros y alrededor de 450 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004, todas hierbas, epífitas o terrestres. En este trabajo reconocemos 223 endemismos en 13 géneros. Se asignó las categorías de amenaza de la UICN a 161 taxones. Tres géneros, Tillandsia, Puya y Pitcairnia, son los que incluyen la mayoría de los endemismos en la familia. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan la mayoría de las regiones ecológicas, desde Bosques Pluviales Montanos, Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos en el lado oriental del país, hasta las regiones Mesoandina, de la Puna Seca y Húmeda y Altoandina en el lado occidental, entre los 100 y 4700 m de altitud. Aproximadamente la mitad de los endemismos es conocido solamente de una localidad, reflejando, en parte, la escasa herborización de los ambientes donde esta familia es diversa y por otro la falta de especialista (-s en el país. Veintiún de estas especies se encuentran representadas en áreas naturales protegidas.

  9. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mariana M DE; Colpo, Karine D

    2017-01-01

    It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank) of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  10. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  11. Influence of growth regulators (IBA, BA on anatomical and morphological changes in bromeliads in in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study were Tillandsia coronata and Guzmania monostachya. The material has been obtained by means of in vitro propagation. The plants were grown for 18 weeks on various kinds of media. Morphological changes were recorded in both species subjected to action of growth regulators. The changes in plant habit were linked with anatomic build. The effect of cytokinin BA upon growth of the stem pith was found, transversely to its axis, through development of numerous meristematic centres and growth and development of adventitious shoots. Leaves of plant grown on media containing cyto-kinin BA were build of a higher number of cell layers of assimilation parenchyma. In plants grown on media with addition of cytokinin the size of stomatal cells was smaller and was accompanied by analogous changes in size of epidermis cells proper. The bushy type of the plants, caused by presence of cytokinin in medium, resulted from the increase of thickness and breadth of leaves and growth of the stem pith, with simultaneous inhibition of cells' elongation. Auxin IBA did not favour the growth of the existing axillary shoots, but stimulated elongation of the stem pith. The stomata of plants of both species grown on media with addition of auxin were bigger. As result of the applied growth regulators a higher frequency of appearance of binucleate cells was found in parenchyma cells of the stem and leaves in both the species studied.

  12. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Flores-Palacios

    Full Text Available Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  13. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  15. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  16. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (≤ 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R. [KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences, Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  18. Las plantas vasculares de los afloramientos rocosos de Suesca, Cordillera Oriental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Avellaneda Cadena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon las plantas vasculares presentes en tres tipos de afloramientos rocosos del municipio de Suesca, departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia, ubicados entre 2.800 y 3.000 m de altitud. Estos sitios se denominaron Valle de los Halcones (VH, Farallones de Suesca (FS y Los Monolitos (LM. Cada planta fue recolectada, determinada y se le anotó la superficie en la que crecía (placa, repisa o fisura y el hábito de crecimiento (erecta, colgante o perpendicular a la superficie. Se encontraron 97 especies, correspondientes a 38 familias y 70 géneros. La familia más diversa fue Asteraceae, seguida de Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae y Polypodiaceae. El género con más especies fue Tillandsia, seguido de Polypodium. Los sitos de muestreo con mayor diversidad fueron VH y FS. En LM las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae y Poaceae, en FS Poaceae y Asteraceae y en VH Asteraceae y Orchidaceae. En VH las placas fue la superficie con mayor número de especies, mientras que en LM fueron las repisas y en FS las placas y las repisas. La mayoría de las especies encontradas en todos los sitos fueron erectas, seguidas de las perpendiculares a la superficie. Los tres sitios de muestreo mostraron alta similitud florística entre sí.

  19. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  20. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  1. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Watson, Charah T; Badal, Simone; Toyang, Ngeh J; Bryant, Joseph

    2012-11-14

    Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata) and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased). The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  2. Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

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    Yusleni Fierro Toscazo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between one and three months old. Positive Gram bacilli occurred only in samples no older than a month, cocos and diplococos in samples between five and six months. Four fungus morphotypes were found, two of them being Mucor sp., and Trichoderma sp., in addition to Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. Trichoderma was associated with at least one more kind of fungus, for samples to older than one month, but no older than five months.

  3. Synthesis of substituted 1,3-diesters of glycerol using wittig chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Toyang, Ngeh J; Watson, Charah T; Bryant, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    1,3-di-O-Cinnamoyl-glycerol is a natural compound isolated from a Jamaican medicinal plant commonly referred to as Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata). The synthesis of this compound was achieved via a Wittig chemistry process. The synthetic approach started with acylation of a di-protected glycerol with cinnamoyl chloride, deprotection of the glycerol moiety, reaction of the primary alcohol with bromo acetylbromide followed by treatment with triphenyl phosphine to give the corresponding phosphonium bromide. The phosphonium bromide was then converted in situ to the Wittig reagent which is the basis for a novel route to 1,3-di-O-cinnamoyl glycerol. Four analogs were also synthesized, three of which are new and are being reported in this article for the first time. The new compounds include 3-(3,4-diemthoxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2-hydroxy-3-(3-ptolyl-acryloyloxy)-propyl ester (3), 2-acetoxy-5-((E)-3-(3-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyloxy)-2-hydropropoxy)-3-oxoprop- 1-enyl)benzoic acid (4) and 4-((E)-3-(3-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyloxy)-2-hydropropoxy)-3-oxoprop-1-enyl)benzoic acid (5). The compounds showed no activity in our anticancer assay.

  4. Bio monitoring: lead concentration in Asuncion space characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, S.; Doncel, F.; Ortiz, M.; Insaurralde, A.; Barua de Souberlich, G.

    2001-01-01

    When air has polluting agents, a injurious effects potential to the health exists. Most of Lead, one of the most important pollutants due to the great damage that it causes to the human sort and other living organisms by his extensive diffusion; one is in the Asuncion urban atmosphere, probably located on particle suspended originating of the transmission of automotive vehicles; the same ones, by their greater surface of aggregation, increase the viability of toxic compound adsorption and the dissolution or absorption of gaseous polluting agents. One takes ahead to a preliminary program of Bio monitoring using plants, to establish the relative levels of the polluting agent, in places where the detailed knowledge of the concentration of the same one is not fundamental. In front of direct studies this one is an accessible alternative by its relative low cost and its generalisation possibility. The sampling is made in nucleus Zones selected randomly in Asuncion, taking in consideration the prevalence from movable sources and the continuous and gradual vehicle park increase and its conditions, with the consequent increase of transmissions in the atmosphere. Tillandsia sp. is used and X-rays Fluorescence for the measurements, jointly with the application of suitable statistical tools, since for the characterisation of plans of elements that are in particulate matter, allow to the simultaneous determination of interest elements and correlations significant establishment, applicable to environmental studies. With the collected data it is made the interpolation and extrapolation, with the objective to space characterise the Lead concentration in Asuncion

  5. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF NANOPARTICLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND ECOTOXICITY

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    Antonietta M. Gatti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A special greenhouse was constructed to verify the impact of nanoparticles dispersed in air and in the soil on plant and small animal models.  A 40x4m2 greenhouse was divided in two specular parts in order to have a polluted area (B  and the reference one (A. Two different systems to spray nanoparticles (NPs were set up: the first consists in a combustion of wood or coke perfused with an alcoholic solution containing Copper and Cobalt NPs and following emission of the micro and nanosized by-products in the greenhouse. The second system is a suitable sprayer of NPs starting from a water solution of engineered NPs of Cobalt, Nickel, Silver, Titania, Cerine. Plants (tomato, rice, tillandsia and moss and insects (Ceratitis capitata were exposed to NPs according to specific protocols, as well as  aquatic marine animal models (Earth worms (Lumbricus rubellus, Sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus, Brine shrimps (Artemia salina, Zebrafish (Danio rerio, Barnacles (Balanus amphitrite. The results indicate that the NPs produce some effects in photosinthesis in the plant and biological damages at the developmental stage in the sea urchins.

  6. Loss of phytotelmata due to an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil and its potential effects on faunal diversity and biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Teresa M.; Frank, J. Howard; Cave, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic tank bromeliads are important ecosystem engineers because they form phytotelmata that create habitat, increase species richness and abundance, create water sources and nutrient reservoirs in the canopy, and collect and redirect nutrients in forest ecosystems. Native bromeliad populations have been devastated in Florida (USA) because an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil (Metamasius callizona) has been destroying the plants. Tillandsia utriculata is a tank bromeliad that was once widespread from central to south Florida. Its populations have been hit hard by the weevil and are declining rapidly. This study quantifies the mortality rate caused by the weevil in a population of T. utriculata at the Enchanted Forest Sanctuary in central Florida and estimates the associated loss of phytotelmata. Estimations of phytotelmata were calculated for the T. utriculata baseline population, the population at 6 months into the study when 87% of the population was destroyed, and at the end of the study when less than 3% of the bromeliad population remained (99% of all deaths were caused by the weevil). The baseline population contained 16,758 L of water. At six months, there were 3180 L, and at the end of the study, there were 408 L. The loss of phytotelmata results in the loss of habitat, a decrease in biological diversity, and altered water and nutrient cycles and availability.

  7. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, Hebe A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases

  8. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: I. Fluctuación de la población larval y características de sus criaderos Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K,, 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: I. Flutuação da população larval e características dos seus berçários (criadouros Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific coast of Colombia: I. Fluctuation of larval population and characteristics of the breeding places

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    César Murillo B.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available En Charambirá, localidad del município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, donde existe un problema de malaria endémica, se estudió la fluctuación de la población larval y las características de los criaderos de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie considerada como posible vectora de malaria en esa región del país. La vegetación circundante fue dividida en tres estratos de acuerdo al grado de cobertura foliar. Se demarcaron cuadrantes de 100 m² en cada estrato para el muestreo de plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, en las cuales se acumula agua que sirve como criadero para esta especie de anofelino. Se tomaron datos de temperatura, pH y volumen del agua contenida en cada bromelia. El mayor número de larvas se detectó en el estrato 1 (manglar a una altitud inferior a 4 m, pero no se encontró evidencia significativa de estratificación vertical de la población larval de A. neivai hasta los 8 m. Se evidenció una correlación lineal positiva entre el número de larvas y el volumen de agua contenida en cada bromelia; por otra parte se observó también una correlación directa entre la precipitación mensual acumulada y la fluctuación poblacional de esta especie. Los índices larvales mas altos se observaron entre los meses de marzo a abril y de julio a agosto. La mortalidad larval fue alta en el primer estadío (43,5% y solo un 23,7% sobrevivió hasta el cuarto.Em Charambirá, localidade do Município de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, localidade endêmica de malária, estudou-se a flutuação da população larval e as características dos locais de criação do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, espécie considerada como possível vector da malária naquela região do país. A vegetação circundante foi dividida em três estratos segundo seu grau de cobertura foliar. Demarcaram-se quadrantes de 100 m² para a amostragem de plantas epífitas da família Bromeliaceae, nas quais se

  9. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina

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    Ignacio M Barberis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival. In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm² in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks

  10. Can macroalgae provide promising anti-tumoral compounds? A closer look at Cystoseira tamariscifolia as a source for antioxidant and anti-hepatocarcinoma compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Vizetto-Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are a prolific source of drug leads in a variety of therapeutic areas. In the last few years, biomedical, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries have shown growing interest in novel compounds from marine organisms, including macroalgae. Cystoseira is a genus of Phaeophyceae (Fucales macroalgae known to contain bioactive compounds. Organic extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from three Cystoseira species (C. humilis, C. tamariscifolia and C. usneoides were evaluated for their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and antiproliferative activity against a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. C. tamariscifolia had the highest TPC and RSA. The hexane extract of C. tamariscifolia (CTH had the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 2.31 µg/mL, and was further tested in four human tumor (cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa; gastric adenocarcinoma AGS; colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, and two non-tumor (murine bone marrow stroma S17 and human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC cell lines in order to determine its selectivity. CTH strongly reduced viability of all tumor cell lines, especially of HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was particularly selective for the latter cells with a selectivity index = 12.6 as compared to non-tumor cells. Incubation with CTH led to a 2-fold decrease of HepG2 cell proliferation as shown by the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation assay. CTH-treated HepG2 cells presented also pro-apoptotic features, such as increased Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI binding and dose-dependent morphological alterations in DAPI-stained cells. Moreover, it had a noticeable disaggregating effect on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. Demethoxy cystoketal chromane, a derivative of the meroditerpenoid cystoketal, was identified as the active compound

  11. Tree water potentials supporting an explanation for the occurrence of Vachellia erioloba in the Namib Desert (Namibia

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    Joachim H. A. Krug

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Site-vegetation relations of Vachellia erioloba, Faidherbia albida, Euclea pseudebenus and Tamarix usneoides in two contrasting locations in the Namib Desert (Namibia were evaluated with the goal to relate soil water availability to the occurrence of trees under hyper-arid conditions. Methods Plant water potentials were measured using a pressure chamber in the field. Pre-dawn water potentials were assessed to reflect the soil water potential of the rhizosphere. Midday water potentials were measured to assess the strongest negative water potential applied by the sample trees. Results Pre-dawn water potentials and midday water potentials indicated access to soil water in the rhizosphere and by this, provide an explanation for an occurrence of V. erioloba within the extreme environmental conditions of sand dunes in the Namib Desert. Diurnal ranges seem to reflect more and less suitable stands, in terms of soil water availability, within the sampling sites. While the impact of the ephemeral Kuiseb river on soil water availability was assessed through the four species’ plant-internal water relations, comparable pre-dawn water potentials of V. erioloba at both sites indicate soil water availability also in the dunes of Namibrand. The extreme midday water potentials of the dune plants possibly show the upper limit of tolerance for V. erioloba. Conclusions The preliminary data provide an explanation of the occurrence and distribution of the investigated species in beds of ephemeral rivers and on dunes under the hyper-arid climatic conditions of the Namib Desert and qualify suitability within the assessed sites. Understanding the plant-physiological processes and assessing the plant-internal water potential provides a valuable tool to evaluate soil water availability within the rhizosphere and to describe an adaptation potential of investigated species. The comparability of pre-dawn water potentials at both sites indicates unexpected soil

  12. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul Floristic and ecological aspects of vascular epiphytes on isolated fig trees on the northern coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Cezar Neubert Gonçalves

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.Studies on vascular epiphytes in Brazil usually do not consider isolated trees close to anthropic areas. These trees allow the establishment and preservation of a representative proportion of the original epiphytic flora. In this study, the floristic composition of vascular epiphytes was surveyed on isolated specimens of Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq., on the northern coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul. The study area lies around the city of Terra de Areia (29°35' S; 50°04' W, a region with a humid subtropical climate (Cfa

  13. Morphoanatomy and ontogeny of fruit in Bromeliaceae species Morfoanatomia e ontogenia de fruto em espécies de Bromeliaceae

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    Natividad Ferreira Fagundes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to give an overall view of fruit structure in Bromeliaceae, since these studies are extremely scarce in this family, showing the morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of fruits of six species belonging to six different genera, representing three subfamilies. All species studied have a tricarpellary and trilocular ovary, with an obturator covering the placental region. Dyckia maritima, Pitcairnia flammea, Tillandsia aeranthos and Vriesea carinata have capsular fruits (septicidal or biscidal, characterized mainly by the presence of macrosclereids in the exocarp or endocarp, fibers in the ventral region of the carpels, six dehiscence lines and three vascular bundles in each carpel. Aechmea calyculata and Billbergia nutans have fruits classified as berries, presenting exocarp and hypodermis as mechanical layers and many vascular bundles in each carpel. Many useful characters for taxonomy of Bromeliaceae were revealed, so fruits are excellent tools for delimitation of genera and subfamilies. In relation to Bromeliaceae capsules, macrosclereids are conspicuous structures of the pericarp and fruit anatomy is greatly related to dehiscence type. The U-shaped cell wall thickenings are a very common character in this family and can be identified as structures also occurring in monocot fruits.O presente estudo objetivou apresentar um panorama acerca da estrutura de frutos em Bromeliaceae, devido à extrema escassez de estudos nessa área; revelando a morfologia, anatomia e ontogenia dos frutos de seis espécies pertencentes a seis gêneros distintos, representativos de três subfamílias. Todas as espécies estudadas apresentam ovário tricarpelar e trilocular, com obturador na região da placenta. Dyckia maritima, Pitcairnia flammea, Tillandsia aeranthos e Vriesea carinata possuem frutos do tipo cápsula (septicida ou biscida, caracterizados pela presença de macroesclereídes no exocarpo ou endocarpo, fibras na região ventral dos carpelos

  14. Fenologia reprodutiva de espécies de bromélias na Serra da Piedade, MG, Brasil Reproductive phenology of bromeliad species at Serra da Piedade, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Andréa Rodrigues Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia reprodutiva das espécies de Bromeliaceae da Serra da Piedade. Das dezoito espécies estudadas, 72% floresceram na estação chuvosa e 28% na estação seca. Observou-se que a floração das bromélias ao longo do gradiente altitudinal da Serra da Piedade foi seqüencial e influenciada pela sazonalidade das chuvas. A maioria das espécies que ocorrem no habitat xérico pedregoso (acima de 1.400 m de altitude apresentou a floração na estação chuvosa, enquanto que três das cinco espécies que ocorrem no ambiente mésico florestal (abaixo de 1.300 m de altitude floresceram na estação seca. Espécies simpátricas com características florais semelhantes, como Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea crassa e V. citrina, também apresentaram floração seqüencial. A dispersão das espécies com sementes aladas (Pitcairnoideae e plumosas (Tillandsioideae ocorreu na estação seca, exceto para Dyckia saxatilis e Racinaea aerisincola. Foi observada assincronia na maturação dos frutos e dispersão das sementes entre as bromélias zoocóricas. É provável que essas condições permitam às espécies de bromélias da Serra da Piedade evitar a sobreposição do uso de animais vetores de pólen e de sementes.This work characterizes the phenology of Bromeliaceae species at Serra da Piedade. Of the i8 species studied, 72% flowered in the rainy season and 28% in the dry season. We observed sequential flowering of bromeliads along the entire altitudinal gradient at Serra da Piedade; flowering was also influenced by rainfall seasonality. Most species that occur in the rocky xeric habitat (above 1400 m altitude flowered during the rainy season, while three of the five species found in the mesic forest (below 1300 m altitude flowered in the dry season. Sympatric species with similar floral characteristics, such as Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea citrina and V. crassa, also flowered

  15. The relationship between stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of water in astomatal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lee W.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Keeley, Jon E.; Taylor, H. P.; O'Neil, J. R.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Isotropic fractination of leaf water during transpiration is influenced by both equilibrium and kinetic factors. Previous workers have predicted that the influence of each factor varies depending upon the path of water loss,m whether centralized through stomata, or diffuse through the cuticle. We studied the relationship between the δD and δ18O values of lead and stem waters of laurel sumac, Rhus laurina (Nutt.) T. & G., and its parasite, dodder, Cuscuta subinclusa D. & H., growing in the field. Stomatal transpiration, associated with more stagnant boundary layers, predominates in R. laurina; cuticular transpiration, associated with more turbulent boundary layers, is most important in the largely astomatal C. subinclusa. We also studied the diurnal variation in the δD and δ18O values of lead waters of two astomatal plants, Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb. F.) J.J.S. and Stylites andicola Amstutz, and two stomatal plants, Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. and Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (Schlecht.) C. & R., growing with them under the same conditions in the laboratory. Slopes, m, for the relation δD = mδ18O + b were significantly higher for stem waters in C. subinclusa that for leaf waters in R. laurina (1.77), consistent with the difference in the boundary layers through which water was lost in the two species. The magnitude of diurnal heavy isotope enrichment of tissue water was smaller in C. subinclusa than in R. laurina, which is also consistent with predictions concerning evapotranspiration through difference types of boundary layers. The slopes, m, in plant waters in the laboratory experiments, conducted at high humidity, were not different than those observed during evaporation of water from pans, regardless of plant anatomy. The observation suggests that cuticular transpiration is important in influencing isotopic fractionation of water only at low humidity. Our results indicate that the isotopic composition of water vapor released by plants in arid regions may

  16. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, R.; Munoz, R. [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Gestion Ambiental del Aire, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km{sup 2}) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  17. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P.; Ramos, R.; Munoz, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km 2 ) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  18. Cátalogo de epífitas vasculares del sector El Silencio (Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo y zona amortiguadora, Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Ruiz Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan  nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.

  19. Environmental controls over methane emissions from bromeliad phytotelmata: The role of phosphorus and nitrogen availability, temperature, and water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Werner, Florian A.

    2013-12-01

    bromeliads are common epiphytic plants throughout neotropical forests that store significant amounts of water in phytotelmata (tanks) formed by highly modified leafs. Methanogenic archaea in these tanks have recently been identified as a significant source of atmospheric methane. We address the effects of environmental drivers (temperature, tank water content, sodium phosphate [P], and urea [N] addition) on methane production in anaerobically incubated bromeliad slurry and emissions from intact bromeliad tanks in montane Ecuador. N addition ≥ 1 mg g-1 had a significantly positive effect on headspace methane concentrations in incubation jars while P addition did not affect methane production at any dosage (≤ 1 mg g-1). Tank bromeliads (Tillandsia complanata) cultivated in situ showed significantly increased effluxes of methane in response to the addition of 26 mg N addition per tank but not to lower dosage of N or any dosage of P (≤ 5.2 mg plant-1). There was no significant interaction between N and P addition. The brevity of the stimulatory effect of N addition on plant methane effluxes (1-2 days) points at N competition by other microorganisms or bromeliads. Methane efflux from plants closely followed within-day temperature fluctuations over 24 h cycles, yet the dependency of temperature was not exponential as typical for terrestrial wetlands but instead linear. In simulated drought, methane emission from bromeliad tanks was maintained with minimum amounts of water and regained after a short lag phase of approximately 24 h. Our results suggest that methanogens in bromeliads are primarily limited by N and that direct effects of global change (increasing temperature and seasonality, remote fertilization) on bromeliad methane emissions are of moderate scale.

  20. Air pollution biomonitoring in Argentina, application of neutron activation analysis to the study of biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, Maria Luisa; Pla, Rita R.

    2001-01-01

    Due to low population density, total air pollutant emissions in Argentina are still low if compared with highly industrialised countries. Although a significant deterioration of air quality has been observed for a long time, air monitoring did not begin until the 90's and only in a few cities. The use of air pollution biomonitors represents an important contribution to Argentina, as measurements of air pollutants in large areas would require especial technical equipment not easily available and operated. In this project, two lichen species (Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng) Mey and Flot and Usnea amblyoclada (Muell. Rg.) Zahlbr.) and a Bromeliaceae (Tillandsia capillaris) are used as biomonitors of air pollution at a 50, 000 km 2 area in Cordoba province (central Argentina). AAS and INAA have been applied for the analysis of samples, determining As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Gd, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. The following physiological parameters were also determined: chlorophyll a, chloropyll b, phaeophytin a, phaeophytin b, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malonaldehide and sulphur. Some of these parameters were used for calculating a pollution index. These determinations were carried out on pools collected at the sampling sites. AAS and physiological parameters were also applied to the analysis of five-replicate samples in order to study variability sources. For data evaluation, different statistical and other evaluating tools were used: descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation analysis were used on data from the three biomonitor species while factor analysis and mapping, only for R. ecklonii results. (author)

  1. Vascular epiphytes in seasonal semideciduous forest in the Espírito Santo State and similarity with other seasonal forests in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayvid Rodrigues Couto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliamos a composição florística de epífitos vasculares em remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semedicidual na bacia hidrográfica do rio Itapemirim, sul do estado do Espírito Santo, com o intuito de analisar sua similaridade com outras florestas semidecidual estudadas no Brasil. Excursões quinzenais foram realizadas entre junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 e os epífitos coletados e registrados (55 espécies, 34 gêneros e seis famílias. Orchidaceae, com 21 espécies, foi a mais rica, enquanto os gêneros com o maior riqueza foram Tillandsia (7 spp., Rhipsalis (4, Aechmea, Epidendrum e Peperomia, com três espécies cada. A categoria ecológica mais representativa foi holoepífita característica com 84% das espécies. O ambiente mais importante para a flora epifítica foi as matas ciliares. Análise de similaridade e PCA sustentaram quatro grupos, onde a área estudada aparece disjunta das demais, corroborando a hipótese de que a proximidade geográfica, a altitude e clima tem forte efeito sobre a composição florística, condicionando a formação de floras distintas. Estudos detalhados sobre a composição florística e estrutura dessa comunidade é importante para a elaboração de estudos de impactos ambientais coerentes, porque epífitas é típico de florestas tropicais, e é importante componente florístico, estrutural e funcional desses ecossistemas.

  2. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  3. Urban malaria transmission in Buenaventura, Colombia: entomologic aspects Transmisión de la malaria urbana en Buenaventura, Colombia: aspectos entomológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Olano

    1997-12-01

    período comprendido entre junio de 1993 y mayo de 1994. De los 469 posibles criaderos del área urbana, 28 fueron positivos a anofelinos. En la zona rural vecina de Buenaventura, 20 de 80 posibles criaderos fueron positivos a las formas inmaduras del mosquito. Los sitios donde se encontró con más frecuencia Anopheles albimanus fueron las excavaciones de minería, los lagos y los estanques para piscicultura. Los criaderos de Anopheles nuñeztovari fueron los pozos de lluvia y estanques de peces. Anopheles neivai se recolectó en bromelias. De las capturas intra y peridomiciliarias de mosquitos adultos, 90% correspondieron a Anopheles albimanus. De las hembras, 54,8% habían realizado al menos una ovipostura. Esta especie tuvo una actividad peridomiciliaria máxima entre las 18.00 y 22.00 horas. La mayor tasa de picadura peridomiciliaria fue de 7,1 picaduras por hora-persona y correspondió a marzo de 1994. Se espera que esta información entomológica permita poner en marcha un importante proceso de participación comunitaria e implementar medidas de control que estén orientadas por nuestros resultados.

  4. Estudo da cinética de secagem em camada delgada da bráctea da macambira

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    T. R. B. Pessoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A macambira é uma bromélia do sertão brasileiro e a sua principal utilização para consumo de suas brácteas é na forma de produtos secos, tais como a farinha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o processo de secagem em camada delgada da bráctea da macambira (Bromelia laciniosa, Mart. in natura a diferentes temperaturas. A secagem convectiva foi realizada a 43, 49 e 56 °C em condições constantes de velocidade e umidade absoluta do ar. Foi utilizado um secador de leito fixo com escoamento de ar perpendicular as partículas, cujos ensaios de secagem foram conduzidos até que as amostras alcançassem massa constante. A cinética de secagem foi avaliada através das curvas experimentais de secagem. A difusividade efetiva média de umidade foi determinada através de correlações empíricas e da solução do modelo de Fick para a difusão de água líquida. O aumento da temperatura do ar de secagem provocou o aumento da taxa de secagem e a diminuição do conteúdo de umidade das amostras ao longo de toda operação. As correlações empíricas (análoga a lei de resfriamento de Newton e de Page apresentaram melhores ajustes aos resultados experimentais em relação ao modelo de Fick. Os valores da difusividade média de umidade encontradas para a bráctea de macambira a 43, 49 e 56°C foi na ordem de 10-10 m/s². Os melhores resultados para a secagem de bráctea de macambira foi a 56°C.Mathematical modeling and effective diffusivity of drying process of bract of macambiraAbstract: The macambira is a bromeliad in the Brazilian arid regions and its main use for consumption of its bract is in the form of dry products such as flour. The objective of this work was to study the drying process thin layer bract macambira (Bromeliad laciniosa Mart. at different temperatures. The convective drying was performed at 43, 49 and 56 °C under constant air conditions of speed and absolute humidity. Experimental tests were conducted in a fixed

  5. Componente epifítico vascular de um fragmento florestal urbano, município de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilde Citadini-Zanette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p33   Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico, bem como analisar a distribuição espacial do componente epifítico vascular em um fragmento florestal em área urbana pertencente à floresta ombrófila densa submontana no município de Criciúma-SC. Adicionalmente, informações sobre os grupos ecológicos das espécies epifíticas e as estratégias de polinização e de dispersão também foram apresentadas. Foram amostradas 60 árvores como forófitos com DAP ≥ 10 cm, pelo método de pontos quadrantes centrados, e foi utilizado o método expedito por caminhamento para registrar as espécies epifíticas não amostradas nos forófitos pelo método fitossociológico. A frequência foi avaliada com base na ocorrência dos epífitos nos forófitos e nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foi registrada a presença dos epífitos nos forófitos nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foram encontradas 65 espécies distribuídas em 39 gêneros e em 14 famílias, das quais 49 foram amostradas no levantamento fitossociológico e as demais no levantamento por caminhamento. Bromeliaceae apresentou a maior riqueza, seguida de Orchidaceae e Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. foi citada pela primeira vez no sul do estado. A diversidade específica foi estimada em H’ = 3,33 e a equabilidade (E foi igual a 0,86. O grupo ecológico dos holoepífitos foi o mais representativo na área de estudo. Entomofilia e anemocoria foram as estratégias predominantes para polinização e dispersão, respectivamente. No levantamento fitossociológico, o número de espécies epifíticas nos forófitos variou de 0 a 21. Os maiores valores de importância foram os relativos à Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. e Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  6. Current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of Mexican Bromeliaceae

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    Adolfo Espejo Serna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of native Mexican Bromeliaceae is presented. There are 22 genera of Bromeliaceae recorded from the country that include 326 species. The genus Ursulaea with 2 species is endemic to Mexico, while Hechtia with 48 of its 50 species has its principal center of diversity in the country. Tillandsia (175 spp, Hechtia (48 spp and Pitcairnia (46 spp are the genera with the greatest number of species. We present a comparative analysis of Mexican Bromeliaceae with that of other American regions that have recently published accounts for the Family, particularly the Mesomerican area, Venezuela, Ecuador, and the Guianas. Our results led us to the conclusion that all these floras should be considered as distinct. We observe a progressive decrease of the Simpson index value related with the remoteness of the Mexican area. A general analysis of the species numbers of Mexican bromeliad genera shows a distinct preference of the species for coniferous and oak forests, followed by tropical caducifolious forests. There is also significant representation of the family in other vegetation types such as cloud forests and tropical perennifolious forests. Generally Mexican Bromeliaceae species have scarce and sparse populations and in many cases they inhabit cliffs, bluffs and scarps in restricted areas. Concerning the geographic distribution of Mexican genera, 77.27 % are neotropical, 4.54% are South American and the remainder are Mexican and Central American. The generic endemism is very low (4.54 %, even if we extend the country limits to Megamexico sensu Rzedowsi (1991 it reaches only 13.63 %. The family endemism at specific level reaches 63.07 %. There are not available data about a specific analysis of the conservation status of Mexican Bromeliaceae, but we can point out that a great number of taxa are only known from the type collection or at the most from the type locality. This can perhaps be attributed in part to

  7. A Distinct Magnetic Isotope Effect Measured in Atmospheric Mercury in Epiphytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Odom, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Due to the importance of Mercury as an environmental contaminant, mercury cycling in the atmosphere has been extensively studied. However, there still remain uncertainties in the relative amounts of natural and anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric deposition rates as well as the spatial variation of atmospheric mercury. Part of a study to determine the isotopic composition of mercury deposited from the atmosphere has involved the use of epiphytes as monitors. The greatest advantage of such natural monitors is that a widespread, high-density network is possible at low cost. One of the disadvantages at present is that these monitors likely contain different mercury species (for example both gaseous, elemental mercury trapped by adsorption and Hg (II) by wet deposition). The project began with the understanding that biochemical reactions involving metallothioneins within the epiphytes might have produced an isotopic effect. One such regional network was composed of samples of Tillandsia usenoides (common name: Spanish moss) collected along the eastern Coastal Plain of the U.S. from northern Florida to North Carolina. The isotopic composition of a sample is expressed as permil deviations from a standard. The deviations are defined as δAHg = \\left(\\frac{Rsample}{Rstd}-1 \\right)1000 ‰ , where A represents the atomic mass number. R=\\frac{AHg}{202Hg} were measured for the isotopes 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg and 204Hg relative to the mercury standard SRM NIST 3133, by a standard-sample bracketing technique. For all samples, the delta values of the even-N plotted against atomic mass numbers define a linear curve. For the odd-N isotopes, δ199Hg and δ201Hg deviate from this mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) relationship and indicate a mass-independent fractionation (MIF) effect and a negative anomaly, i.e. a depletion in 199Hg and 201Hg relative to the even-N isotopes. These deviations are expressed as Δ199Hg = δ199Hgtotal - δ199HgMDF. A Δ201Hg/Δ199Hg

  8. Análisis del sitio de un bosque altoandino con énfasis en el mantillo. Microcuenca de la quebrada "La Vieja", Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Paola Vargas Núñez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa materia orgánica es un compartimento importante dentro de los ecosistemas y su estudiopuede proporcionar criterios de manejo para ecosistemas con conflicto de uso, como son los Bos-ques Altoandinos en Colombia. Para realizar este estudio, se escogió un bosque altoandino en loscerros orientales de la ciudad de Bogotá. Para el sitio de estudio se caracterizaron las reservasorgánicas y minerales de los compartimentos foliar, mantillo y suelo; adicionalmente se establecióla descomposición mediante el método de canastas de descomposición de tres mantillos de dis-tintas procedencias (bosque altoandino de Bojacá, bosque de robles de Pacho y páramo de CruzVerde, además del mantillo del sitio, y de cuatro especies seleccionadas (Clusia multiflora, Piperbogotense, Juglans neotropicay Tillandsia fendleri. Las especies con mayor descomposición fueronJuglans neotropicay Piper bogotense, las cuales presentaron también los mayores contenidos denutrientes y la mayor liberación de nutrientes en la descomposición; Clusia multifloray Tillandsiafendleripresentaron menor descomposición y menores contenidos de nutrientes. C. multiflorapre-sentó una liberación media de nutrientes y T. fendleriuna liberación baja. Basándose en estascaracterísticas, se sugiere utilizar a J. neotropicay P. bogotense para la movilización de nutrientesdentro del sitio y a C. multiflorapara promover la reserva de nutrientes dentro del mantillo delbosque. El aporte desde el compartimento foliar al compartimento mantillo representado en lacaída de hojarasca fue de 13.4 Ton · Ha-1 · Año-1, siendo las especies que más aportan Clusiamultiflora, Vaccinumsp. y Weinmannia tomentosa. La profundidad promedio del mantillo fue de 16cm, con una densidad promedio de 14.32 Kg · m-3y un peso promedio de 23.49 Ton por hectárea.El mantillo proveniente de Bojacá y el mantillo nativo del sitio presentaron la mayor descom-posición, los mayores contenidos de nutrientes y

  9. Prémiers éléments d'une approche écologique du versant de Pampas-La Florida-San Juan-Huascoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    pressions d'oxygène et de gaz carbonique sont réduites dans les mêmes proportions la richesse de l'atmosphère en radiations ultraviolettes et infrarouges est considérablement augmentée. Tous ces facteurs concourent à une réduction et une densification du port des plantes (touffes, coussinets. Mis à part les affleurements rocheux, les éboulis vifs et les rares sols humifères, l'essentiel des substrats est constitué par un sol limono-sableux, acide, pauvre en matière organique, facilement mobilisable, tant en saison sèche (piétinement, vent,... qu'en saison des pluies (mouvements de masse, rigoles,... L'homme exerce depuis longtemps une forte pression sur le milieu, pression ressentie d'autant plus durement que des conditions climatiques (sécheresse, gel,... et de substrat (fortes pentes, sols fins,... difficiles confèrent au milieu une sensibilité particulière elle se note par la pauvreté de la flore, l'homogénéité de la végétation, le faible couvert végétal et la quasi absence d'arbres. Trois thèmes ont été retenus pour la cartographie de la végétation: - la structure de la végétation, traduite par les recouvrements respectifs de trois formes biologiques: les ligneux hauts (plus de 2 m, les ligneux bas (moins de 2 m et les herbacées - son niveau d'artificialisation, évaluation de l'intensité des modifications apportées par l'homme au milieu originel. - sa composition floristique essentielle. Les relevés stationnels développent ces trois mêmes thèmes. Les premières observations font ressortir, trois grands étages de végétation: - étage semi-désertique: il s'étend jusque vers 2400 m d'alt. et est caractérisé par les cactus columnaires, Carica candicans et Schinus molle le climat y est chaud (moyenne annuelle supérieure à 15ºC et sec (précipitations annuelles inférieures à 250 mm. On y distingue trois faciès: -faciès type, à cactacées, dominé par Cereus macrostibas, sur éboulis et sols secs -faciès à Tillandsia

  10. Malaria control in the Colombian Pacific Coast El control de la malaria en la costa Pacífica colombiana

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    Lyda Osorio

    2011-05-01

    émicas. Estos diversos escenarios son el resultado de las interacciones entre factores ambientales (temperatura, humedad, pluviosidad y vegetación, genéticos (receptor Duffy en eritrocitos y hemoglobinopatías, conductuales del humano (uso de medidas de protección personal, consumo inadecuado de medicamentos y del vector (hábitos de picadura, y socioeconómicos (tipo de vivienda, movimientos de población y actividad económica, que deben tenerse en cuenta para la formulación e implementación de estrategias de control adecuadas y costo-efectivas (4,5.

    Un segundo reto es el hecho de que ésta es una de las regiones con el más alto índice de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (promedio 60% de NBI según proyecciones del DANE (6, lo cual afecta el acceso oportuno a los servicios de salud, se asocia con mala calidad de las viviendas favoreciendo así el contacto entre humano y vector, y condiciona un bajo poder adquisitivo para acceder a medidas de protección contra el vector. Las prácticas de economía rural en las zonas urbanas favorecen la formación de criaderos de Anopheles en excavaciones de minería abandonadas, excavaciones para laboración de ladrillos y estanques de peces que han sido positivos para An. Albimanus, An. nuñeztovari y An. darlingi (7,8.Otro vector, An. Neivai, se cría en las bromelias, lo cual es prácticamente imposible de controlar, y, además, su contribución en el mantenimiento de la transmisión de la malaria no es bien conocida (7,9.

    Frente a semejantes retos, el control de la malaria se basa exclusivamente en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de casos confirmados microscópicamente y medidas de control vectorial. Especialmente en las zonas rurales, las actividades de diagnóstico y tratamiento están a cargo de una red de microscopistas voluntarios o pagados por los servicios de salud. Esta red diagnóstica opera así únicamente para malaria, y demanda de los servicios de salud un proceso continuo de capacitación y supervisi