Alexandre Barbosa de Brito
Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.
Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.
SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.
Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe
To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.
Borda-Molina, Daniel; Vital, Marius; Sommerfeld, Vera; Rodehutscord, Markus; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia
Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19–49% in ileum, and 17–39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta
Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.
Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.
Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.
Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.
The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.
Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Liu, Juan; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yubing
Fluorine (F) bioaccumulation has been reported in the organs and tissues of organisms, including intestine. The intestinal mucosa is very important to the immune development. Meanwhile, cytokines are present in the normal intestinal mucosal and play an important role in the immune function. Thus, changes of the cytokine contents are related to the state of intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, we investigated the changes in contents of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced by dietary high F in the mucosa of different parts of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 280 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (F 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the contents of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased in the high F groups II and III when compared with those of the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the contents of aforementioned cytokines in the intestinal mucosa of broilers, which could impact the function of intestinal mucosal immunity through the pathways that decreased the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation.
Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers
Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase.
Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C
The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.
A. M. Akanji
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of raw benne seed (RBS, Sesamum indicum with or without lysine supplementation on the performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. One hundred and forty unsexed day old broiler chicks (Marshall strain were used for the study. RBS was incorporated into the diets at 15% and 30% levels and supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.5% of lysine, respectively. Average weekly feed intake in birds fed the control diet and 15% RBS based diet supplemented with 0.25 % and 0.5% lysine were not significantly different, but significantly (P<0.05 higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced in birds fed 30% RBS with or without lysine supplementation. At 0.25% and 0.5% lysine supplementation, significant (P<0.05 increases were obtained in the retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron in birds fed 15% RBS based diets, but markedly reduced in those fed 30% RBS based diets. The reductions in the performance characteristics of the birds fed 30% RBS diets with or without lysine can be attributed to interactions in the toxic effects of the higher intakes anti-nutritional factors like tannin, oxalate and phytate. In conclusion, the response indices were better enhanced when 15% RBS supplemented with 0.5% lysine was fed to the birds.
Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.
1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.
LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.
Full Text Available These two experiments were aimed to determine the effects of diets containing high levels of insoluble fiber from Rice Hull Meal (RHM on performance and intestinal histological variables of broilers. In the first experiment, 150 10-day-old Hubbard male broiler chicks were randomly allocatted to three treatments and fed diets containing RHM at 0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 until 42 days old. Body weight gain was signiï¬cantly higher (p-1 RHM group than the control birds, resulting in a decreasing feed conversion ratio. In the second experiment, 64 14-day-old birds were assigned into 4 groups and fed diets containing RHM at 0, 100, 200 or 300 g kg-1. Tissue sampling procedures of each group were conducted at 42 days old. There were no considerable differences in carcass characteristics, intestinal weight and length, villus area, crypt depth or mucosa thickness. Increases (p-1 groups. Epithelial cells seem to demonstrate similar histological changes. Nonetheless, segmented filamentous bacteria adhered to the ileal epithelial cells in the dietary RHM groups. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that RHM can be used as a source of insoluble fiber in broiler diets at 100 g kg-1 to improve performance without any adverse effects on carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal tract and histological variables of the intestinal villi and epithelial cells.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.
N. G. A. Mulyantini
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate broiler immune responses during the starter phase to graded levels of digestible lysine. This experiment used 175 mixed sex broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. Seven chicks were selected and allocated to each floor pens. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included the following levels of digestible lysine: 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0 and 14.0 g/kg diet. Supplemental synthetic L-Lysine-HCl which was considered to be 100% digestible was added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. At 21 days of age, two chickens from each pen with body weights close to the pen mean were selected for evaluation of immunological variables. Immune organs (spleen and bursa, cellular immune response (skin test, and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV were determined. Blood samples (plasma were taken from the same birds to determine antibody titer against IBV. The birds were euthanized, and immune organs (spleen and bursa were removed, and weighed individually. The results showed that spleen and bursa weight of birds fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than those given diet containing 10 to 14 g/kg of digestible lysine. Toe web thickness of chickens fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than the birds fed diets containing 14 g/kg digestible lysine. In conclusion, diet containing 8.0 g/kg appeared to have greatest potential to modulate immune response among other levels. However increasing levels of lysine did not have significant effect on antibody production.
Luiz Juliano Valério Geron
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.
Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.
Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M
A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.
Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang
An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.
Eliete Souza Santana
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J
1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.
Nanung Danar Dono
Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.
Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.
Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E
The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P diet. XB reduced (P diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided significant insight on ileal and cecal microbial profile associated with the dietary types and XB; however their functional roles require further investigations.
Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels
Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C
A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.
Bailey, C A; Gibson, R M; Kubena, L F; Huff, W E; Harvey, R B
Phenylalanine was evaluated for its ability to protect broiler chickens from the toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OA). A completely randomized 2-by-3 factorial design was utilized consisting of 0, .8, and 2.4% supplemental L-phenylalanine (Phe) and of 0 and 4 mg of OA per kg of diet. The basal diet contained 14% protein. Broilers were raised in battery brooders to 3 wk of age, when blood was collected and various hematological parameters were determined. The health status of the broilers was evaluated by assaying serum for various enzyme activities and metabolites using an automated, clinical chemistry analyzer. Adding OA to the broiler diets resulted in an increased concentration of serum hemoglobin as well as increased activity for cholinesterase and gamma glutamyl transferase but in decreased activity for aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline-phosphatase activity as well as decreased concentrations of total triglyceride and of inorganic phosphorus. Supplemental Phe decreased the concentrations of hemoglobin and serum glucose. The regression slopes for Phe at 4 mg of OA per kg of diet were significant for uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and cholesterol suggesting that supplemental Phe improved the health status of the broilers fed diets containing OA with respect to these parameters.
Aftab, Usama; Ashraf, Muhammad
Two experiments were conducted to determine the M+C requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (Hubbard x Hubbard) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during summer months (July-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged 26-37C (Exp. 1) and 23-36C (Exp. 2). M+C deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2750 kcal per kg ME, 20.1% CP (Exp. 1), and 2780 kcal per kg ME, 17.0% CP (Exp. 2). Diets were supplemented with DL-methionine to provide total M+C level ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 % (six increments) and 0.54 to 0.79% (six increments), respectively in experiment 1 and 2. Requirements (0.95 of the maximum quadratic response) were found to be 0.77 and 0.75% total M+C, respectively for gain and feed efficiency, during 4-21 days; and 0.67% total M+C for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on the digestible M+C basis, the estimates were 0.67 and 0.65% respectively for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.60% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
calcium and 35% and 42.7% of phosphorus, in initial and growth phases, respectively. The enzyme supplementation consisted of a combination of phytase enzyme (100g t-1 and amylase, xylanase and protease (500g t-1. It was evaluated the performance of birds in phases 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old. In the total period, the birds fed with negative control diet with added enzyme had feed intake (5.97%, body weight (8.47%, body weight gain (8.64% and feed conversion (2.92% higher (P0.05 to the group fed with positive control diet with or without enzyme. It is concluded that the addition of exogenous enzymes in diets with reduced metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus, providing a feed intake, average live weight and weight gain similar to a diet with adequate levels for broiler.
Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S
A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.
Dássia Daiane Oliveira
Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.
Poor digestibility of phytate P by poultry leads to supplementation of poultry diets with inorganic P thereby increasing feed costs and also increasing the excretion of P by the birds. In order to quantify phytate utilization and P excretion by poultry, eighty, 12 day-old, male broiler chicks, weig...
Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Liu, S B; Luo, X G
It is imperative to evaluate precise nutrient requirements of animals in order to optimize productivity and minimize feed cost and nutrient excretions. The current non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) recommendation for broilers is based on the papers published 30 years ago. However, today's commercial birds are quite different from those before 30 years. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted with growing male broiler chickens to evaluate an optimal dietary NPP level of broiler chickens fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The 1-day-old chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.39% NPP from 1 to 3 weeks of age. At 22 days of age, 360 birds were selected and randomly allotted by BW to one of 10 dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds per cage for each treatment. Birds were fed the P-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with inorganic P as CaHPO4·H2O ranging from 0.00% to 0.45% with 0.05% increment from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The dietary NPP levels were 0.09%, 0.14%, 0.20%, 0.24%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 0.38%, 0.45%, 0.49% and 0.54%, respectively, and the dietary Ca level was fixed at 0.90% for all treatments. The results showed that average daily gain, serum inorganic P concentration, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage and P percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage and P percentage, middle toe BMC, total body BMC and BMD were affected (P<0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P<0.0001) and quadratically (P<0.003) as dietary NPP levels increased. Optimal dietary NPP levels estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P<0.0001) of the above indices are 0.21%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.29%, 0.30%, 0.27%, 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively. It is suggested that the total body BMC and BMD, and middle toe ash P and BMC might be new, sensitive and non-invasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements
Cowieson, A J; Ptak, A; Mackowiak, P; Sassek, M; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, E; Zyla, K; Swiatkiewicz, S; Kaczmarek, S; Józefiak, D
A total of 1,200 Ross broiler chickens were used in 2 separate feeding studies to explore the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) and phytase on performance and blood biochemistry of broilers fed diets formulated to be either adequate or insufficient in Ca and digestible P (dP). Supplementation of diets that were formulated to be insufficient in Ca and dP with MYO resulted in improved BW gain and feed conversion ratio in both experiments. However, these effects were most pronounced in the finisher phase, and moderate negative effects were observed during the starter period. Supplementation of the diet with microbial phytase improved BW gain and feed conversion ratio to a similar extent as was observed with MYO, and there was a degree of subadditivity between the 2 additives. Blood glucose concentrations were increased by both MYO and phytase, though possibly by different mechanisms, because insulin concentrations were not directly relatable to circulating glucose levels, especially when both MYO and phytase were applied simultaneously. The increase in blood glucose concentrations with MYO and phytase was most pronounced in the diet with a lower Ca and dP concentration. It can be concluded that dietary supplementation with MYO or phytase was effective in improving performance of commercial broiler chickens. However, further work is required to explore complex ontogenetic effects of MYO and possible involvement of both MYO and phytase in Na-dependent transport mechanisms.
Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki
The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pnutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pnutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (pnutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.
Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V
The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the
Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A
A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher
Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A
The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ≤ 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ≤ 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ≤ 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ≤ 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age.
Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T; Nyachoti, C M
A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (pPhytase response in NC birds was linear (pphytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (pphytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner.
Al-Masri, M. R.
Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.
Full Text Available The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%. The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.
Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G
1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.
Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases.
Amerah, A M; Plumstead, P W; Barnard, L P; Kumar, A
This study investigated the effect of dietary Ca to available P (AvP) ratio and phytase supplementation on bone ash, ileal phytate degradation, and nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn-based diets. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 4 Ca:AvP ratios (1.43, 2.14, 2.86, and 3.57) and 2 levels of phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg of feed). The 4 Ca:AvP ratios were achieved by formulating all diets to a constant AvP level of 0.28% and varying Ca levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). Each treatment was fed to 6 cages of 8 male Ross 308 broilers from 5 to 21 d. At 21 d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected and analyzed for energy, phytate, P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) to determine digestibility. Digesta pH was measured in each segment (crop, gizzard, duodenum, and ileum) of the digestive tract. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of covariance. There was a significant interaction between dietary Ca:AvP ratio and phytase supplementation for weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In diets with no phytase, Ca:AvP ratio had a greater effect on WG, FI, and FCR compared with those fed diets without phytase. The orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed that the increase in dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly decreased WG and FI in a quadratic manner, whereas FCR increased (P Phytase addition increased (P 0.05) between the main factors. Digestibility of AA was positively correlated (P phytase (1,000 phytase units/kg of feed) improved phytate, and P and AA digestibility at all Ca:AvP ratios evaluated in this study.
Wu, Y B; Ravindran, V; Hendriks, W H
1. The influence of a microbial phytase on the performance, toe ash contents and nutrient utilisation of male broilers fed diets based on maize and wheat was investigated. The experiment was conducted as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within the factorial, two diet types (maize-soy or wheat-soy) containing two levels of non-phytate phosphorus (3.0 or 4.5 g/kg) were evaluated and each level of non-phytate phosphorus was supplemented with 0 or 500 PU phytase/kg diet. Each of the 8 dietary treatments were fed to 6 pens of 8 birds from d 1 to 21 post-hatching. 2. Main effects of diet type and phytase were observed for all parameters. Main effect of non-phytate phosphorus was significant only for feed/gain and toe ash contents. Phytase addition improved weight gains irrespective of diet type or non-phytate phosphorus level, but the magnitude of improvement in the phosphorus-deficient wheat-soy diet was greater, resulting in a diet type x non-phytate phosphorus interaction. Responses in toe ash contents were noted only in phosphorus-deficient diets, as indicated by a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. 3. Phytase addition improved apparent metabolisable energy values of wheat-based diets, but had little effect on the apparent metabolisable energy of maize-based diets as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. The apparent metabolisable energy was not influenced by dietary non-phytate P. 4. Phytase improved ileal nitrogen digestibility in both diet types, but the responses to added phytase tended to be higher in wheat-based diets, as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. 5. Increasing the dietary non-phytate phosphorus level reduced phosphorus digestibility and increased excreta phosphorus content. Addition of phytase improved phosphorus digestibility, but the increments were higher in low phosphorus diets resulting in a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. Phytase addition tended to lower the excreta phosphorus content, but
Full Text Available Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L, tet(M and erm(B genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%, followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%, E. mundtii (10.8%, E. faecium (10.8%, E. columbae (5.8% and E. gallinarum (4.2%. Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M, tet(L and erm(B genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.
In this study, the effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation in palm kernel meal (PKM) based diet on growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the caecal bacterial populations of broiler chickens were investigated. Seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups receiving T1 (20% PKM-based diet without enzyme), T2 (20% PKM-based diet with xylanase) and T3 (20% PKM-based diet with cellulase). Each enzyme was supplemented ...
Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.
Khalaji, S; Zaghari, M; Ganjkhanloo, M; Ghaziani, F
1. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of arginine, soy isoflavone (ISF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on obesity in broiler breeder hens. 2. A total of 320 Cobb 500 hens, 45 weeks of age, were assigned to 64 floor pens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with 4 replicates of 5 hens in each pen. Factors included two concentrations of HPMC (0 and 1%), two concentrations of arginine (8.4 and 12 g/kg), two concentrations of ISF (zero and three times more than that present in basal diets) and two contents of energy (11.7 and 14.6 MJ/kg). Performance criteria and blood characteristics of hens were measured during the experimental period. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the liver at 55 weeks of age. 3. Hens given high-energy diets showed increased BW (body weight), ovary weight and abdominal fat pad and enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, haemoglobin, haematocrit and low lymphocyte percentages. The expression of malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) increased and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) decreased with increasing energy content of diets. Arginine addition decreased TG, cholesterol and A1-c haemoglobin concentration and increased PPARα, PPARγ and iNOS expression. Inclusion of ISF and HPMC decreased BW, egg weight, plasma TG, cholesterol and increased egg production and also enhanced PPARγ and iNOS expression. Significant interactions were observed between energy concentration and ISF and HPMC on BW. 4. The results of the current study revealed that ISF, HPMC and arginine have beneficial effects on controlling the metabolism of obese broiler breeder hens and using a mix of these products minimises the harmful effects of obesity.
Adeola, O; Walk, C L
The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P phytase linearly increased (P phytase showed a reduction (P phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectof a yeast extract product on broiler growth performanceand carcass traits. A total of 810 male Ross broiler chickswere distributed in 27 pens (30 birds per pen in a completelyrandomized design. The animals were fed the experimentaldiets from 1 to 42 days of age. Treatments consisted offeeding a T1 basal corn-soybean meal diet; T2 a dietcontaining 2% yeast extract from 1 to 7 days of age and T3a diet containing 2% yeast extract from 1 to7 and 38 to 42days of age. Better growth performance was observed inbirds fed yeast extract from 1 to 7 and from 38 to 42 days ofage. Carcass traits were not statistically influenced by thedietary treatments. KEY WORDS: Body weight gain, feed conversion, feed intake, organs. Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito da utilização deum extrato de levedura sobre o desempenho e característi-cas de carcaça de frangos de corte. Um total de 810 frangos Ross, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 27 boxes (trinta aves por boxe. As aves receberam as dietasexperimentais de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram em fornecer uma dieta à base de milho e farelo desoja (T1, uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7dias (T2 e uma dieta contendo extrato de levedura de 1 a 7e de 38 a 42 dias de idade (T3. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o desempenho produtivo foi melhor ao se fornecer extrato de levedura de 1 a 7 e de 38 a 42 dias de idade.As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas estatisticamente pelas dietas experimentais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, consumo de ração, órgãos.
Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Partridge, G G; Hruby, M; Sands, J S
The influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase, on nutrient utilization was investigated in broilers fed starter diets containing different concentrations of phytate. The study was conducted as a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 concentrations of phytic acid (10.4, 11.8, and 13.6 g/kg; equivalent to 2.8, 3.3, and 3.8 g of phytate P/kg) and phytase (0, 500, 750, and 1,000 FTU/kg). One unit of phytase (FTU) is defined as the quantity of enzyme that releases 1 micromol of inorganic phosphorus/min from 0.00015 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 37 degrees C. The dietary phytic acid concentrations were manipulated by the inclusion of rice bran. Increasing dietary concentrations of phytic acid resulted in reductions (P phytate concentrations. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and most amino acids were influenced by phytate (P phytate concentrations, but the trend in responses to increasing phytase additions was different at different phytate concentrations as shown by significant phytate x phytase interactions (P phytate concentration, the ileal digestibility coefficients increased with increasing phytase supplementation. At the medium and high phytate concentrations, the greatest responses were observed at 500 FTU/kg of phytase, with little improvement attributable to further additions. Ileal digestibility of P was lowered (P phytate concentrations and increased (P phytate x phytase interaction (P phytate concentrations. These data demonstrate the anti-nutritive effects of phytic acid and the potential of microbial phytase to improve energy utilization and the availability of P and amino acids in broilers fed starter diets.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of supplying propolis extract separately and propolis extract together with probiotics based on Lactobacillus fermentum on fatty acids (FA composition of the most valuable parts of chicken carcass. Diets enriched with 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture and 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (E1 and E2 groups, respectively were given to broiler chickens throughout a 42-d growth period. After slaughter, the FA profiles of breast and thigh samples were determined. Both supplemented diets decreased the total amount of saturated FA (SFA, mainly because of the myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 acid contents in both breast and thigh muscles. However, a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in SFA was confirmed only in thigh muscle. Supplementation with propolis together with probiotics (E2 significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 monounsaturated FA (MUFA contents in breast muscle. Particularly oleic acid (C18:1 cis contributed to an overall increase in MUFA. A rise (P ≤ 0.05 in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA in breast muscle was, however, associated with the dietary supplementation of propolis extract separately (E1. A similar trend (P 0.05 for MUFA and PUFA levels was also observed in thigh muscle. Of all PUFAs detected in breast and thigh muscles, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis was found at the highest levels. Its levels varied from 11.34 to 12.02 g*100 g-1 and from 11.05 to 11.82 g*100 g-1 in breast and thigh muscles, respectively. The highest level (P ≤ 0.05 of linoleic acid was observed in group E1. Comparing breast with thigh muscle, the breast was demonstrated to contain more SFA and PUFA, but less MUFA proportions. Although the n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratio was similar among the treatments in both breast and thigh muscles, n-6 PUFA:n-3 PUFA ratio has been showed to be a significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in thigh muscle, with the lowest
Kimiaeitalab, M V; Cámara, L; Mirzaie Goudarzi, S; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G
The effects of including 3% sunflower hulls (SFH) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient retention (TTAR), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits were studied in chicks from zero to 21 d of age. Four treatments that resulted from the combination of 2 chicken lines (female broilers vs. brown pullets) and 2 levels of SFH (zero vs. 3%) were used. The control diet contained 2,980 kcal AMEn/kg, 1.25% digestible Lys, and 8.7% neutral detergent fiber. The experimental diet included 3% SFH at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet. Growth performance, TTAR of nutrients, and the AMEn of the diet were greater (P = 0.097 to P absolute terms, all the organs of the GIT were heavier (P < 0.001) and the small intestine and cecum were longer (P < 0.001) in broilers than in pullets. At 21 d of age, however, the relative weight (% BW) of all the organs of the GIT (P < 0.001) and the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the small intestine and cecum (P < 0.01) were greater in pullets. Gizzard pH (P < 0.001), total short chain fatty acids concentration in the cecum (P = 0.098), and villus height (P < 0.001) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) of the ileum mucosa were higher in broilers. The inclusion of SFH increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn content of the diet but did not affect bird performance, moisture content of the excreta, or the concentration and profile of fatty acids in the cecum. Dietary SFH increased gizzard weight and reduced gizzard pH (P < 0.001) at both ages. In conclusion, broilers had better growth performance, nutrient retention, and ileum absorptive capacity than pullets. The inclusion of 3% SFH at the expense of the control diet did not have any negative effect on chick performance and, in fact, increased gizzard weight, reduced gizzard pH, and improved the energy content of the diet.
The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.
Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M
Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P whole sorghum diets had increased (P whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.
Abdollahi, M.R.; Dalen, van A.B.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Ravindran, V.
Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the gro
Digestibilidade aparente de dietas e metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral processada Apparent digestibility of the diets and metabolism of broilers fed with diets containing heat processed full-fat soybean
Amanda d’Ávila Carvalho
Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar a digestibilidade aparente de dietas e o metabolismo de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo soja integral (SI processada a vácuo (SIvac ou a vapor (SIvap. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (dieta controle - DC; DC com substituição isométrica de 40% de SIvac ou SIvap; dieta com SIvac e dieta com SIvap. Os tratamentos com substituição isométrica avaliaram a digestibilidade das sojas processadas; os demais, a digestibilidade de dietas contendo ou não soja processada (controle. A ingestão de N foi 23 e 20% menor (P0,05 pelas dietas. A excreção de energia foi 19 e 22% menor (P0,05 para a soja integral processada a vácuo ou a vapor. A soja processada a vácuo ou a vapor é uma alternativa ao farelo de soja e ao óleo vegetal em dietas para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the apparent digestibility of diets and the metabolism of broilers fed diets containing full-fat soybean (FFS processed by vacuum (FFSvac or by steam (FFSstm. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments (control diet - CD, CD with isometric substitution of 40% FFSvac or FFSstm; diet with FFSvac and diet with FFSstm. The treatments with isometric substitution evaluated the digestibility of processed soybeans; the remains, the digestibility of diets containing either processed soybean or not (control. The N intake was 23 and 20% less (P0.05 by the diets. The excretion of energy was 19 and 22% less (P0.05 for full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam. Full-fat soybean processed by vacuum or by steam is an alternative to soybean meal and to the vegetal oil in the diets for broilers.
Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interferon gamma (IFNγ in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6, TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.
Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046
Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.
Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying
Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction.
Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei
Full Text Available Fermacto, that it is commercially a fermentation product of Aspergillus orizae, is proven to increase digestion efficiency of the gut. In this experiment, 450 one day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks (mixed-sex were used in a completely randomized design with 3×2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of Fermacto (0, 0.15 and 0.3% for 42 days and two levels of diet dilution using rice hulls (0 and 40% at 10-21 days of age. The treatments consisted of 3 replicates with 25 chicks per each. Administration of Fermacto did not influence feed intake or feed conversion ratio, but the daily weight gain improved. Diluted diets significantly increased body weights and decreased feed intake; however, this manipulation didn’t affect feed conversion ratios. There was no interaction between prebiotic supplementation and experimental diets dilution for performance traits. Diet dilution significantly decreased abdominal fat pad, villi height and increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell numbers. Dietary supplementation using Fermacto significantly decreased the abdominal fat pad and goblet cell numbers but increased the small intestinal villus heights. There were some conflicting observations for different segments of the small intestine. The 0.3% Fermacto inclusion in experimental diets caused more beneficial effects. Contrary to previous reports on more efficiency of Fermacto on low protein diets, this trend is not seen for the whole diluted diets.
Full Text Available A total of 270 Ross 308 male broilers were used in a randomized complete block design for a period of five weeks. The experiment included nine treatments, three replicates with 10 birds in each replicate of 3×3 factorial design. Two main factors of citric acid (CA (0, 3 and 6% and a microbial phytase (MP (0, 500 and 1000 IU/kg were used. The results indicated that diets containing 3% CA caused significant increase in P content in tibia ash, ileal digestibility of crude protein, apparent metabolizable energy, total phosphorus and body weight (P
Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M
The objective of this study was to assess the quality of commercial poultry feeds in Benin. The performances of 396 unsexed broilers chickens Ross 308 fed with a control diet (R1) and five commercial diets (R2 to R6) were evaluated. Broilers fed commercial diets showed significantly low (P ....001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... was 388 Fcfa/kg BWG, and EFE was 2.7 Fcfa BWG/Fcfa feed. These values represented respectively 50 to 64% and 1.6 to 2.0 times the FC and the EFE recorded in commercial diets. A deficiency in crude protein and metabolisable energy, combined with high contents of crude fibre and total ash was found in some...
Desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorventes Productive performance of broiler breeders fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbents
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente à base de glucomananos esterificados. Foram utilizados 300 fêmeas e 40 machos da linhagem Ross 308 alojados em 20 boxes experimentais na fase de 61 a 72 semanas de idade. Da 61ª à 68ª semana, as aves receberam dietas contendo três níveis de aflatoxina (0; 0,500; 0,750 mg/kg em combinação ou não a adsorvente (0,10% e, nas quatro últimas semanas, receberam dietas isentas de aflatoxina e adsorvente. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (níveis de aflatoxina vs níveis de adsorvente com 4 repetições, cada uma de 15 fêmeas e 2 machos. A partir da 65ª semana, as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxina e adsorvente apresentaram menor taxa de postura em relação àquelas que receberam dietas comuns, sem esses aditivos. O peso corporal das matrizes, assim como o peso, o peso específico dos ovos, a eclodibilidade, e a qualidade dos pintos produzidos não são afetados pelos níveis de aflatoxinas e adsorvente presentes na dieta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of broiler breeder hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and adsorbent on the basis of esterified glucomannan. It was used 300 Ross 308 females and 40 males broiler breeders, housed in 20 experimental pens in the 61-72 week of age phase. From the 61st to the 68th week, birds were fed diets containing three levels of aflatoxin (0; 0.500; 0.750 mg/kg combined or not to adsorbent (0.10% and on the last four weeks they received diets without aflatoxin and adsorbent. The birds were distributed in a complete randomized design in a factorial scheme (levels of aflotoxin vs levels of adsorbents with 4 replicates, each one with 15 females and 2 males. From the 65th week, birds fed diets with aflotoxin and adsorbent showed lower laying rate
Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A
A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet. This was followed by the same magnitude of difference in diet AMEn content, which increased from 2,972 to 3,042 and 2,852 to 3,009 kcal/kg following enzyme addition.
Enting, H.; Veldman, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.
Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatment
C. Basavanta Kumar
Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.
Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Peresson, R; Tesseraud, S
Heat-exposed chickens exhibit a lower growth rate and a depressed protein retention which may result from an alteration in protein metabolism. A high-protein diet seems to be beneficial under hot conditions because it tends to improve growth. Effects of high ambient temperature (32 vs. 22 degrees C) and dietary crude protein (25 vs. 20%) on muscle protein turnover were investigated in finishing broiler chickens. At 5-6 wk of age, protein synthesis was measured in vivo in the Pectoralis major, Sartorius and Gastrocnemius muscles (flooding dose of [(3)H]-phenylalanine). Protein breakdown was determined in the same muscles as the difference between protein synthesis and deposition. Chronic heat stress markedly reduced protein synthesis, irrespective of muscle type (P < 0.05). This was mainly related to the lower capacity for protein synthesis (muscle RNA/Protein) (P < 0.01). Chronic heat exposure also decreased protein breakdown in the P. major and Sartorius; this effect was not observed in the GASTROCNEMIUS: Protein synthesis was more affected than breakdown, leading to reduced protein deposition, at least in the P. major and Gastrocnemius muscles. Increasing dietary protein content had no significant impact on muscle protein turnover. Particularly at 32 degrees C, the high-protein diet did not significantly modify either protein synthesis, ribosomal capacity or translational efficiency. However, it favored muscle protein deposition, which was probably related to reduced proteolysis. In conclusion, we showed that chronic heat exposure decreased muscle protein deposition, mainly by reducing protein synthesis. Under these conditions, the impaired protein synthesis was not restored by a 5% higher protein intake.
Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.
Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.
Verônica da Silva Cardoso
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.
Desempenho de frangos de corte oriundos de matrizes de corte submetidas a dietas contendo aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente Performance of broilers derived from breeder hens fed with diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannan as adsorbent
Alexandre Pires Rosa
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho da progênie de matrizes de corte que consumiram aflatoxinas e glucomananos esterificados como adsorvente por quatro ou oito semanas. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Em cada estudo foram utilizados 160 machos de 1 dia provenientes de matrizes alimentadas com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e adsorvente. Em ambos os ensaios, foi adotado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado para avaliação de cinco dietas (tratamentos, cada uma avaliada com quatro repetições de oito aves. Nas dietas fornecidas às matrizes, as aflatoxinas foram adicionadas nos níveis 0; 0,500; ou 0,750 mg/kg de ração em combinação ou não a 0,10% de adsorvente. Os dois ensaios com frangos de corte foram conduzidos em baterias instaladas em unidade experimental climatizada, onde os pintos receberam uma dieta comprovadamente isenta de aflatoxinas durante todo o período experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso corporal, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar pelo ganho de peso, proteínas plasmáticas totais, albumina sérica e pesos de fígado e bursa de Fabrícius ao primeiro dia de idade. A adição de até 0,750 mg aflatoxinas/kg e adsorvente durante oito semanas na dieta de matrizes de corte não influencia o desempenho zootécnico nem os parâmetros sanguíneos da progênie das matrizes.The performance of the progeny from breeders hens fed diets containing aflatoxins and esterified glucomannans as a mycotoxins adsorbent during four and eight weeks was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. In each study, one hundred and sixty 1-day old male chicks from broiler breeders fed diets with aflatoxins and mycotoxins adsorbent were used. The chicks were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. In the diets supplied to the breeder chickens, aflatoxins were added at
J. S. Mandey
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield.
Desempenho e características da carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de diferentes formas físicas Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets of different physical forms
Arley Alves de Oliveira
randomized block design with 4 physical forms of feed and 6 repetitions with 10 birds per experimental unit, where each floor represented a block. Treatments consisted of: mash, pelleted, expanded and expanded pelleted diets. Performance indexes were analyzed in the period from 1 to 22 and 1 to 39 days of birds' life. Two birds with an average weight of the group were taken from each repetition and slaughtered at 40 days of age for carcass evaluation. The physical form of ration affected the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. For the period from 1 to 22 days and from 1 to 39 days, chickens that consumed the mashed food had lower feed intake, weight and weight gain, whereas birds fed pelleted diets showed no difference in weight, weight gain or feed conversion from those fed expanded pelleted diets. The major results for these variables were observed for birds fed pelleted or expanded pelleted diets. Birds fed expanded pelleted diets showed the best results for carcass and cut weight compared with those fed with mesh diet, and this better outcome did not differ from that found for birds fed pelleted diet. The use of rations in pelleted or expanded pelleted physical forms is recommended, for they promote the best animal performance parameters.
Função hepática e renal de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e clinoptilolita natural Hepatic and renal functions in broilers fed on diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite
Roberto Marinho Maciel
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os minerais séricos e as funções hepática e renal de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e dietas com aflatoxinas e argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com quatro repetições cada: T1 - testemunha: ração sem aflatoxina ou clinoptilolita; T2 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas; T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T4 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita; e T6 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. As aves foram submetidas aos tratamentos do 1º ao 42º dia de idade. Foram abatidos 72 animais, e foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de cálcio, fósforo, uréia, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol, triglicerídeos e gamaglutamil-transferase (GGT. As aflatoxinas diminuem o nível sérico de colesterol. A clinoptilolita diminui o nível sérico do ácido úrico, quando na concentração de 0,25%. As aflatoxinas com 0,25% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina, do ácido úrico e do colesterol. As aflatoxinas acrescidas por 0,5% de clinoptilolita diminuem os níveis séricos da creatinina e do colesterol e elevam os de gamaglutamil-transferase.The objective of this study was to evaluate serum minerals and hepatic and renal activities in broiler chicks fed with diets containing aflatoxins and diets with aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty-eight Ross male broiler chicks were grouped in six treatments with four replications each: T1 - control: diet free from aflatoxins and clinoptilolite; T2 - aflatoxins 5 ppm diet; T3 - 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T4 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.25% clinoptilolite diet; T5 - 0.5% clinoptilolite diet; and T6 - aflatoxins 5 ppm and 0.5% clinoptilolite diet. The birds were treated from the 1st to the 42nd day of age
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.
Vânia de Sousa Lima Aguiar
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...
Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.
THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE
Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu, associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD; CD+AGP/AC; CD+Gln/Glu; CD+PAs; CD+Gln/ Glu+PAs. Diets were formulated only with plant feedstuffs, i.e., they did not contain any animal byproducts. Performance data were collected for the accumulated periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of age. Carcass yield and parts yield were determined at 42 days of age. Treatments did not influence performance during none of the evaluated periods. The greatest carcass yield (p<0.05 was obtained in birds in the treatments CD+Gln/Glu and CD+Gln/Glu+PAs relative to CD, but not different from birds in the AGP+AC and PAs treatments, which were not different from the CD treatment. Birds fed the CD+Gln/Glu diet presented greater breast yield (p<0.05 compared with those in the CD and AGP/AC treatments, but there was no difference in comparison with the other treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the dietary supplementation with phytogenic additives and with glutamine plus glutamic acid does not affect the performance, but improves carcass yield and breast yield of broilers.
Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens
Full Text Available Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met sparing effect of Betaine (BET has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21 and grower rations (d 22-42 for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control; diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter or 300 (grower mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter or 500 (grower mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (pConclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium perfringens (Cp is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that causes necrotic enteritis (NE in poultry when it overgrows in the small intestine. NE disease has previously been controlled through the use of growth-promoting antibiotics. This practice was recently banned in European countries, leading to significantly increased incidence of NE threatening the poultry industry. Control strategies and technology as substitutes to dietary antibiotics are therefore urgently required. To develop the substitutes, it is important to understand host immune responses to Cp infection. However, the knowledge is still lacking. We therefore investigated gene expression profiles within immunologically-relevant tissue, the spleen, in order to identify factors that are involved in immunity to NE and have potential as therapeutic targets. Results Use of a 44 K Agilent chicken genome microarray revealed significant up-regulation of many immune-associated genes in Cp-challenged chickens, including galectin 3, IFNAR1, IgY-receptor, TCRγ, granzyme A, and mannose-6-P-R, which were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR assays. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was conducted using the High Throughput Gene Ontology Functional Annotation database. Medicated and Non-medicated chickens had similar annotation profiles with cell activities and regulation being the most dominant biological processes following Cp infection. Conclusion Broiler chickens demonstrated an intricate and holistic magnitude of host response to Cp challenge and the development of NE. Although the influence of dietary antibiotics appeared to be less significant than the disease process, both had a considerable impact on the host response. Markers previously identified in intestinal inflammatory diseases of other species, including humans, and indicators of enhanced antibody responses, appeared to be involved in the chicken response to Cp challenge
Full Text Available Carcass, Organs andOrganoleptic Characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean (RSBand full fat soya bean (FFSB were studied using one hundred and eighty day oldchicks. Standard poultry management techniques were applied and experimenteddiets provided ad libitum. Fifteen diets consisting of various proportions ofFFSB, RSB and yeast were formulated for the starter phase (0- 28 days andfinisher phase (29-56 days, respectively. The diets in each phase wereformulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the starter dietscontaining approximately 2900 kcal/kg ME and 23% crude protein, and thefinisher diets containing approximately 3000 kcal/kg and 20% crude protein. Thecarcass and organs studied include weights after defeathering, cut- up partswhich include thighs drumstick, shanks, wings, neck, back, breast head, andorgans such as heart, liver, spleen and gizzard. The lengths of theproventriculus, small intestine, colon and caeca were also measured. The studyshowed that RSB at the levels fed with and without yeast inclusion had nolethal effect on broiler chickens. However, higher performance may be achievedwhen RSB is fed at 25 % with 6 g/kg yeast inclusion at starter phase and at 25% without yeast or 75 % with 12 g/kg yeast inclusion. The study therefore,further maintained that inclusion of RSB with or without yeast in the diets ofbroilers can equally produce broiler with good weight comparable with feedingFFSB or conventional diets; feeding 75 % FFSB + 25 % RSB without yeastinclusion is capable of increasing the proportion of the broilers’ head andshank; RSB inclusion in broiler diets cause increase in the weight of thegizzard, pancreas as well as on the abdominal fat, and feeding FFSB and RSBwith or without east inclusion do not exert any noticeable effect on theorganoleptic ualities tenderness, flavour and in general acceptability ofbroilers. However, RSB enhances the juiciness of broilers
Full Text Available Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01 negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.
Fernanda Alvares da Silva
Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu e vitamina D3 (VD no soro de pintos de corte de um dia, machos, Hubbard, criados em baterias aquecidas, recebendo dieta básica purificada, suplementada com 5, 10 e 15% de L-Glu combinados com 0, 5.000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI de vitamina D3/kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, quatro repetições e sete aves por repetição. As concentrações máximas de cálcio no soro (9,61 mg/dL foram obtidas com 15% de L-Glu e 14.181UI de VD; 7,33 mg/dL de cálcio iônico com 15% de L-Glu e 15.664UI de VD; 7,20 mg/dL de fósforo com 10% de L-Glu e 10.863UI de VD. Os maiores valores de atividade de fosfatase alcalina no soro foram obtidos com 10% de L-Glu e na deficiência de VD. Em geral, as aves alimentadas com 10% de L-Glu e 15.000UI de VD apresentaram melhor desempenho, melhor perfil sangüíneo e menor incidência de problemas de pernas.An experiment was conducted with day-old male Hubbard, broiler chicks, reared in electrically heated batteries, and raised in wire mesh floors and fed purified amino acid diets and water ad libitum for a 14 days period. The purified diets containing all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals at adequate levels and was supplemented with 5, 10 and 15% of L-Glu and with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU of vitamin D3. The experimental design was a factorial 3 x 4 with four replicates with seven chicks each. The blood calcium increased up (9.61mg/dL to an estimated level of 15% of L-Glu and 14,181IU of VD, 7.33 mg/dL of ionized calcium was obtained with 15% of L-Glu and 15.664 of VD. The highest blood phosphorus (7.20 mg/dL was obtained at an estimated level of 10% of L-Glu and 10,863IU of VD. The highest blood alkaline phosphatase was obtained at level of 10% of L-Glu and vitamin D deficiency. Birds fed 10% L-Glu and 15,000IU VD had
Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G
Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (Phens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (PAST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.
Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.
R de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.
Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H
An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (Pcarbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.
Efeito da nicarbazina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de lisina submetidos a estresse por calor Effect of nicarbazin on the performance of broiler chicks fed diets with different lysine levels submitted to heat stress
Juarez Lopez Donzele
a dual anticoccidial program and a control anticoccidial program where only the monensin was fed to the birds from 1 to 42 d. The diet and the water were ad libitum fed. Birds fed nicarbazin-monenzin showed lower feed intake and average weight gain, and higher feed:gain ratio than those fed control anticoccidial program. The body weights and the carcass and edible cuts yield were reduced by the effect of the nicarbazin. The birds fed diet with nicarbazin showed reduced absolute and relative organs weights as compared to those that did not receive the drug in the diet. The addition of nicarbazin in diets for broilers under heat stress is not feasible.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were performed to evaluate the hematological and blood biochemistry parameters, biometry of digestive organs, enzyme activities, protein content and absolute weight of the pancreas of broilers fed pre-starter and pre-starter diets supplemented or not with amylase from Aspergillus awamori. In total, 120 male Cobb chicks were housed in heated cages in each experiment. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (feed with and without amylase and six replicates per treatment of 10 birds each was applied. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the F-test at 5% probability level. The dietary amylase addition did not affect hematological and blood biochemistry parameters and the biometry of the gastrointestinal tract of 7- and 21-d-old broilers, nor the absolute weight, enzyme activities or protein concentration of the pancreas of 7-d-old broilers. However, the inclusion of amylase in the diet reduced amylase activity and pancreatic protein concentration in 21-d-old broilers. The application of amylase to broiler chicken pre-starter and starter feeds is not justified given the pancreatic amylase activity and protein concentrations.
Full Text Available The chemical analysis revealed that raw golden snail meal (R. GSM had 53.22 %, 6.01 % and 0.49 % crudeprotein, calcium and phosphorus respectively. The cooked golden snail meal (C. GSM had 52.25 % CP, 6.51 % Ca and 0.41 % P. Birds fed with fish meal (control had significantly the highest feed conversion ratio followed by the birds fed the (C. GSM (P 0.05. The gain in weight of the birds fed the (C. GSM had comparable gain in weight with the birds fed the control diet. There were no significant differences observed in a second experiment because the somme feed ingredients had compensated for the deficiency of the nutrients to meet the requirements of the birds. Results reveal that the ingredients of golden snail meal in broiler diets is just as good as incorporating the imported fish meal.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.
Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.
VC Pelícia; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MK Maruno; FB Carvalho; AC Pezzato; JR Sartori
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs) and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu), associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC) on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet ...
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.
Full Text Available The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal, T3 (rice bran, T5 (corn bran were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal, T4 (rice bran and T6 (corn bran were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05 improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2. Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05. Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.
Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural Electrophoresis profile of serum proteins in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and/or natural clinoptilolite clay
Roberto Marinho Maciel
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo aflatoxinas e/ou argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com 4 repetições cada: T1 - testemunha (ração sem aflatoxinas ou clinoptilolita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas, T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T4 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,25% de clinoptilolita, T5 - ração com 0,5% de clinoptilolita e T6 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxinas e 0,5% de clinoptilolita. Os animais ficaram alojados em 24 boxes, e submetidos aos tratamentos do 1° ao 42° dia, quando foram sacrificados. Foram analisadas as proteínas totais, as frações albumina, alfa 1, alfa 2, beta e gama. Com exceção das médias da fração gama, o teste de Tukey revelou diferenças significativas (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the electrophoresis profile of serum protein in broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and natural clinoptilolite clay. Five hundred and twenty eight male broilers Ross were distributed in six treatments and each one with 4 replications: T1 - control (without aflatoxins or clinoptilolite, T2 -5ppm of aflatoxins, T3 -0.25% of clinoptilolite, T4 -5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.25% of clinoptilolite, T5 -0.5% of clinoptilolite and T6 - 5ppm of aflatoxins and 0.5% of clinoptilolite. The broilers were allocated in 24 boxes and submitted to a treatments for 42 days, when they were slaughtered. Total proteins, albumin fractions, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma were analyzed. Except gamma fraction the Tukey test showed differences (P<0.05 on serum total proteins and proteins fractions in all treatments which aflatoxin was present. The clinoptilolite did not modify (P<0.05 the serum proteins. The control broilers fed with diets containing aflatoxins and clinoptilolite presented low levels (P<0.05 of
Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K
An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets.
Gracia, M I; Latorre, M A; García, M; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G
The influence of heat processing (HP) of barley and enzyme supplementation (ES) of the diet on digestive and performance traits of broilers to 21 d was studied. There were four treatments arranged factorially with two barley-processing treatments (raw or heated), two levels of ES (0 or 500 ppm), and five replicates per treatment. Chicks fed HP barley grew faster than broilers fed raw barley until 8 d of age, but the effect disappeared thereafter. In general, ES improved broiler performance at all ages. Intestinal viscosity was increased by HP of barley (P viscosity caused by ES was greater for HP than for raw barley diets (HP x ES; P starch and neutral detergent fiber, retention increased linearly with age (P < or = 0.01), but for the remaining nutrients the retention decreased from d 4 to 8 and then increased until d 21 (P < or = 0.001). Also, the beneficial effects of HP on retention of nutrients were more pronounced at younger ages (HP x age; P < or = 0.05). Both HP (P < or = 0.001) and ES (P < or = 0.01) increased liver weight, and enzymes reduced the weights of pancreas (P < or = 0.05) and small intestine (P < or = 0.001). Villus height was improved by HP (P < or = 0.001) and ES (P < or = 0.01), but villus surface area was only improved by enzymes (P < or = 0.01). It was concluded that broiler performance is improved by HP of barley at early ages and by ES of the diet throughout the trial. Also, HP and ES increased apparent retention of nutrients, AMEn of the diet, and villus height.
Full Text Available Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1 and treatment group (T2 were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2 was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g, cumulative feed intake (g and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.
Selvaraj, R K; Purushothaman, M R
A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and inclusion level of sunflower seed (SFS) in broiler diets. SFS contained 38.7% ether extract (EE), 16.9% CP, 14.9% crude fiber (CF), 3.5% ash, 0.57% lysine, and 0.46% methionine (89.2% DM basis). The AME (kcal/ kg) content of SFS in roosters was 5,225 and in broilers at 4, 18, and 35 d of age was 3,493, 5,132, and 5,162, respectively. The CP, EE, and CF digestibilities were 80.4, 71.2, and 11.4%, respectively. In an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet containing SFS at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, SFS up to 20% did not affect weight gain and feed consumption, but the feed conversion ratio was improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol content, muscle cholesterol content, dressing percentage, liver weight, and giblet weight (as % live weight) were comparable among all treatment groups. Abdominal fat was increased in birds fed 20% SFS. Percentage skin was decreased in broilers fed > or = 10% SFS.
Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W
In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.
Rendimento, composição e teor de ácidos graxos da carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas Carcass yield, composition and fat acid percentage of carcass for broiler fed on different lipid source diets
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de lipídios da dieta (óleo degomado de soja, óleo de vísceras de aves, óleo ácido de soja, mistura de 50% de óleo de soja e 50% de óleo de vísceras e mistura de 50% de óleo de soja e 50% de óleo ácido de soja sobre rendimento, composição de peito, coxa e carcaça inteira e perfil de ácidos graxos da carcaça inteira de frangos de corte. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de uma ave cada. Não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos (P>0,05 para rendimentos de carcaça e cortes, composição de proteína bruta, umidade e extrato etéreo da carcaça inteira e da musculatura da coxa e do peito. As aves alimentadas com dietas com óleo de vísceras apresentaram maior percentual de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados na carcaça do que as alimentadas com dietas contendo as demais fontes lipídicas. A deposição de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados foi influenciada pela fonte lipídica das dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da carcaça inteira de frangos de corte foi influenciado pela fonte lipídica da dieta.A completely randomized design, with six replicates of one bird per experimental unit was used to evaluate the effect of different fat sources of diets (soybean oil, poultry fat, acidulated soybean oil soapstock and a mix of soybean oil plus poultry fat and soybean oil plus acidulated soybean oil soapstock on carcass yield, composition of the breast, thigh and whole chicken and fatty acid profile of the whole carcass of broilers. No effects of fat source on carcass yield and cuts, composition of crude protein, humidity and ether extract of the whole chicken, whole leg and breast were observed (P>0,05. The birds fed on poultry fat diet showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acid on the carcass than birds fed on diets with the others fat sources. The deposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids was influenced by fat source added
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24), with four replicates (n = 6). The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphom...
Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio suplementadas com fitase Performance of broilers fed diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase
Daniella Carolina Zanardo Donato
Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de rações contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio e suplementadas com fitase sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte nas fases inicial (1 a 21 dias, de crescimento (22 a 35 dias e final (36 a 42 dias. Foram utilizados 2.160 pintos de corte machos da linhagem AG Ross 308, de 1 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos em 6 tratamentos, cada um com 6 repetições. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, com 3 níveis de fitase (0, 600 e 1.200 ftu/kg e 2 de cálcio (0,94 e 0,66%; 0,84 e 0,59%; e 0,78 e 0,54% para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final, respectivamente. As rações experimentais ainda tinham níveis reduzidos de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta. Ao final de cada fase, avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a mortalidade. Houve interação entre os níveis de fitase e de cálcio estudados para ganho de peso, consumo de ração e mortalidade nas três fases avaliadas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 1.200 ftu/kg de ração em associação aos menores níveis de cálcio. Nenhum resultado significativo foi observado para conversão alimentar. Os níveis nutricionais de cálcio podem ser reduzidos em 30% em dietas com baixos níveis de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta, desde que as dietas sejam suplementadas com 1.200 ftu/kg de fitase.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase on the performance of broiler chickens in initial (1 to 21 days of age, growing (22 to 35 days of age and final (36 to 42 days of age phases. Two thousand one hundred and sixty male broilers from AG Ross 308 line, from 1 to 42 days old were distributed in 6 treatments, with 6 replicates each. A completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme was used
Ani, A O; Okorie, A U
A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to comparison of the effect of different levels of vitamin premix in two raising systems of floor and cage on performance and leg bone characteristics of broiler chickens which were fed with adjusted diet base on wheat and barley during 29 to 42 days. The treatments were composed of 0, 33.33, 66.66 and 100 percent of vitamin premix (according to the recommendation of vitamin premix Producer Company which used from 29 to 42 days. Experiment in floor was carried out by using 288 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 with 4 treatments and 4 replicates in a completely randomized design in floor system. Experiment in cage battery system was carried out by using 80 male broiler chickens with 4 treatments and 4 replicates in raising cage. Feed intake and body weight gain of each replicate were calculated during two weeks of the experiment. During these two weeks, in experiment in floor, two broiler chickens were measured and in experiment in cage battery system one broiler chickens slaughtered and breast, thigh, percentage of abdominal fat and liver were measured. After slaughtered, right leg of each bird was used for determine ash, calcium, phosphorus and strength. The results of the experiment in floor showed that vitamin premix withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair carcass characteristics and leg bone characteristics during the final rearing period. The results of battery cage system showed that withdrawal of vitamin premix from the diet of experimental birds; were induced negative effect on productive performance, weights of thigh, and breast and leg bone characteristics during 36-42 day of ages. Therefore, it seems that there is the possibility of vitamin premix levels reduction up to the approximate 33% level in finisher period while in the floor system; it is possible to withdraw vitamin supplements in broilers’ finisher diets and in this way the costs of poultry industry will reduce.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a multienzyme complex containing protease and carbohydrase enzymes on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions from 1 to 42 d of age. Two experimental starter and finisher wheat-soybean meal based diets were used in a two-phase feeding programme, as follows: control diet (C; control diet plus 0.05% multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes (Allzyme Vegpro (VP. At location 1, broilers were raised in battery cages located in an experimental pen, without contact with litter. At location 2, broilers were raised in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and had contact with litter. At location 3, broilers were raised in commercial farms. In general, no differences in growth performance, feed intake or feed conversion ratio were observed in broiler chickens fed on the different diets at location 1. Only, the average daily feed intake from 22 to 42 d was significantly higher in the VP group compared with the C treatment (P<0.01. In addition, the final body weight of the VP group was numerically greater than that of the birds fed with the control diet, although the inclusion of the multienzyme complex did not cause significant effects. However, the ileal digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein were enhanced (P<0.05 by VP in the case of broilers in floor pens (+2.5% and +2.7% for DM and CP, respectively and in the commercial farm (+4.4% and +6% for the DM and CP, respectively at 42 d of age, as well as faecal digestibity of the VP diet in experimental pen. It seemed that the effectiveness of the multienzyme complex on digestibility was higher when conditions of hygiene were poorer and stress was frequent. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes might be effective for improving nutrient digestibility in broilers fed with a wheat-soybean meal based diet under
Full Text Available A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15. A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05. Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05. Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05. According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities at week 6 (P<0.05, but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.
Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of additives used in the feed of broilers on anaerobic bio-digestion of poultry litter was evaluated. Four diets were used: NC: negative control; DFM: NC + 500 ppm direct-fed microbials (DFM containing Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; ENZ: diet formulated with an enzyme blend (20 ppm phytase, 200 ppm protease and 200 ppm xylanase; DFM+E: ENZ + DFM. Substrates for the anaerobic bio-digestion were prepared with litter from each treatment, containing 4 % total solids (TS. These were used in 16 continuous bio-digesters with a 2 kg d−1 load, to determine the production and potential biogas production and composition during an 85-day period. Influent and effluent samples were collected for the amounts of TS and volatile solids (VS, fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber [NDF], acid detergent fiber [ADF] and lignin, nutrients (N, P and K, and total and thermotolerant coliforms to be determined. For all treatments a reduction in the following effluents was observed as follows: TS (49, 48, 48 and 50 % VS (70, 54, 55 and 62 % NDF (91, 90, 95 and 96 % ADF (89, 88, 93 and 94 % and lignin (80, 76, 89 and 88 %. The efficiency of the treatment for coliforms in bio-digesters was higher than 90 % in the 85-day period in all treatment groups. There was a reduction in biogas and methane production when DFM (5500 and 4000 mL and DFM + E (5800 and 4100 mL were used, compared to treatments NC (6300 mL and 4400 and ENZ (6400 and 4500 mL. The potential production of reduced TS and VS was higher in ENZ (1:00 and 1.74 106 mL kg−1 when compared to NC (0.88 and 1:02 106 mL kg−1, DFM (0.80 and 1:40 106 mL kg−1 and DFM + E (0.88 1:25 and 106 mL kg−1. The additives did not affect the percentage of methane production, and all treatments showed values higher than 70 %. Adding enzymes to the diet of broilers influences the litter characteristics and, as a consequence, increases biogas production. The addition of DFM and DFM + E to
Sen, Sinol; Ingale, S L; Kim, Y W; Kim, J S; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Kim, E K; Kim, H S; Ryu, M H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J
Present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 on growth performance, apparent nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred and twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 0-21) and finisher (d 22-35). Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2. Supplementation of increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed linear improvement (PLS 1-2 showed decrease in caecal Clostridium and Coliform count (linear, PLS 1-2 increased (linear, PLS 1-2 can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve intestinal microbial balance and gut health of broilers.
Mahmoodi Bardzardi M
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison
Aplicação dos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte machos e fêmeas criados no inverno Performance of males and females broilers fed diets based on crude or ideal protein during the winter
Geni Salete de Toledo
Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e analisar a viabilidade econômica comparativa entre dois conceitos protéicos e duas linhagens de frangos de corte (Hybro G e Hybro PG, criados no período de inverno, com temperatura média de 16°C e UR média de 72%. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas pelo conceito de Proteína Bruta (PB sem suplementação de aminoácidos e Proteína Ideal (PI, de 1 a 42 dias de idade nos dois sexos. O delineamento utilizado nos dois experimentos foi inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (2 conceitos protéicos e 2 linhagens com 6 repetições de 20 aves para cada sexo. Machos não mostraram interação entre proteína x linhagens para as variáveis estudadas; entretanto, machos do conceito PB consumiram mais ração, porém ganharam menos peso e converteram pior que os PI. Para fêmeas, houve interação para a variável conversão alimentar, sendo que as aves do conceito PI da linhagem PG, foram mais eficientes que as aves do conceito PB. Para a mesma categoria, na análise dos efeitos isolados, não houve diferença significativa para consumo, entretanto, as fêmeas PI ganharam mais peso que as fêmeas PB. Na análise econômica dos resultados, foi observado que a formulação de dietas PI para ambos os sexos é mais rentável.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of broilers and analyze the comparative economical effects of two concepts of protein given to two lines of broilers (Hybro G and Hybro PG reared during cold weather, average of 16 C and RH of 72%. The broilers were fed to diets formulated based on the concept of crude protein (PB with addition of aminoacids or on the ideal protein (PI, from 1 to 42 days of age for both sexes. The experimental design in both experiments was entirely randomized in a factorial 2 x 2 (2 protein concept vs 2 lines. The males did not show evidence and the interaction between protein vs lines for
Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.
Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng
This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal.
CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR
William Maciel Cardoso
Full Text Available
Vitor Barbosa Fascina
Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA and organic acids (OA on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial. In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth- promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.
Raúl D. Miazzo
Full Text Available La Levadura de Cerveza puede ser utilizada como aditivo natural en dietas de aves. El objetivo fue determinar su efecto sobre los parámetros productivos y la calidad de la canal de aves que recibieron dietas donde se les reemplazó parte del núcleo vitamínico mineral por S. cerevisiae. Doscientos pollos machos Ross fueron distribuidos en 20 corrales, de 10 aves cada uno, y 5 por ración. Desde el 32° hasta el 56° día de vida recibieron las siguientes dietas: 1. Control, sin Levadura 2. Control con un 1/3 del núcleo vit-mineral, sin Levadura. 3. Dieta 2 con 0,15 % de Levadura y 4. Dieta 2 con 0,30 % de Levadura. Se midieron Consumo Medio Diario (CMD, Ganancia Media Diaria (GMD e Indice de Conversión (IC y finalizada la experiencia, previo pesado de las aves (PV, se sacrificaron y se hizo el despiece para determinar el rendimiento de la canal (RC, peso de la pechuga (PP, de los muslos (PM y de la grasa abdominal (PGA. Las aves que recibieron el mayor % de Levadura (Dieta 4 consumieron menos; ganaron significativamente más y convirtieron mejor (p£ 0,01. Además, obtuvieron significativamente mayores (p£ 0,01 peso de pechuga y muslos. Mientras que para PGA las diferencias fueron significativamente menores (p£ 0,01 tanto para las aves de las Dietas 4 como la 3. Se concluye que el agregado de Levadura, en reemplazo de parte del núcleo vitamínico mineral, mejoró los parámetros productivos y la calidad de la canal Yeast might be used like natural additive in broiler diets. The purpose was determinate productive parameters and carcass quality in broilers fed diets with replacement part of mineral vitamin premix with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hundred male chickens Ross were distributed in 20 pens, with 10 birds per pen and five for ration. Since 32° till 56° days old the bird received the following diets: 1. Control, without Yeast; 2. Control with 2/3 of premix, without Yeast, 3. Diet 2 with 0.15% Yeast and 4. Diet 2 with 0
Desempenho e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e de aminoácidos ou com livre escolha das dietas Performance and body composition of broilers fed different protein and amino acid levels or free-choice diets
Ana Valeria Kolling
and body composition of broilers (300 males and 300 females from 1 to 49 days of age, as well as the effect of these factors on the nutrients utilization efficiency. Three isoenergy experimental diets (D were used (3000 and 3150kcal ME/kg for starter and growing phase, respectively varying the levels of crude protein (CP and the first 4 essential amino acids (AA (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan: D1, control, with 22%CP; D2: 24%CP and 20% more AA than D1 (HighCP+20%AA and D3, 20% CP and 12% less AA than D1 (LowCP-12%AA. On the growing phase the CP were 20, 22 and 18% for D1, D2 and D3, respectively, keeping the same AA proportion. A fourth diet was defined by free-choice between diets D2 and D3. Birds were alloted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 4 factorial (sex x diets scheme and 5 replications of 15 birds each per treatment. Comparative slaughter technique was used for body fat and protein gain. Birds fed LowCP-12%AA diets showed reduced feed conversion, gain and body protein gain, but better protein intake-to-gain ratio. Broilers fed HighCP+20%AA diets had worse protein intake-to-gain ratio, but similar weight gain, cuts or carcass weight to control or free-choice birds. Fat and protein gain were similar among those 3 treatments. Free-choice birds showed the same performance and body composition of the control broilers. LowCP-12%AA diet was worse for broilers in starter phase than in growing phase. Male broilers were more efficient than females using nutrients, specially in the growing phase.
Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.
Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N
This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.
TC de F Carlos
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.
Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.
Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E
This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.
Tapeh, Ramin Shahabi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Amir
Decreased semen quality and fertility rate is a common feature in broiler breeder roosters. This decrease is associated with dysfunction of Sertoli cells and defective spermatogenesis. Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as a precursor of creatine, plays an important role in the proper functioning of Sertoli cells and energy metabolism in sperm. Twenty, 29-wk-old broiler breeder roosters (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups and fed diets supplemented with different levels of GAA, including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200), and 1800 (GAA-1800) mg GAA/kg of diet for 26 successive weeks. During a 24-wk period, the seminal characteristics were weekly evaluated. At the end of experiment, sperm penetration and fertility rates were determined, using 68 artificially inseminated age-matched broiler breeder hens of the same strain (for 2 weeks). Semen concentration (P = 0.003), total sperm number (P = 0.005) and sperm forward motility (P = 0.01) were increased by GAA-1200 group. Also, sperm plasma membrane functionality was marginally affected (P = 0.06) in roosters received all levels of GAA. Sperm abnormality and plasma membrane integrity were not affected by dietary GAA. The highest number of sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GAA-1200 group (P = 0.08). Interestingly, fertility rate was increased by the feeding of all levels of GAA (P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary GAA was associated with improvement in most of the rooster's seminal characteristics and fertility rate, suggesting a potential for using GAA to attenuate the age-related sub-fertility in commercial broiler breeder roosters.
Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de selênio, zinco e manganês, criados sob condições de estresse térmico Performance of broilers fed diets containing different sources of selenium, zinc and manganese reared under thermal stress conditions
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e partes de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas que continham selênio, zinco e manganês complexados ou não a moléculas orgânicas, criados em diferentes temperaturas. Foram utilizados 980 pintinhos machos de um dia de idade, de linhagem comercial, criados durante 42 dias em três câmaras climáticas, que proporcionaram temperaturas alta, termoneutra e baixa. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x2+1, sendo três temperaturas de criação, duas fontes de Se, Zn e Mn - inorgânica e orgânica, mais o tratamento testemunha - criação em câmara termoneutra sem adição de Se, Zn e Mn na ração, com sete repetições por tratamento. As aves criadas em condições de estresse térmico apresentaram piores resultados para consumo de ração, ganho de peso e viabilidade, sendo mais sensíveis ao calor do que ao frio. Quando criadas em ambientes quentes, a conversão alimentar foi melhor quando se utilizaram os minerais na forma orgânica. Sob temperatura neutra, as aves não necessitaram da suplementação da dieta com os minerais avaliados.The performance and carcass yield of broilers fed supplemented diets with different selenium, zinc and manganese sources (organic and inorganic and reared under different environmental temperatures were evaluated. A total of 980 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age. Three climatic chambers (high, neutral and low temperatures and twenty chickens per pen, distributed in a 3x2 + 1 factorial arrangement with three breeding temperatures, two mineral sources and a control treatment that provided neutral temperature without mineral supplementation, with seven replicates each were used. The thermal stressed broilers showed lower results for feed intake, weight gain and viability, mainly under high temperature. The organic mineral utilization provided a better feed conversion ratio when high temperature was
Responses of fast and slow growth broilers fed all vegetable diets with variable ideal protein profiles Respostas de frangos de corte de crescimento rápido e lento consumindo dietas exclusivamente vegetais com diferentes perfis de proteína ideal
Jorge Luis Bernardon Coneglian
Full Text Available One thousand eight hundred and ninety male broilers of two strain crosses (fast and slow initial growth were fed different ideal protein profiles in four-phase feed programs: 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 34 and 35 to 40 days of age. All vegetable, corn-soybean meal feeds were formulated to maintain the Met+Cys:Lys and Thr:Lys relationships at 75 and 65%, respectively, on true digestible basis. Three ideal protein profiles were used: low, medium and high. From 1 to 21 days of age, half of the birds fed low and high diets were changed to high and low diets, respectively. Birds on the medium diet were kept on the same diet until the end of the study. A 3 × 2 (ideal protein profile x strain cross factorial design was used for the period from 1 to 21 days and a 5 × 2 design thereafter. Carcass and commercial cuts were performed at 34 and 40 days of age to determine corresponding live weight and carcass yields. In general, the fast strain growth was superior in comparison to the low one when live performance and carcass and commercial cuts were evaluated. Live performance was positively affected by the increases in the dietary protein profiles; however, processing yield parameters could not be related with the dietary parameters. The low diets, which have similar protein contents to those used in some integrations, were shown to produce poor responses and, therefore are not recommended for broilers from 1 to 40 days of age. Alternating low and high ideal protein profiles at 21 days could result in similar feed conversions, and therefore, can lead to production cost reduction.Mil oitocentos e noventa frangos de corte machos de duas linhagens comerciais (de crescimento inicial rápido e lento receberam dietas com diferentes perfis de proteína ideal em programas alimentares de quatro fases: 1 a 7; 8 a 21; 22 a 34; e 35 a 40 dias de idade. Dietas exclusivamente vegetais, à base de milho e farelo de soja, foram formuladas de modo a manter as relações Met
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.
Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.
Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating cysteamine (CS supplementation in broiler chick diets with different energy density patterns. A total of 980 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain at one day of age were allocated into 28 plots. A completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 7 replications, was adopted. The factors under study were the supplementation (or absence of cysteamine (60 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of feed in the starter and growth/finishing phases, respectively and two patterns of apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance (AMEn in the diets. The energy levels (Mcal/kg of feed practiced in pattern 1 were 3.00; 3.10; and 3.20, and for pattern 2, they were 3.05; 3.20; and 3.30 in the starter, growth and finishing phases, respectively. The diets were on the basis of corn and soybean meal with a feeding program with three diets. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, feasibility and carcass yield were evaluated. There was no interaction between the CS supplementation and AME patterns in the diet upon the performance and/or carcass characteristic evaluated. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with CS presented improved feed conversion along the rearing cycle, but feed intake and weight gain were not affected by the supplementation of CS. The highest pattern of energy density (2 provided increased weigh gain in the starter phase of rearing and better feed conversion of the birds over the whole rearing period. The carcass yield was not influenced by the cysteamine supplementation and/or energy levels studied.
PERFORMANCE OF BROILER WITH DIFFERENT STARTER WEIGHT, FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH METHIONINE DESEMPENHO DE FRANGOS COM DIFERENTES PESOS INICIAIS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÃO PRÉ-INICIAL SUPLEMENTADA COM METIONINA
Full Text Available in this study the effect of starter chick weight at hatch and the level of dietary methionine supplementation of diets were evaluated. a total of 1,984 males chicks (agross with two initial weights (40 and 45 g were used. these birds were fed a pre starter diets supplemented with different levels of methionine (0,455 %; 0,507 %; 0,559 % e 0,611 %. all the diets had the same amount of metabolizable energy and crude protein. the birds were randomly distributed in a factorial design (two body weights and four levels of methionine. four replicate and 62 birds per replicate were used. these results showed that the interaction between initial weight and methionine levels was not statistically significant. The methionine levels did not affect the performance and the carcass yield of the birds at 47 days. chicks with the initial different weight were similar at 47 days and the supplementation of the methionine in pre starter diets did not affect the performance of the birds.
KEY-WORDS: carcass yield, feed intake, feed-to-gain ratio, wieght gain.
avaliou-se o efeito do peso do pinto e da suplementação
de metionina na ração pré-inicial sobre o desempenho
e rendimento de carcaça de frangos. foram utilizados
1.984 pintos machos, com dois pesos iniciais de 40 e 45 g. as rações experimentais eram fareladas e isocalóricas e isoprotéicas, variando os níveis de metionina apenas na ração pré-inicial (0,455 %; 0,507 %; 0,559 % e 0,611%. o delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (dois pesos x quatro níveis de metionina, quatro repetições e 62 aves por parcela. não houve interação entre o peso do pinto e os níveis de metionina em todas variáveis (P>0,05. A metionina não influenciou o desempenho nem rendimento de carcaça e de cortes (p>0,05. pintos com pesos de 40 e 45g foram semelhantes com relação ao desempenho e rendimento de carcaça ou partes, aos 47 dias, e os níveis diferentes de metionina
Wu, Q J; Zhou, Y M; Wu, Y N; Wang, T
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.
Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P
1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yeast glucomannan (YG and sodium bentonite (SB in reducing the toxicity in broilers fed a diet naturally contaminated with aflatoxin. Three hundred 7-day-old Ross 308 strain broilers were chosen and randomly assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes in the liver were investigated at 42 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing 250 ppb of aflatoxin displayed a decrease in uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and an increase in serum activities of AST and ALT when compared to control group. There were considerable gross and histopathological hepatic lesions (P < 0.05 in the form of small to moderate hydropic and/or fatty degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, periportal fibrosis, cells infiltration, and congestion, in chickens fed the 250 ppb aflatoxincontaining diet. The addition of YG and SB to the aflatoxin-containing diet partially reduced the negative effects of aflatoxin. The 0.1% YG supplementation to the aflatoxin-contaminated diet significantly prevented the pathological effect of aflatoxin on serum biochemical parameters and liver, and was found to be more effective than other treatments.
Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.
Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.
Rungcharoen, P; Therdthai, N; Dhamvithee, P; Attamangkune, S; Ruangpanit, Y; Ferket, P R; Amornthewaphat, N
Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn) of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (pviscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF.
Rochell, S J; Applegate, T J; Kim, E J; Dozier, W A
This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and 88 Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.45 m(2) per bird) were randomly assigned to 24 cages (6 replicate cages per treatment) at 1 d of age. Experimental diets were 1) corn-soybean meal-based (CSM) diet containing porcine meat and bone meal (MBM; 5% inclusion), 2) CSM diet containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 5% inclusion), 3) semipurified (SP) diet containing MBM (38% inclusion), and 4) SP diet containing DDGS (76% inclusion). Diets were formulated to contain 20% CP and were adequate for vitamins and minerals. Experimental diets were provided from d 14 to 22. On d 18, a total excreta collection was conducted every hour for 12 h from 0800 to 1900 h to determine ROP, and AIAAD was determined on d 22. Time of 1% TiO(2) excretion (T1), 50% TiO(2) excretion (T50), and mean retention time (MRT) were used to express ROP. The SP-MBM diet reached T1 (P MBM, CSM-MBM, and CSM-DDGS diets, which resulted in values of 5.48, 5.62, and 5.58 h, respectively. In general, the AIAAD values were higher (P MBM. Based on T50 and MRT, SP diets containing DDGS had a faster ROP in broilers than CSM diets or SP diets containing MBM.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P ＜0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P ＜0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P ＞0. 05).
Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.
Cao, Jigang; Wang, Wenjun
The effects of astaxanthin (ASTA) and esterified glucomannan (EMG) on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed on aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) contaminated diet were investigated. Two hundred and forty 10-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments including: (i) control diet; (ii) AFB1-contaminated diet; (iii) AFB1 + EGM diet; (iv) AFB1 + ASTA diet; and (v) AFB1 + EGM + ASTA diet. At 35 days old, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results indicated that total white blood cell (WBC) number, hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) level, serum alanine amino transferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, red blood cell (RBC) number, serum globulin (GLB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (P contaminated diet. EMG and ASTA alleviated the alteration of RBC, WBC, Hgb and AST caused by AFB1-contaminated diet. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced, while myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by AFB1-contaminated diet (P contaminated diet. It suggested that feeding 0.4 mg/kg AFB1-contaminated diet resulted in adverse effects on blood parameters and liver morphology. Dietary addition of EGM addition at 5 g/kg diet, ASTA at 10 mg/kg diet and especially their combination showed positive protection effects on alleviating the alteration of feeding AFB1. The results indicated that supplementation of 5 g EGM/kg diet, 10 mg ASTA/kg diet and their combination could partially or greatly alleviate the adverse effects caused by AFB1, with the EGM+ASTA group receiving the most effective treatment.
Coccidiosis causes mucosal damage and predisposes birds to enteropathogen infection. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to evaluate effects of coccidiosis on the intestinal microflora of broilers given diets without feed additives or supplemented with either a growth promotant antibiotic and an...
Desempenho, digestibilidade, composição corporal e morfologia intestinal de pintos de corte recebendo dietas contendo levedura de cana-de-açúcar = Performance, digestibility, body composition and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed diets containing yeast cane sugar
Cláudia da Costa Lopes
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade das dietas, a retenção corporal de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal de pintos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de levedura de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se 300 pintos de corte, com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de 0; 1,25; 2,5; 3,75 e 5,0% de inclusão de levedura. Não houve efeito da levedura sobre o desempenho zootécnico. Houve redução no coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, na energia metabolizável aparente e a aparente corrigida com os níveis crescentes. O nível de 2,09% promoveu menor retenção corporal de proteína bruta, enquanto a retenção de gordura foi linear crescente. A altura de vilos e relação vilo:cripta do jejuno aumentou linearmente, a profundidade das criptas do íleo apresentaram menorprofundidade no nível de 2,40% de levedura. A inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar até 5% em dietas de pintos na fase pré-inicial não afeta o desempenho zootécnico, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal; entretanto, reduz a energia metabolizável das dietas e aumenta a retenção de gordura corporal.The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility of diets, body retention of nutrients and the development of intestinalmucosa of post hatching broilers, of one up to eight day old, fed diets containing different levels of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was used 300 one day old chicks in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% inclusion of yeast. No effect of yeast on performance. There was a reduction in the coefficients of apparent metabolizable of gross energy, apparent
Waldroup, P W; Hellwig, H M; Johnson, Z B; Fell, R V; Grant, R J; Damron, B L; Hebert, J A; Siccardi, F J; Primo, R A
Studies were conducted at six locations over a 7-yr period to evaluate the response of broiler chickens to bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and roxarsone in the presence of diets containing 3 ppm halofuginone/kg feed. Treatments consisted of a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 0 or 55 mg BMD and 0 or 50 mg roxarsone/kg feed. These additives were fed beginning with day-old chicks and were removed 6 days before termination of the study, which varied in length from 48 to 56 days among locations. Body weights were significantly improved (P less than .05) by the addition of either BMD or roxarsone with a significant interaction (P less than .05) between BMD and roxarsone. Roxarsone improved body weights only in the presence of BMD. Feed utilization was significantly (P less than .05) improved by addition of either BMD or roxarsone, with no interaction between the two products.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.
Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.
The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...
Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G
This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the
Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B
This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment.
Perfil lipídico e maciez da carne de coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes lipídicas Lipidic profile and tenderness of thigh and drumstick meat of broilers fed diets supplemented with different lipid sources
diets, eight replicates and 49 birds per experimental unit was used. In the starter phase, birds received diets formulated with soybean oil, cottonseed oil, poultry offal oil, or beef tallow, and during the growing phase, each one of these diets was dismembered in two diets, so one group of birds kept receiving the same oil source used in the previous phase while the other group started to receive soybean oil in the diet. In this phase, it was used a complete random design with seven diets, each one with four replicates. There was an effect of the diets on the profile of the fatty acids in the thigh. In the experiment 2, during the starter phase (from 1 to 21 days of age, the birds received the same diets with 3% of soybean oil, and in the growing phase (from 22 to 42 days of age, they received five diets each one with a lipidic source (soybean, canola oil, sunflower oil, poultry offal oil and beef tallow evaluated in a complete random design with six replicates and 30 birds per experimental unity. It was not observed effect of the diets on pH and shear force. However, diets influence the profile of fatty acids in the thigh because accordingly to the results, the increment of the rations with oil sources promote changes on lipid composition of the broiler thigh meat, so the best profile of fatty acids is observed in the meat of animals fed ration containing soybean oil.
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.
Maliheh Amiri Dumari
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.
Hemme, A; Spark, M; Wolf, P; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J
In two fattening trials (in each 100 broilers kept in four groups with 25 animals) as well as in a balance trial (four groups with four broilers in a group) the effects of inorganic phosphorus sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (dihydrate; DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP)] in broiler diets were examined. The four diets contained up to 9 g calcium and 6 g phosphorus per kg and comparable energy and nutrient contents. Controls were fed a commercial diet with Ca-Na-phosphate as inorganic phosphorus source supplemented by phytase. In both fattening trials body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were proved as well as the calcium and phosphorus levels in serum, the breaking strength of tibia or humerus and the femur mineralization (ash content in the fat free dry matter). Furthermore, in the balance trial the retention of calcium and phosphorus was determined by calculation (intake minus excretion) as well as by analysis of body composition. On a high performance level (that was only slightly influenced by the different treatments), the addition of DFP resulted in significantly reduced phosphorus availability (estimated by analysis of the whole carcass: control/MCP/DCP/DFP: 48.6/46.0/45.7/35.5%). The significantly reduced phosphorus level in serum (1.77 +/- 0.20/1.77 +/- 0.24/1.73 +/- 0.28 1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/l) indicates the lower phosphorus retention in broilers given DFP. Furthermore, the crude ash content (582 +/- 17.6/580 +/- 18.6/563 +/- 15.2/547 +/- 29.7 g/kg fat free DM) and the breaking strength of bones (in right tibia in trial 2: 232 +/- 82.4/227 +/- 51.5/232 +/- 41.7/196 +/- 655 N) were lowest when given DFP. For diagnostic purposes it is of special interest that the phosphorus levels in the serum reflected markedly the different concentrations of available phosphorus in the diet.
Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight.
Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.
Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.
Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M
Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.
CA Gonçalves; MA de Almeida; JA Faria-Júnior; MF Pinto; Garcia-Neto,M
Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 bir...
Ratert, C; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J
To prove the hypothesis that the physical form of diet affects the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers, 7-day-old birds were allotted to one of four groups and fed botanically, and nearly also chemically identical diets, differing in grinding and further compaction. In total, two birds from each group (age 14 days) were administered on average 1.06 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of Salmonella Enteritidis directly into the crop by gavage and immediately put back as "seeder birds" into their respective groups. The salmonella status of each bird was analyzed by cloacal swabs, and at postmortem examination, cecal content and liver tissue samples were taken. Shedding (measured by cloacal swabs) was reduced significantly (P 2 mm. In this study the physical form of diet affected the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly.
Christian Paul P. de la Cruz
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp. corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control, 25%, and 50% (experimental replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05 as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05. In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01 from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005 per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.
Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.
Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different levels of desiccated ox bile (DOB; 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50% and organic acid (OA; 0.00, 0.15, and 0.30% of the diet on performance, fat digestibility, blood metabolites and ileal digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing 5% tallow, in a completely randomized design with a 3×3 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates in each treatment, 360 day-old Ross male broiler chickens were used. The isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter and grower diets were fed ad libitum to chickens from 0-21 and 21-42 days of age, respectively. Feed intake (FI, body weight gains (BWG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was measured for starter (7-21d and grower periods (21-42 days of age. Chromic oxide at the rate of 3 g/kg was added to experimental diets to determine fat digestibility at 19-21 and 40-42 days of age. Serum cholesterol (Chol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and ileal digesta viscosity were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. Addition of DOB significantly increased BWG during 7 to 42d of age and FCR during 7 to 21 was improved. Although fat digestibility significantly increased by supplemental 0.50% DOB and 0.15% OA in the starter period, no interaction was observed between dietary DOB and OA for these parameters. Dietary OA had no effect on blood parameters, but supplemental 0.50% DOB significantly increased blood chemistry. Interaction between DOB and OA showed an increasing effect in Chol and TG at 42 days of age. Digesta viscosity was remained unchanged by dietary treatments. The results of this study indicated that supplementation of DOB in the diet significantly increased BWG and measured blood metabolites. Dietary supplementation of DOB increased fat digestibility of the birds fed diet containing 5% tallow.
Jamal Abo OMAR
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.
Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R
The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.
孙宏选; 高秀华; 杨禄良
本试验研究了玉米-豆粕型日粮中添加高剂量不同水平的植酸酶对0～3和4～6周肉鸡养分利用率的影响.选用1日龄AA肉鸡公雏576只,随机分为6组,每组8个重复,每个重复12只.试验日粮分0～3和4～6周两个阶段,6个处理组:正对照组(前期为总磷0.69%,0.45%NPP;后期为总磷0.59%,0.35%NPP);负对照组(前期总磷0.60%,0.35%NPP;后期为总磷0.49%,0.25%NPP);4个试验组在负对照日粮中分别添加500、2000、8000和32000 FTU/kg 4种植酸酶水平.结果显示:①日粮添加高剂量不同水平的植酸酶显著影响生长前期(17～21日龄)肉鸡的钙、磷的消化利用率(P＜0.05),随着植酸酶添加水平增加,钙的消化利用率显著增加(P＜0.05).②日粮添加高剂量不同水平的植酸酶显著影响38～42日龄肉鸡磷的消化利用率(P＜0.05).在负对照组日粮中随着植酸酶水平添加的提高,钙的消化利用率呈现先增加后降低的趋势,磷的养分利用率反而显著减少.③日粮添加高剂量不同水平植酸酶显著增加生长前期(17～21日龄)肉鸡的粗蛋白质的消化利用率和表观代谢能(P＜0.05),在生长后期(38～42日龄)对肉鸡的粗蛋白质的消化利用率和表观代谢能提高达到显著水平(P＜0.05).因此,高剂量不同水平的植酸酶显著提高肉鸡AME和粗蛋白质,钙、磷的消化利用率,添加高水平植酸酶可以适当调低日粮能量和蛋白质水平,日粮中总磷(tP)水平应低于NRC标准,减少无机磷和钙的添加量,以提高钙、磷在体内的存留量.%An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in cornsoy-based diets on nutrient availability of broiler chickens. A totalof 576 one-day old male Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments,consisting of 8 pens of 12 birds each,and were fed two periods experimental diets from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d. The diets include a positive control
comparison to the control and RC HP diets. A tendency to improve the performance results for diets with rape cake (RC HP in comparison to the control diet in the second period of fattening (grower diets was observed. Application of rape cake into the diets had a significantly beneficial effect on slaughter yield, fleshiness and fatty acid composition of meat, but not so on the heart muscle, whereas phytase did not have an influence on slaughter results. It was concluded that rape cake can be used in broiler diets, but a quantity of 15% in the starter and 20% in the grower diet may have a negative effect on the heart of so fed birds.
Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the interactions between aflatoxin (500 or 250 ppb and ochratoxin (500 or 250 ppb, and the possible benefits of adding yeast cell wall to prevent the effects of these mycotoxins in broiler chickens. Relative organ weight gain and live performance were evaluated at 21 and 42 days of age. Results indicated that at the levels of mycotoxins included in the experimental diets, ochratoxin reduced feed intake and body weight gain, and aflatoxin only affect feed intake of 21-day-old birds. No interaction was observed between aflatoxin and ochratoxin at the levels used in experimental study. Yeast cell wall did not significantly reduced the deleterious effects of ochratoxins. No significant differences were observed in relative organ weight gain. Yeast cell wall improved feed conversion ratio when birds were fed either contaminated or non-contaminated feeds.
Lima, E M C; Rodrigues, P B; Alvarenga, R R; Bernardino, V M P; Makiyama, L; Lima, R R; Cantarelli, V S; Zangeronimo, M G
The objective of this study was to determine the apparent metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of some products containing glycerine from soybean oil (GOIL), a mixture of frying oil and lard (GMIX) and a semi-purified process (GSP) in broilers of different ages (10, 20, 30 and 40 days post-hatching), using two methodologies. In trial 1, the basal diets were replaced with 100 g/kg of each studied glycerine product and the diets were supplied ad libitum. Three hundred broilers were used in five replicates, with five, four, three and three animals per cage in each age group, respectively. The AMEn was calculated for each experimental unit. In trial 2, dietary treatments included the addition of glycerine at 0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg for each crude glycerine product, with 900 broilers in six replicates, using the same number of animals per cage as described in trial 1. Depending on the experimental unit, the feeding was restricted in 88%, 92%, 96% and 100% of estimated intake according to the Cobb guide. The AMEn was determined using linear regression between the feed intake and the AMEn of each diet. In both trials, the total excreta collection method was used. Because of the chemical composition, GMIX was not considered crude glycerine. The mean AMEn values of the products were 20.55 MJ/kg, 15.80 MJ/kg and 15.05 MJ/kg for GMIX, GSP and GOIL, respectively. There was a linear decrease (p values with the increasing age of the broilers. Numerically, it was observed that the AMEn values decreased until 28-30 day post-hatching and then remained constant until the finishing phase. It is concluded that products containing glycerine can be used as an energy source for broilers, but that AMEn values can vary according to age. Younger broilers have a higher capacity of energy utilisation from these feedstuffs.
Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003
Cibele Silva Minafra
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com a enzima α-amilase produzida por dois microrganismos. Produziram-se dois extratos, um com a-amilase obtida a partir de Cryptococcus flavus em meio de levedura comercial e outro com Aspergillus niger HM2003 em meio de proteína de soja e amido comercial, com atividade de 9,58 U/mL e 10,0 U/mL, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 360 pintos de corte Cobb 500 de 1 dia de idade e com 49,72 ± 0,68 g de peso vivo inicial. As aves foram alojadas em baterias e foram criadas até os 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados três dietas, cada uma com cinco repetições de 12 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A primeira dieta (basal foi formulada sem adição de enzima e as outras duas receberam a suplementação de a-amilase produzida por cultivo de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. Dietas à base de milho e soja foram formuladas em duas fases: pré-inicial (1-7 dias e inicial (8-21 dias. Na fase pré-inicial, foram observados os seguintes valores médios para cálcio (6,90 e 5,99 mg/dL, proteína plasmática (2,0 e 2,50 g/dL e fosfatase alcalina (979,98 e 974,66 UI/L, respectivamente para Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. A dieta acrescida de a-amilase obtida a partir de Aspergillus niger HM2003 determinou maior concentração sérica de fósforo. Na fase inicial, os resultados significativos relacionaram-se a potássio quando avaliadas dietas com adição de a-amilase pelas duas fontes. A incorporação das enzimas testadas não proporciona alterações metabólicas ou toxicidade nos animais.It was evaluated the biochemical serum profile of broilers fed rations supplemented with α-amylase produced by two microorganisms. Two extracts were produced, one was produced with a-amylase obtained from Cryptococcus flavus in a commercial yeast-based medium and the other with Aspergillus niger HM2003 produced in soybean protein and commercial starch medium
Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A
This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (pproduction was highest (pproduction, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.
Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi
Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
and eight repetitions, and the experimental unit consisted of 40 birds. To submit birds to the challenge, a basal diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal and meat and bones meal, was adopted used litter, cleaning of water troughs twice a week and were offered weekly water contaminated with litter. The variables evaluated were villus height and crypt depth of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, feed intake, weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. There was improvement in crypt depth in jejunum and in villus height in ileum of birds fed diets containing MOS. The addition of MOS, regardless of source, resulted in improvement in feed conversion ratio than birds of NC, and were similar to the birds of PC. The mannan oligosaccharides can be used as an alternative additive to growth promoters in diets for broiler chickens, but depending on the source, this can result in small differences in bird performance.
Driver, J P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M
There is considerable data on the effect of reducing inorganic Ca and P in broiler finisher diets on carcass quality. However, there is limited information on the effect of reducing dietary Ca and P during the different phases of growout. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 35 d in floor pens. In both experiments, at least 4 replicates per treatment (50 chicks per replicate) were used. Corn-soybean meal and soybean oil-based diets deficient in Ca and P were fed. During the starter phase (ST), from 0 to 18 d, chicks were fed a 23% CP diet containing 0.60% Ca and 0.47% total P (tP). During the grower-finisher phase (GF), from 19 to 35 d, birds were fed a 19% CP diet containing 0.30% Ca and 0.37% tP. A combination of 1,000 phytase units/kg of Natuphos phytase and 5 microg/kg of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (P + 1alpha) was supplemented to some of the feed during the ST and GF. Diets containing adequate Ca and P were also fed during the ST (0.90% Ca and 0.68% tP) and GF (0.80% Ca and 0.67% tP). The level of tibia ash and the incidence of bone disease were measured at 18 and 35 d. At the end of the experiments, birds were processed and evaluated for muscle hemorrhages and broken bones. In both experiments, broilers fed diets that were not P + 1alpha supplemented demonstrated poor bone mineralization, considerable leg problems, and a high incidence of broken bones after processing. Broilers fed P + 1alpha throughout had more broken clavicles and femurs compared with birds fed the adequate diets. Day-18 tibia ash was significantly correlated to broken tibias and femurs during processing. Day-35 tibia ash was better correlated to bloody breast meat than to broken bones. It is concluded that carcass quality depends on the levels of Ca and P fed and the age of the bird. Tibia ash, traditionally used as an indication of bone strength, was better correlated to the incidence of bloody breasts.
Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.
Ruiz-Feria, C A; Kidd, M T; Wideman, R F
Two experiments (Experiment 1 and 2) were conducted to evaluate growth performance, ascites mortality, and concentrations of plasma Arg, urea, and ornithine in male broilers raised in floor pens (2 x 4 factorial experiment, six pens for treatment) and exposed to cool temperatures averaging 16 C after 21 d of age. Broilers were fed low- or high-CP diets in both Experiments. In Experiment 1, Arg treatments consisted of control (no supplemental Arg); 0.15 or 0.3% supplemental Arg in the diet (low- and medium-Arg feed, respectively); and 0.3% supplemental Arg in the drinking water (Arg-water). Arginine levels were increased in Experiment 2 and consisted of the following: control (no supplemental Arg); 0.3 or 0.85% supplemental Arg in the diet (medium- and high-Arg feed, respectively); and 0.6% supplemental Arg in the drinking water (Arg-water). The water treatment followed a 3-d cyclic regimen, with supplemental Arg being provided for 24 h, followed by tap water for 48 h. When the broilers reached 37 d of age and all groups had consumed tap water for the previous 48 h, blood samples were collected from one bird per pen (Time 0, 0700 h); then supplemental Arg was provided in the Arg-water group, and additional blood samples were collected from the control and Arg-water groups at 3, 6, 12, and 36 h after Time 0. Plasma amino acids were analyzed using HPLC. Birds fed the high-CP diet were heavier at 49 d than birds fed the low-CP diet in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. No differences were found in feed conversion or ascites mortality due to CP or Arg treatments in either experiment. In both experiments, plasma Arg was similar for all groups at Time 0, but increased in the Arg-water group at 3, 6, and 12 h after Arg was provided in the water. Within 12 h after returning to tap water, plasma Arg levels of the Arg-water group did not differ from the control group. Plasma urea and ornithine were parallel to plasma Arg concentrations, and the high-CP diets resulted in
Lin, H; Sui, S J; Jiao, H C; Jiang, K J; Zhao, J P; Dong, H
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of preslaughter physiological states mimicked by long- or short-term administration of corticosterone (CORT) and dietary energy sources on muscle glycogen contents and meat quality of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, the broilers were fed a high lipid diet (LD) or a normal diet (ND) that differed in carbohydrate (3.8%) and lipid (2.5%) contents from 21 d of age. From 28 d of age onwards, 50% of the chickens in each dietary treatment were subjected to CORT treatment (30 mg/kg of diet). At 7 and 11 d after CORT supplementation, musculus pectoralis major was sampled before and immediately after slaughter and analyzed for glycogen, pH, and R-value. In experiment 2, broilers, fed with the LD or ND diet from 21 d of age were subjected to 1 single s.c. injection of CORT (4 mg/kg of BW) for 3 h to mimicked acute stress at 46 d of age. In experiment 3, broiler chickens were supplied with water supplemented with glucose (30 g/L) for 1 wk before slaughter and were then subjected to the same CORT treatment as experiment 2. Blood and muscle samples were respectively obtained before and immediately after slaughter and analyzed for plasma glucose, urate and lactic acid, and muscle variables. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urate were significantly increased by acute CORT administration, whereas the lactic acid was not changed. Neither dietary energy source nor water glucose supplementation had any influence on the plasma variables. Dietary energy source or water glucose supplementation could not alter glycogen stores in musculus pectoralis major. Breast muscle glycogen stores were increased by stress mimicked by long-term CORT administration rather than by acute treatment. Preslaughter stress reactions had no relation to the depletion of breast muscle glycogen during the initial postmortem period. The initial breast muscle pH was significantly decreased by long-term CORT administration. The result suggests that short
An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.
Lei, Xinjian; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Zhang, Hongyu; Péron, Alexandre; Zhang, Huifang
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control), and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30) or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60). Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42). Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and finisher (d 42) phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; pvirginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM) and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05) compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control group (p<0.01). In addition, the population of Lactobacillus was increased in DFM 30 and DFM 60 groups as compared with control and AGP groups (p<0.01). It can be concluded that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM could be an
Vilarrasa, E; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified oils, differing in their degree of saturation and molecular structure, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in broiler chicken diets. For this purpose, 144 one-d-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 48 cages. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 6% of native palm oil ( PN: ), acid palm oil ( PA: ), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- ( MAG: ) and diacylglycerols ( DAG: ) ( PEL: ), re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG ( PEH: ), native soybean oil ( SN: ), acid soybean oil ( SA: ), re-esterified soybean oil low in MAG and DAG ( SEL: ), or re-esterified soybean oil high in MAG and DAG ( SEH: ), which resulted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility balances showed that the degree of saturation of fat generally exerted a greater impact than did the fat molecular structure. The dietary utilization of S sources was higher than that of P sources. However, the increased sn-2 saturated fatty acid ( SFA: ) content of EL oils in the starter period and the increased MAG and DAG content of EH oils in the grower-finisher period yielded favorable effects on the SFA apparent absorption, especially in those birds fed re-esterified palm oils. The excreta acylglycerol and free fatty acid composition was mainly composed of free fatty acids, and their amount almost paralleled the results observed for SFA apparent absorption. For growth performance, birds fed S exhibited better feed conversion ratios and lower abdominal fat-pad weights than did those fed P. The fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue was also mainly affected by the degree of saturation of dietary fat sources. We concluded that re-esterified oils, mainly from P sources, can be used in broiler chicken diets as alternative fat sources since they show similar or even higher total fatty acid apparent absorption than do their corresponding native and acid oils, with
Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K
The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry.
Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts.
Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.
Full Text Available A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.
Características produtivas e imunológicas de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com cromo, criados sob diferentes condições de ambiente Productive and immunological traits of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with chromium, reared under different environmental conditions
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a resposta imune e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas suplementadas com cromo complexado a levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisae, criados em diferentes condições de temperatura. O experimento foi conduzido em câmaras climáticas com sistema de aquecimento e refrigeração, utilizando-se as seguintes condições de temperatura, de acordo com as idades: 1 a 3 dias (35, 35 e 35 ºC ± 2, 4 a 7 dias (35, 30, 25 ºC ± 2, 8 a 14 dias (34, 27 e 20 ºC ± 2, 15 a 21 dias (33, 26 e 18 ºC ± 2 e de 22 a 47 dias (32, 26 e 18 ºC ± 2, respectivamente, para temperatura quente, termoneutra e fria. As dietas foram suplementadas com 0, 400, 800, 1.200 μg Cr/kg. A suplementação de 400 μg Cr/kg melhora a viabilidade e, em aves mantidas em temperatura quente, a conversão alimentar, enquanto a temperatura de criação mostrou ter grande influência sobre as características produtivas em todas as fases de criação. As aves criadas em temperatura quente apresentam melhor resposta imune, maior rendimento de carcaça e pernas e resultados inferiores de desempenho e rendimento de peito.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate performance, immune response and traits concerning carcass and poultry cuts of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with chromium-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae, reared under different environmental temperature conditions. Birds were reared in climate chambers with heating and cooling system, using the following environmental temperatures according to ages: from 1 to 3 days of age (35, 35 and 35 ºC ± 2, from 4 to 7 days of age (35, 30 and 25 ºC ± 2, from 8 to 14 days old (34, 27 and 20 ºC ± 2, from 15 to 21 days of age (33, 26 and 18 ºC ± 2 and from 22 to 47 days of age (32, 26 and 18 ºC ± 2, respectively, for high, thermoneutral and low temperatures. Diets were supplemented with 0; 400; 800; and 1,200 μg Cr/kg. Supplementation with 400 μg Cr
Peng, Xi; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Zhang, Keying; Fang, Jing
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying basis for aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression in the broiler chicken by detecting pathological lesions and apoptosis in thymus, bursa of Fabricius (BF) and spleen. COBB500™ male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to two groups. The control group was fed on a basal corn-based diet while the other group (the AFB group) was fed on a similar diet but the corn was naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Histopathological examination revealed that in the AFB group there was more nuclear debris in the three immune organs and obvious congestion of red pulp in the spleen, when compared with the control group. Ultrastructural examination showed lesions in the lymphocytes and reticulocytes of the three immune organs, the mucosal epithelium of the BF and the plasmocytes of the spleen. Increased apoptotic cells and an impaired membrane system (including nuclear membrane, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum [ER]) could be observed in the three immune organs in birds of the AFB group. In the plasmocytes, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum contained electron-dense matrix. By flow cytometry, the percentages of apoptosis were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the three organs of the AFB group than those of the control group. These observations suggested that the lesions of the immune organs were related to the immunosuppression, and that the apoptosis might be initiated by the mitochondrial pathway and ER chaperone pathway.
Background and Problem Statement There is a great interest in recent years to replace soybean meal by cost effective protein sources such as rapeseed meal and maize gluten in animal feed. In poultry, this replacement, however, may result in a poorer performance due to among others i
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed
Corzo, A; Dozier, W A; Loar, R E; Kidd, M T; Tillman, P B
1. The dietary limitation of isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) was evaluated in broilers. Common diets were given to all broilers from 0 to 28 d of age. Experimental diets were provided from 28 to 42 d of age. 2. The experimental test diet was based primarily on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal, and formulated to satisfy all nutrient recommendations with the exception of Ile and Val. 3. Diets were supplemented with L-Ile and L-Val at either 0·5 or 1·0 g kg⁻¹ of diet, alone or in combination. A diet composed only of commercially available amino acids and formulated to satisfy all nutrient requirements served as a positive control. 4. Body weight gain was depressed by the test diet, but recovered to a weight similar to birds fed on the positive control when Val was added to the test diet either alone or in combination with Ile. Feed efficiency improved when Val and Ile were simultaneously supplemented. 5. Abdominal fat yield was reduced with the combined supplementation of Val and Ile. Breast meat yield appeared to be more sensitive to Ile supplementation than to Val. 6. The results suggest that live performance may be more sensitive to Val, while breast meat yield was maximised with Ile supplementation. However, their combination is required for optimised growth and meat yield.
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...
Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.
Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.
Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response
Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.
Ekmay, Ricardo; Gatrell, Stephanie; Lum, Krystal; Kim, Jonggun; Lei, Xin Gen
Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional and metabolic impacts of defatted green microalgal (Desmodesmus sp.) biomass (DGM), protease, and nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPase) in diets for weanling pigs and broiler chicks. Pigs fed 10% DGM for 28 days had growth performance comparable to the controls, but 23-39% lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea nitrogen concentrations. Broilers fed 15% DGM had 16% greater (P < 0.05) gain/feed efficiency than the control (0.78 vs 0.67) over the 42 day period. Supplemental protease (0.06%) decreased (P < 0.03) plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs on day 14, whereas supplemental NSPase showed negative effects in broilers. Dietary inclusions of DGM or enzymes altered (P < 0.05-0.1) hepatic and muscle protein levels of key regulators in the mTOR pathway. In conclusion, weanling pigs and broiler chicks tolerated dietary inclusions of 10 and 15% DGM, respectively, and adding protease might help digestion.
Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.
When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.
Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S
Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P after institution of the withdrawal design. Degradation of total n-3 FAs deposited in tissues occurred after instituting the withdrawal plan diet, but deposited levels of EPA and DHA in tissues could ensure omega-3 enrichment of broiler meat in groups 3 and 4. On the basis of the dissatisfaction of the panelists toward group 4 meats (scored as near to acceptable) and their satisfaction with cooked samples of T3 (scored as good), group 3 meats were selected as good-quality n-3-enriched broiler meat.
Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.
Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.
Full Text Available Several changes in amino acid levels occur during an infection. As a rule, glycine, taurine and serine levels diminish considerably, while cysteine levels increase. Such changes may be attributed to the intense consumption of sulfur amino acids (SAA- methionine+cysteine during infectious challenge. Methionine plays an important role in humoral and cellular immune responses. It has been suggested that such effect is exerted by intracellular glutathione and cysteine levels. Four-hundred thirty-two day-old Ross male broiler chickens were fed (from 1 to 42 days of age three SAA levels in the diet (0.72, 0.82, and 0.92% from 1 to 21 days of age; 0.65, 0.75, and 0.85% from 22 to 42 days of age and submitted to two immunological stimulus series. Vaccines against Marek's disease, Fowlpox, Infectious Bronchitis and Infectious Bursal disease, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, and avian tuberculin were used as immunological stimuli. The experiment comprised 6 treatments, with 6 replications using 12 birds per replicate. Performance data were collected weekly. Gumboro antibodies were measured by ELISA, and the cellular immune response by the tuberculin test. SAA levels tested did not influence immune response. Nevertheless, the vaccines applied on the 1st day impaired chick performance up to the 21 days of age. The SAA levels generally adopted in poultry husbandry may not be enough to assure weight gain, especially when birds are raised if a low-challenge infectious environment.
Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous
Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control
Heres, Lourens; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Knapen, Frans; Urlings, Bert A P
In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentration of lactic and acetic acid and lactobacilli. One and three week old broiler chickens were necropsied at short intervals after inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis. Counts of Salmonella from the crop, gizzard, duodenum, caecum and colon/rectum were obtained. This revealed a sharper decrease of Salmonella in the anterior parts of the gastro-intestinal tract in chickens fed with fermented feed than in chickens fed dry feed. It is therefore concluded that fermented feed improves the barrier formed by the crop and gizzard. The reduction of Salmonella is fully realised in the crop and gizzard. The lower intestinal compartment did not show a substantial effect on the reduction of Salmonella. The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.
Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A
Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.
Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran
Ademir José Conte
Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron
Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare
Evandro de Abreu Fernandes
Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.
Zavarize, K C [UNESP; Sartori,José Roberto; Pelícia, V C [UNESP; Pezzato, Antonio Celso [UNESP; Araujo, P C; Stradiotti, A C [UNESP; Madeira, L A [UNESP
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing glutamine and nucleotides on growth performance and development intestinal morphology in broiler chicks. In the trial, 600 male broiler chicks distributed in randomized blocks in a 3x2 factorial arrangement (consisting of a uniform basal diet supplemented with: 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0% glutamine, and 0.0 or 0.04% nucleotides), for a total of 6 treatments with 25 birds each. Means of performance (weight, weight gain, feed intake, fee...
Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.
Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.
We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment consiste
Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R
A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the use of different growth promoters on the morphometry and ultra-structure of the intestinal mucosa of 42-day-old broilers. A total number of 36 male Cobb broilers was distributed in a randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with 3 prebiotic and 3 probiotic sources in the feed, summing up 9 treatments, with 4 replicates each. There was a significant interaction (P<0.01 among the studied factor for villi height (VH in all intestinal segments, and for crypt depth (CD in the duodenum and the ileum. In the duodenum, higher villi were obtained in the control group, with the combination of B. subtilis and prebiotics, and with the single use of MOS+OA. No VH differences were observed between the control group and those fed prebiotics. In the jejunum, the highest villi were obtained with the use of the bacterial pool, followed by the control group, and by the use of B. subtilis. Higher villi were also obtained in the control group and in the groups fed MOS, when B. subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics, and when the bacterial pool was used individually or in combination with MOS. In the ileum, the highest villi were obtained with the individual use of B. subtilis, and when MOS+OA or MOS were individually used or in combination with the bacterial pool. As to duodenal CD, deeper crypts were observed in the control group and in those fed B. subtilis or MOS+OA. In the ileum, deeper crypts were also found in the control group and those fed B. subtilis. Deeper crypts were also found when the bacterial pool was individually used or in combination with MOS+OA, and with the individual use of MOS. It was concluded that the use of growth promoters was beneficial to increase intestinal villi height when Bacillus subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics. The other growth promoters (MOS+OA, MOS, and bacterial pool, can be individually used in most situations. The tested
H. DUWA; Saleh, B.; M. LAMIDO; A. SAIDU
An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120) Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed ...
Desempenho, digestibilidade, composição corporal e morfologia intestinal de pintos de corte recebendo dietas contendo levedura de cana-de-açúcar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787 Performance, digestibility, body composition and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed diets containing yeast cane sugar - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10787
Jaqueline de Cássia Ramos da Silva
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade das dietas, a retenção corporal de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal de pintos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de levedura de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se 300 pintos de corte, com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de 0; 1,25; 2,5; 3,75 e 5,0% de inclusão de levedura. Não houve efeito da levedura sobre o desempenho zootécnico. Houve redução no coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, na energia metabolizável aparente e a aparente corrigida com os níveis crescentes. O nível de 2,09% promoveu menor retenção corporal de proteína bruta, enquanto a retenção de gordura foi linear crescente. A altura de vilos e relação vilo:cripta do jejuno aumentou linearmente, a profundidade das criptas do íleo apresentaram menor profundidade no nível de 2,40% de levedura. A inclusão da levedura de cana-de-açúcar até 5% em dietas de pintos na fase pré-inicial não afeta o desempenho zootécnico, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento da mucosa intestinal; entretanto, reduz a energia metabolizável das dietas e aumenta a retenção de gordura corporal.The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility of diets, body retention of nutrients and the development of intestinal mucosa of post hatching broilers, of one up to eight day old, fed diets containing different levels of sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was used 300 one day old chicks in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% inclusion of yeast. No effect of yeast on performance. There was a reduction in the coefficients of apparent metabolizable of gross energy, apparent
Desempenho de Frangos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas à Base de Milho e Farelo de Soja, com ou sem Adição de Enzimas Performance of Broilers Fed Corn Soybean Meal Based Diets, with or without Inclusion of Enzymes
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de um composto multi-enzimático à base de proteases, amilases e celulases (Vegpro, adicionado na proporção de 1 kg para cada 200 kg de farelo de soja, na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 2240 pintos, fêmeas, da marca comercial Ross, submetidos a oito tratamentos, com sete repetições. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas divididas. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 (controle positivo -- ração normal, sem enzima, T2 (controle negativo -- ração com níveis energético, protéico e aminoacídico do farelo de soja, superestimados em 5%, sem enzima, T3 (ração normal, sem enzima até 28 dias, com enzima de 29 a 35 dias, T4 (ração normal, sem enzima até 21 dias, com enzima de 22 a 35 dias, T5 (ração normal, com enzima, T6 (até os 28 dias, ração normal com enzima, e ração superestimada com enzima, dos 29 aos 35 dias, T7 (ração normal, com enzima até os 21 dias e ração superestimada, com enzima, do 22º ao 35º dia e T8 (ração superestimada com enzima. Na primeira fase experimental, à exceção do T2, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para peso corporal médio, ganho médio de peso e consumo de ração, pois não foi observado efeito da inclusão de enzima. A conversão alimentar diferiu estatisticamente a 5%. Na quarta semana experimental, novamente o T2 foi o único a diferir a 5% para peso corporal médio e ganho médio de peso. Para consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, os tratamentos não diferiram significativamente. Na última semana, foram notadas as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos. Verificou-se que a inclusão do complexo multi-enzimático não proporcionou ganhos ao desempenho de frangos de corte.This study was run to evaluate the effect of inclusion of an enzymatic cocktail, containing proteases, amilases and cellulases (Vegpro in broiler diets. The
Yarru, L P; Settivari, R S; Gowda, N K S; Antoniou, E; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin, an antioxidant found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), to ameliorate changes in gene expression in the livers of broiler chicks fed aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments, which included the following: A) basal diet containing no AFB(1) or TMP (control), B) basal diet supplemented with TMP (0.5%) that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin, C) basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet, and D) basal diet supplemented with TMP that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin and 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet. Aflatoxin reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake and BW gain and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight. Addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet ameliorated (P < 0.05) the negative effects of AFB(1) on growth performance and liver weight. At the end of the 3-wk treatment period, livers were collected (6 per treatment) to evaluate changes in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant function [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST)], biotransformation [epoxide hydrolase (EH), cytochrome P450 1A1 and 2H1 (CYP1A1 and CYP2H1)], and the immune system [interleukins 6 and 2 (IL-6 and IL-2)]. Changes in gene expression were determined using the quantitative real-time PCR technique. There was no statistical difference in gene expression among the 4 treatment groups for CAT and IL-2 genes. Decreased expression of SOD, GST, and EH genes due to AFB(1) was alleviated by inclusion of TMP in the diet. Increased expression of IL-6, CYP1A1 and CYP2H1 genes due to AFB(1) was also alleviated by TMP. The current study demonstrates partial protective effects of TMP on changes in expression of antioxidant, biotransformation, and immune system genes in livers of chicks fed AFB(1). Practical application of the research is supplementation of TMP in diets to prevent or reduce the
Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens
With a view to alleviate the feeling of hunger in broiler breeders, different types of fibre sources were used in high-fibre diets to increase feed quantity while limiting growth to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (C1: commercial control diet, 1 × fibre content, 80...
Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.
Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J
1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments
João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.
Hanning, I; Clement, A; Owens, C; Park, S H; Pendleton, S; Scott, E E; Almeida, G; Gonzalez Gil, F; Ricke, S C
Pasture-flock-raised poultry are becoming an increasingly popular product, but only limited options are currently available for maintaining gut health. For these producers, prebiotics are an attractive option because they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and can be mixed into the feed and thus do not require adjustments to production protocols. However, if prebiotic treatments reduce production performance, they would not be useful to producers. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure performance of pasture-raised broilers fed 1 of 3 prebiotic treatments. For these trials, 2 breeds of birds were used: Naked Neck slow-growing breeds and Cornish White Rock cross fast-growing breeds. The experimental design was replicated for each breed. A total of 340 birds were split into 4 groups, each group fed one feed additive: 1) galactoligosaccharides (2% wt/wt), 2) fructooligosaccharides (1% wt/wt), 3) plum fibers (1% wt/wt), or 4) no additives. During the 8-wk rearing period, 10 birds from each group were collected and euthanized to take small intestine samples. Histological preparations were made from the small intestine tissue, and 4 measurements of villi height and crypt depth from each cross section were taken. Throughout the study, mortality was monitored and BW measurements were taken at 2-wk intervals. For the Cornish White Rock cross, the group receiving the feed supplemented with fructooligosaccharides had higher (P prebiotics utilized in this study could be used without risk of decreasing production performance, but only for Naked Neck breeds.
Elizabeth Lage Borges
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.
Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes
Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho
Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0
Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.
Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance of broilers fed diets with phytase and crystalline amino acids Balanço de nitrogênio, cálcio e fósforo em frangos de corte recebendo dietas com fitase e aminoácidos cristalinos
Elisangela Minati Gomide
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-crude protein (CP and available phosphorus (aP diets, added with phytase and amino acids for broilers in the growing (14 to 21 days old and retirement (35 to 42 days phases on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus balance. Ninety Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications with five and three birds per experimental unit in the growing and retirement phases, respectively. Diets were elaborated to contain reduced CP and aP levels (19 and 17% CP in the growing phase, with 0.34% aP; and 18 and 16% CP in the retirement phase, with 0.30% aP, supplemented with crystalline amino acids and 500 FTU of phytase/kg diet. These were compared to a control diet (21% CP and 0.46% aP for growing phase and 19% CP and 0.40% aP for retirement phase. The reduction of CP in four percentual units reduced the N excretion and increased the retention of this element, showing that the phytase had no influence on N balance when used the crystalline amino acids in the diets. The phytase reduced the P excretion and increased the retention ones. The potassium excretion decreased in reduced-CP diets, but this excessive reduction decreased the retention of this element, except in the retirement phase. It was concluded that the reduced-CP and aP diets, supplemented with phytase and amino acids, are efficient in reducing the pollutant power of the broilers excrements in the growing and retirement phases of production.Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de rações com reduzidos teores de proteína bruta (PB e fósforo disponível (Pd, suplementadas com fitase e aminoácidos, para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento (14 a 21 dias e terminação (35 a 42 dias de idade sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, potássio e fósforo. Foram utilizados 90 pintos Cobb, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e seis
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age, starter (9 to 21 d of age and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age. A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+ and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p. reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val, with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05 the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05 muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05 carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.
Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion
Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion
S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...
Avisa Akhavan khaleghi
Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA
Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin
Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.
Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.
Enting, H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Winden, van S.C.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Aar, van de P.J.
Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.
Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes relações lisina digestível: proteína bruta Performance and carcass yield of broiler in the period from 22 to 42 days of age fed diets with different digestible lysine: crude protein ratios
Kênia Ferreira Rodrigues
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias alimentados com rações formuladas com diferentes relações lisina digestível:proteína bruta (PB. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo um modelo com dois critérios de classificação hierárquica. Foram utilizados 1.200 pintos de corte machos, linhagem Cobb, criados até 21 dias de idade. Depois desse período, as aves foram uniformizadas por peso (média de 879 ± 17 g e distribuídas nas parcelas experimentais. As dietas foram isonutritivas, exceto quanto aos níveis de PB e lisina digestível, formuladas com dois níveis de PB (17,0 e 19,5% e cinco relações lisina digestível:PB, correspondendo a 5,9; 6,4; 6,9; 7,4 e 7,9% em relação à ração com 17,0% de PB e 5,3; 5,7; 6,1; 6,5 e 6,9% em relação à ração com 19,5% de PB. Cada ração experimental foi fornecida a 20 aves em cada uma das seis repetições. Aos 42 dias, avaliaram-se as características de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, quando duas aves de cada parcela foram abatidas para determinação dos rendimentos de carcaça, de cortes e de gordura abdominal. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou linearmente de acordo com as relações avaliadas no nível de 17,0% PB. Não houve efeito significativo dos dois níveis de PB utilizados sobre o ganho de peso e os rendimentos de carcaça e de partes. A gordura abdominal reduziu linearmente no nível de 19,5% de PB. As relações ideais foram de 5,9% para 17,0% PB e 5,3% para 19,5% PB. O nível de PB da dieta pode ser reduzido para 17,0%, pois essa redução não afeta o desempenho das aves.This paper was developed to evaluate the performance and the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens over the period from 22 to 42 days, fed with diets formulated with different digestible lysine: crude protein (CP ratio. A completely randomized
Full Text Available Introduction Corn and wheat are the grains most routinely used in commercial poultry diets. For consumption of these cereals, there are a competition between humans and mono-gastric animals. Due to corn crop limitation in Iran, approximately 50% of the corn required for poultry nutrition is supplied through imports. Since triticale is more resistant to various diseases, dry weather and in similar culture and weather conditions can produce higher yield than wheat, triticale considered as a crop suitable for cultivation in inefficient lands and its culture in the world has being increased. The use of triticale in broiler feed has been limited because of the presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn by triticale in grower diets with and without exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, relative weight of digestive organs, jejunal morphology, and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods Five hundred 11 d old male broiler chicks (Ross 308, were assigned to a factorial arrangement (5×2 with a completely randomized design with 5 replicates of 10 chicks each. The factors included 5 levels of triticale replacement levels for corn (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% and 2 levels (zero and 0.5 g /kg of diet of enzyme cocktail “Xylanase & β-Glucanase” in the broiler grower diets. The experimental diets were isocalric and isonitrogenous and fed ad-libitum from 11 to 24 d of age. The growth performance as mean body weight at 24 d of age, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At 24d of age, one bird from each pen, close to the average pen weight was selected, weighed, and euthanized by cervical dislocation. The gastrointestinal (GI tract organs were emptied and weighed. Approximately 1.5 g of wet weight of the fresh digesta was immediately placed in a micro centrifuge tube and
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa. A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of cumin and turmeric mixture at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the same time the cumin and turmeric mixture of 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC, WBC, and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of mixture containing cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa as feed additive at levels 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.
Alice E. Murakami
Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.
Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Yu, S H; Wu, S G; Yoon, I; Quigley, J; Gao, Y P; Qi, G H
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture; YC) in broiler diets on performance, digestibility, mucosal development, and immunomodulatory functions. One-day-old Arbor Acres chicks (n = 960) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg of YC in the diet for 42 d. Each treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 20 broilers each. Nutrient digestibility was determined on d 15 and 35 by total fecal collection. On d 21 and 42, 12 birds per treatment were sacrificed to evaluate gut morphology and secretory IgA. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine by eye drop on d 7 and 28 and antibody titer was determined on d 14, 21, 35, and 42. Dietary supplemental YC at 2.5 g/kg improved average daily gain and feed conversion during grower and overall periods (P Yeast culture supplementation increased digestibility of Ca (linear and quadratic, P = 0.01) and P (linear, P = 0.01) on d 35, but did not affect (P > 0.05) protein retention and energy digestibility. Villus height to crypt depth ratios in the duodenum and jejunum (d 42) and ileum (d 21) were increased (P Yeast culture increased antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (linear, P intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. Growth performance was optimized at 2.5 g/kg of YC in the present study. Immune function could be modified with dietary YC supplementation.
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.
Yáñez, J L; Landero, J L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T
Traditional supplemental dietary phytase loses activity during steam pelleting. The thermal tolerance and bioefficacy of a phytase product with a thermoprotective coating [coated phytase (C-phytase)] was compared in mash and pelleted diets to a traditional, uncoated phytase (U-phytase) added to a negative control (NC) diet, formulated with reduced dietary Ca and P, and compared with a corn-soybean meal based positive control (POC) diet. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and third metacarpal bone characteristics were response variables. Weaned pigs (n = 56; 8.20 ± 0.5 kg initial BW; 28 d of age) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets for 21 d. The diets were 1) POC mash, 2) NC mash, 3) NC pelleted at 90°C, 4) NC mash + 500 U/kg U-phytase, 5) NC mash + 500 U/kg C-phytase, 6) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 80°C, and 7) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 90°C. The POC and NC diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isolysinic. The content of Ca and available P was 1.01 and 0.40% and 0.83 and 0.22% in the POC and NC diets, respectively. Pig BW and feed intake were measured on d 7, 14, and 21, and feces were collected for 2 d. On d 21, pigs were killed and ileal digesta and the third metacarpal bone collected. Pigs fed POC had greater (P pigs fed NC. Pelleting the NC diet did not improve performance, nutrient digestibility, or P use. Adding the U-phytase to NC mash diet increased (P pigs fed NC. Pigs fed C-phytase in NC mash diets had increased (P pigs fed NC but not different than pigs fed U-phytase NC mash diets. Pigs fed pelleted NC diet with C-phytase had a greater (P pigs fed mash NC diet with C-phytase but had similar growth performance, AID of CP and AA, and bone mineralization to pigs fed U-phytase. In conclusion, release and bioefficacy of phytase after pelleting was not affected by the thermal protective coating.
Singh, A; Walk, C L; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R; Haldar, S
1. In a 42-d feeding trial, 264 one-d-old, as hatched, Cobb 400 broiler chickens (6 pens per group, n = 11 per pen in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) were fed on two concentrations of dietary calcium (Ca) (9.0 and 7.5 g/kg in starter, 7.5 and 6 g/kg in grower phases) and supplemental phytase (0 and 500 U/kg diet). 2. During d 0-21, the high Ca + phytase diet improved body weight. During d 0-42, feed intake was increased by the low Ca diet and decreased by phytase supplementation. Feed conversion ratio during d 0-21 was improved by the high Ca + phytase diet. 3. At d 42, Ca in duodenal digesta was reduced by low dietary Ca and supplemental phytase. High dietary Ca reduced P in duodenal and jejunal digesta. Phytase reduced digesta P and increased serum P concentration. 4. Relative tibia length decreased with low dietary Ca and increased with phytase. The robusticity index of tibia was improved by the low Ca diet and phytase supplementation. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and concentrations of Ca, magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in tibia. The low Ca diet increased Mg, Mn and Fe and reduced Cu and Zn in tibia. 5. It was concluded that 7.5 g Ca/kg during weeks 0-3 and 6 g Ca/kg during weeks 3-6 sustained broiler performance and bone ash, while phytase supplementation facilitated tibia mineralisation, particularly during the grower phase.
A Sheikh Ahmadi
Full Text Available To clarify the effects of high (20 and 40% more than normal and low (20% less than normal daily feed allowance on egg and body parameters, ovarian morphology and plasma glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, leptin-like hormone, nitrite/nitrate and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the granulosa layer of F1 follicle, broiler breeder hens (30-week-old were fed for 30 days. Egg and body parameters significantly changed between treatments (p<0.05. Effect of different level of feed intake on ovarian morphology parameters was significant (p<0.05, except for white follicles. After 30 days of experiment, plasma nitrite/nitrate (as a index of plasma nitric oxide and leptin-like hormone increased in FI+20% and FI+40% groups as compared to controls (p<0.05. Plasma level of leptin-like hormone also significantly (p<0.05 increased in FI+40% group. The relative amount of iNOS mRNA expression in the granulosa layer of F1 follicles was significantly higher in FI-20% and FI+40% groups than in control group only after 4 weeks of experiment. The amount of these elevations in the FI-20% and FI+40% groups were 32.4% and 60.9% respectively. It was concluded that iNOS gene is normally expressed in follicular granulosa cells of F1 follicle of broiler breeder hens 2-4 hours before ovulation. However, over- and underfeeding of hens increased iNOS expression in F1 follicle, which may be one of the atresia-inducing factors in hierarchical follicles as shown by the significant (p<0.05 increase of shrunken follicles in the ovary of over- and under-fed broiler breeder hens after 30 days of feeding.
Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige
The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.
Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.
The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet wit
Olukosi, O A; Kong, C; Fru-Nji, F; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O
Two 21-d broiler experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal molecular markers. Two hundred forty birds in 5 treatments (experiment 1) or 256 birds in 4 treatments (experiment 2) were used. The treatments included a negative control diet that was marginally deficient in P (NC) or NC plus tricalcium phosphate, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units/kg (experiment 1), and NC or NC plus monocalcium phosphate, 500 or 1,000 phytase units/kg (experiment 2). In both experiments, excreta were collected on d 19 to 21, whereas birds and feed were weighed and ileal digesta collected on d 21. For experiment 1, mucosa scraping was collected from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum from all birds for quantification of expression level of gut level inflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb). In both experiments, tricalcium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate, and phytase supplementation improved (P phytase supplementation (experiment 1) and there was an increase (P phytase supplementation (experiment 2). Diets did not affect the expression of gut level cytokines, Toll-like receptors, or the mucin gene. Phytase supplementation tended to decrease (P phytase was effective in enhancing growth of broilers receiving low-P diets as well as in increasing efficiency of P utilization and phytic acid degradation.
Avaliação econômica do confinamento de novilhos de origem leiteira, alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado e de cama de frango Economic evaluation of feedlot dairy crossbred bulls fed diets with different concentrate and broiler litter levels
Moacir Rodrigues Filho
was to evaluate the production cost. The animals were fed elephant grass with 30 to 45 days of age, soybean meal, corn meal, meat meal and mineral mix basal concentrate, and broiler litter, which constituted the treatments: 1 = 50% forage and 50% concentrate, 2 = 50% forage, 35% concentrate and 15% broiler litter, 3 = 25% forage and 75% concentrate and 4 = 25% forage, 52.5% concentrate and 22.5% broiler litter, as dry matter basis. It was used the completely randomized blocks experimental design, with six blocks and four treatments. The gross income, costs and profit analysis indicated that the profit was negative in all treatments when the produced meat sale price was the same as the fat ox price. However, when the same costs were maintained (effective operational cost and total operational cost and the kilo of produced meat sale price rose 10%, relative to the fat ox kilo of meat price, all the treatments presented profit, distinguishing the treatments 2 and 3, with R$ 0.042 and R$ 0.03 per kilo of produced meat and return on the invested capital of 14.20 and 14.64%/year, respectively. The concentrate price variation, from 0.26 to 0.20 R$/kg, caused larger impact in the effective operational cost of treatment 3 and smaller in treatment 2, providing profit and return on the invested capital for all treatments, based on the 7.62:1 relationship between concentrate price x meat price. The simulations showed that treatment 2 was economically more advantageous because it produced a better cost/benefit relationship in the conditions of the present work.
Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.
Kalmar, Isabelle D; Verstegen, Martin W A; Maenner, Klaus; Zentek, Jurgen; Meulemans, Godelieve; Janssens, Geert P J
N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A feeding trial was conducted using 480 1-d-old broiler chicks that were randomly allocated to twenty-four pens and fed one of three test diets added with 0, 1 or 10 g Na-DMG/kg during a 39 d growth period. Production performance was recorded to assess tolerance and efficacy of the supplement. At the end of the trial, toxicity was evaluated by means of haematology, plasma biochemistry and histopathology of liver, kidney and heart (n 12), whereas bioaccumulation was assessed on breast meat, liver, blood, kidney and adipose tissue (n 8). Carcass traits were similar between the control and 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed groups (P>0·05), but the feed:gain ratio was significantly improved at 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed compared with the control or the 10-fold dose (P=0·008). Histological examinations showed no pathological effects and results of haematology and plasma biochemistry revealed similar values between the test groups (P>0·05). Bioaccumulation occurred at the 10-fold dose, but the resulting DMG content in breast meat was comparable with, for instance, wheat bran and much lower than uncooked spinach. In conclusion, DMG at 1 g Na-DMG/kg improved the feed:gain ratio in broilers without DMG being accumulated in consumer parts. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DMG up to 10 g Na-DMG/kg did not induce toxicity or impaired performance in broilers.
Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the physiological response of blood and immune organs ofbroiler chickens fed on various concentration of dietary black cumin powder (BCP during the dryseason. A total number of 100 unsexed one-day old Cobb broiler chicks were used and distributed to 5treatments (control, antibiotics and without BCP, 20 g/kg BCP, 40 g/kg BCP and 60 g/kg BCP and 4replications (5 birds for each. Physiological responses of blood and immune organs were measured at30 day of age. Addition of BCP to broiler ration did not significantly effects on physical properties ofblood (leukocytes count, erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, hematocrit, monocytes, and eosinophils andrelative weights of thymus and bursa of fabricius, but significantly (P<0.05 increased relative weightsof spleen when compared to control. It was concluded that the black cumin grinds (Nigella sativa as afeed additive could not change the physical properties of blood, relative weights of thymus and bursa offabricius, but it increased the relative weight of spleen at the level of 60 g/kg BCP, which could reduceadverse effects of infectious diseases in broiler chicken.
Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D
A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.
Waldroup, P W; Izat, A L; Primo, R A; Twining, P F; Herbert, J A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V; Crawford, J S
Six trials were conducted at various locations to determine the response of broiler chickens to combinations of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone when fed in the presence of narasin. The addition of zinc bacitracin at 55 mg per kg significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization when data from all locations were combined. There was no effect of roxarsone fed at 50 mg per kg on BW or feed utilization, nor was there an interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin on BW. There was a significant interaction of roxarsone and zinc bacitracin for feed utilization; addition of zinc bacitracin significantly improved feed utilization both in the presence and absence of roxarsone, but the improvement was greater in the absence of roxarsone.
Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.
Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X
The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage.
Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H
Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.
Full Text Available On 26,000 Ross 508 broiler chickens (two groups of 13,000 per pen the effect of dietary substitution with in organic trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bones tructure c trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bone structure was studied. Treatments consisted of a commercial diet integrated with 0.5% of a vitamin-mineral premix containing inorganic trace minerals (CTR or organometallic chelates (MHA using Methionine Hydroxy Analog. Production performance was measured during the 52 d trial period and bone structure was evalu- ated at the slaughter (52 d. Significant (P=0.038 higher values were observed in the finishing period (41 to 52 d for the body weight of the treated group (3560 g vs. 3358 g. The same trend was observed for the ADG (MHA 87.6 g/d vs. CTR 71 g/d; P<0.05. Concerning ash percentage significant higher values were observed in the CTR group for femur (49.01% vs. 51.45%; P<0.01 and tibia (53.87% vs. 49.79%; P<0.001; femur showed also higher values for bone radiopacity (MHA 0.21 px vs. CTR 0.26 px; P=0.035. MHA group showed significant higher value for morphometric measures of the femur and tibia. Results suggest that organometallic chelates can be included in the diet without compromising broiler performance.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.
Chen, Tao; Cui, Hengmin; Cui, Yun; Bai, Caimin; Gong, Tao
Three hundred one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four equal groups of 75 animals that were fed for 42 days as follows: a control diet containing 23 mg fluorine (F)/kg and three high F diets containing 400, 800, and 1200 mg F/kg, respectively, for high F groups I, II, and III. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were greatly decreased, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were markedly increased in high F groups II and III. At the same time, mitochondrial injury and expanded endocytoplasmic reticulum were obviously observed in high F groups II and III, and the fluoride contents both in spleen and serum were significantly increased in the three high F groups when compared with those of control group. The results showed that excess dietary F in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg caused obvious oxidative stress, which provided a possible pathway for the apoptosis of splenocytes in chickens.
Chen, Tao; Cui, Hengmin; Cui, Yun; Bai, Caimin; Gong, Tao; Peng, Xi
Three hundred 1-day-old Avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on control diet (fluorine 23 mg/kg) and high-fluorine (F) diets (400 mg/kg, high-F group I; 800 mg/kg, high-F group II; 1200 mg/kg, high-F group III) for 42 days (n = 75/group). The growth index (GI) was obviously decreased in the three high-F groups, which indicated the inhibited development of thymus. Histopathologically, the population of thymocytes was decreased in the thymic lobule in the three high-F groups. As measured by flow cytometry, thymocytes in G(0)/G(1) phase were significantly increased while thymocytes in S phase, G(2) + M phase and proliferating index (PI) value were obviously decreased in the three high-F groups. Also, the percentage of apoptotic thymocytes was greatly increased in the three high-F groups when compared with that of control group. At the same time, the occurrence frequencies of apoptotic thymocyte were markedly increased in the three high-F groups, with the appearance of dilated endoplasmic reticulum in high-F groups II and III ultra-structurally. The results showed that excess dietary F in the range of 400-1200 mg/kg caused histological lesions, G(0)/G(1) arrest and cellular apoptosis in the thymus, which inhibited the development of thymus and finally led to impaired cellular immune function.
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.
Brightsmith, Donald J
Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.
Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.
Adedokun, S A; Parsons, C M; Lilburn, M S; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the standardization method and age on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 meat and bone meal (MBM) samples in broiler chicks and turkey poults. The SIAAD were obtained by correcting apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid flow obtained from chicks and poults fed a N-free diet or a highly digestible protein diet (HDP; 100 g of casein/kg of diet). Four diets were formulated to contain 20% CP by using MBM as the only source of CP. Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages of 30 or 8 birds/cage at 5 and 21 d, respectively, for 5 d. With the exception of all-beef MBM, chick AID values on d 21 were higher (P MBM samples in either species. There was no effect of the method of standardization on SIAAD at either age for most amino acids. For chicks, however, standardization of the all-beef MBM sample with HDP resulted in higher (P MBM were higher (P < 0.05) with HDP correction. The CV in SIAAD in chicks between the 2 methods of standardization was higher on d 5 (8.1%) relative to d 21 (5.0%) for all treatments. In poults, greater variability was observed on d 21 (8.2%) relative to d 5 (6.7%). Results from this study showed that at d 21, SI-AAD with either the N-free or the HDP diet resulted in similar digestibility values.
Biggs, P; Parsons, C M
Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of whole wheat, whole sorghum, or whole barley on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations when supplemented primarily at the expense of corn in ground corn-soybean meal control diets. The first 4 experiments utilized New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks. In the first 2 experiments, feeding 5, 10, 15, or 20% whole wheat had no effect on growth performance at 21 d when compared with chicks fed the control diet. The third experiment tested 20, 35, and 50% whole wheat fed from 0 to 21 d of age and showed that a 50% whole wheat diet decreased (Pwhole sorghum reduced (Pwhole barley had similar weight gains to chicks fed a ground corn-soybean meal diet. The fifth experiment with commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks evaluated 10 and 20% whole sorghum or whole barley and 20 and 35% whole wheat. Growth at 21 d was unaffected by any dietary treatment. Feed efficiency was decreased (Pwhole wheat and improved (Pwhole barley. Feeding whole grains to chicks resulted in an increase in gizzard weight, even as early as 7 d, in all experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 10 to 20% whole wheat generally had increased MEn values at 3 to 4, 7, 14, and 21 d and also had increased amino acid digestibility at 21 d in one experiment. At 21 d, cecal pH and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in all experiments were unaffected by feeding whole grains to chicks. The results of this study indicated that feeding whole wheat, sorghum, or barley increased gizzard weight, and feeding 10 to 20% whole wheat may increase ME and amino acid digestibility.
Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C
During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.
Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert
Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.
Berilo de Souza Brum Júnior
Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o uso da quirera de arroz na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos machos, alojados em galpão, contendo 12 boxes de 2m² de área. Cada box continha comedouro tubular, bebedouro pendular e campânula nos 21 dias iniciais. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, as quais receberam dietas contendo 0, 20 e 40% de inclusão de quirera de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e à análise de variância e, quando houve diferença, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de 1-21, 1-35 e 1-42 dias (P>0,05 não foram afetados pela substituição do milho por quirera de arroz. A umidade de cama, o índice de eficiência produtivo, o rendimento de carcaça quente, de fígado, coração, coxa, sobre-coxa e peito não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. No entanto, os rendimentos de moela, bem como a pigmentação da canela e do bico, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento do nível de quirera de arroz na dieta. Conclui-se que a quirera de arroz pode ser incluída nas dieta, substituindo o milho, para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried to evaluate the performance of broilers fed with diferent levels of broken rice. The experiment was conducted with 240 males broilers chicks, Cobb 500, were distributed in floor pens of 2m² each, with one tubular feeder, one pendular drinker, an electrical brooder and on the top of rice hulls. An entirely randomized experimental design was used, with 3 treatments and 4 replicates with 20 birds each, which received, diets containing 0, 20 and 40% of broken rice. Data were submitted to Analisis of regression. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion to the1- 21, 1- 35 and 1-42 days of age, litter humidity, carcass, liver, breast, thigh and drumstick yield did not present significant difference. The gizzard and the
Pricila Vetrano Rizzo
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de misturas de extratos vegetais nas dietas de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 aves distribuídas em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições e cinco dietas, uma sem aditivos e outras quatro, cada uma contendo um dos aditivos: 10 ppm de avilamicina; 200 ppm de um produto contendo óleos essenciais de cravo, tomilho, canela e pimenta; 100 ppm de um produto comercial composto de óleos essenciais sintéticos de orégano e canela e óleo-resina de pimenta microencapsulados; 500 ppm de um produto comercial constituído de óleo de eucalipto, óleo essencial de canela-da-china, folhas de boldo-do-chile e sementes de feno-grego na fase inicial e 1.200 ppm nas fases de crescimento e final. Aos 21 e 42 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho e aos 44 dias de idade, as características de carcaça. Dos 27 aos 30 dias de idade, foi realizado o ensaio de metabolismo pelo método de coleta total de excretas e determinadas a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade da proteína bruta das dietas. As dietas com misturas de extratos vegetais não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o desempenho se comparadas à dieta sem aditivo e à dieta com antibiótico. A ausência de desafio na criação e a utilização de dietas com ingredientes de alta digestibilidade podem ter contribuído para que as aves expressassem todo o seu potencial, tornando indetectável a melhora ocasionada pela inclusão de qualquer dos aditivos. Dietas contendo misturas de extratos vegetais promovem desempenho semelhante ao obtido com dietas contendo antibiótico.The trial was carried out to evaluate different blends of plants extracts in broilers diets. It was used 1,350 broilers distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates and five diets, one without additive and the four others, each containing one of the following additives: 10 ppm of avilamycin; 200 ppm of a product containing essential oils of carnation, thyme
Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H
1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.
Juan B Ulloa R.
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.
Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo
Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.
Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdiets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (Pdiets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdiets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdiet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.
Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou
The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides.
Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin
Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different levels of shrimp head waste (SHW substituting fish meal (FM in broiler diets. FM is the sole crude protein from animal sources. A control fish meal broiler diet and four different levels of SHW substituted for crude protein FM were fed to CP 707 Arbor Acres broiler strains from day old chick to four weeks of age. The crude proteins FM were replaced with 0 (R0; 25 (R1; 50 (R2; 75 (R3; and 100 (R4 percent of crude protein SHW. The five treatments were assigned to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and carcass percentage were recorded to measure the performances. The results of Duncan’s revealed that feed consumption, feed conversion and carcass percentage were not significantly different with increasing level of SHW as substituted crude protein FM in broiler diets. However these parameters in bird fed 100 % SHW diets did not differ from those in birds fed 16 % FM (7.32% crude protein from FM. While body weight gain decreased with increasing levels of SHW in broiler diets (R4. The decrease body weight gain may be due to the decreased feed intake and amino acid in balance and the increased chitin content in the diet. The conclusion of this experiment that SHW can be used as a protein source in broiler diets up to 75% to replace FM.
Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A
Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.
Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few
Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra
Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.
Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Bořutová, Radka; Faix, Stefan; Plachá, Iveta; Cobanová, Klaudia; Košíková, Božena; Leng, L'ubomír
The effect of lignin supplementation to a diet contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA) on antioxidant status was studied in female chickens of the ISA BROWN laying strain. From the day of hatching to 2 weeks of age, four groups of chickens were fed the same uncontaminated control diet. After 14 days, Group 1 (control) continued to receive the uncontaminated diet, while Group 2 was fed an identical diet enriched with 0.5% chemically modified lignin. Simultaneously, chickens of Group 3 were switched to a diet contaminated with 7.9 mg/kg ZEA and those of Group 4 to an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin. At 6 weeks of age blood and tissue samples were collected. Feeding of a diet contaminated with a high level of ZEA resulted in elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the duodenal mucosa and kidney tissues, and an increased γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in the plasma, indicative of oxidative stress. In the liver tissue, no mycotoxin-induced response in GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities occurred, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was even reduced. Neither the plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol nor the activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and GPx in blood were affected in birds fed the contaminated diet. The only effect of lignin supplemented to the contaminated feed was that it prevented the increase of GPx activity in the duodenal mucosa as an indicator of oxidative stress.
Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are different from that of cereals. The main CW polymers are pectic substances (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan type I and II, xylogalacturonan......The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β......-glucan (β-glucan), cellulose, and the noncarbohydrate component lignin are the predominant polymers in cereals. They occur in different proportions depending on the species and tissue type. Rye, triticale, wheat, corn, and sorghum are all rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain a high level of β...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.
Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato de [UNIFESP; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santos, Bruno dos [UNIFESP; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu [UNIFESP; Pinto Neto, Nelson Inacio [UNIFESP; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Esposito, Elisa; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do [UNIFESP; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP
Background: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.Methods: Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 ...
Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.
Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael A.
1. Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers...... was carried out from 21-25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. 2. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat based feed (WBF), maize based feed (MBF), maize based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). 3....... Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. 5. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed CKMS-30. 6. An improved litter quality in terms of dry matter content and a lower frequency...
Full Text Available Abstract In hens, the ovarian follicles committed to ovulation are arranged in an ordered follicular hierarchy. In standard broiler breeders hens genetically selected for high growth rate the reproductive function is clearly dysfunctional. Feed restriction is needed during reproductive development to limit the formation of excessive numbers of ovarian yellow follicles arranged in multiple hierarchies. To determine whether leptin is involved in the nutritional and reproductive interactions controlling follicular hierarchy in hens, blood leptin levels and ovarian expression of the leptin receptor mRNA were determined during follicle maturation in three chicken lines; a slow growing broiler "Label" genotype without reproductive dysfunction, a fast growing "Standard" genotype fed ad libitum or restricted and a fast growing "Experimental" line with intermediate reproductive performance levels. Whereas expression of the leptin receptor mRNA did not change in the theca, it clearly decreased with follicular differentiation in the granulosa of slow growing hens. In fast growing standard hens fed ad libitum and presenting significant reproductive dysfunction, the decrease was disrupted and dramatic up-regulation of granulosa cell expression of the leptin receptor was observed. On the other hand, feed restriction decreased the overall level of expression of the leptin receptor mRNA and restored the decrease with follicular growth. The level of expression of the leptin receptor probably modulates the action of leptin on follicular differentiation. Since blood leptin and other metabolic factors were not affected by the genotype or by nutritional state, the factors involved in the regulation of leptin receptor gene expression remain to be determined. This study demonstrates the involvement of leptin in the nutritional control of reproduction in birds. Leptin action on the ovary probably controls follicular hierarchy through the regulation of steroidogenesis.
Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Similar to the response observed for H(2)S, feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean S(2-) by 64% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Although these studies did not show beneficial effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal pH, VFA, or H(2)S
Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;
An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...
Taheri, H R; Jabbari, Z; Adibnia, S; Shahir, M H; Hosseini, S A
1. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of high-dose phytase alone or in combination with citric acid (CA) in the diet severely limited in available phosphorus (P) on performance, plasma P and plasma Ca of broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. 2. In Trial 1, 297 21-d-old female chicks were placed into 27 pens and allocated to 9 maize-soybean meal-based dietary treatments, which were a positive control [PC, 4.23 g/kg non-phytate P (NPP)] and 8 negative control (NC, 1.35 g/kg NPP) groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of phytase (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. In Trial 2, 192 21-d-old male chicks were placed into 24 pens and allocated to 6 wheat-canola meal-based dietary treatments, which were a PC (4.2 g/kg NPP), a NC (1.68 g/kg NPP) and 4 NC groups consisting of two concentrations of CA (0 and 20 g/kg) and two concentrations of phytase (2000 and 4000 U/kg) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. 3. In both trials, birds fed on the PC had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), plasma P and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and plasma Ca than those of birds fed on the NC. CA supplementation significantly increased ADG and ADFI. There was a significant interaction between CA and phytase on plasma P where CA improved the effect of phytase on plasma P. In Trial 1, phytase addition improved ADG, ADFI, FCR and plasma Ca linearly. 4. Briefly, this research showed the interaction effect between CA and phytase on plasma P when broilers were fed on diets based on maize-soybean meal or wheat-canola meal. The results showed that CA supplementation lowered the concentration of phytase that is needed in low NPP diets to increase plasma P.
Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E
The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.
Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.
Bolanle O Iranloye
Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.
Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V
1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.
Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E
Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.
Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K
Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet.
Canganella, F; Zirletta, G; Gualterio, L; Massa, S; Trovatelli, L D
Anaerobic facultative bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of conventional rabbits fed three different diets (standard pellet, hay and pellet/hay mixture) were enumerated in brain heart infusion agar. Colony counts recovered from homogenized samples of small intestine, caecum and rectum differed with reference to the diet given. Among anaerobic groups, identified from rabbit fed pellet/hay mixture, Enterococci (E. faecalis, E. avium, E. faecium and E. durans) represented the predominant flora. Enterobacters (E. cloacae and E. aerogenes) accounted for about 10 to 25% of the bacteria in the rectum and colon respectively, whereas Staphylococci (S. intermedius, S. epidermidis and S. lentus) represented 11% of the bacteria isolated from colon.
Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, T K V; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard
The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets.......The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....
Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y
Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.
Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen
The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.
Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood
The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers' diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.
Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A
The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.
Waldroup, P W; Hellwig, H M; Johnson, Z B; Krueger, W F; Moore, R W; Charles, O W; Duke, S; Primo, R A; Trammell, J H; Fell, R V
Six trials were conducted at different locations to examine the response of broiler chickens to roxarsone and bacitracin in the form of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the presence of the anticoccidal narasin. All diets contained narasin (80 mg/kg) and were fortified with a factorial arrangement of roxarsone (0 to 50 mg/kg) and BMD (0 or 55 mg/kg). Broilers were grown to market weights with narasin and roxarsone removed from the diets for the final 5 days. Addition of both roxarsone and BMD resulted in significant (P less than .05) improvements in body weight and feed utilization. Response to roxarsone for feed utilization was influenced to some extent by the presence or absence of BMD. Although the response to roxarsone was always positive, the degree of response was lessened by the presence of BMD. This resulted in a significant (P less than .10) interaction between roxarsone and BMD for feed utilization but not for body weight.
Fábio Enrique Lemos Budinõ
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray dried plasma (SDP on the performance and incidence of diarrhea in early weaned piglets. Fifty-six piglets from the same lineage, with an approximate live weight of 3.87 ± 0.65 kg and approximate age of 14 days, were used. Four levels of inclusion of SDP in the piglet diets were tested during two consecutive periods, 14 to 28 days of age (period 1 and 29 to 42 days of age (period 2. The levels of SDP used were 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for period 1 and 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% for period 2. During period 3 (42 to 56 days of age, all piglets received a diet without SDP. For performance evaluation, the piglets were weighed fortnightly and on the last day of the trial when the age of the batch was 56 days. Daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed conversion were analyzed. No significant difference (P<0.05 in feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion was observed between treatments. The inclusion of SDP in the diet did not influence the performance of early weaned piglets
Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung
This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.
M. A. Saiyed
Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.
Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn
High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD.
Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.
Heres, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.; Urlings, B.A.P.
In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentr
Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.
Karakas, P; Versteegh, H A; van der Honing, T Y; Kogut, T J; Jongbloed, A W
The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents (224, 306, 387, and 209,293, 430 g/kg, respectively) were tested for digestibility at a 10% inclusion level. The MBMcattle and MBMpig with the lowest ash (224 and 209 g/kg, respectively) were tested also at 20% inclusion. A basal diet (corn-soybean meal) was used as a control. Two-week-old broiler chickens were used in four replicates per treatment (14 to 32 d of age). The AMEn of MBM was high (10.51 to 13.04 MJ/kg DM). Species origin had no significant effect, whereas more ash and a higher inclusion level decreased the AMEn. The factors investigated showed no significant effect on the excretal digestibility of CP or on total AA. Excretal digestibility of total amino acids (AA) ranged from 60 to 65%. The ileal digestibility of CP and AA of MBMpig with 209 g/kg ash was also tested at 10 and 20% inclusion. Excretal digestibility was significantly higher than ileal digestibility of CP (63.8 and 55.8%, respectively) and total AA (60.9 and 56.2%, respectively). The 20% inclusion level resulted in a lower digestibility for both methods. The digestibility of CP was measured by four different in vitro techniques, based on pepsin digestibility. The data showed a large variation and did not correlate at all with the in vivo digestibility values.
AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M
Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The li...
Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian
Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.
Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.
Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T. G.; Miller, G.W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E
Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...
Morgan, NK; Scholey, DV; Burton, EJ
Zinc (Zn) is the most vulnerable cation to complexation with phytate. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of measurements of Zn concentration in the gastrointestinal tract as a marker to assess the anti-nutritional impact of phytate and susceptibility of phytate to phytase in broilers. Ross 308 broilers (n = 180) were fed one of 5 experimental diets with differing phytase activity levels, analyzed at 605, 1150, 1804, 3954 and 5925 U/kg. Broiler performance and Zn concentrati...
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VPreduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days on performance,immuno-competence,and characteristicsof leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed oncorn-soybeanmeal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocatedtofivetreatment groups(0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP, withninereplicates per treatmentgroup. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheepredblood cells (SRBC. The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin(PHA and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCBat 34 and 42 days of ages.At 33, 38 and 43days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughteredand boneparameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactivesubstances (TBARS on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at-80 ̊C. The resultsshowed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisherperiod did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones.Results of TBARS showed thatlipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP wassignificantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally,the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisherbroilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.
Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...
Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated
Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.
The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...
Panda, S K; Broitman, S A
Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.
Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.
Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin
The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of using plant essential oils in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to antimicrobial growth promotors (AGPs on growth, E.coli counts in small intestine and blood parameters. 720 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to nine experimental groups with four replicates. The control group received the triticale-soybean meal basal diet. In the other treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of the following; flavomycin, enzyme, flavomycin+enzyme, enzyme+thyme oil, enzyme+fennel oil, enzyme+bay leaf oil, enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil and enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil+bay leaf oil. Results showed that the weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by the treatments (P>0,05. The use of the combination of plant extracts significantly improved the feed conversion. Use of plant extracts in triticale-based broiler diets as an alternative to AGPs had no regular effect on E.coli count in small intestine segments (P>0,05. Feeding broiler chickens with the enzyme+thyme oil supplemented diets increased eritrocyte level in serum (P0,05 by the treatments. In conclusion, these plant ectracts can be also used with enzyme in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to AGPs.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the growth performance of Diaphanosoma birgei fed with two Chlorophyceae algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis and Haematococcus pluvialis using monoalgal diets and simpler mixed diets. D. birgei was daily fed on four treatments: 1 100% Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Ag; 2 100% Haematoccocus pluvialis (Hp; 3 25% A. gracilis + 75% H. pluvialis (Ag-25+Hp-75 and 4 75% A. gracilis + 25% H. pluvialis (Ag-75+Hp-25. The fecundity curve of D. birgei showed that the mixed feed Ag-25+Hp-75 and temperature 24±2°C triggered fast fecundity at approximately two days. The fecundity was low when based only on H. pluvialis (Hp, albeit with greater longevity (19 days and a higher number of broods (8. D. birgei fed on Ag and Ag-75+Hp-25 diets in this experiment sustained higher growth rate and higher lipid content in these treatments. The present study showed that A. gracilis diet and mixed microalgae diets tested were able to support the egg production and development of D. birgei.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis on hematology and number and area of melanomacrophage centers in spleen and kidney of tilapia. After acclimation, fish (24.7 ± 7.4 gmean weight were distributed in 6 tanks 100 L, 6 fish per tank, in triplicate, at a temperature 24.0 ± 2.8oC, with two treatments: Fish fed 2% propolis supplemented diet and fish fed non-supplemented diet. To monitor the evolution of the effects, two samples were collected: half of the fish from each treatment were used after 15 days and the other half after 21, composing two feeding times. After each feeding time, blood, spleen and kidney were collected. After twenty one days feeding on 2% propolis supplemented diet, fish showed a lower number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes and an increase in the total erythrocytes number. Fish fed supplemented diet presented an increased number of melanomacrophage centers. We observed hemosiderin in all spleen samples. Kidney showed no significant difference on the presence of melanomacrophage centers containing hemosiderin. Despite these changes, the fish health status was not affected. The results showed that propolis supplementation in the diet ofNile tilapia may be physiologically feasible.
Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; CHrysostome, C.A.A.M.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two soybean meals (S1, S2) and two palm meals (P1, P2) from solvent and expeller processing, and two cotton meals (C1, C2) both from solvent processing on the bioeconomic performances of broilers. 360 broilers Red Bro were fed six diets containi...
Full Text Available The effect of dietary feed additives on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens was evaluated. 180 day-old Arbor acre broiler chicks were weighed and randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 3 replicates of 12 birds each. Broiler starter diet (2855.7 kcal/kg ME; 23.01% and finisher diet (2911 kcal/kg; 20.71% CP were formulated. Dietary treatments were control diet (basal diet without additives, OXYT diet (basal diet with oxytetracycline at 600 ppm as antibiotic, GRO-UP diet (basal diet with probiotic at 500 ppm, MOS-500 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 500 ppm and MOS-1000 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 1000 ppm. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At the end of weeks 4 and 8, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing feed additives at the starter phase were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. At the finisher phase, there were no significant (P> 0.05 differences in all the parameters measured except in the heterophils and eosinophils where birds fed the control diets had the lowest value among all treatments. Serum globulin values were significantly (P< 0.05 different as birds fed diets containing OXYT (antibiotics recorded the lowest value among all treatments. The inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics in the diets of broiler chickens elicited no adverse effect on haematological and serum biochemical parameters, thus, they can be used as replacement for antibiotics.
Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.
Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem
Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine in methionine- and choline-reduced diets fed to broilers submitted to heat stress. In total, 1,408 male broilers were randomly distributed into eight treatments, according to 2 x 4 (environment x diet factorial arrangement, with eight replicates of 2 birds each. Birds were reared environmental chambers under controlled temperature (25-26 °C or cyclic heat-stressing temperature (25-31 °C. The following diets were tested: positive control (PC, formulated to meet broiler nutritional requirements; negative control (NC, with reduced DL-methionine and choline chloride levels; and with two supplementation levels of natural betaine to the negative control diet (NC+NB1 and NC+NB2. Live performance, carcass traits, and intestinal morphometrics were evaluated when broilers were 45 days of age. The results showed that all evaluated parameters were influenced by the interaction between environment and diet, except for breast meat drip loss. The breakdown of the interactions showed that birds fed the PC diet and reared in the controlled environment had greater breast drip loss than those submitted to the cyclic heat-stress environment. Birds submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed the PC diet presented the lowest feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was influenced only by diet. The FCR of broilers fed the NC+NB2 diet was intermediate relative to those fed the PC and NC diets. The addition of betaine in the diet, with 11.18% digestible methionine and 24.73% total choline reductions, did not affect broiler live performance, carcass yield, or intestinal morphometrics.
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms
S.H. Abu Hafsa
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L
AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M
Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.
Shakir D. AlSharari
Full Text Available Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4, Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3, caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21 and Interleukin-3 (IL-3 in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.
Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.
In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all w
Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R
Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.
Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I
A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth performance in young broiler chicken diets.
Hulshof, R B A; Berndt, A; Gerrits, W J J; Dijkstra, J; van Zijderveld, S M; Newbold, J R; Perdok, H B
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated and 10 intact steers, in a cross-over design. The animals were blocked according to BW and presence or absence of rumen cannula and randomly allocated to either the nitrate diet (22 g nitrate/kg DM) or the control diet made isonitrogenous by the addition of urea. The diets consisted of freshly chopped sugarcane and concentrate (60:40 on DM basis), fed as a mixed ration. A 16-d adaptation period was used to allow the rumen microbes to adapt to dietary nitrate. Methane emission was measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Dry matter intake (P = 0.09) tended to be less when nitrate was present in the diet compared with the control, 6.60 and 7.05 kg/d DMI, respectively. The daily methane production was reduced (P Methane emission per kilogram DMI was 27% less (P methane/kg DMI) than on the control diet (18.2 g methane/kg DMI). Methane losses as a fraction of gross energy intake (GEI) were less (P methane production by 87% of the theoretical potential. The rumen fluid ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N()) concentration was significantly greater (P methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane based diet.
Xiao-juan Li; Guang-ping Dong; Li Yang; Wan-lin Guo
Both fecundities and egg hatchabilities were compared among three populations of Dastarcus helop-horoides Fairmaire adults (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) fed on three types of artificial diets (Diet of formula 1 com-posed of silkworm pupa powder, dried yeast powder, sucrose, peptone, egg yolk powder and poplar branch powder. Diet of formula 2 composed of silkworm pupa powder, dried yeast powder, sucrose, egg yolk powder, poplar branch powder, cricket powder, benzoic acid and distilled water. Diet of formula 3 composed of pine bark powder and Monochamus alternatus larva powder). for 90 days. The three diets showed no significant difference regarding the average number of eggs deposited by all D. helophoroides females (16622.3–23874.7);the average number of eggs per female (1278.6–1836.5); and the average number of eggs per female per day (14.2–20.4). The number of eggs one cluster contained mainly (82.06–82.66%) lied in 1–100 eggs, and the average number of eggs per cluster ranged from 61.7 to 63.1. In the first 10-day period, the number of eggs deposited by all females fed on formula 1 was significantly larger than that on formula 3. The eggs deposited in the last four 10-day periods were more than in the former five 10-day periods, on formula 3. There were no significant differences in hatchability of total eggs among the three artificial diets, and the average corrected egg hatchability ranged from 82.85 to 84.78%. No significant differences in the adult mortality and mean weight gain of D. helophoroides were found after feeding on three artificial diets. Our results suggest that D. helophoroides adults were not specialized on the diet, and the diet types might have little effect on fecundity and egg hatchability in D. helophoroides, as long as sufficient nutrition was supplied.
Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa
Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.
Li, Long; Wang, Honghui; Zhao, Xin
Rhodiola has long been used as a traditional medicine to increase resistance to physical stress in humans in Tibet. The current study was designed to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) could alleviate the negative effects of hypoxia on broiler chickens reared in Tibet Plateau. The effect of supplementing crushed roots of R. crenulata on production performance, health and intestinal morphology in commercial male broilers was investigated. Dietary treatments included CTL (basal diet), Low-R (basal diet + 0.5% R. crenulata) and High-R (basal diet + 1.5% R. crenulata). In comparison with broilers fed the control diet, Low-R had no effect on production performance while High-R significantly decreased average daily feed intake at d 14, 28 and 42, body weight at d 28 and 42 and gut development. Ascites induced mortality did not differ among treatments. Nevertheless Low-R significantly reduced non-ascites induced mortality and total mortality compared with broilers fed CTL and High-R diets. Broilers fed the High-R diet had significantly increased blood red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels at 28 d compared with other treatments. Our results suggest that supplementation with Rhodiola might reduce the effects of hypoxia on broilers and consequently decrease mortality rate.
Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu
Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n ＝ 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P ＜ 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P ＜ 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4
Hossein Ansari Nik
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of milk thistle seeds (MTS and thyme seeds (TS on blood chemical, lipid profile and immune response in broiler chicks. In this study, 160 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 were allocated to four treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The treatment groups were (A basal control diet, (B basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS, (C basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of TS and (D basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS and 0.2 g/kg of TS. Birds fed the (D supplemented treatment (MTS plus TS had the greatest levels of total protein, 4.26±0.27 g/L; albumin, 2.21±0.02 g/L; globulin 2.28±0.23 g/L; and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity, 152.18±4.46 U/L than the control birds [group (A] (P<0.05. MTS alone or in combination with TS reduced the cholesterol in the serum of the broilers (P<0.05, and this effect was more pronounced for the (C treatment (TS alone (P<0.05. Treatment consumption with MTS plus TS [group (D] significantly increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 90.32±2.28 mmol/L, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 10.44±0.07 mmol/L, and triglyceride concentrations, 60.75±2.65 mmol/L, were decreased compared to control (P<0.05. However, none of the immunity parameters and liver enzymes differed significantly in MTS or TS groups. The present research indicated that supplements of MTS and TS have a protective influence on the lipids profile, total protein, globulin, albumin and AST levels in broiler chicks.
Ellis, James D; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J
The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64, 0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed.
Full Text Available These studies were conducted to determine the effects of two varieties of sorghum, Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400 on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of local turkey breeds, reared in Nigeria. Two hundred and sixteen poults were divided into 9 treatment groups of 24 each, which were further replicated thrice and fed starter diets containing Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400. Similar (P > 0.05 RBC and PCV values were obtained with the two diets. Samsorg 17 fed poults produced lower, though not significantly (P > 0.05 serum albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, chloride, ALP, SGPT and SGOT values than those on ICSV 400 diet. Higher RBC, MCHC, MCH, MCV and PCV values were observed with Samsorg 17 fed turkeys than those on ICSV 400 diets. Serum glucose and creatinine decreased and SGOT increased with dietary sorghum. Similar (p > 0.05 Hb, WBC, MCHC, MCV and PCV values were obtained in all groups. Values of serum biochemical indices assayed except urea, calcium, potassium and chloride showed no significant (p > 0.05 differences among the treatment groups. It was therefore concluded that Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400 sorghum varieties could sustain local turkey production without any on toward effects on their haematological and serum biochemical indices.
Wilson Massamitu Furuya
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the digestible lysine requirements of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Fish (n = 300; average initial weight = 1.44 g were distributed 15 300-L aquariums, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replicates, and fed extruded diets containing 11.3, 13.7, 16.1, 18.4 or 20.8 g/kg of digestible lysine. The arginine:lysine ratio was maintained at 1.3:1. All fish were fed diets containing 281 g/kg of digestible protein and 3,372 kcal digestible energy/kg, hand-fed until apparent satiation. There was no effect of the dietary lysine levels on survival rate, or protein and ash body rates. With increasing levels of lysine in the diet, a quadratic effect on weight gain, feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition rate, deposition rate of fat, body moisture and body lipids was observed, where the best values of the variables were estimated at 15.96, 16.4, 14.35, 15.21, 15.87, 15.21 and 16.29 g/kg of lysine, respectively. The digestible lysine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings is 15.21 g/kg (5.41 g/100 g of digestible protein, in diets balanced for the arginine:lysine ratio.
Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.
Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528
Full Text Available Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosphorus concentration of the diet from 0.4-0.6% caused massive nephrocalcinosis in rats fed the cellulose diets. Pectin (10%, w/w versus cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus significantly increased calcium and phosphorus concentrations in kidney. When compared with cellulose, pectin did not influence the apparent absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Urinary concentrations of calcium and magnesium were not affected by pectin feeding, but those of phosphorus were increased. When pectin was given with the diet containing 0.6% phosphorus, its nephrocalcinogenic action as compared with cellulose was not observed. Conclusion: Pectin instead of cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus induced nephrocalcinosis in female rats. The effect of pectin may be explained by an increase in urinary phosphorus concentration. The lack of nephrocalcinogenic action of pectin in a diet with 0.6% phosphorus indicates that the nephrocalcinosis-inducing effect of high phosphorus intake had overruled any effect of fiber type.
Cosgrove, R F; Forster, T C; Jones, G T; Pickles, R W
Escherichia coli isolated from pigs fed on a medicated diet containing 120 p.p.m. halquinol did not develop any resistance to this addition over a 6-week period. Sensitivity patterns of the E. coli isolates to eight antimicrobial substances, although fluctuating slightly during the test period (but no more than a control group), did not significantly alter. However, the patterns did change significantly when for 17 days after the completion of the halquinol trial the pigs were fed a normal commercial ration medicated with a commonly used feed additive containing chlortetracycline hydrochloride, procaine penicillin and sulphadimidine.
Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH
Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.
Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Masoero, F
Different dietary starch sources can have a great impact in determining starch digestion potential, thus influencing the postprandial blood glucose response. Our objectives were to define: (i) the incremental plasma glucose response in pigs fed diets containing various sources of starch differing in in vitro digestion patterns, (ii) the in vivo glycemic index (GI) values for the same diets, (iii) the possible relationship between in vitro and in vivo data. Diets, formulated with 70% of starch from five heterogeneous sources, were characterized in depth by using two distinct in vitro evaluations. The first one was based on the Englyst-assay for nutritional classification of starch fractions, whereas the second one was based on a time-course multi-enzymatic assay up to 180 min from which the hydrolysis indices (HIs) were calculated and used as a link between the physicochemical properties of starch from diets and the in vivo responses. For the in vivo study, five jugular-catheterized pigs (35.3 ± 1.1 kg body weight) were fed one of the five diets for 6-day periods in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. On day 5, blood was collected for 8 h postprandially for evaluating glucose appearance. On day 6, blood was collected for 3 h postprandially for the estimation of the GI. Starchy diets differed for rapidly digestible starch (from 8.6% to 79.8% of total starch (TS)) and resistant starch contents (from 72.5% to 4.5% of TS). Wide between-diets variations were recorded for all the kinetic parameters and for the HI calculated from the in vitro digestion curves (P < 0.05). On the basis of the obtained HI, diets contained starch with a very low to a very high in vitro digestion potential (ranging from 26.7% to 100.0%; P < 0.05). The glucose response differed among diets (P < 0.05), with marked differences between 15 and 120 min postprandial. Overall, the ranking of incremental glucose appearance among diets agreed with their in vitro HI classification: high HI diets increased
Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins.
Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ji, Cheng; Li, Xiaoying; Jia, Ru; Xi, Lin; Zhang, Jianyun; Ma, Qiugang
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.
David N Ruskin
Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.
Tempo de trânsito intestinal, desempenho, característica de carcaça e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com rações isoenergéticas formuladas com diferentes níveis de óleo de soja Intestinal transit time, performance, carcass characteristics and body composition in broilers fed isoenergy diets formulated with different levels of soybean oil
Marcelo de Oliveira Andreotti
Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão de 0,0; 3,3; 6,6 e 9,9% de óleo de soja em rações isoenergéticas sobre o tempo de trânsito (TT, desempenho, características de carcaça e composição corporal de frangos de corte de 21 a 56 dias de idade. O TT foi determinado no 22º e 42º dias de idade, utilizando-se 192 frangos distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x4 (duas idades e quatro níveis de óleo de soja, com quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Para o experimento de desempenho foram utilizados 840 frangos de corte, com peso inicial médio de 870 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições de 35 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de inclusão do óleo de soja influenciaram de forma linear decrescente o TT em ambas as idades. No período de 21 a 42 dias, o ganho de peso e as conversões alimentar e calórica aumentaram de forma quadrática e os consumos de ração e de energia metabolizável, de forma linear. No período total, a adição do óleo de soja melhorou linearmente o ganho de peso, os consumos de energia e de ração e, de forma quadrática, as conversões alimentar e calórica. No 42º e 56º dias de idade, a porcentagem de gordura abdominal, como também o rendimento de carcaça no 56º dia, foi influenciada de forma quadrática. O teor de gordura total foi influenciado de forma linear crescente e o teor de cinzas reduziu linearmente aos 56 dias de idade.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 0.0, 3.3, 6.6, and 9.9% soybean oil inclusion in isoenergy diets on transit time (TT, performance, carcass characteristics and body composition of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The TT was determined at 22 and 42 days of age. Eight hundred and fourty broilers, with initial average weight of 870 g, allotted to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, six replications and 35 broilers per experimental unit, were used in the
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120 Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed and water were given ad libitum. The productive performance results indicated high significant (P<0.05 difference in final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the treatment group at different levels of replacement. Haematological indices and serum biochemical indices also followed similar pattern as the productive performance by revealing high significant (P<0.05 difference at different levels of maize replacement with banana peel meal in Packed cell volume (PCV, Red blood cell (RBC, Haemoglobin (Hb, White blood cell (WBC, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV, Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH, Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, Heterophils and Lymphocytes. The serum biochemical indices revealed high significant (P<0.05 difference in total protein, albumen, glucose, total bilurobin, potassium, sodium and chloride. In view of the above, up to 15% replacement of maize with banana peel meal has no adverse effect on performance and blood components of broiler chickens with concomitant reduction in feed cost N/kg and feed cost per kg gain.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.
Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A
Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues.
Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A
In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.
Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.
Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu
A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.
Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Caston, L; Durosoy, S; Schlegel, P
Two experiments were carried out with broiler breeders (experiment 1) and laying hens (experiment 2) to study the effects of Se sources, in interaction with dietary level of Se or dietary fats on performance, Se incorporation into tissues (blood, liver, breast muscle, and egg) and eggs, hatchability, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in tissues and blood. Both experiments involved a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 3 Se sources (selenite, Se yeast, or B-Traxim Se) and either 2 levels of each source (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) or 2 fats (fresh or oxidized). Egg production was not affected by Se source or dietary fat in both experiments. Egg production was greater (P Hatchability of eggs from hens fed 0.1 mg/kg of Se was lower (P Selenium in egg, liver, and breast muscle was greater (P Selenium contents in liver and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se yeast compared with hens fed other sources of Se. In experiment 1, liver GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite or Se yeast, whereas plasma GPX was greater (P < 0.01) in hens fed selenite compared with B-Traxim Se or Se yeast. Supplementation with oxidized fat increased (P < 0.05) GPX in blood and liver. B-Traxim Se decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in breast muscle of layers. It is concluded that broiler breeders require supplementation of 0.3 mg/kg of Se, and that there are numerous measurable advantages in using organic rather than inorganic sources for both breeders and layers.
Ulloa R., Juan B; Verdegem, M.C.J.
The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05) . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER) and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa) values were found with the 18.8% ca...
Ozdogan, M; Topal, E; Paksuz, E Pinar; Kirkan, S
The gut health of poultry is closely associated with feeds and feeding. The experiment was conducted to the effect of crude glycerol addition to diets of male broilers on the bacterial microflora and morphology of their small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chicks received diets containing 0% (GLY 0), 4% (GLY 4) or 8% (GLY 8) crude glycerol for 42 days. The presence of Coliform bacteria and Enterobacteria was reduced in the duodenal tract of the broilers of GLY 4 (Pthickness, villi length and width, and crypt length and width) indicated that the glycerol levels fed to the different groups of broilers represented statistically different results in the small intestine. In general, whereas the diet with 4% glycerol statistically affected the investigated parameters of the gut, the diet with 8% glycerol statistically affected some segments of the broiler intestines.
Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P
Nabiela M. El Bagir
Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of Chlorella sp. in the form ofmeal administrated in the diet of broilers throughout their life upon FA profile of the breast muscle,mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA concentration and production index (PI of broiler. Allotted in 18 pens, thetotal of 90 Ross day old chicks were assigned in completely randomized design by 3 of dietarytreatments (T1: control (basal diet without enrichment of Chlorella sp.; T2: basal diet enriched with 5-gChlorella sp./kg feed; T3: basal diet enriched with 10-g Chlorella sp./kg feed. At d-36, skinless breastmeat was collected for FA determination. Practical standard of vaccination was performed to activateantibodies production and at d-36 gut mucosa was collected for sIgA analysis. Chlorella sp.administration had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the FA profile of breast muscle, mucosal sIgAconcentration and producton index of broiler. In conclusion, the level and ratio between n-3 to n-6polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as well as the nature of dietary PUFA source determine tissue PUFAcomposition. Beside through eicosanoid, Chlorella sp. may affect mucosal sIgA production throughcytokines mediated effect. Although Chlorella sp. administration does not improve the production indexof broiler, this treatment may produce broiler meat with lower fat content.
Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).
Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.
Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.
VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...
Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine
A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.
Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.
Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.
M. Shirley M. Golez
Full Text Available Mature angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis were collected from the wild and transported tothe laboratory for broodstock development. They were fed with mixed algal cultures of Isochrysisgalbana, Chaetoceros sp., and Tetraselmis sp. for a period of two months and a half to determine theeffects of these algal cultures on growth and survival of the broodstock. Growth in terms of length wasnot significantly different among the treatment groups, whereas, there was significant reduction in theweight of the clams in the group fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros sp., andTetraselmis sp. Survival of the clams decreased after two months of feeding with algal diets, withsignificant mortality observed in groups fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis sp. aswell as with the mixture of the three microalgae. All the water quality parameters in the rearing tankswere within the optimum levels required for optimum growth of the clams. These results showed thatmixed algal diets for broodstock development in angelwing clam have no direct effect on growth butmoderate effect on survival. Future studies are aimed towards determining other factors that willcontribute to better growth and survival of angelwing clam broodstock in captivity as well as for thesearch of alternative algal diets for angelwing broodstock, particularly by exploring the microalgae thatare found in their natural habitat.
Su Jin Lee
Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the progression of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis are yet to be elucidated. To identify the proteins involved in the development of liver tissue inflammation, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Mice fed a methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD developed hepatic steatosis characterized by increased free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride levels as well as alpha-SMA. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis revealed that the change from the normal diet to the MCD diet affected the expressions of 50 proteins. The most-pronounced changes were observed in the expression of proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in NASH model animals. Peroxiredoxin (Prx is the most interesting among the modulated proteins identified in this study. In particular, cross-regulated Prx1 and Prx6 are likely to participate in cellular defense against the development of hepatitis. Thus, these Prx isoforms may be a useful new marker for early stage steatohepatitis. Moreover, curcumin treatment results in alleviation of the severity of hepatic inflammation in steatohepatitis. Notably, curcumin administration in MCD-fed mice dramatically reduced CYP2E1 as well as Prx1 expression, while upregulating Prx6 expression. These findings suggest that curcumin may have a protective role against MCD fed-induced oxidative stress.
Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.
Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.
Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293
Karen B. Kelly
Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.
Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L
Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.
Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H
The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM
Nelson, M L; Westberg, H H; Parish, S M
A balance trial was conducted to titrate the effects of tallow on the energy metabolism of wethers fed barley finishing diets. Six dietary levels of tallow (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10%) in a barley finishing diet were fed to six crossbred wethers (35+/-1.1 kg) in a randomized complete block design. Diets were 73% barley, 10% tallow and(or) bentonite, 10% alfalfa pellets, and 7% supplement. There was no effect of tallow level on OM intake (1,103.1+/-51 g/d), OM digestibility (84+/-0.9%), GE digestibility (83+/-1.1%), or cell solubles digestibility (84.2+/-1.2%). The level of tallow quadratically decreased ADF digestibility (P tallow increased. Numbers of ruminal protozoa (Entodinium spp. and Polyplastron sp.) decreased linearly (P tallow. The energy value of tallow (calculated by difference) was low. The total-tract fatty acid digestibility of tallow was calculated by linear regression, without intercept, after accounting for the fatty acids digested from the base diet (0% tallow fed to a wether in a period). Fatty acids of the same carbon length were pooled for the regression analysis. All linear regressions were significant (P tallow level on fatty acid digestibility. Lauric acid had low digestibility. The high digestibility of all C16 (89%) and C18 (104%) fatty acids suggests an effect of tallow on endogenous and microbial fatty acid excretion. Fatty acid digestibility was probably a minor contributor to the low energy content of tallow, calculated by difference, in these diets.
Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro
To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.
Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.
Kluess, H A; Stafford, J; Evanson, K W; Stone, A J; Worley, J; Wideman, R F
This study examined factors contributing to increased vascular resistance and plexiform lesion formation in broiler chickens susceptible to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). A diet supplemented with excess tryptophan (high-Trp diet), the precursor for serotonin, was used to accelerate the development of IPAH. Broilers fed the high-Trp diet had higher pulmonary arterial pressures than broilers fed the control diet, and plexiform lesion incidences tended to be higher (P = 0.11) in the high-Trp group than in the control group at 30 d of age. The intrapulmonary arteries were assessed for vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and for activities of key metabolic enzymes for serotonin and ATP. The pulmonary artery (defined as the first major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) and the primary pulmonary arterial rami (defined as the second major branch of the pulmonary artery inside the lung) both exhibited vasoconstriction in response to serotonin and ATP. This is the first study to demonstrate purinergic-mediated vasoconstriction in intrapulmonary arteries from broilers. Arteriole responsiveness did not differ between broilers fed the control diet or the high-Trp diet. Therefore, the high-Trp diet enhanced the development of IPAH but did not affect the artery's sensitivity to serotonin or ATP. Monoamine oxidase activity, responsible for the breakdown of serotonin, was severely impaired in pulmonary arteries from broilers in the high-Trp group. Accordingly, serotonin may persist longer and elicit an amplified response in broilers fed the high-Trp diet.
Claucia Aparecida Honorato
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pelletized or extruded diets, with different levels of carbohydrate and lipid, on the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT and its modulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. One hundred and eighty pacu juveniles were fed with eight isonitrogenous diets containing two carbohydrate levels (40 and 50% and two lipid levels (4 and 8%. Four diets were pelletized and four were extruded. Carbohydrate and lipid experimental levels caused no changes to the bolus transit time. However, the bolus permanence time was related to diet processing. Fish fed pelletized diets exhibited the highest gastrointestinal transit time. Regression analysis of bolus behavior for pelletized and extruded diets with 4% lipid depicted different fits. GITT regression analysis of fish fed 8% lipid was fitted to a cubic equation and displayed adjustments of food permanence, with enhanced utilization of the diets, either with extruded or pelletized diets. GITT of fish fed extruded diets with 4% lipid was adjusted to a linear equation. The GITT of pacu depends on the diet processing and is affected by dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate.
1. The present study was conducted to evaluate the supplementary effects of dietary Selenium (Se) given as sodium selenite on host immune response against necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broiler chickens. 2. Chickens were fed from hatch with a non-supplemented diet or diets supplemented with ...
Amoracyr José Costa Nuñez
Full Text Available Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW, were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcass traits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 % and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg-1, and salinomycin (13 mg kg-1 included in all diets. The interaction was not significant (p > 0.05. Dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F, starch consumed, and fecal starch content were higher (p 0.05 between treatments. Starch consumed and estimated dietary net energy for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg were higher (p < 0.05 for virginiamycin-treated animals, with no substantial effects on carcass traits. The inclusion of virginiamycin in finishing diets containing salinomycin reduced DMI while maintaining ADG and improving NEm and NEg, suggesting an additive effect of virginiamycin and ionophores, but without affecting carcass quality.
Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition on the fatty-acid composition and lipid content in rat’s liver. During four weeks of the experiment 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 individuals each (eight individuals of both sexes and fed a commercial feed mixture for rats (group C or diet containing 70% commercial mixture for rats and 30% freshly cooked egg yolks from laying hens fed diets with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Dietary supplementation with egg yolks significantly increased the hepatic cholesterol pool in rats, regardless of the type of fat in the diet of laying hens from which the eggs originated. The content of α-linolenic acid in the liver of male rats in group P was 4-6 times higher compared to males in the other groups. Liver lipids and their fatty-acid composition differ by both, sex and dietary modified egg yolk composition in rats.
Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.
Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru
A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389
Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj
Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein
Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.
Renata Heisler Neves
Full Text Available High-fat diets induce weight gain and fatty liver in wild-type mice. Schistosomiasis mansoni infection also promotes hepatic injury. This study was designed to quantify hepatic alterations in schistosomiasis mansoni-infected mice fed a high fat-rich chow compared to mice fed a standard rodent chow, using stereology. Female SW mice fed each either high-fat diet (29% lipids or standard chow (12% lipids over 8 months, and then were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Four experimental groups were studied: infected mice fed a high-fat diet (IHFC or standard chow (ISC, uninfected mice fed a high-fat diet (HFC or standard chow (SC. Mice were sacrificed during early infection (9 weeks from exposure. The following hepatic biometry and the stereology parameters were determined: volume density (hepatocytes [h], sinusoids [s], steatosis [st] and hepatic fibrosis [hf]; numerical density (hepatocyte nuclei - Nv[h]; absolute number of total hepatocyte N[h], normal hepatocyte N[nh], and binucleated hepatocyte N[bh], percentage of normal hepatocyte P[nh] and binucleated hepatocyte P[bh]. IHFC and HFC groups exhibited TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and body mass significantly greater (p < 0.05 than control group. No significant differences were found regards liver volume (p = 0.07. Significant differences were observed regards P[nh] (p = 0.0045, P[bh] (p = 0.0045, Nv[h] (p = 0.0006, N[h] (p = 0.0125, N[bh] (p = 0.0164 and N[nh] (p = 0.0078. IHFC mice group presented 29% of binucleated hepatocytes compared to HFC group (19%, ISC group (17% and SC (6%. Volume density was significantly different between groups: Vv[h] (p = 0.0052, Vv[s] (p = 0.0025, Vv[st] (p = 0.0004, and Vv[hf] (p = 0.0007. In conclusion, schistosomiasis mansoni infection with concurrent high-fat diet promotes intensive quantitative changes in hepatic structure, contributing to an increasing on hepatic regeneration.
Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I
The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (Pdiet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (Pgoats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.
Graciene Conceição Santos
Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.
Magna da Glória Lameiro
Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Supplements containing the vitamins niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 can promote the reduction of total cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. In this study, the effects of diets supplemented with niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 on the hepatic and serum lipid profiles of Wistar rats were assessed. The diets were prepared with combinations of three concentrations of niacin (3, 4 and 5 g/kg and pyridoxine (6, 12 and 18 mg/kg and one with neither vitamin. The animals were divided into eleven experimental groups of six animals per group, and nine groups were fed on a standard diet with 7.5% fat and vitamin supplementation. Another group was fed with 7.5% fat without vitamin supplements. A control group received the standard diet (AIN-93M without modifications (4% fat. The weight gain, food intake, serum and hepatic total cholesterol, serum cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL, and VLDL, serum and hepatic triacylglycerols and hepatic and fecal lipid contents were measured after 30 days. The diet with the highest concentration of niacin and lowest concentration of pyridoxine had the lowest level of total hepatic cholesterol. Hepatic triacylglycerols were reduced by the highest concentration of niacin (5 g/kg, and this reduction was enhanced by increasing the pyridoxine concentration. The diets supplemented with niacin and pyridoxine reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triacylglycerols and hepatic lipids. These effects on the lipid profile varied with the concentrations of the two vitamins and the interactions between them.
Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A
The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota i